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  1. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  2. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  3. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burns, obesity, pregnancy, and general medicine.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Keulenaer, Bart L; Oda, Jun; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Roberts, Derek J; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction in trauma and sepsis. However, relatively little is known about the impact of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in general internal medicine, pregnant patients, and those with obesity or burns. The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH in these specific situations. A MEDLINE and PubMed search was performed and the resulting body-of-evidence included in the current review on the basis of relevance and scientific merit. There is increasing awareness of the role of IAH in different clinical situations. Specifically, IAH will develop in most (if not all) severely burned patients, and may contribute to early mortality. One should avoid over-resuscitation of these patients with large volumes of fluids, especially crystalloids. Acute elevations in IAP have similar effects in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, but the threshold IAP associated with organ dysfunction may be higher. Chronic elevations in IAP may, in part, be responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related co-morbid conditions such as hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri, pulmonary dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and abdominal wall hernias. At the bedside, measuring IAP and considering IAH in all critical maternal conditions is essential, especially in preeclampsia/eclampsia where some have hypothesized that IAH may have an additional role. IAH in pregnancy must take into account the precautions for aorto-caval compression and has been associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Recently, IAP has been associated with the cardiorenal dilemma and hepatorenal syndrome, and this has led to the recognition of the polycompartment syndrome. In conclusion, IAH and ACS have been associated with several patient populations beyond the classical ICU, surgical, and trauma patients. In all at risk conditions the focus should be on the early

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Abdominal Obesity versus Metabolic Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; McGinn, Aileen P.; Lin, Juan; Wang, Dan; Muntner, Paul; Cohen, Hillel W.; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear whether abdominal obesity increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk independent of the metabolic abnormalities which often accompany it. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the independent effects of abdominal obesity versus metabolic syndrome and diabetes on the risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Cardiovascular Health studies were pooled to assess the independent effects of abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88 cm for women) versus metabolic syndrome (excluding the waist circumference criterion) and diabetes on risk for incident coronary heart disease and stroke in 20,298 men and women aged ≥45 years. The average follow-up was 8.3 (standard deviation 1.9) years. There were 1,766 CVD events. After adjustment for demographic factors, smoking, alcohol intake, number of metabolic syndrome components and diabetes, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.09 [0.98, 1.20]). However, after adjustment for demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, and abdominal obesity, having 1–2 metabolic syndrome components, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes were each associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD (2.12 [1.80, 2.50], 2.82 [1.92, 4.12] and 5.33 [3.37, 8.41], respectively). Although abdominal obesity is an important clinical tool for identification of individuals likely to possess metabolic abnormalities, these data suggest that the metabolic syndrome and diabetes are considerably more important prognostic indicators of CVD risk. PMID:20725064

  5. The association between abdominal obesity and serum cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas; Joshaghani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum cholesterol level and abdominal obesity in adult men and women in the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on the 1956 subjects (990 men and 966 women) between 25 and 65 years old chosen by cluster sampling. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12 h fast and determined by auto-analyzer. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) was defined by a total plasma cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. Waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women were defined as abdominal obesity. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 considered as statistical significance. Results: Averagely, the mean of age was 44.2 years and mean ± standard deviation of plasma total cholesterol level was 203 ± 11.3 mg/dl. The HC was seen in 50.8% of subjects with a more common in women than in men. Compared with normal subjects, in abdominal obese people, the odds ratio (OR) of HC was (OR = 4.208 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.939–9.130]) and (OR = 3.956 [95% CI: 1.821–8.592]) in men aged 25–35 and 35–45 years, respectively. In women aged 25–35 years, it was (OR = 3.444 [95% CI: 1.959–6.056]) in abdominal obese compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia was revealed as a major health problem among adults, and it was associated with abdominal obesity especially in the early middle-age in the north of Iran. This association was not significant in men and women after the age of 45 and 35, respectively. PMID:26097812

  6. Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance in People Exposed to Moderate-to-High Levels of Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for developing metabolic complications, is a major public health problem. Abdominal obesity is strongly accompanied by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by insulin resistance. The link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance has been investigated in animal and epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine whether insulin resistance is greater in people with abdominal obesity (AO) and concomitant exposure to serum dioxins (PCDD/Fs). We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of 2876 participants living near a PCDD/Fs contaminated area. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners were measured, and then the associations between the main predictor variable, serum TEQDF-1998, abdominal obesity (AO), dependent variables, and insulin resistance were examined. Twelve of the 17 congeners, widely distributed among PCDDs, and PCDFs, had trends for associations with abdominal adiposity. In men, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; 2,3,7,8-TCDF; and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the top five adjusted odds ratios (AORs) + 95% confidence intervals (CIs):[4.2; 2.7–6.4], [3.6; 2.3–5.7], [3.2; 2.1–5.0], [3.0; 2.0–4.5], and [2.9; 1.9–4.7], respectively. In women, the highest quintiles of 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF; and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF had the top three AORs + 95% CIs:[3.0; 1.9–4.7], [2.0; 1.3–3.1], and [1.9; 1.3–2.9], respectively. After confounding factors had been adjusted for, men, but not women, with higher serum TEQDF-1998 levels or abdominal obesity had a significantly (Ptrend < 0.001) greater risk for abnormal insulin resistance. The groups with the highest joint serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity levels were associated with elevated insulin resistance at 5.0 times the odds of the groups with the lowest joint levels (AOR 5.23; 95% CI: 3.53–7.77). We hypothesize that serum TEQDF-1998 and abdominal obesity affect the association with

  7. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables. PMID:20358355

  8. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  9. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  10. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of abdominal obesity in Polish rural children.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Janusz, M; Jagielski, P; Głodzik, J; Pałka, T; Cisoń, T; Pilch, W

    2015-08-01

    Secular trends of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference indicate greater increase in abdominal obesity compared to general obesity. Determinants of obesity described by BMI are relatively well documented in various populations, unlike abdominal obesity described by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The aim of the study was to determine prevalence and abdominal obesity (WHtR) risk factors in a cohort of 3048 rural children aged 7-12 years from southern Poland. Biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were analysed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in rural boys and girls in the sample was 11% and 9% respectively. Obesity in both parents, irregular breakfasts, irregular meals during the day and regularly consumed tea were significant factors of abdominal obesity risks in rural girls. Being the only child, low number of people in a household, obesity in both parents, high energy-dense food index and no exercise significantly increased the risk of abdominal obesity in rural boys. The study demonstrated tendencies similar to other European countries in the prevalence of abdominal obesity among sexes. Lifestyle behaviours should be changed and adapted to each sex since risk factors differ between the sexes and indicate higher eco-sensitivity in boys. PMID:25796137

  12. Obesity and the Risk for Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Robert D; Reese, Stacey; Bochicchio, Kelly; Mazuski, John E; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after abdominal procedures; however, data characterizing the risk of SSI in obese patients during abdominal procedures are lacking. We hypothesized that obesity is an independent risk factor for SSI across wound classes. We analyzed American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) data for 2011. We calculated body mass index (BMI), classifying patients according to National Institute of Health (NIH) BMI groups. We excluded records in which height/weight was not recorded and patients with BMI less than 18.5. We examined patients undergoing open abdominal procedures, performing univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relative contribution of obesity to SSI. Study criteria were met by 89,148 patients. Obese and morbidly obese patients had significantly greater SSI rates in clean and clean-contaminated cases but not contaminated or dirty/infected cases. Logistic regression confirmed obesity and morbid obesity as being independently associated with the overall SSI development, specifically in clean [Obesity odds ratio (OR) = 1.757, morbid obesity OR = 2.544, P < 0.001] and clean-contaminated (obesity OR = 1.239, morbid obesity OR = 1.287, P < 0.001) cases. Obesity is associated with increased risk of SSI overall, specifically in clean and clean-contaminated abdominal procedures; this is independent of diabetes mellitus. Novel techniques are needed to reduce SSI in this high-risk patient population. PMID:27097626

  13. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  14. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  15. Abdominal obesity is associated with heart disease in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between overall obesity and fat distribution in dogs and the development of heart disease is unclear. In the present study we evaluated the association between overall obesity and fat distribution and clinical heart disease by morphometric and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements. Body condition score (BCS), modified body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hock-to-stifle distance ratio (WHSDR), waist-to-ilium wing distance ratio (WIWDR), and waist-to-truncal length ratio (WTLR) were compared between dogs with (n = 44) and without (n = 43) heart disease using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) were measured in dogs with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) heart disease at the center of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae by CT. Results BCS was similar between heart disease and healthy groups (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.1, P = 0.126). The following morphometric measurements were greater in the heart disease group compared with healthy canines: MBMI (65.0 ± 4.5 vs. 52.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.035); WIWDR (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.01); and WTLR (1.25 ± 0.04 vs. 1.05 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in WHSDR (3.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.875). Interestingly, IAF was significantly increased in dogs with heart disease compared with healthy dogs (23.5 ± 1.5% vs. 19.4 ± 1.2%, P = 0.039) whereas SQF was similar between two groups (35.5 ± 2.7% vs. 38.6 ± 3.5%, P = 0.496). Of the five morphometric indices studied, WIWDR and WTLR provided acceptable discrimination for diagnosing heart disease in dogs, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.683-0.874) and 0.727 (95% CI:0.619-0.835), respectively. Conclusions Our data indicate that abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is associated

  16. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries. PMID:26072156

  17. Abdominal Obesity and Brain Atrophy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Callisaya, Michele; Blizzard, Leigh; Sharman, James E.; Venn, Alison; Phan, Thanh G.; Beare, Richard; Forbes, Josephine; Blackburn, Nicholas B.; Srikanth, Velandai

    2015-01-01

    Aim Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with gray matter atrophy. Adiposity and physical inactivity are risk factors for T2D and brain atrophy. We studied whether the associations of T2D with total gray matter volume (GMV) and hippocampal volume (HV) are dependent on obesity and physical activity. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), mean steps/day and brain volumes in a community dwelling cohort of people with and without T2D. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined whether WHR, BMI and physical activity mediated or modified the association between T2D, GMV and HV. Results There were 258 participants with (mean age 67±7 years) and 302 without (mean age 72±7 years) T2D. Adjusting for age, sex and intracranial volume, T2D was independently associated with lower total GMV (p = 0.001) and HV (p<0.001), greater WHR (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.001), and lower mean steps/day (p = 0.002). After adjusting for covariates, the inclusion of BMI and mean steps/day did not significantly affect the T2D-GMV association, but WHR attenuated it by 32% while remaining independently associated with lower GMV (p<0.01). The T2D-HV association was minimally changed by the addition of BMI, steps/day or WHR in the model. No statistical interactions were observed between T2D and measures of obesity and physical activity in explaining brain volumes. Conclusions Abdominal obesity or its downstream effects may partially mediate the adverse effect of T2D on brain atrophy. This requires confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:26560876

  18. Relationship between overall and abdominal obesity and periodontal disease among young adults.

    PubMed

    Amin, H El-Sayed

    2010-04-01

    To assess overall and abdominal obesity and their relation to periodontal disease among young adults, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured and clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival index (GI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were estimated. The sample comprised 380 adults (170 males and 210 females) aged 20-26 years. There was a significant correlation between both BMI and WC and CAL, GI and CPI in females. In males, a significant correlation was only recorded between WC and GI and CPI. Overall and abdominal obesity in young adult females and abdominal obesity in males were significantly associated with periodontal disease. PMID:20795429

  19. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  20. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  1. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  2. Abdominal obesity and hypertension: a double burden to the heart.

    PubMed

    Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Zyczkowska, Beata; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Visceral adipose tissue has an important part in water retention, the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, which may influence central and systemic hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between AO and the hemodynamic profile of patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The clinical evaluation of 144 hypertensives included the following: (1) echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSS) and diastolic function (E/A-phase ratio of mitral flow early (E) and late (A) and E/e'-ratio of early mitral flow and mitral septal annulus early diastolic velocity (e')); (2) the applanation tonometry including the central pulse pressure (CPP) and augmentation index (AI); and (3) the impedance cardiography, acceleration index (ACI), velocity index (VI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and total artery compliance (TAC). Obese hypertensives in comparison with non-obese ones were characterized with the following values: (1) lower echocardiographic (GLSS: -17.2±2.5% vs. -19.0±2.8%, P=0.0002) and impedance indices of left ventricular performance (VI: 44.8±12.4 vs. 51.6±14.2 × 1000*Ω* s(-1), P=0.006; ACI: 66.7±27.8 vs. 79.1±31.2 100*Ω* s(-)(2), P=0.003) and (2) worse diastolic function (e': 9.08±2.69 vs. 10.39±2.34 cm*s(-1), P=0.003; E/e': 7.54±1.81 vs. 6.74±1.40, P=0.007; E/A: 1.02±0.34 vs. 1.15±0.33, P=0.008). No relevant differences for gender, age, blood pressure, heart rate, LVEF, SVRI, TAC, CPP and AI were identified. AH and AO have overlapping effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics. At the early asymptomatic stage, this overlap is exhibited in the impaired cardiac function. PMID:26791010

  3. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults. PMID:27330688

  4. Smoking status and abdominal obesity among normal- and overweight/obese adults: Population-based FINRISK study.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Männistö, Satu; Borodulin, Katja; Patja, Kristiina; Kinnunen, Taru H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC). Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese) and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker). The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46) and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44) had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:27486563

  5. The Risk of Abdominal Obesity according to the Degree of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported as a cardiometabolic risk factor, the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver is yet to be clarified on abdominal obesity. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the longitudinal relationship of non-alcoholic fatty liver on the development of abdominal obesity. The study participants were composed of 11,212 Korean men without abdominal obesity. They were followed up from 2005 to 2010 to be monitored for the development of abdominal obesity according to their degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (normal, mild, and moderate to severe). Cox-proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios for abdominal obesity according to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While the average incidence was 15.5%, the incidence of abdominal obesity increased according to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver (normal: 11.6%, mild: 25.2%, moderate to severe: 41.0%, P < 0.001). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for abdominal obesity independently increased proportionally to the degree of NAFLD (mild [1.07; 0.94-1.23], moderate to severe [1.58; 1.11-2.26], P for trend < 0.001). The risk of abdominal obesity increased proportionally to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This finding guarantees further studies to reveal the incidental relationship of abdominal obesity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26955242

  6. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  7. The Impact of Abdominal Obesity Status on Cardiovascular Response to the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Alexandra; Dodin, Sylvie; Corneau, Louise; Lemieux, Simone

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of abdominal obesity status on the cardiovascular response to a fully controlled 4-week isoenergetic Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). Thirty-eight abdominally obese individuals (waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) and thirty-one nonabdominally obese individuals were recruited and studied before and after the MedDiet. All analyses were adjusted for the slight decrease in body weight, which occurred during the MedDiet (mean: 0.9 ± 1.2 kg). A group by time interaction was noted for waist circumference (P = 0.02), abdominally obese subjects showing a significant decrease and nonabdominally obese subjects a nonsignificant increase (resp., −1.1 and +0.3%). The MedDiet resulted in decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, A-1, and A-2, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). For all variables related to glucose/insulin homeostasis, no change was observed except for a decrease in 2 h glucose concentrations (time effect: P = 0.03). No group by time interaction was observed in any of the metabolic variables studied. Results from our study suggest that the adoption of the MedDiet leads to beneficial metabolic effects, irrespective of the abdominal obesity status. PMID:23133745

  8. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  9. Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, Margarita M

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20-79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health "Semanas del Corazon" events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41-0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05-1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84-1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63-1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity. PMID:25953598

  10. [Impact of abdominoplasty on quality of life in patients, suffering anterior abdominal wall deformity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Koval's'ka, I O; Roshchyna, L O; Fedoruk, V I; Burov, E Iu; Fedoruk, P V

    2011-12-01

    The modern tendencies of surgery development include not only the operative procedures improvement but guaranteeing also a maximally high level achievement in the patients quality of life in the early, as well as during remote, postoperative period. The quality of life analysis was done in 132 patients, operated on for the anterior abdominal wall defects, obesity and other surgical diseases, using special questionnaire SF-36. The patients have aged 23-65 years old, in all of them the excessive body mass or obesity of abdominal type was noted. PMID:22432186

  11. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

  12. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  13. The relationship between job enrichment and abdominal obesity: a longitudinal field study of apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Fried, Yitzhak; Laurence, Gregory A; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic in modern society. However, there is a paucity of research about how job context affects obesity. To enhance our knowledge we used a large, heterogeneous sample of apparently healthy employees (n = 1,949) across two time periods with an average of close to 3.5 years between measures. We tested a hypothesized curvilinear effect of job enrichment on changes in two stress related indicators of abdominal obesity over time: waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Job enrichment consisted of the job dimensions of variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback, and in our analysis we controlled for demographics and health related behaviors, including weekly sports activity, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and weekly alcohol consumption. The results supported the hypothesized U-shaped relationship between job enrichment and changes in both indicators of abdominal obesity over time, such that the level of abdominal obesity was reduced when job enrichment was moderate and was increased when job enrichment was either high or low. As expected, no such association was observed for the general obesity measure of body mass index (BMI). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results. PMID:24001329

  14. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  15. Altered subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid synthesis in obese, insulin-resistant humans

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chandalia, Manisha; Batbayar, Tumurbaatar; Saraf, Manish; Beysen, Carine; Murphy, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) dynamics in obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the correlation between these two metabolic measures. Ten obese (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) nondiabetic subjects with (n = 6) and without (n = 4) the metabolic syndrome were studied following a 12-wk 2H2O labeling period. Subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies were collected. Deuterium incorporation into triglyceride (TG)-glycerol and TG-palmitate were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the calculation of fractional TG synthesis (fTG) and fractional de novo lipogenesis (fDNL). Muscle IS and insulin-mediated nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression (a measure for adipose IS) indexes were derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The ability of subcutaneous abdominal AT to synthesize lipids varied significantly in obese subjects (fTG range 7–28%, fDNL range 1.1–4.6%) with significantly lower values (>35% reduction) for both parameters in obese with the metabolic syndrome. fTG correlated positively with muscle IS (r = 0.64, P = 0.04) and inversely with NEFA suppression during the OGTT (r = −0.69, P = 0.03). These results demonstrate a large variability in subcutaneous abdominal AT lipid turnover in obesity. Moreover, a reduced capacity for subcutaneous abdominal AT fat storage is associated with muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance as well as with the metabolic syndrome, thus identifying a form of obesity at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23982159

  16. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico. PMID:23822701

  17. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (≥ 23, ≥ 27 and ≥ 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (≥ 80, ≥ 90 and ≥ 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the

  18. Validation of Candidate Causal Genes for Abdominal Obesity Which Affect Shared Metabolic Pathways and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Deignan, Joshua L.; Qi, Hongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Qian, Su; Zhong, Judy; Torosyan, Gevork; Majid, Sana; Falkard, Brie; Kleinhanz, Robert R.; Karlsson, Jenny; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Mumick, Sheena; Wang, Kai; Xie, Tao; Coon, Michael; Zhang, Chunsheng; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Farber, Charles R.; Wang, Susanna S.; Van Nas, Atila; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Zhang, Bin; MacNeil, Douglas J.; Lamb, John R.; Dipple, Katrina M.; Reitman, Marc L.; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lum, Pek Y.; Schadt, Eric E.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2010-01-01

    A major task in dissecting the genetics of complex traits is to identify causal genes for disease phenotypes. We previously developed a method to infer causal relationships among genes through the integration of DNA variation, gene transcription, and phenotypic information. Here we validated our method through the characterization of transgenic and knockout mouse models of candidate genes that were predicted to be causal for abdominal obesity. Perturbation of eight out of the nine genes, with Gas7, Me1 and Gpx3 being novel, resulted in significant changes in obesity related traits. Liver expression signatures revealed alterations in common metabolic pathways and networks contributing to abdominal obesity and overlapped with a macrophage-enriched metabolic network module that is highly associated with metabolic traits in mice and humans. Integration of gene expression in the design and analysis of traditional F2 intercross studies allows high confidence prediction of causal genes and identification of involved pathways and networks. PMID:19270708

  19. Carotid Intima-media thickness in childhood and adolescent obesity relations to abdominal obesity, high triglyceride level and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Zhang, Jian Ping; Luo, Cai Xia; Yu, Xiao Mei; Lv, Lan Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate risk factors which impact on common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT). Methods: A total of 86 obese children and adolescents and 22 healthy children and adolescents with normal weight were enrolled. Moreover, 23 of 86 obese children and adolescents were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The clinical, biochemical data and the IMT of the common carotid artery were measured in all subjects. Results: Obese and obese with MetS subjects demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.01) thicker intima media (0.69mm, 0.66mm) as compared to the control group (0.38mm), but there was no significant difference of IMT between obese and MetS group. IMT was correlated to body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and fatty liver. Waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, triglyceride and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were independent determinants of mean IMT level. Conclusion: Obesity especially abdominal obesity, high TG and insulin resistance may be the main risk predictors of increased IMT. PMID:20827427

  20. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  1. Antagonistic implications of sarcopenia and abdominal obesity on physical performance in COPD.

    PubMed

    van de Bool, Coby; Rutten, Erica P A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2015-08-01

    Decreased physical performance due to loss of muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) is prevalent in ageing and appears more pronounced in chronic disease. A comprehensive profile of the sarcopenic phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to characterise prevalence, functional implications and predictive value of sarcopenia with or without abdominal obesity in Dutch COPD patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation.505 COPD patients (aged 37-87 years; 57% male) underwent assessment of lung function, body composition and physical functioning, before entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Sarcopenia was assessed by appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) and abdominal obesity by android/gynoid percentage fat mass (A/G%FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.86.5% of patients were sarcopenic and showed lower physical functioning, while coexistent abdominal obesity (78.0%) resulted in higher physical functioning. Implications on endurance were less pronounced in women. The predictive value for physical functioning was higher for the "three-compartment" model (ASMI, bone mineral content and A/G%FM) than the "two-compartment" model (fat-free mass index and fat mass index) or "one-compartment" model (body mass index).In patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation, sarcopenia is highly prevalent in all body mass index categories and associated with impaired strength, and in men also with decreased endurance. Abdominal obesity seems to have protective effects on physical functioning. ASMI is a better predictor for physical functioning than fat-free mass index. PMID:25882802

  2. Association of Abdominal Obesity with Lumbar Disc Degeneration – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Samartzis, Dino; Korpelainen, Raija; Näyhä, Simo; Remes, Jouko; Tervonen, Osmo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether midsagittal (abdominal) obesity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage are associated with lumbar disc degeneration in early adulthood. Methods We obtained the lumbar MRI (1.5-T scanner) of 325 females and 233 males at a mean age of 21 years. Lumbar disc degeneration was evaluated using Pfirrmann classification. We analysed the associations of MRI measures of obesity (abdominal diameter (AD), sagittal diameter (SAD), ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST), and dorsal subcutaneous thickness (DST)), WC and body fat percentage with disc degeneration sum scores using ordinal logistic regression. Results A total of 155 (48%) females and 147 (63%) males had disc degeneration. AD and SAD were associated with a disc degeneration sum score of ≥3 compared to disc degeneration sum score of 0–2 (OR 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–2.33 and OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.12–1.75, respectively) among males, but we found no association among females. WC was also associated with disc degeneration among males (OR 1.03 per one cm; 95% CI 1.00–1.05), but not among females. Conclusion Measures of abdominal obesity in MRI and waist circumference were associated with disc degeneration among 21-year-old males. PMID:23418543

  3. Abdominal Adiposity Correlates with Adenotonsillectomy Outcome in Obese Adolescents with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nino, Gustavo; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Ravindra, Anjani; Nino, Cesar L.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Obese adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) have a unique pathophysiology that combines adenotonsillar hypertrophy and increased visceral fat distribution. We hypothesized that in this population waist circumference (WC), as a clinical marker of abdominal fat distribution, correlates with the likelihood of response to AT. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 97th percentile) that underwent AT for therapy of severe OSA (n = 21). We contrasted WC and covariates in a group of subjects that had complete resolution of severe OSA after AT (n = 7) with those obtained in subjects with residual OSA after AT (n = 14). Multivariate linear and logistic models were built to control possible confounders. Results. WC correlated negatively with a positive AT response in young adolescents and the percentage of improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) after AT (P ≤ 0.01). Extended multivariate analysis demonstrated that the link between WC and AT response was independent of demographic variables, OSA severity, clinical upper airway assessment, obesity severity (BMI), and neck circumference (NC). Conclusion. The results suggest that in obese adolescents, abdominal fat distribution determined by WC may be a useful clinical predictor for residual OSA after AT. PMID:23251797

  4. Evaluation of the impact of abdominal obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Real de Asua, Diego; Parra, Pedro; Costa, Ramón; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Suarez, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to describe anthropometric differences in weight-related disorders between adults with Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls, as well as their disparate impact on glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. We underwent a cross-sectional study of 49 consecutively selected, community-residing adults with DS and 49 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Siblings of adults with DS were studied as controls in 42 cases. Epidemiological data (age and gender), anthropometric data (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio [WHR]), coexisting clinical conditions, and laboratory data (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile) were measured and compared between the groups. Adults with DS were significantly younger and more often male, with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than controls. Adults with DS also had a higher WHR, and more frequently presented abdominal obesity. Moreover, insulin resistance measured using the homeostatic model assessment was more prevalent among adults with DS and abdominal obesity. However, lipid profiles were similar between groups. The kappa correlation index for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity between waist circumference and WHR was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.13-0.34). We concluded that the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity was higher in adults with DS than in controls. Adults with DS and abdominal obesity showed higher indexes of insulin resistance than their non-obese peers. WHR was a useful tool for the evaluation of abdominal obesity in this population. PMID:25108610

  5. Smoking Is Associated with More Abdominal Fat in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Daniela; Wagner, Mario; Mottin, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While the association between cigarette smoking and abdominal fat has been well studied in normal and overweight patients, data regarding the influence of tobacco use in patients with morbid obesity remain scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate body fat distribution in morbidly obese smokers. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study and grouped severely obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) according to their smoking habits (smokers or non-smokers). We next compared the anthropometrical measurements and body composition data (measured by electric bioimpedance) of both groups. We analyzed the effect of smoking on body composition variables using univariate and multiple linear regression (MLR); differences are presented as regression coefficients (b) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results We included 536 morbidly obese individuals, 453 (84.5%) non-smokers and 83 (15.5%) smokers. Male smokers had a higher BMI (b=3.28 kg/m2, p=0.036), larger waist circumference (b=6.07 cm, p=0.041) and higher percentage of body fat (b=2.33%, p=0.050) than non-smokers. These differences remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. For females, the only significant finding in MLR was a greater muscle mass among smokers (b=1.34kg, p=0.028). No associations were found between tobacco load measured in pack-years and anthropometric measures or body composition. Discussion Positive associations between smoking and BMI, and waist circumference and percentage of body fat, were found among male morbidly obese patients, but not among females. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation of these aspects in morbidly obese subjects. We speculate that our findings may indicate that the coexistence of morbid obesity and smoking helps to explain the more serious medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, seen in these patients. PMID:25978682

  6. IGF-binding protein 1 and abdominal obesity in the development of type 2 diabetes in women

    PubMed Central

    Lewitt, Moira S; Hilding, Agneta; Brismar, Kerstin; Efendic, Suad; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Hall, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) are associated with metabolic syndrome and predict diabetes development in men. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of IGFBP1 in women who later develop diabetes, in relation to abdominal obesity, and to compare these levels with those of men. Methods IGFBP1 levels were determined at baseline and after 8 years in a case–control, prospective study of Swedish women aged 35–56 years. Individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) who developed abnormal glucose regulation (n=240) were pair matched to controls for age and family history of diabetes and also compared to men of the same age (n=355). Results Low fasting IGFBP1 and increased waist measurement predicted development of diabetes in women (n=60; odds ratio (OR) 70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8–661, lowest tertile and OR 27, 95% CI 5–141, highest tertile). In women developing diabetes, baseline IGFBP1 levels were lower than expected for fasting insulin values, were associated with impaired suppression after OGTT and increased during 8 years despite an increase in fasting insulin. All individuals in the highest tertile for waist and with ≤40% suppression of IGFBP1 developed diabetes within 8 years. Circulating IGFBP1 concentrations were higher in women compared to men. Women and men who developed diabetes had a similar degree of abdominal obesity, corrected for height. Conclusions We conclude that low IGFBP1 and elevated waist measurement predict diabetes development and that IGFBP1 production is suppressed by a novel factor(s) in women developing diabetes. Increasing levels of IGFBP1 during the emergence of diabetes in men and women suggest the emergence of hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:20508082

  7. Sedentary Behavior Is Not Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, K. Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine whether time spent in sedentary behaviors (SED) was associated with 2-hour glucose and insulin resistance in adults with abdominal obesity. We also examined the association between light physical activity (LPA) and sporadic (accumulated in bouts <10 minutes in duration) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with glucose metabolism. Methods Participants were 135 inactive, abdominally obese adults recruited from Kingston, Canada. SED and physical activity were determined by accelerometry over 7 days and summarized as SED (accelerometer counts/min <100), LPA (counts/min 100–1951), and MVPA (counts/min ≥1952). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was used to ascertain 2-hour glucose; the homeostasis model of assessment was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); lipid, lipoproteins and blood pressure were determined using standard protocols. Secondary analyses considered the association between SED and physical activity with other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Participants spent 627.2±82.9 min/d in SED, 289.0±91.7 min/d in LPA and 19.2±13.5 min/d in MVPA. Neither SED nor the physical activity variables were associated with 2-hour glucose or HOMA-IR (p>0.05). In secondary analyses, SED was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); with the exception of blood pressure (p<0.05), LPA was not associated with any cardiometabolic risk factor (p>0.1); and MVPA was independently associated with total cholesterol and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Objectively measured SED was not associated with 2-hr glucose or HOMA-IR. Our findings also suggest that the accumulation of LPA and sporadic MVPA is not associated with glucose metabolism in adults with abdominal obesity. PMID:21695179

  8. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  9. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  10. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B M; Vikram, N K; Wasir, J S; Chadha, D; Joshi, Shashank R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, Seema; Munjal, Y P

    2009-02-01

    Asian Indians exhibit unique features of obesity; excess body fat, abdominal adiposity, increased subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and deposition of fat in ectopic sites (liver, muscle, etc.). Obesity is a major driver for the widely prevalent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian Indians in India and those residing in other countries. Based on percentage body fat and morbidity data, limits of normal BMI are narrower and lower in Asian Indians than in white Caucasians. In this consensus statement, we present revised guidelines for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and drug therapy and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians after consultations with experts from various regions of India belonging to the following medical disciplines; internal medicine, metabolic diseases, endocrinology, nutrition, cardiology, exercise physiology, sports medicine and bariatric surgery, and representing reputed medical institutions, hospitals, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies. It is estimated that by application of these guidelines, additional 10-15% of Indian population would be labeled as overweight/obese and would require appropriate management. Application of these guidelines on countrywide basis is also likely to have a deceleration effect on the escalating problem of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. These guidelines could be revised in future as appropriate, after another large and countrywide consensus process. Till that time, these should be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers dealing with obesity and related diseases. PMID:19582986

  11. PERIOD2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors, and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Corbalán-Tutau, M Dolores; Madrid, Juan A; Baraza, Juan C; Parnell, Laurence D; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock-related gene PERIOD2 (PER2) and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction program based on the Mediterranean diet. A total of 454 overweight/obese participants (women=380, men=74), aged 20 to 65 years, who attended outpatient clinics specializing in obesity between January and December 2008, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary-intake variables were analyzed. Effectiveness of the program was assessed, and a questionnaire of barriers to weight loss was considered. Multivariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed. Results indicate that PER2 polymorphisms rs2304672C>G and rs4663302C>T were associated with abdominal obesity (P<0.05). Participants who withdrew from treatment were significantly more obese and had more barriers to lose weight (P<0.05). They also displayed a lower likelihood of planning eating in advance and experiencing stress with dieting than those who completed treatment. Frequency of rs4663307 minor allele was significantly greater in withdrawers than in those who successfully completed treatment (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs2304672 C>G minor allele carriers had a greater probability of dropping out, displaying extreme snacking, experiencing stress with dieting, eating when bored, and skipping breakfast than noncarriers. PER2 is implicated in attrition in weight-loss treatment and may modulate eating-behavior-related phenotypes. These findings could represent a step toward personalized health care and nutrition based on a combination of genotyping and psycho-behavioral characterization. PMID:20497782

  12. Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for dysexecutive function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Andrea R; Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol; Bitzer, Markus; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the metabolic syndrome and its components on dysexecutive function (DF) in individuals with and without CKD. Among 588 participants aged over 70 from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), we defined DF as performance of 2SDs below the mean on any one test or 1.5SDs below the mean on any two of the following: Block Design, Digit Symbol Coding and the Trail-making Tests A and B. We defined CKD as an eGFR below 60 mL/min/m(2). MetS was defined according to recent guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program. 149 participants had CKD at cross-section, 16.1% of which also showed DF. Of the 439 participants without CKD, 12.3% displayed DF. Abdominal obesity as measured by waist circumference, was an independent risk factor for dysexecutive function in CKD (OR = 14.3, 95%CI = 2.21-91.93, p = 0.005) but not in non-CKD. None of the other MetS components were associated with DF. Results suggested that abdominal obesity, recognized as an integral part of the MetS, is a strong risk factor for DF in individuals with CKD. PMID:27413673

  13. Does elevated intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopic colorectal surgery cause acute gastrointestinal injury?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhenghao; Malbrain, Manu L.N.G.; Sun, Jing; Pan, Ruijun; Ma, Junjun; Feng, Bo; Dong, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) after colorectal surgery is low when laparoscopic techniques are used. While elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are associated with AGI grade II, little is known about the relation between increased IAP during laparoscopy and subsequent AGI. Aim To assess the impact of increased IAP during laparoscopic colorectal surgery on the incidence of postoperative AGI. Material and methods Sixty-six patients (41 men and 25 women) with colorectal cancer undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized into 3 groups, according to different IAP levels during CO2 pneumoperitoneum (10 mm Hg, 12 mm Hg and 15 mm Hg). We recorded the incidence of AGI after surgery by assessing the following parameters: time to first flatus/defecation, time to first bowel movement, time to tolerance of semi-liquid food and the occurrence of vomiting/diarrhea. Moreover, inflammatory mediators were measured before the induction of CO2 pneumoperitoneum and on postoperative day 1. Results Acute gastrointestinal injury occurred in 15 (27.3%) patients. In all 3 study groups, the elevation of IAP during CO2 pneumoperitoneum did not significantly increase the occurrence of symptoms of AGI, vomiting or diarrhea. Lower IAP levels did not significantly accelerate recovery of gastrointestinal function or shorten postoperative hospital stay. The changes in serum IL-6 after surgery did not correlate with the value of IAP. Conclusions The level of IAP elevation during laparoscopic colorectal surgery does not increase the occurrence of AGI after surgery. PMID:26240615

  14. Administration of Hwang-Ryun-Haedok-tang, a Herbal Complex, for Patients With Abdominal Obesity: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seungwon; Jung, WooSang; Byun, A Ri; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo; Shin, KyoungHo

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines have received attention as antiabdominal obesity agents. We present a series of 13 cases that demonstrate the positive effect of the herbal complex Hwang-Ryun-Haedok-Tang (HRHT; Tsumura, Tokyo, Japan) on weight and abdominal fat control in patients with abdominal obesity. We treated 13 patients with abdominal obesity treated for 54.46 ± 18.07 days with 5.0 g of HRHT daily. To evaluate the treatment, the morphometric (i.e., waist circumstance, weight, body fat) and biochemical parameters were measured once monthly. After HRHT therapy, the waist circumstance decreased from 91.96 ± 7.99 cm to 87.12 ± 8.09 cm (paired t test, P < .001) and the weight decreased from 78.09 ± 14.35 kg (average ± standard deviation) to 75.72 ± 14.60 kg (paired t test, P < .001). All 13 (100%) patients had low waist circumstances after treatment. Overall, 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients had a lower weight and body mass index. In the present study, we showed the clinical effects of HRHT on waist circumstance, weight, body mass index, and body fat in patients with abdominal obesity. Further clinical studies investigating the effects of HRHT are needed. PMID:26256500

  15. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  16. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function. PMID:26075288

  17. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  18. Lifestyle Risk Factors of General and Abdominal Obesity in Students of the School of Medicine and Health Science of the University of Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aleyira, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among students of the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UDS-SMHS), Tamale, Ghana. Also, lifestyle risk factors for the two obesity indices were investigated. This study was conducted among a sample of 646 students. Anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference were appropriately assessed. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity was 1.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Risk factors of general obesity were being female (crude OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.85–25.80, P = 0.0021), engaging in light PA (OR = 12.45, 95% CI = 2.96–52.41, P = 0.0006), being aged 28–37 years (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.39–20.68, P = 0.0329), nonintake of coffee (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.10–15.28, P = 0.0357), being married (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.48–22.02, P = 0.0286), and being abdominally obese (OR = 02.7, 95% CI = 25.61–11.60, P < 0.0001). Risk factors for abdominal obesity were being female, being married, having general obesity, and nonintake of coffee. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent than general obesity. Risk factors included being female, married, and generally obese and nonintake of coffee. PMID:24649393

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    MIRMIRAN, Parvin; EJTAHED, Hanieh-Sadat; BAHADORAN, Zahra; BASTAN, Sara; AZIZI, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: General and abdominal obesity are major global health problems. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body mass index and waist circumference status in 5852 Iranian adults within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods: Intakes of SSBs including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The association between body mass index, waist circumference and body adiposity index in each quartile category of SSB consumption were determined using the multivariable linear regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of general and abdominal obesity in each quartile of SSB consumption was also determined using the multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Mean dietary intake of SSBs was 48.9 g/d or 0.25 servings/d. After adjustment for all potential confounding variables, significant associations were observed between SSB consumption and BMI (β: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.13–0.86), and waist circumference (β: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.40–2.16) in the fourth quartile. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and body adiposity index. Participants who consumed > 57.1 g/d of SSBs had 22% higher risk of general obesity (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00–1.48) and 35% higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12–1.61), compared with those in the lowest quartile of SSB consumption. Conclusion: Higher intakes of SSBs were associated with the higher risk of general and abdominal obesity in adults suggesting that limiting the consumption of SSBs may be a practical approach to prevent and manage obesity. PMID:26744712

  20. Impact of a mass media campaign linking abdominal obesity and cancer: a natural exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morley, Belinda; Wakefield, Melanie; Dunlop, Sally; Hill, David

    2009-12-01

    A mass media campaign aired in the Australian state of Victoria aimed to increase awareness and encourage identification of the abdominal circumference for men and women that placed them at increased risk of cancer. The evaluation assessed the extent to which ad exposure was associated with improvement in awareness, intentions and behaviours with respect to weight and cancer. Respondents were overweight or obese adults aged 30-69 years and exposure to the advertisement occurred via commercial television programmes in a natural setting. Questionnaire assessment occurred before, immediately after and 2 weeks following exposure to the advertising, and a comparison group who did not recall the ad completed the same interviews. For the main analyses, the exposure group was those who recalled the advertisement at post-exposure and follow-up (n = 101). Those who did not recall it at either stage comprised the unexposed group (n = 81). The campaign achieved its primary objective of increased awareness of the link between obesity and cancer and the specific waist sizes indicative of risk, as well as increased behavioural intentions with respect to weight and cancer. However, it did not have an effect on self-awareness of weight status, perceived personal risk of cancer or weight loss behaviour. PMID:19570919

  1. Establishing abdominal height cut-offs and their association with conventional indices of obesity among Arab children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed; Al-Attas, Omar; Sabico, Shaun; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity, particularly childhood obesity is common in the Middle East, but no studies have examined the relationship of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) or abdominal height to conventional markers of obesity in this region. This is the first study to document the association of SAD with measures of obesity among Arab children and adolescents. METHODS: Nine hundred sixty-four Saudi children aged 5-17 years (365 prepubertal, including 146 boys and 219 girls; 249 pubertal, including 125 boys and 124 girls; and 350 postpubertal, including 198 boys and 152 girls) were included in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS: SAD was significantly correlated with indices of obesity regardless of gender, but was strongest among pubertal boys. The cut-off values were as follows: for prepubertal children, 14 cm (equivalent to 50th percentile among girls and 60th percentile among boys); for pubertal children, 15 cm for girls (30th percentile) and 16 cm for boys (50th percentile), and for postpubertal, 21.5 cm for girls (70th percentile) and 22 cm for boys (80th percentile). CONCLUSION: SAD is a reliable indicator of visceral obesity among Arab children and adolescents in particular. Prospective studies should be done to determine whether such an association translates to a promising risk factor for hard endpoints such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. PMID:20427937

  2. Elevated expression of runt-related transcription factors in human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dubis, J; Litwin, M; Michalowska, D; Zuk, N; Szczepanska-Buda, A; Grendziak, R; Baczynska, D; Barc, P; Witkiewicz, W

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease of unknown etiology. AAA is caused by segmental weakening of the aortic walls and progressive aortic dilation leading to the eventual rupture of the aorta, accompanied by intense inflammation. Additionally, studies have indicated a close relationship between the pathogenesis and progression of AAA and cellular immune responses in aneurysm wall tissue. The Runt-related genes (RUNX) encode multifunctional mediators of the of intracellular signal transduction pathways in vascular remodeling, endothelial function, immune response and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression level of RUNX regulatory genes in AAA tissues and to assess the correlations between them. The study was performed on AAA wall-tissue samples obtained from patients with AAA during open aneurysm repair and normal aortic tissues collected from healthy organ donors. There are no proven clinical management strategies or pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent AAA progression once an AAA has been detected. Moreover, so far no biomarkers have been established to indicate the disease status of AAA. Hence, understanding the pathogenesis of AAA has recently become an increasing priority in basic and translational vascular research. We identified significantly higher mRNA and protein level of all of three Runt-related genes in aneurysmal aorta compared to a normal aorta. Increased expression of RUNX2 was demonstrated for the first time in abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue. Additionally, relationships between the activity of RUNX genes in the pathological tissue were identified. The results of elevated expression of RUNX genes and their relationships in the AAA tissues suggest the involvement of conserved Runt-related genes in the pathophysiology of AAA development. PMID:27358138

  3. Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  4. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with excess body weight and abdominal obesity among resettled Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio, United States.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-07-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14-14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  5. Insulin resistance is associated with intraocular pressure elevation in a non-obese Korean population.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Shin Hae; Park, Kyung-Min; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Based on reports of an association between elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the major role of insulin resistance (IR) in MetS pathogenesis, a positive association between IOP and IR has been hypothesized. Although Asian populations tend to have lower body mass indices (BMIs) than Western populations, they tend to have a higher risk of developing MetS. This study examined the hypothesis that the association between IOP and IR differs by obesity status in an Asian population, by examining a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. Data collected from 4,621 South Korean adults regarding demographic, lifestyle, and laboratory parameters by the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were subjected to linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between IOP and metabolic profiles. After adjusting for confounding factors, the data were subjected to multiple linear regression analysis to examine the association between IR, as measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and IOP. Obesity was defined as BMI≥27.5 kg/m2, and the subjects were divided into obese vs. non-obese groups for investigation of the association between IR and IOP according to obesity status. IOP was found to correlate with fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, insulin, and HOMA-IR values in non-obese men; and with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values in non-obese women, whereas no association between IOP and IR was found in obese men or women. IOP was significantly associated with IR in non-obese men and women after adjusting for age, and in non-obese men after adjusting for age, BMI, and lifestyle and demographic factors. These findings indicate that a positive and independent relationship exists between IOP and IR in non-obese individuals only, suggesting that other factors likely contribute to IOP

  6. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415-2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045-1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  7. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  8. Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives

    PubMed Central

    Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers) in Łódź, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Results Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2), with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9), in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month. Conclusion The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity. PMID:26196859

  9. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. Aim The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. Materials and Methods The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. Results There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female Conclusion The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of

  10. Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome in Morbidly Obese Patients Following Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. Results: The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after

  11. The Frequency and Risk Factors of Colorectal Adenoma in Health-Check-up Subjects in South Korea: Relationship to Abdominal Obesity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Seong; Moon, Hong Ju; Baek, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Bong Ki; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Hyung Joon; Do, Jae Hyuk; Chang, Sae Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. However, there is a lack of information about the relationship between obesity and colorectal adenoma. We investigated whether general and abdominal obesity are risk factors for colorectal adenoma. Methods Subjects who received health check-ups, including colonoscopy, from April 2006 to September 2007 in Chung-Ang University Hospital were included (n=1,316). The frequency and characteristics of colorectal adenomas were analyzed according to demographic features, past history, blood tests, body mass index, and components of metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference of ≥80 cm in women and ≥90 cm in men. Results The sex ratio of the subjects was 1.9:1 (male:female) and their age was 47.7±10.0 years (mean±SD). In univariate analysis, abdominal obesity was significantly associated with the frequency of colorectal adenoma (26.5% "yes" vs 16.9% "no"; p<0.001). The frequency of colorectal adenoma was significantly higher among males, older patients, current smokers, and subjects with fasting hyperglycemia (≥100 mg/dL) or fatty liver (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified that male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.2), old age (age ≥60 years; OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 3.5-12.5), and abdominal obesity (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2) were independent risk factors for colorectal adenoma (p<0.05). The frequency of multiple adenomas (more than two sites) was also significantly higher in subjects with abdominal obesity. However, the effect of abdominal obesity on the development of colorectal adenoma decreased in elderly people. Conclusions Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for colorectal adenoma and its multiplicity, especially in younger people in South Korea. PMID:20479911

  12. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p < 0.05) due to increases in VRC,p and VRC,a with constant VAB. End-expiratory VCW decreased with late increasing VRC,p, dynamically hyperinflating VRC,a (p < 0.05), and progressively decreasing VAB (p < 0.05). After MBWRP, weight loss was concentrated in the abdomen and total IC decreased. During exercise, abdominal rib cage hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p < 0.05) without ventilatory and metabolic changes. We conclude that otherwise healthy obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea. PMID:27175804

  13. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation. PMID:25598323

  14. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  15. Correlates of Adverse Outcomes in Abdominally Obese Individuals: Findings from the Five-Year Followup of the Population-Based Study of Health in Pomerania

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Nele; Schneider, Harald J.; John, Ulrich; Dörr, Marcus; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Völker, Uwe; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Background. Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and premature death. However, it has not been resolved which factors predispose for the development of these adverse obesity-related outcomes in otherwise healthy individuals with abdominal obesity. Methods. We studied 1,506 abdominal obese individuals (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5) free of CVD or T2DM from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania and assessed the incidence of CVD or T2DM after a five-year followup. Logistic regression models were adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors and liver, kidney diseases, and sociodemographic status. Results. During follow-up time, we observed 114 and 136 new T2DM and CVD cases, respectively. Regression models identified age, waist circumference, serum glucose, and liver disease as predictors of T2DM. Regarding CVD, only age, unemployment, and a divorced or widowed marital status were significantly associated with incident CVD. In this subgroup of obese individuals blood pressure, serum glucose, or lipids did not influence incidence of T2DM or CVD. Conclusion. We identified various factors associated with an increased risk of incident T2DM and CVD among abdominally obese individuals. These findings may improve the detection of high-risk individuals and help to advance prevention strategies in abdominal obesity. PMID:24191195

  16. Red Blood Cells from Individuals with Abdominal Obesity or Metabolic Abnormalities Exhibit Less Deformability upon Entering a Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Nancy F.; Mancuso, Jordan E.; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are multifactorial conditions associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Previous work has demonstrated that the hemorheological profile is altered in patients with abdominal obesity and MS, as evidenced for example by increased whole blood viscosity. To date, however, no studies have examined red blood cell (RBC) deformability of blood from individuals with obesity or metabolic abnormalities under typical physiological flow conditions. In this study, we pumped RBCs through a constriction in a microfluidic device and used high speed video to visualize and track the mechanical behavior of ~8,000 RBCs obtained from either healthy individuals (n = 5) or obese participants with metabolic abnormalities (OMA) (n = 4). We demonstrate that the OMA+ cells stretched on average about 25% less than the healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ingesting a high-fat meal on RBC mechanical dynamics, and found that the postprandial period has only a weak effect on the stretching dynamics exhibited by OMA+ cells. The results suggest that chronic rigidification of RBCs plays a key role in the increased blood pressure and increased whole blood viscosity observed in OMA individuals and was independent of an acute response triggered by consumption of a high-fat meal. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01803633 PMID:27258098

  17. Snacking is associated with reduced risk of overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snacking is common in adolescents; however, it is unclear if there is an association between snacking and overweight or obesity within the context of the overall diet. This study examined the associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents 12–18 y of age (n = 5811). ...

  18. Abdominal obesity modifies the risk of hypertriglyceridemia for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Marino, Carmen; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the most prevalent lipid alteration in end-stage renal disease, and we studied the relationship between serum triglycerides and all-cause and cardiovascular death in these patients. Since abdominal fat modifies the effect of lipids on atherosclerosis, we analyzed the interaction between serum lipids and waist circumference (WC) as a metric of abdominal obesity. In a cohort of 537 hemodialysis patients, 182 died, 113 from cardiovascular causes, over an average follow-up of 29 months. In Cox models that included traditional and nontraditional risk factors, there were significant strong interactions between triglycerides and WC to both all-cause and cardiovascular death. A fixed (50 mg/dl) excess in triglycerides was associated with a progressive lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with threshold WC <95 cm but with a progressive increased risk in those above this threshold. A significant interaction between cholesterol and WC with all-cause and cardiovascular death emerged only in models excluding the triglycerides-WC interaction. Neither high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nor non-HDL cholesterol or their interaction terms with WC were associated with study outcomes. Thus, the predictive value of triglycerides and cholesterol for survival and atherosclerotic complications in hemodialysis patients is critically dependent on WC. Hence, intervention studies in end-stage renal disease should specifically target patients with abdominal obesity and hyperlipidemia. PMID:21178980

  19. The role of elevated liver transaminase levels in children with blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Karaduman, Dolunay; Sarioglu-Buke, Akile; Kilic, Ilknur; Gurses, Ercan

    2003-05-01

    The role of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels on intra-abdominal injury in children has not been adequately studied. In this report, the accuracy of these tests in predicting the degree and extend of intra-abdominal and hepatic injury in children with blunt abdominal trauma was investigated.Eighty-seven haemodynamically stable children with multiple trauma were prospectively evaluated. The SGOT and SGPT of patients with and without abdominal trauma (Groups I and II) were compared. Patients with and without radiologically verified intra-abdominal injury were further compared (Groups Ib and Ia). There was significant difference in SGOT and SGPT levels of Groups I and II. SGOT and SGPT levels were 333.6+/-283.8 and, 197.5+/-192.5 U/l, respectively in Group Ib; but 84.2+/-55.9, 43+/-29.8 U/l in Group Ia (P<0.001). In all patients with radiologically detected intra-abdominal pathology SGOT and SGPT levels were above 110.5 and 63.5 U/l, respectively. In patients with hepatic injury SGOT level was above 500 U/l and, SGPT level was above 300 U/l. Statistically significant positive correlation was found between radiologically detected intra-abdominal pathology and increased SGOT (above 110.5 U/l) and SGPT (above 63.5 U/l) levels (P<0.05). These data indicated that the SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly higher in patients with intra-abdominal injury even in the absence of hepatic injury. We suggest that liver function tests may be used as screening tests in children with blunt abdominal trauma in addition to physical abdominal examination. A sudden rise up to 110.5 U/l in SGOT and 63.5 U/l in SGPT indicate an intra-abdominal injury and severe hepatic injury should be suspected with higher levels of SGOT and SGPT. PMID:12667774

  20. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  1. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  2. A Role of the Inflammasome in the Low Storage Capacity of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kursawe, Romy; Dixit, Vishwa D; Scherer, Philipp E; Santoro, Nicola; Narayan, Deepak; Gordillo, Ruth; Giannini, Cosimo; Lopez, Ximena; Pierpont, Bridget; Nouws, Jessica; Shulman, Gerald I; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the downregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipogenesis/lipogenesis in obese adolescents with altered abdominal fat partitioning. We performed abdominal SAT biopsies on 58 obese adolescents and grouped them by MRI-derived visceral fat to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plus SAT (VAT/VAT+SAT) ratio (cutoff 0.11). Adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT ratio showed higher SAT macrophage infiltration and higher expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (i.e., TLR4, NLRP3, IL1B, and CASP1). The increase in inflammation markers was paralleled by a decrease in genes related to insulin sensitivity (ADIPOQ, GLUT4, PPARG2, and SIRT1) and lipogenesis (SREBP1c, ACC, LPL, and FASN). Furthermore, SAT ceramide concentrations correlated with the expression of CASP1 and IL1B. Infiltration of macrophages and upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome together with the associated high ceramide content in the plasma and SAT of obese adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT may contribute to the limited expansion of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose depot and the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26718495

  3. Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Abdominal Obesity in Urban Asian Indians Without Diabetes in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Sharma, Mukti; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT), and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) depots in Asian Indians without diabetes residing in north India. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n=137; 74 males and 63 females; 18–60 years of age), anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness at four sites) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels) assessments were done. Measurement of percentage body fat was done by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and areas of TAAT, SCAT and IAAT were measured at the L2–L3 intervertebral level by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 25(OH) D were measured by radioimmunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to assess relationships among clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles, areas of TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT, and 25(OH) D levels. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH) D was 40.5±8.6 ng/mL. Overall, 6.6% had vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 87.6% had insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), and 5.8% had a sufficient level (>30 ng/mL). Levels of 25(OH) D did not correlate with demographic, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles or with abdominal fat depots (TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT). In the correlation regression model, 25(OH) D was associated with TAAT in obese subjects. Conclusions: In obese urban Asian Indians without diabetes, higher values of total abdominal fat at the L2–L3 intervertebral level were associated with low 25(OH) D levels. PMID:24528222

  4. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Flores-Alvarado, Luis-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity. PMID:27525284

  5. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Ruíz, Perla-Monserrat; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Corona-Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Flores-Alvarado, Luis-Javier; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz-Teresita

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity. PMID:27525284

  6. Association of Smoking in Adolescence With Abdominal Obesity in Adulthood: A Follow-Up Study of 5 Birth Cohorts of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868

  7. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  8. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), this study was aimed at examining these combined effects. Methods We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2) as normal weight (18.5–24.99), overweight (25–29.9), mild obesity (30–34.9) and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35); we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses. Results The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI) were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90). However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL. Conclusions Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL. PMID:26866920

  9. Disruption of the gastroesophageal junction by central obesity and waist belt: role of raised intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; McColl, K E L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist belt produces mechanical distortion of the GOJ through formation of partial hiatus hernia. Even though there is no trans-sphincteric acid reflux, there is increased ingress of acid into the lower sphincter (intra-sphincteric reflux) as a consequence of raised IAP. In addition, short segment acid reflux is more evident in obese subjects with a belt on. Acid pocket is also enlarged in hiatus hernia, and acts as a reservoir of acid available to reflux whenever the sphincter fails. Above mechanisms may explain the common occurrence of cardiac lengthening and inflammation found in asymptomatic obese subjects. The inflamed cardia is also immunohistochemically similar to non-intestinal Barrett's mucosa, which is of etiological importance for cancers at the GOJ. Interventions that can reduce the mechanical distortion and acid exposure at the GOJ, including diet, exercise, drugs, sphincter augmentation therapy, and surgery, are clinically relevant in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease but more data are needed whether if these strategies are also effective in preventing cancer. As a conclusion, raised IAP produces silent mechanical disruption of the GOJ, which may explain the high occurrence of cancers in this region and it is potentially reversible with early interventions. PMID:24575877

  10. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, S.; Toouli, J.; Herrera, M. F.; Kulseng, B.; Zulewski, H.; Brancatisano, R.; Kow, L.; Pantoja, J. P.; Johnsen, G.; Brancatisano, A.; Tweden, K. S.; Knudson, M. B.; Billington, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC) on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP) in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System) at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51 ± 2 years, BMI 37 ± 1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM) completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site) was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL) were 9 ± 1% and 25 ± 4% (P < 0.0001), and HbA1c declined by 0.3 ± 0.1% and 1.0 ± 0.2% (P = 0.02, baseline 7.8 ± 0.2%). In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n = 15), mean arterial pressure reduced by 7 ± 3 mmHg and 8 ± 3 mmHg (P = 0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg) at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg) at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958. PMID:23984050

  11. Prevalence of generalized & abdominal obesity in urban & rural India- the ICMR - INDIAB Study (Phase-I) [ICMR - INDIAB-3

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Joshi, Shashank R.; Bhansali, Anil; Deepa, Mohan; Joshi, Prashant P.; Dhandania, Vinay K.; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Geetha, Loganathan; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Tanvir; Mohan, Viswanathan; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Overweight and obesity are rapidly increasing in countries like India. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of generalized, abdominal and combined obesity in urban and rural India. Methods: Phase I of the ICMR-INDIAB study was conducted in a representative population of three States [Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Jharkhand (JH)] and one Union Territory (UT)[Chandigarh (CH)] of India. A stratified multi-stage sampling design was adopted and individuals ≥20 yr of age were included. WHO Asia Pacific guidelines were used to define overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2 but <25 kg/m2), generalized obesity (GO, BMI≥25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (AO, waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80cm for women) and combined obesity (CO, GO plus AO). Of the 14,277 participants, 13,800 subjects (response rate, 96.7%) were included for the analysis (urban: n=4,063; rural: n=9737). Results: The prevalence of GO was 24.6, 16.6, 11.8 and 31.3 per cent among residents of TN, MH, JH and CH, while the prevalence of AO was 26.6, 18.7, 16.9 and 36.1 per cent, respectively. CO was present in 19.3, 13.0, 9.8 and 26.6 per cent of the TN, MH, JH and CH population. The prevalence of GO, AO and CO were significantly higher among urban residents compared to rural residents in all the four regions studied. The prevalence of overweight was 15.2, 11.3, 7.8 and 15.9 per cent among residents of TN, MH, JH and CH, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, hypertension, diabetes, higher socio-economic status, physical inactivity and urban residence were significantly associated with GO, AO and CO in all the four regions studied. Age was significantly associated with AO and CO, but not with GO. Interpretation & conclusions: Prevalence of AO as well as of GO were high in India. Extrapolated to the whole country, 135, 153 and 107 million individuals will have GO, AO and CO, respectively. However, these figures

  12. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  13. Snacking is associated with reduced risk for overweight and reduced abdominal obesity in adolescents aged 12-18 years: NHANES, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of snacking with weight status and abdominal obesity in adolescents aged 12-18 years (n = 5,811). Snacks/drinks were combined when eating occasions were named in the 24-h recall, but analysis separated snacks from snacks/drinks that were only drinks....

  14. Influence of elevated liver fat on circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance in obese Hispanic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. S.; Lê, K.-A.; Mahurkar, S.; Davis, J. N.; Goran, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective We performed this study to examine the metabolic differences arising from higher liver fat accumulation in obese Hispanic adolescents, with a particular focus on circulating levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods Forty-one obese Hispanic adolescents (15.3 ± 1.0 years, body mass index percentile: 97.0 ± 3.9) were assessed for: visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) by magnetic resonance imaging; fasting measures of serum glucose, insulin and adipocytokines; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); and insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR) by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Subjects with normal levels of HFF (below 5%; n = 25) were compared to those with HFF > 5% (n = 16). Results The two groups differing in HFF were similar for total body fat, VAT and SAT. The group with HFF > 5% had significantly (P < 0.05) higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) (6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 3.2 ± 0.4 pg mL−1), NGF (30.2 ± 9.9 vs. 13.9 ± 1.6 pg mL−1), HOMA-IR (8.8 ± 1.1 vs. 5.5 ± 0.5), AIR (1869 ± 206 vs. 1092 ± 165) and a tendency for lower SI (1.2 ± 0.4 vs. 2.1 ± 0.3; P = 0.06), with no significant differences in any of other factors measured. Conclusions These data suggest that elevated liver fat is most closely associated with elevated serum IL-8 and NGF levels as well as increased AIR and HOMA-IR. These elevated factors may play significant roles in the metabolic abnormalities associated with elevated liver fat in obese Hispanics. PMID:22434756

  15. Obese gene expression: reduction by fasting and stimulation by insulin and glucose in lean mice, and persistent elevation in acquired (diet-induced) and genetic (yellow agouti) obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, T M; Bergen, H; Funabashi, T; Kleopoulos, S P; Zhong, Y G; Bauman, W A; Mobbs, C V

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in the obese (ob) gene lead to obesity. This gene has been recently cloned, but the factors regulating its expression have not been elucidated. To address the regulation of the ob gene with regard to body weight and nutritional factors, Northern blot analysis was used to assess ob mRNA in adipose tissue from mice [lean, obese due to diet, or genetically (yellow agouti) obese] under different nutritional conditions. ob mRNA was elevated in both forms of obesity, compared to lean controls, correlated with elevations in plasma insulin and body weight, but not plasma glucose. In lean C57BL/6J mice, but not in mice with diet-induced obesity, ob mRNA decreased after a 48-hr fast. Similarly, in lean C57BL/6J controls, but not in obese yellow mice, i.p. glucose injection significantly increased ob mRNA. For up to 30 min after glucose injection, ob mRNA in lean mice significantly correlated with plasma glucose, but not with plasma insulin. In a separate study with only lean mice, ob mRNA was inhibited >90% by fasting, and elevated approximately 2-fold 30 min after i.p. injection of either glucose or insulin. These results suggest that in lean animals glucose and insulin enhance ob gene expression. In contrast to our results in lean mice, in obese animals ob mRNA is elevated and relatively insensitive to nutritional state, possibly due to chronic exposure to elevated plasma insulin and/or glucose. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8622953

  16. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with Cardiovascular Disease and its Risk Factors in Elderly and very Elderly Community-dwelling Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huimin; Li, Xiaolin; Zheng, Liang; Chen, Xiaoli; lan, Qin; Wu, Hong; Ding, Xugang; Qian, Dingguang; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Zuoren; Fan, Lieying; Chen, Ming; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul; Zhang, Yuzhen; Liu, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is usually considered to predispose to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but milder degrees of obesity or overweight may be protective in some elderly populations. We examined the relationships between general and abdominal obesity indices with ASCVD and its risk factors in elderly (aged ≥65 years) Shanghai community residents Among the 3950 participants, 21.5% had ASCVD, 56.2% had body mass index (BMI) ≥24 kg/m2, 50.1% had high waist circumference (WC) and 77.1% had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.50. WHtR increased with age in both men and women whereas WC increased with age only in women and BMI decreased with age only in men. The optimal WHtR cut-off value to predict the risk of ASCVD determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis was WHtR ≥0.53 with a prevalence of 55.8%. Having abdominal obesity was significantly associated with prevalent ASCVD with WHtR ≥0.53 having a higher value for the odds ratio than high WC, whereas high BMI was not associated. All three indices predicted high glucose, triglycerides and hsCRP levels but only the WHtR ≥0.53 showed a significant association with physical activity. Abdominal obesity indices, but not BMI, predicted prevalent ASCVD and its risk factors in this elderly Chinese population. PMID:26882876

  17. A study of abdominal ultrasound therapy combined with complex exercise for effective obesity management among shift work employees

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Byoung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of abdominal ultrasound accompanied by complex exercise in shift work employees working in industry. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty shift work employees were randomly assigned to either a complex exercise group (control group) or a complex exercise and ultrasound treatment group (experimental group). The control group carried out complex exercise five times per week for 4 weeks, while the experimental group performed complex exercise twice per week and received deep ultrasound three times per week for 4 weeks. [Results] The results showed that there were no significant differences in body composition between the two groups. There were significant changes in weight, lean body mass, body fat mass, and body mass index in the control group; meanwhile, significant changes in weight and body fat mass were observed in the experimental group. There were no significant differences in blood lipids between the two groups. There was a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the control group; furthermore, a significant decrease in total cholesterol was observed in the experimental group, along with significant increases in HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study concerning short-term obesity management programs, complex exercise was effective for improving of body composition and weight loss, while complex exercise combined with abdominal ultrasound had a good effect on blood lipids and secondary complication prevention. PMID:25642080

  18. The association between abdominal obesity and characteristics of migraine attacks in Iranian adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Omid; Askari, Gholamreza; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Ghiasvand, Reza; Khorvash, Fariborz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a primary headache disorder that affects the neurovascular system. Recent studies have shown that migraine patients with general obesity have higher characteristics of migraine attacks compared with normal weight patients, but data on central obesity are scarce. This study was done to assess the relationship between central obesity and the characteristics of migraine attacks in migraine patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 129 migraine patients (28 men and 101 women), aged 15–67 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist–hip ratio (WHR) and waist–height ratio (WHtR), as well as characteristics of migraine attacks such as severity, frequency, duration, and headache diary result (HDR) was determined for each participant. Linear regression was used to examine the association between anthropometric measurements and characteristics of migraine attacks. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: WC, WHR, and WHtR were positively associated with the severity (P-value: WC: 0.002, WHR: 0.002, WHtR: 0.001) and frequency (P-value: WC: 0.006, WHR: 0.01, WHtR: 0.002) of migraine attacks. Moreover, we found a significant association between WC (P = 0.001), WHR (P = 0.004), and WHtR (P < 0.001) with HDR. No significant relationship was observed between central obesity indicators and duration of migraine attacks. Conclusions: Central obesity indicators were positively associated with the severity and frequency of migraine attacks as well as HDR, but not with duration of attacks. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that weight loss may decrease the characteristics of migraine attacks. PMID:27186204

  19. Evidence for Negative Effects of Elevated Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Pulmonary Mechanics and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Davarcı, I.; Karcıoğlu, M.; Tuzcu, K.; İnanoğlu, K.; Yetim, T. D.; Motor, S.; Ulutaş, K. T.; Yüksel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of pneumoperitoneum on lung mechanics, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), and oxidative stress markers in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) by using lung-protective ventilation strategy. Materials and Methods. Forty-six patients undergoing LC and abdominal wall hernia (AWH) surgery were assigned into 2 groups. Measurements and blood samples were obtained before, during pneumoperitoneum, and at the end of surgery. BALF samples were obtained after anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery. Results. Peak inspiratory pressure, ETCO2, and pCO2 values at the 30th minute were significantly increased, while there was a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance, pH, and pO2 values in LC group. In BALF samples, total oxidant status (TOS), arylesterase, paraoxonase, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased; the glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly decreased in LC group. The serum levels of TOS and paraoxonase were significantly higher at the end of surgery in LC group. In addition, arylesterase level in the 30th minute was increased compared to baseline. Serum paraoxonase level at the end of surgery was significantly increased when compared to AWH group. Conclusions. Our study showed negative effects of pneumoperitoneum in both lung and systemic levels despite lung-protective ventilation strategy. PMID:25685845

  20. Improvement in insulin sensitivity following a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in viscerally obese men: contribution of abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the effect of a 1-year healthy eating-physical activity/exercise lifestyle modification program on insulin sensitivity in viscerally obese men classified according to their glucose tolerance status and to evaluate the respective contributions of changes in body fat distribution vs changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. Abdominally obese, dyslipidemic men (waist circumference ≥90 cm, triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L, and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L) were recruited. The 1-year intervention/evaluation was completed by 104 men. Body weight, composition, and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry/computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk profile were measured. After 1 year, insulin sensitivity improved in association with decreases in both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adiposity (SAT) as well as with the improvement in CRF, regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Further analyses were performed according to changes in glucose tolerance status: improvement (group I, n = 39), no change (group N, n = 50), or worsening (group W, n = 15) after 1 year. Groups I and N improved their insulin sensitivity and their CRF, whereas group W did not, while losing less VAT than groups I and N. Multiple regressions showed that reduction in VAT was associated with an improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas reduction in SAT was rather associated with improvement of the insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda. Changes in CRF were not independently associated with changes in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. A 1-year lifestyle intervention improved plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis in viscerally obese men, including those with normal glucose tolerance status at baseline. Changes in SAT and VAT but not in CRF appeared to mediate these improvements

  1. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  2. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  3. Cellularity and Adipogenic Profile of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue From Obese Adolescents: Association With Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Eszlinger, Markus; Narayan, Deepak; Liu, Teresa; Bazuine, Merlijn; Cali, Anna M.G.; D'Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cushman, Samuel W.; Sherman, Arthur; Caprio, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored whether the distribution of adipose cell size, the estimated total number of adipose cells, and the expression of adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue are linked to the phenotype of high visceral and low subcutaneous fat depots in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 38 adolescents with similar degrees of obesity agreed to have a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and imaging studies (MRI, DEXA, 1H-NMR). Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose cell-size distribution and the estimated total number of subcutaneous adipose cells were obtained from tissue biopsy samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. The adipogenic capacity was measured by Affymetrix GeneChip and quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS Subjects were divided into two groups: high versus low ratio of visceral to visceral + subcutaneous fat (VAT/[VAT+SAT]). The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035). Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01). From the microarray analyses emerged a lower expression of lipogenesis/adipogenesis markers (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents. PMID:20805387

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Lena J.; Steveling, Antje; Meffert, Peter J.; Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Kessler, Rebecca; Hosten, Norbert; Krüger, Janine; Gärtner, Simone; Aghdassi, Ali A.; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in overweight diabetics. Methods Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI): 34.0 kg/m2) prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks) over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples. Results Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) at 15 weeks. Liver fat content was normalized (14.2% to 4.1%, p < 0.001) and vertebral bone marrow fat (57.5% to 53.6%, p = 0.018) decreased significantly throughout the program, while fat content of pancreas (9.0%), spleen (0.0%), and psoas muscle (0.0%) did not (p > 0.15). Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001) and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001) also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2. Conclusion MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged. PMID:27110719

  5. Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Without Caloric Restriction on Abdominal Fat, Intrahepatic Lipid, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Bacha, Fida; Hannon, Tamara; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. Forty-five obese adolescent boys were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE, RE, or a nonexercising control. Abdominal fat was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and intrahepatic lipid and intramyocellular lipid were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. Both AE and RE prevented the significant weight gain that was observed in controls. Compared with controls, significant reductions in total and visceral fat and intrahepatic lipid were observed in both exercise groups. Compared with controls, a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (27%) was observed in the RE group. Collapsed across groups, changes in visceral fat were associated with changes in intrahepatic lipid (r = 0.72) and insulin sensitivity (r = −0.47). Both AE and RE alone are effective for reducing abdominal fat and intrahepatic lipid in obese adolescent boys. RE but not AE is also associated with significant improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22751691

  6. Reduced Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Elevated Ceramide but not Diacylglycerol Content in Severe Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Coen, P.M.; Hames, K.C.; Leachman, E.M.; DeLany, J.P.; Ritov, V.B.; Menshikova, E.V.; Dubé, J.J.; Stefanovic-Racic, M.; Toledo, F.G.S.; Goodpaster, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The link between a reduced capacity for skeletal muscle mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and lipotoxicity in human insulin resistance has been the subject of intense debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether reduced FAO is associated with elevated acyl CoA, ceramide, and diacylglycerol (DAG) in severely obese insulin resistant subjects. Design and Methods Muscle biopsies were conducted in lean (L, 22.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2, n = 8), Class I (CI, 32.1 ± 0.4 kg/m2, n = 7) and Class II&III obese (CII&III, 45.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2, n = 15) women for acyl CoA, sphingolipid and DAG profiling. Intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) content was determined by histology. FAO was assessed by incubating muscle homogenates with [1–14C]palmitate and measuring 14CO2 production. Cardiolipin content was quantified as an index of mitochondrial content. Lipid metabolism proteins, DGAT1, PLIN5, and PNPLA2 were quantified in biopsy samples by western blot. Results CII&III were more insulin resistant (HOMA-IR: 4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and had lower FAO (~58%, P = 0.007) and cardiolipin content (~31%, P = 0.013) compared to L. IMTG was elevated in CI (P = 0.04) and CII&III (P = 0.04) compared to L. Sphingolipid content was higher in CII&III compared to L (13.6 ± 1.1 vs. 10.3 ± 0.5 pmol/mg, P = 0.031) whereas DAG content was not different among groups. DGAT1 was elevated in CII&III, and PLIN5 was elevated in CI compared to L. Conclusions Severe obesity is associated with reduced muscle oxidative capacity and occurs concomitantly with elevated IMTG, ceramide and insulin resistance. PMID:23512750

  7. Obesity and Metabolic Phenotypes (Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Variants) Are Significantly Associated with Prevalence of Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Hepatic Steatosis in a Large Healthy Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shaharyar, Sameer; Roberson, Lara L.; Jamal, Omar; Younus, Adnan; Blaha, Michael J.; Ali, Shozab S.; Zide, Kenneth; Agatston, Arthur A.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Conceição, Raquel D.; Santos, Raul D.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Background. Among the obese, the so-called metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is thought to confer a lower CVD risk as compared to obesity with typical associated metabolic changes. The present study aims to determine the relationship of different subtypes of obesity with inflammatory-cardiometabolic abnormalities. Methods. We evaluated 5,519 healthy, Brazilian subjects (43 ± 10 years, 78% males), free of known cardiovascular disease. Those with <2 metabolic risk factors (MRF) were considered metabolically healthy, and those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference meeting NCEP criteria for metabolic syndrome as overweight/obese (OW). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to assess underlying inflammation and hepatic steatosis (HS) was determined via abdominal ultrasound. Results. Overall, 40% of OW individuals were metabolically healthy, and 12% normal-weight had ≥2 MRF. The prevalence of elevated CRP (≥3 mg/dL) and HS in MHO versus normal weight metabolically healthy group was 22% versus 12%, and 40% versus 8% respectively (P < 0.001). Both MHO individuals and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) phenotypes were associated with elevated hsCRP and HS. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHO and MUNW phenotypes may not be benign and physicians should strive to treat individuals in these subgroups to reverse these conditions. PMID:25838943

  8. Elevated Reward Region Responsivity Predicts Future Substance Use Onset But Not Overweight/Obesity Onset

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the hypotheses that adolescents who show elevated reward region responsivity are at increased risk for initial onset of overweight/obesity and substance use, which is important because there have been no such prospective tests of the reward surfeit model of these motivated behaviors. Methods One hundred sixty-two adolescents (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.06 years) with healthy weights (mean body mass index = 20.8 ± 1.90) completed functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms that assessed neural activation in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward; body fat and substance use were assessed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Elevated caudate (r = .31, p < .001) and putamen (r = .28, p < .001) response to monetary reward predicted substance use onset over 1-year follow-up, but reward circuitry responsivity did not predict future overweight/obesity onset. Adolescents who reported substance use versus abstinence at baseline also showed less caudate (r = –.31, p < .001) response to monetary reward. Discussion Results show that hyper-responsivity of reward circuitry increases risk for future substance use onset, providing novel support for the reward surfeit model. Results also imply that even a limited substance use history was associated with reduced reward region responsivity, extending results from studies that compared substance-dependent individuals with healthy control subjects and suggesting that substance use downregulates reward circuitry. However, aberrant reward region responsivity did not predict initial unhealthy weight gain. PMID:23312561

  9. Pharyngeal collapsibility during sleep is elevated in insulin-resistant females with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Oscar L; Galiatsatos, Panagis; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Patil, Susheel P; Smith, Philip L; Magnuson, Thomas; Schweitzer, Michael; Steele, Kimberley; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Schwartz, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with sleep apnoea, leading us to hypothesise that it is also associated with elevations in pharyngeal collapsibility, even in the absence of sleep apnoea.90 bariatric patients were characterised for sleep apnoea, pharyngeal collapsibility and insulin resistance. Patients with a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) >10 events·h(-1), diabetes mellitus, tonsillar hypertrophy and pulmonary disease were excluded. The remaining 14 females underwent collapsibility measurements (passive critical pressure, Pcritp ) during non-rapid eye movement sleep. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, a measure of insulin resistance, was derived from measurements of fasting glucose and insulin levels, and compared to Pcritp Groups with high Pcritp compared to low Pcritp did not differ in age, body mass index or RDI. HOMA and insulin were elevated in the high Pcritp group compared to the low Pcritp group (p<0.02). Pcritp correlated with HOMA (Spearman's ρ=0.565, 95% CI 0.104-0.862; p=0.035) and insulin (Spearman's ρ=0.609 95% CI 0.196-0.835; p=0.021).Obese insulin-resistant subjects without frank diabetes or sleep apnoea demonstrate preclinical elevations in pharyngeal collapsibility, which may increase their susceptibility to sleep apnoea. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance could play a significant role in sleep apnoea pathogenesis by generating requisite elevations in pharyngeal collapsibility. PMID:27103392

  10. The Prevalence of Obesity and Elevated Blood Pressure in Adolescent Student Athletes From the State of Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Eric C.; Field, Larry; Replogle, William; McIntyre, Louis; Igboechi, Oduche; Savoie, Felix H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and hypertension in the United States. The prevalence of these diagnoses among individuals participating in school-sanctioned sports has not been clearly defined. Purpose: To identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among student athletes and investigate associations between race, sex, type and number of sports played, and the prevalence of these diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Pre–sports participation medical examinations (N = 7705) performed between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed to identify the prevalence of obesity and elevated BP and examine relationships between the type of sports played, participation in multiple sports versus a single sport, and the athlete’s body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of obesity was 23.5%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and BMI. The risk of obesity among single-sport athletes was more than 2-fold the risk (relative risk [RR], 2.13) compared with ≥3-sport athletes and 1.42 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.42). The prevalence of elevated BP was 21.2%. There was a significant association (P < .001) between the number of sports played by the student and elevated BP. The risk of elevated BP among single-sport athletes was 1.59 times greater (RR, 1.59) than ≥3-sport athletes and 1.30 times greater compared with 2-sport athletes (RR, 1.30). Finally, obese students were 2.40 times more likely to have elevated BP compared with nonobese students (P < .001). Conclusion: The result of this study confirms the progressive nature of the obesity epidemic and identifies the contribution of obesity to the worsening cardiometabolic profiles in student athletes. The study also identifies that participation in multiple sports and running sports decreases

  11. Can you be large and not obese? The distinction between body weight, body fat, and abdominal fat in occupational standards.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2004-10-01

    Weight control is an important early intervention in diabetes, but the nature of the association between weight and disordered metabolism has been confused because fat mass and its distribution are only partly associated with increasing body size. Weight, fat, and regional fat placement, specifically in the abdominal site, may each have distinctly different associations with diabetes risk. Abdominal circumference may be the common marker of poor fitness habits and of increased risk for metabolic diseases such as diabetes. This is an important question for public health policy as well as for occupational standards such as those of the military, which are intended to promote fitness for military missions and include strength and aerobic capacity, as well as military appearance considerations. U.S. soldiers are heavier than ever before, reflecting both increased muscle and fat components. They also have better health care than ever before and are required to exercise regularly, and even the oldest soldiers are required to remain below body fat limits that are more stringent than the current median values of the U.S. population over age 40. The body fat standards assessed by circumference-based equations are 20-26% and 30-36%, for various age groups of men and women, respectively, and the upper limits align with threshold values of waist circumference recommended in national health goals. The basis and effects of the Army standards are presented in this paper. U.S. Army body fat standards may offer practical and reasonable health guidelines suitable for all active Americans that might help stem the increasing prevalence of obesity that is predicted to increase the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:15628823

  12. Abdominal Obesity and Association With Atherosclerosis Risk Factors: The Uberlândia Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Roever, Leonardo S; Resende, Elmiro S; Diniz, Angélica L D; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Veloso, Fernando C; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo M M; Chagas, Antonio C P

    2016-03-01

    Ectopic visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Gender differences in the correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and ectopic fat in the Brazilian population still lacking. Cross-sectional study with 101 volunteers (50.49% men; mean age 56.5 ± 18, range 19-74 years) drawn from the Uberlândia Heart Study underwent ultrasonography assessment of abdominal visceral adipose tissue with convex transducer of 3.5 MHz of frequency. The thickness of VF was ultrasonographically measured by the distance between the inner face of the abdominal muscle and the posterior face of abdominal aorta, 1 cm above the umbilicus. The SCF thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. The exams were always performed by the same examiner. Ectopic fat volumes were examined in relation to waist circumference, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors. The VF was significantly associated with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01, r = 0.10), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.005, r = 0.15), total cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = 0.10), waist circumference (P < 0.0001, r = 0.43), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.41), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.32) in women, and with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.002, r = 0,14), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.032, r = 0.07), glucose (P < 0.001, r = 0.15), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < 0.008, r = 0.12), gamma-GT (P < 0.001, r = 0.30), waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.52), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.32), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.26) in men. SCF was significantly associated with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01, r = 0.34), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, r = 0.36), waist circumference (P

  13. The influence of hip circumference on the relationship between abdominal obesity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Adrian J; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Carstensen, Bendix; Alberti, K George MM; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Pauvaday, Vassen K; Kowlessur, Sudhirsen; Söderberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher waist circumference and lower hip circumference are both associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, despite being directly correlated. The real effects of visceral obesity may therefore be underestimated when hip circumference is not fully taken into account. We hypothesized that adding waist and hip circumference to traditional risk factors would significantly improve CVD risk prediction. Methods In a population-based survey among South Asian and African Mauritians (n = 7978), 1241 deaths occurred during 15 years of follow-up. In a model that included variables used in previous CVD risk calculations (a Framingham-type model), the association between waist circumference and mortality was examined before and after adjustment for hip circumference. The percentage with an increase in estimated 10-year cumulative mortality of >25% and a decrease of >20% after waist and hip circumference were added to the model was calculated. Results Waist circumference was strongly related to mortality only after adjustment for hip circumference and vice versa. Adding waist and hip circumference to a Framingham-type model increased estimated 10-year cumulative CVD mortality by >25% for 23.7% of those who died and 15.7% of those censored. Cumulative mortality decreased by >20% for 4.5% of those who died and 14.8% of those censored. Conclusions The effect of central obesity on mortality risk is seriously underestimated without adjustment for hip circumference. Adding waist and hip circumference to a Framingham-type model for CVD mortality substantially increased predictive power. Both may be important inclusions in CVD risk prediction models. PMID:22266094

  14. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  15. Elevated IgG levels against specific bacterial antigens in obese patients with diabetes and in mice with diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Nadeem; Tang, Lihua; Jahangiri, Anisa; de Villiers, Willem; Eckhardt, Erik

    2012-09-01

    High fat diets increase the risk for insulin resistance by promoting inflammation. The cause of inflammation is unclear, but germfree mouse studies have implicated commensal gut bacteria. We tested whether diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and inflammation are associated with anti-bacterial IgG. Blood from lean and obese healthy volunteers or obese patients with diabetes were analyzed by ELISA for IgG against extracts of potentially pathogenic and pro-biotic strains of Escherichia coli (LF-82 and Nissle), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and for circulating tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). C57Bl/6 mice were fed low- or high-fat diets (10% or 60% kcal from fat) for 10 weeks and tested for anti-bacterial IgG, bodyweight, fasting glucose, and inflammation. Obese diabetic patients had significantly more IgG against extracts of E. coli LF-82 compared with lean controls, whereas IgG against extracts of the other bacteria was unchanged. Circulating TNFα was elevated and correlated with IgG against the LF-82 extract. Mice fed high-fat diets had increased fasting glucose levels, elevated TNFα and neutrophils, and significantly more IgG against the LF-82 extracts. Diabetes in obesity is characterized by increased IgG against specific bacterial antigens. Specific commensal bacteria may mediate inflammatory effects of high-fat diets. PMID:22424821

  16. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Morbid obesity; Fat - obese ... is because the body stores unused calories as fat. Obesity can be caused by: Eating more food ... use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Your waist measurement is another way ...

  17. Management of Septic Open Abdomen in a Morbid Obese Patient with Enteroatmospheric Fistula by Using Standard Abdominal Negative Pressure Therapy in Conjunction with Intrarectal One

    PubMed Central

    Yetisir, Fahri; Salman, A. Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Özer, Mehmet; Aygar, Muhittin; Osmanoglu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Management of open abdomen (OA) with enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) in morbid obese patient with comorbid disease is challenging. We would like to report the management of septic OA in morbid obese patient with EAF which developed after strangulated recurrent giant incisional hernia repair. We would also like to emphasize, in this case, the conversion of EAF to ileostomy by the help of second Negative Pressure Therapy (NPT) on ostomy side, and the chance of new EAF occurrence was reduced with intrarectal NPT. Case Presentation. 62-year-old morbid obese woman became an OA patient with EAF after strangulated recurrent giant hernia. EAF was converted to ostomy with pezzer drain by the help of second NPT on ostomy. Colonic distention was reduced with the third NPT application via rectum. Abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system was used for delayed abdominal closure. Conclusions. Using the 2nd NPT on ostomy side may help in the maturation of the ostomy created in a difficult condition in an open abdomen. Using the 3rd NPT through rectum may decrease the chance of EAF formation by reducing the pressure difference between intraluminal pressure and extraluminal pressure in hollow viscera. PMID:26779360

  18. Mexican-American children have different elevation of metabolic biomarkers that is proportional to obesity status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a health disparity for obesity among Mexican Americans compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In particular, Mexican American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and nontraditional risk factors in a subset of Mexi...

  19. Obese, Mexican-American children have elevated non-traditional metabolic risk factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a health disparity for obesity amongst Mexican-Americans compared to other race/ethnic groups. In particular Mexican-American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and non-traditional risk factors in a subset of Mexica...

  20. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter to Measure Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight or Obese Adolescent Children and Its Role as A Marker of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yashoda, H.T.; Boraiah, Ganga; Vishwa, Suma

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of sagittal abdominal diameter using a revalidated caliper is simple, inexpensive, non-invasive method. It strongly correlates with insulin resistance and can be used as a surrogate marker to predict risk for Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Aim To assess visceral abdominal fat by measuring sagittal abdominal diameter using sliding calipers and to predict insulin resistance in obese or overweight adolescent children. Study design Explorative study for Paediatric age group among over weight and obese children aged 10-18 years in urban population in a Tertiary Care Centre. Materials and Methods Paediatric population satisfying ADA guidelines for diagnosis of prediabetes were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements with SAD were recorded. Blood was collected to investigate for prediabetes and insulin resistance using HOMA-IR. Results Out of 924 subjects who gave assent to participate in study 108 fulfilled ADA criteria. 33 subjects who didn’t come for the follow up were excluded. Out of 75 subjects 12 were detected to have insulin resistance (16%) and 63 were normal (84%). Pearson’s partial correlation of HOMA-IR and OGTT with SAD has demonstrated it to be better correlation with Insulin Resistance (IR) than other anthropometric measurements. Fasting Glucose correlated better with Waist Hip Circumference. Conclusion Insulin Resistance was diagnosed in 16% of the population and these had high levels of insulin resistance. SAD in relation to glucose metabolism, had a better correlation with OGTT followed by HOMA-IR and fasting Insulin. SAD with anthropometric measurements had better correlation all the parameters other than Waist Circumference, which had negative correlation. SAD can be used in evaluation of obese or overweight children for evaluation. PMID:26673888

  1. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %), self-report and time (06.00-09.00, 12.00-14.00 and 17.00-20.00 hours or others). When analysed without adjustment for the ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement (EI:EER), all measures of EF, MF and SF showed inverse or null associations with overweight (BMI≥85th percentile of BMI-for-age) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥90th percentile) in both children and adolescents. After adjustment for EI:EER, however, EF and SF, but not MF, showed positive associations in children, irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here. PMID:27001436

  2. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Azuma, Koichiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Saitoh, Yoshino; Torii, Sayuki; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-12-01

    Studies from Western countries suggest that smokers tend to display greater abdominal obesity than non-smokers, despite showing lower weight. Whether this holds true in a leaner population requires clarification. Using indices of abdominal obesity including visceral adipose tissue, we examined whether lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with unfavorable fat distribution among Japanese men. From 2006 to 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional investigation of a community-based sample of Japanese men at 40-64 years old, free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Areas of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were calculated using computed tomography. We divided participants into four groups: never-smokers; and tertiles of pack-years of smoking among ever-smokers. Using multivariable linear regression, we calculated adjusted means of obesity indices (VAT, SAT, VAT-SAT ratio [VSR], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) for each group, and mean differences between consecutive groups. We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%). Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (median, 23.5 kg/m(2)). Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = 0.005) and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009-0.073; P = 0.012) after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated. PMID:27413686

  3. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Methods: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day−1) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg−1 min−1) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic–hyperglycemic clamp. Results: After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue)−1; however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, P<0.001. During the clamp period, FFA and glycerol output declined significantly, P<0.05, with no differences before and after weight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, P<0.05. Conclusions: In obese subjects, weight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism. PMID:27136446

  4. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited. PMID:25782331

  5. Overall and abdominal obesity indicators had different association with central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids in Chinese community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shihui; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Zheng, Jin; Bai, Yongyi; Bai, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Limited large sample studies have specially compared overall and abdominal obesity in relation to central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in community-dwelling adults, especially in the People’s Republic of China. This study aimed to compare the relationship between an overall obesity indicator (body mass index [BMI]), an abdominal obesity index (waist circumference [WC]), and central arterial stiffness and hemodynamics, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids, in Chinese community-dwelling adults. Methods For 2,624 adults in this study, anthropometric indices, such as BMI and WC, were measured. Central arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Central hemodynamics was represented by central pulse pressure (cPP). Results Both overall and abdominally obese adults were older, with significantly higher cfPWV, cPP, peripheral pulse pressure (pPP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). After adjusting for age and sex, both the overall and abdominally obese individuals had independently higher pPP, FBG, and LDL-C levels, and lower HDL-C level. The overall obese individuals had independently higher cPP, but not cfPWV, after adjusting for age and sex, while the abdominally obese individuals had independently higher cfPWV, but not cPP. After adjusting for age, sex, pPP, FBG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, WC, but not BMI, was independently correlated with cfPWV, and BMI, but not WC, was independently associated with cPP. Age, sex, pPP, FBG, and HDL-C levels have independent association with cfPWV. Age, sex, pPP, but not FBG and HDL-C levels, have independent association with cPP. Conclusion The abdominal obesity index (WC), rather than the overall obesity indicator (BMI), was related to central arterial stiffness, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, glucose and lipids, while the overall obesity

  6. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  7. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  8. Elevated Urinary T Helper 1 Chemokine Levels in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Zeybek, Cengiz; Gök, Faysal; Pekel, Aysel; Muşabak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that T helper (Th) cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and anti-hypertensive treatment on urinary Th1 chemokines. Methods: The study groups consisted of three types of patients: hypertensive obese, healthy, and non-hypertensive obese. Pre-treatment and post-treatment samples of the hypertensive obese group and one sample from the other two groups were evaluated for urinary chemokine: regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP10), and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). In the hypertensive obese group, urine microalbumin: creatinine ratio was examined before and after treatment. We recommended lifestyle changes to all patients. Captopril was started in those who could not be controlled with lifestyle changes and those who had stage 2 hypertension. Results: Twenty-four hypertensive obese (mean age 13.1), 27 healthy (mean age 11.2) and 22 non-hypertensive obese (mean age 11.5) children were investigated. The pre-treatment urine albumin: creatinine ratio was positively correlated with pre-treatment MIG levels (r=0.41, p<0.05). RANTES was significantly higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive and non-hypertensive obese group than in the controls. The urinary IP10 and MIG levels were higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive obese group than in the non-hypertensive obese. Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values indicated significant decreases in RANTES, IP10, and MIG levels in the hypertensive obese group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Th1 cells could be activated in obese hypertensive children before the onset of clinical indicators of target organ damage. Urinary RANTES seemed to be affected by both hypertension and obesity, and urinary IP10 and MIG seemed to be affected predominantly by hypertension. PMID:26831550

  9. Na+-sensitive elevation in blood pressure is ENaC independent in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Nizar, Jonathan M; Dong, Wuxing; McClellan, Robert B; Labarca, Mariana; Zhou, Yuehan; Wong, Jared; Goens, Donald G; Zhao, Mingming; Velarde, Nona; Bernstein, Daniel; Pellizzon, Michael; Satlin, Lisa M; Bhalla, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome have hypertension, but the mechanisms of hypertension are poorly understood. In these patients, impaired sodium excretion is critical for the genesis of Na(+)-sensitive hypertension, and prior studies have proposed a role for the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in this syndrome. We characterized high fat-fed mice as a model in which to study the contribution of ENaC-mediated Na(+) reabsorption in obesity and insulin resistance. High fat-fed mice demonstrated impaired Na(+) excretion and elevated blood pressure, which was significantly higher on a high-Na(+) diet compared with low fat-fed control mice. However, high fat-fed mice had no increase in ENaC activity as measured by Na(+) transport across microperfused cortical collecting ducts, electrolyte excretion, or blood pressure. In addition, we found no difference in endogenous urinary aldosterone excretion between groups on a normal or high-Na(+) diet. High fat-fed mice provide a model of metabolic syndrome, recapitulating obesity, insulin resistance, impaired natriuresis, and a Na(+)-sensitive elevation in blood pressure. Surprisingly, in contrast to previous studies, our data demonstrate that high fat feeding of mice impairs natriuresis and produces elevated blood pressure that is independent of ENaC activity and likely caused by increased Na(+) reabsorption upstream of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. PMID:26841823

  10. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  11. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01). A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity. PMID:27240398

  12. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  13. Sleep Deficiency is a Modifiable Risk Factor for Obesity and Cognitive Impairment and Associated with Elevated Visfatin

    PubMed Central

    Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Shebini, Salwa M. El; Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the interaction between sleep deprivation, obesity and cognitive functions, and the effect of following a balanced low caloric diet and increasing sleep duration on those variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety two obese females with mean age 47.00 ± 2.00 years and body mass index (BMI) 36.14 ± 3.00 kg/m² were divided into 3 groups according to their sleeping hours. They followed balanced low-caloric diet and were instructed to increase sleeping hours. Full clinical examination, 24 hours dietary intake recall, anthropometric measurements, mini mental state test, questionnaire for subjective sleep and life style evaluation were performed at baseline and after 2 months. Serum visfatin, fasting blood glucose and C-peptide were assessed; Modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. RESULTS: About one third of our sample slept less than 6 hours daily, group (1), all patients had elevated visfatin serum level (33.87 ± 2.8 ng/ml) with the highest level in group (1). At base line, group (1) showed the highest BMI, lowest cognitive functions, highest visfatin level and highest insulin resistance (P < 0.05). After 2 months of intervention, improvement was recorded in all variables, with the best improvement in group (1) after extending sleep duration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Sleep deprivation may be a modifiable risk factor for obesity, cognitive impairment and visfatin elevation.

  14. Obesity and elevated blood pressure among adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity and associated hypertension are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity and the associated risk of high blood pressure among Nigerian adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study of 885 apparently healthy adolescents was performed. Weight, height and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and categorized by age, sex and percentile. Obesity and overweight were defined as: ≥ 95th and 85th to < 95th percentiles, respectively, for age, sex and height. Subjects were sub-categorized into age 10–13 years (A) and 14–17 years (B). The odds ratio for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive range BP by age and BMI were generated. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 13.8% and 9.4%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertensive range systolic BP in obese versus normal BMI females was 16% versus 23% (p=0.00) and 12.1% versus 6.4% (p=0.27) in males. The prevalence of hypertensive range diastolic BP in obese versus normal BMI females was 12% versus 1.4% (p=0.00) and 15.2% versus 3.5% (p=0.01) in males. BMI in group B was significantly associated with pre-hypertensive and hypertensive range systolic BP in overweight (P = 0.01, P = 0.002) and obese subjects (P = 0.00, P = 0.00) and with hypertensive range diastolic BP (P = 0.00) only in obese subjects. The only significant association in group A was between obesity and pre-hypertensive range diastolic BP (P = 0.00). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertensive range BP among obese Nigerian adolescents was high. Screening for childhood obesity and hypertension, and long-term follow-up of obese adolescents into adulthood are recommended. PMID:22867531

  15. Did the perils of abdominal obesity affect depiction of feminine beauty in the sixteenth to eighteenth century British literature? Exploring the health and beauty link

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devendra; Renn, Peter; Singh, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ‘Good gene’ mate selection theory proposes that all individuals share evolved mental mechanisms that identify specific parts of a woman's body as indicators of fertility and health. Depiction of feminine beauty, across time and culture, should therefore emphasize the physical traits indicative of health and fertility. Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist size, is reliably linked to decreased oestrogen, reduced fecundity and increased risk for major diseases. Systematic searches of British literature across the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveal that a narrow waist is consistently described as beautiful. Works in ancient Indian and Chinese literature similarly associate feminine attractiveness with a narrow waist. Even without the benefit of modern medical knowledge, both British and Asian writers knew intuitively the biological link between health and beauty. PMID:17251110

  16. High Discrepancy in Abdominal Obesity Prevalence According to Different Waist Circumference Cut-Offs and Measurement Methods in Children: Need for Age-Risk-Weighted Standardized Cut-Offs?

    PubMed Central

    Prodam, Flavia; Fuiano, Nicola; Diddi, Giuliana; Petri, Antonella; Bellone, Simonetta; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is a good proxy measure of central adiposity. Due to the multiplicity of existing WC cut-offs and different measurement methods, the decision to use one rather than another WC chart may lead to different prevalence estimates of abdominal obesity in the same population. Aim of our study was to assess how much the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies in Italian schoolchildren using the different available WC cut-offs. Methods We measured WC at just above the uppermost lateral border of the right ilium in 1062 Italian schoolchildren aged 7–14 years, 499 living in Northern Italy and 563 in Southern Italy. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90th percentile for gender and age according to nine WC charts. Results We found an extremely high variability in the prevalence of abdominal obesity detected in our study-populations according to the different WC charts, ranging in the overall group from 9.1% to 61.4%. In Northern Italy children it varied from 2.4% to 35.7%, and in Southern ones from 15.1% to 84.2%. Conclusions On the basis of the chosen WC cut-offs the prevalence of abdominal obesity varies widely, because percentile-charts are strongly influenced by the population status in a particular moment. A further rate of variability may lay on the site of WC measurement and on the statistical method used to calculate WC cut-offs. Risk-weighted WC cut-offs measured in a standardized anatomic site and calculated by the appropriate method are needed to simply identify by WC measurement those children at high risk of cardio-metabolic complications to whom specific and prompt health interventions should be addressed. PMID:26745148

  17. Elevated systemic hepcidin and iron depletion in obese pre-menopausal females.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepcidin, the body’s main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, is unregulated in response to inflammation, and is thought to play a role in the manifestation of iron deficiency (ID) observed in obese populations. We determined systemic hepcidin levels and its association with body mass, inflammat...

  18. Decreased Transcription of ChREBP-α/β Isoforms in Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adolescents With Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Giannini, Cosimo; Narayan, Deepak; Lin, Aiping; D’Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Cushman, Samuel W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance associated with altered fat partitioning in liver and adipose tissues is a prediabetic condition in obese adolescents. We investigated interactions between glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the expression of lipogenic genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue in 53 obese adolescents. Based on their 2-h glucose tests they were stratified in the following groups: group 1, 2-h glucose level <120 mg/dL; group 2, 2-h glucose level between 120 and 140 mg/dL; and group 3, 2-h glucose level >140 mg/dL. Liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity were greater in group 1 than in group 2 and group 3, and muscle insulin sensitivity progressively decreased from group 1 to group 3. The expression of the carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was decreased in adipose tissue but increased in the liver (eight subjects) in adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. The expression of adipose ChREBPα and ChREBPβ was inversely related to 2-h glucose level and positively correlated to insulin sensitivity. Improvement of glucose tolerance in four subjects was associated with an increase of ChREBP/GLUT4 expression in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, early in the development of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes in youth, ChREBPβ expression in adipose tissue predicts insulin resistance and, therefore, might play a role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. PMID:23209190

  19. Effects of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Takic, Marija; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45-65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  20. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Glibetić, Natalija; Zec, Manja; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P < 0.05). Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P < 0.05). The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05). Values for BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity. PMID:25574495

  1. Evidence of Reduced CBG Cleavage in Abdominal Obesity: A Potential Factor in Development of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nenke, M A; Lewis, J G; Rankin, W; Torpy, D J

    2016-08-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is involved in the regulation of cortisol delivery. Neutrophil elastase-mediated cleavage of high to low affinity CBG (haCBG to laCBG) induces cortisol release at inflammatory sites. Past studies have shown reduced CBG in obesity, an inflammatory state, particularly in central adiposity/metabolic syndrome. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study of the effects of obesity, age and sex on ha/laCBG in 100 healthy volunteers. Total and haCBG levels were 11% higher in women but did not vary with age or menopausal status. Total CBG levels were lower with increased body weight and waist circumference; laCBG levels were lower with increased body weight, waist circumference, body mass index and body fat; higher haCBG levels were seen with increased body fat. The relation between CBG and adiposity appeared to be driven predominantly by the metabolic syndrome group. The results suggest reduced CBG cleavage in central obesity, possibly contributing to the characteristic inflammatory phenotype of the central obesity and metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of gender differences in CBG levels is unclear. PMID:27300474

  2. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have ... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems ...

  3. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Merali, N.; Almeida, R.A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case on conservative management of salvaging the mesh in an immunocompromised morbidly obese patient, who developed a synergistic gangrene infection following a primary open mesh repair of an incisional hernia. Presentation of case Our patient presented with a surgical wound infection, comorbidities were Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia (CLL), Body Mass Index (BMI) of 50, hypertension and diet controlled type-2 diabetes. In surgery, wide necrotic wound debridement, early and repetitive wound drainages with the use of a large pore polypropylene mesh and a detailed surgical follow up was required. High dose intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) was administrated in combination with adopting a multidisciplinary approach was key to our success. Discussion Stoppa Re et al. complied a series of 360 ventral hernia mesh repairs reporting an infection rate of 12% that were managed conservatively. However, our selective case is unique within current literature, being the first to illustrate mesh salvage in a morbid obese patient with CLL. Recent modifications in mesh morphology, such as lower density, wide pores, and lighter weight has led to considerable improvements regarding infection avoidance. Conclusion This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair. PMID:26322822

  4. Obesity.

    PubMed

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complications and associated conditions. Weight reduction should be undertaken by women with morbid obesity, with complications secondary to the obesity, with a strong family history of conditions associated with obesity, or with increased abdomen:hip ratios. In contrast, women who have excess weight localized in the hips and thighs and no personal or family history of associated conditions may not benefit from dietary restriction. Low calorie diets result in adaptive changes, "designed" to prolong survival in the face of famine. These include changes in water balance, metabolic rate, and appetite. Metabolic rate declines, allowing the individual to burn fewer and fewer calories. Each time a woman diets she tends to lose weight less rapidly than the time before. "Restrained eating" predisposes binge eating. Indeed, bulimia rarely occurs in the absence of prior caloric restrictions. Current medical definitions of obesity do not consider these nuances. Existing definitions "over-diagnose" obesity in women, in general, and in older women and nonwhite women, in particular. For example, by existing standards, more than 60 percent of black women more than 45 years of age are considered obese. In contrast, the health risks of similar degrees of obesity are substantially greater for men than for women. Part of the problems lies in the fact that many women have pear-shaped fat distribution,a pattern which is not associated with increased health risks.Current cultural definitions of obesity for

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  6. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Añez, Roberto; Toledo, Alexandra; Bello, Luis; Apruzzese, Vanessa; González, Robys; Chacín, Maricarmen; Cabrera, Mayela; Cano, Clímaco; Velasco, Manuel; López-Miranda, José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC) cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA) was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-βcell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-βcell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50 cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity) and 98.15 cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity). Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00 cm for women and <98.00 cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification. PMID:25945356

  7. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for ...

  8. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Bradley R.; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S.; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E.; Nadeau, Kristen J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with 31phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m−2·min−1 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean−1·min−1, P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  9. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Newcomer, Bradley R; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2015-05-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with (31)phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m(-2)·min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  10. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%)]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%)], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  12. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  13. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-alpha in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induce...

  14. Obesity-related elevations in plasma leucine are associated with alterations in enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    She, Pengxiang; Van Horn, Cynthia; Reid, Tanya; Hutson, Susan M; Cooney, Robert N; Lynch, Christopher J

    2007-12-01

    Elevations in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in human obesity were first reported in the 1960s. Such reports are of interest because of the emerging role of BCAAs as potential regulators of satiety, leptin, glucose, cell signaling, adiposity, and body weight (mTOR and PKC). To explore loss of catabolic capacity as a potential contributor to the obesity-related rises in BCAAs, we assessed the first two enzymatic steps, catalyzed by mitochondrial branched chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCATm) or the branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD E1alpha subunit) complex, in two rodent models of obesity (ob/ob mice and Zucker rats) and after surgical weight loss intervention in humans. Obese rodents exhibited hyperaminoacidemia including BCAAs. Whereas no obesity-related changes were observed in rodent skeletal muscle BCATm, pS293, or total BCKD E1alpha or BCKD kinase, in liver BCKD E1alpha was either unaltered or diminished by obesity, and pS293 (associated with the inactive state of BCKD) increased, along with BCKD kinase. In epididymal fat, obesity-related declines were observed in BCATm and BCKD E1alpha. Plasma BCAAs were diminished by an overnight fast coinciding with dissipation of the changes in adipose tissue but not in liver. BCAAs also were reduced by surgical weight loss intervention (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) in human subjects studied longitudinally. These changes coincided with increased BCATm and BCKD E1alpha in omental and subcutaneous fat. Our results are consistent with the idea that tissue-specific alterations in BCAA metabolism, in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, may contribute to the rise in plasma BCAAs in obesity. PMID:17925455

  15. Sex Differences in Somatotrope Dependency on Leptin Receptors in Young Mice: Ablation of LEPR Causes Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency and Abdominal Obesity in Males.

    PubMed

    Allensworth-James, Melody L; Odle, Angela; Haney, Anessa; Childs, Gwen

    2015-09-01

    Leptin receptor (LEPR) signaling controls appetite and energy expenditure. Somatotrope-specific deletion of the LEPRb signaling isoform causes GH deficiency and obesity. The present study selectively ablated Lepr exon 1 in somatotropes, which removes the signal peptide, causing the loss of all isoforms of LEPR. Excision of Lepr exon 1 was restricted to the pituitary, and mutant somatotropes failed to respond to leptin. Young (2-3 mo) males showed a severe 84% reduction in serum GH levels and more than 60% reduction in immunolabeled GH cells compared with 41%-42% reductions in GH and GH cells in mutant females. Mutant males (35 d) and females (45 d) weighed less than controls and males had lower lean body mass. Image analysis of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging showed that young males had a 2-fold increase in abdominal fat mass and increased adipose tissue density. Young females had only an overall increase in adipose tissue. Both males and females showed lower energy expenditure and higher respiratory quotient, indicating preferential carbohydrate burning. Young mutant males slept less and were more restless during the dark phase, whereas the opposite was true of females. The effects of a Cre-bearing sire on his non-Cre-recombinase bearing progeny are seen by increased respiratory quotient and reduced litter sizes. These studies elucidate clear sex differences in the extent to which somatotropes are dependent on all isoforms of LEPR. These results, which were not seen with the ablation of Lepr exon 17, highlight the severe consequences of ablation of LEPR in male somatotropes. PMID:26168341

  16. Chronic sub-clinical inflammation in the abdominal adipose tissue – Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and their link with insulin resistance in metabolically obese South Indians: A cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Premanath, M.; Basavanagowdappa, H.; Mahesh, M.; Babu, M. Suresh; Devananda, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (AN) in obese South Indian subjects and to ascertain whether or not a causal role could be ascribed to these cytokines in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Forty obese and forty nonobese volunteers of both genders were recruited. Parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP, and AN levels were measured. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment-IR method. Abdominal adiposity was measured by ultrasonography. The results were statistically evaluated by appropriate tests. Results: BMI, WC, and visceral fat were high in the obese group. Females had higher subcutaneous fat in both groups. HbA1C was marginally high in the obese group (P = 0.014). IR was high in all the groups, obese males showing higher values (not significant[NS]). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were high in the obese group (P = 0.028, P = 0.003). TNF-α was high in obese males (NS), IL-6 was high in both groups, higher in nonobese females (NS), hs-CRP was high in both groups, higher in females of both groups (NS). AN was high in females of both groups (P = 0.002). Conclusions: In this study on South Indian subjects, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and hs-CRP, despite being high, did not show any causal correlation either with abdominal obesity or with IR. TNF-α being normal showed some correlation which was inconsistent. Even the anti-inflammatory adipokine, AN did not show any correlation with IR. Cytokines had an inconsistent correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome hence were not useful. PMID:26904474

  17. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  18. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  19. Adipose tissue remodeling in a novel domestic porcine model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Aditya S.; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Tang, Hui; Jordan, Kyra L.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish and characterize a novel domestic porcine model of obesity. Design and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were fed normal (lean, n=7) or high-fat/high-fructose diet (obese, n=7) for 16 weeks. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies were obtained after 8, 12 and 16 weeks of diet, and pericardial adipose tissue after 16 weeks, for assessments of adipocyte size, fibrosis, and inflammation. Adipose tissue volume and cardiac function were studied with multi-detector computed-tomography, and oxygenation with magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma lipids profiles, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation were evaluated. Results Compared with lean, obese pigs had elevated cholesterol and triglycerides levels, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. Both abdominal and pericardial fat volume increased after 16 weeks of obese. In abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipocyte size and both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression progressively increased. Macrophage infiltration showed in both abdominal and pericardial adipose tissues. Circulating TNF-α increased in obese only at 16 weeks. Compared with Lean, obese pigs had similar global cardiac function, but myocardial perfusion and oxygenation were significantly impaired. Conclusion A high-fat/high-fructose diet induces in domestic pigs many characteristics of metabolic syndrome, which is useful to investigate the effects of the obesity. PMID:25627626

  20. Effects of Daily Almond Consumption on Cardiometabolic Risk and Abdominal Adiposity in Healthy Adults With Elevated LDL‐Cholesterol: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Claire E.; West, Sheila G.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Bordi, Peter L.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled‐feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie‐matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods and Results In a randomized, 2‐period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled‐feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL‐C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol‐lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non‐HDL‐C (−6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL‐C (−5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL‐C (−1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (−0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (−0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight. Conclusions Almonds reduced non‐HDL‐C, LDL‐C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL‐C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high‐carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01101230. PMID:25559009

  1. High and Low Activity Rats: Elevated intrinsic physical activity drives resistance to diet induced obesity in non-bred rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Boland, Kelsey; Billington, Charles; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and rodents show large variability in their individual sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, which has been associated with differences in intrinsic spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Evidence from genetic and out-bred rat obesity models shows that higher activity of the orexin peptides results in higher intrinsic SPA and protection against diet-induced obesity. Based on this, we hypothesized that naturally occurring variation in SPA and orexin signaling activity is sufficient to drive differences in sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. We analyzed orexin activity and sensitivity to diet-induced obesity in non-manipulated male Sprague Dawley rats selected for high and low intrinsic SPA. Our results defined a new model of differential DIO sensitivity, the high-activity and low activity-rats, and suggest that naturally occurring variations in intrinsic SPA cause differences in energy expenditure that are mediated by orexin signaling and alter DIO sensitivity. PMID:23404834

  2. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  3. Effects of Obesity on Perivascular Adipose Tissue Vasorelaxant Function: Nitric Oxide, Inflammation and Elevated Systemic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Unwin, Richard D.; Greenstein, Adam S.; Heagerty, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most vessels in the human body. Healthy PVAT has a vasorelaxant effect which is not observed in obesity. We assessed the contribution of nitric oxide (NO), inflammation and endothelium to obesity-induced PVAT damage. Methods Rats were fed a high-fat diet or normal chow. PVAT function was assessed using wire myography. Skeletonised and PVAT-intact mesenteric vessels were prepared with and without endothelium. Vessels were incubated with L-NNA or superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Gluteal fat biopsies were performed on 10 obese and 10 control individuals, and adipose tissue was assessed using proteomic analysis. Results In the animals, there were significant correlations between weight and blood pressure (BP; r = 0.5, p = 0.02), weight and PVAT function (r = 0.51, p = 0.02), and PVAT function and BP (r = 0.53, p = 0.01). PVAT-intact vessel segments from healthy animals constricted significantly less than segments from obese animals (p < 0.05). In a healthy state, there was preservation of the PVAT vasorelaxant function after endothelium removal (p < 0.05). In endothelium-denuded vessels, L-NNA attenuated the PVAT vasorelaxant function in control vessels (p < 0.0001). In obesity, incubation with SOD and catalase attenuated PVAT-intact vessel contractility in the presence and absence of endothelium (p < 0.001). In obese humans, SOD [Cu-Zn] (SOD1; fold change −2.4), peroxiredoxin-1 (fold change −2.15) and adiponectin (fold change −2.1) were present in lower abundances than in healthy controls. Conclusions Incubation with SOD and catalase restores PVAT vasorelaxant function in animal obesity. In the rodent model, obesity-induced PVAT damage is independent of endothelium and is in part due to reduced NO bioavailability within PVAT. Loss of PVAT function correlates with rising BP in our animal obesity model. In keeping with our hypothesis of inflammation-induced damage to PVAT function in obesity, there

  4. Low abdominal NIRS values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP) measured every 6 hours can detect NEC...

  5. Elevated autophagy gene expression in adipose tissue of obese humans: A potential non-cell-cycle-dependent function of E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Yulia; Blüher, Matthias; Slutsky, Noa; Goldstein, Nir; Klöting, Nora; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Ginsberg, Doron; Gericke, Martin; Guiu Jurado, Esther; Kovsan, Julia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kachko, Leonid; Bashan, Nava; Gepner, Yiftach; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy genes' expression is upregulated in visceral fat in human obesity, associating with obesity-related cardio-metabolic risk. E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1) was shown in cancer cells to transcriptionally regulate autophagy. We hypothesize that E2F1 regulates adipocyte autophagy in obesity, associating with endocrine/metabolic dysfunction, thereby, representing non-cell-cycle function of this transcription factor. E2F1 protein (N=69) and mRNA (N=437) were elevated in visceral fat of obese humans, correlating with increased expression of ATG5 (autophagy-related 5), MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β), but not with proliferation/cell-cycle markers. Elevated E2F1 mainly characterized the adipocyte fraction, whereas MKI67 (marker of proliferation Ki-67) was elevated in the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. In human visceral fat explants, chromatin-immunoprecipitation revealed body mass index (BMI)-correlated increase in E2F1 binding to the promoter of MAP1LC3B, but not to the classical cell cycle E2F1 target, CCND1 (cyclin D1). Clinically, omental fat E2F1 expression correlated with insulin resistance, circulating free-fatty-acids (FFA), and with decreased circulating ADIPOQ/adiponectin, associations attenuated by adjustment for autophagy genes. Overexpression of E2F1 in HEK293 cells enhanced promoter activity of several autophagy genes and autophagic flux, and sensitized to further activation of autophagy by TNF. Conversely, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived adipocytes from e2f1 knockout mice (e2f1−/−) exhibited lower autophagy gene expression and flux, were more insulin sensitive, and secreted more ADIPOQ. Furthermore, e2f1−/− MEF-derived adipocytes, and autophagy-deficient (by Atg7 siRNA) adipocytes were resistant to cytokines-induced decrease in ADIPOQ secretion. Jointly, upregulated E2F1 sensitizes adipose tissue autophagy to inflammatory stimuli, linking visceral obesity to adipose and systemic

  6. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  7. Stress-induced behavioral and metabolic adaptations lead to an obesity-prone phenotype in ewes with elevated cortisol responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Kevin; Lee, Caroline; Bischof, Robert; Lambert, Gavin W; Clarke, Iain J; Henry, Belinda A

    2014-09-01

    The underlying cause of predisposition to obesity is complex but one marker is cortisol responsiveness. Selection of sheep for high (HR) or low (LR) cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropin shows that HR are more likely to become obese. Increased propensity to obesity is associated with reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. We sought to determine whether metabolic or behavioral responses to stress also contribute to altered propensity to obesity in LR and HR. Animals (n=5-10/group) were exposed to 3 stressors and we measured food intake and thermogenesis (recorded with dataloggers implanted into muscle). Stressors were hypoglycaemia (0.125 units/kg insulin, IV), a barking dog and immune challenge (200 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide--LPS, IV). LR animals showed a greater catabolic state in response to both immune and psychosocial stressors. LPS reduced (P<0.01) food intake in both groups but LR showed a greater (P<0.05) reduction in food intake and a more substantial (P<0.05) rise in muscle temperature. Introduction of the barking dog reduced (P<0.05) food intake in LR only. These metabolic differences coincided with differences in cortisol responsiveness, where HR animals had increased (P<0.05) cortisol in response to both immune and psychosocial stressors. We also assessed behavior in the following paradigms: 1, isolation in the open field test; 2, response to a human intruder; and 3, food competition. LR had greater (P<0.05) activity, reduced fearfulness and displayed a proactive coping style of behavior. Thus we demonstrate that high cortisol responsiveness identifies animals with stress-induced metabolic and behavioral traits that may contribute to susceptibility to obesity. PMID:25001966

  8. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  9. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel‐group, superiority, multi‐centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post‐treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow‐up, the mean 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  10. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  11. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  12. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  13. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  14. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  15. Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China’s four provinces survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. Methods The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. Results An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours

  16. Inflammatory Cytokines in General and Central Obesity and Modulating Effects of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Christian; Minkwitz, Juliane; Thormann, Julia; Chittka, Tobias; Mergl, Roland; Kirkby, Kenneth C.; Faßhauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Teupser, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Context Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date. Objective To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study comprising 117 obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30) and 83 non-obese community-based volunteers. Main Outcomes Measures Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Physical activity and energy expenditure (MET) were assessed with actigraphy. Adipometrics comprised BMI, weight, abdominal-, waist- and hip-circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR). Results General obesity was associated with significantly elevated levels of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α, central obesity with significantly elevated IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ-levels. In participants with general obesity, levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly elevated in participants with low physical activity, even when controlled for BMI which was negatively associated with physical acitivity. Cytokines significantly correlated with adipometrics, particularly in obese participants. Conclusions Results confirm up-regulation of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obesity. In obese subjects, physical activity may lower levels and thus reduce pro-inflammatory effects of cytokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:25781614

  17. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  18. Assessing the Causality Factors in the Association between (Abdominal) Obesity and Physical Activity among the Newfoundland Population—A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barning, Frank; Abarin, Taraneh

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,263 adults from Newfoundland and Labrador were studied in the research. Body mass index (BMI) and percent trunk fat (PTF) were analyzed as biomarkers for obesity. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach with two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the fat-mass and obesity (FTO) gene as instruments was employed to assess the causal effect. In both genders, increasing physical activity significantly reduced BMI and PTF when adjusted for age and the FTO gene. The effect of physical activity was stronger on PTF than BMI. Direct observational analyses showed significant increase in BMI/PTF when physical activity decreased. A similar association in MR analyses was not significant. The association between physical activity and BMI/PTF could be due to reversed causality or common confounding factors. Our study provides insights into the causal contributions of obesity to physical activity in adults. Health intervention strategies to increase physical activity among adults should include some other plans such as improving diet for reducing obesity. PMID:27478388

  19. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Luchtman, Dirk W.; Chee, Melissa J. S.; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Colmers, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks’ refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint. PMID:26444289

  20. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  1. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  2. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  3. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  4. Effects of Altered Intra-abdominal Pressure on the Upper Airway Collapsibility in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shu-Lin; Li, Yan-Ru; Wu, Ji-Xiang; Ye, Jing-Ying; Jen, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is strongly associated with obesity, particularly abdominal obesity common in centrally obese males. Previous studies have demonstrated that intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is increased in morbid obesity, and tracheal traction forces may influence pharyngeal airway collapsibility. This study aimed to investigate that whether IAP plays a role in the mechanism of upper airway (UA) collapsibility via IAP-related caudal tracheal traction. Methods: An abdominal wall lifting (AWL) system and graded CO2 pneumoperitoneum pressure was applied to four supine, anesthetized Guizhou miniature pigs and its effects on tracheal displacement (TD) and airflow dynamics of UA were studied. Individual run data in 3 min obtained before and after AWL and obtained before and after graded pneumoperitoneum pressure were analyzed. Differences between baseline and AWL/graded pneumoperitoneum pressure data of each pig were examined using a Student's t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Application of AWL resulted in decreased IAP and significant caudal TD. The average displacement amplitude was 0.44 mm (P < 0.001). There were three subjects showed increased tidal volume (TV) (P < 0.01) and peak inspiratory airflow (P < 0.01); however, the change of flow limitation inspiratory UA resistance (Rua) was not significant. Experimental increased IAP by pneumoperitoneum resulted in significant cranial TD. The average displacement amplitude was 1.07 mm (P < 0.001) when IAP was 25 cmH2O compared to baseline. There were three subjects showed reduced Rua while the TV increased (P < 0.01). There was one subject had decreased TV and elevated Rua (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Decreased IAP significantly increased caudal TD, and elevated IAP significantly increased cranial TD. However, the mechanism of UA collapsibility appears primarily mediated by changes in lung volume rather than tracheal traction effect. TV plays an independent role in the mechanism of UA collapsibility

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  6. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  7. Obesity and Associated Lifestyle in a Large Sample of Multi-Morbid German Primary Care Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Schön, Gerhard; Petersen, Juliana J.; Gensichen, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Bickel, Horst; Wiese, Birgitt; Hansen, Heike; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and the accompanying increased morbidity and mortality risk is highly prevalent among older adults. As obese elderly might benefit from intentional weight reduction, it is necessary to determine associated and potentially modifiable factors on senior obesity. This cross-sectional study focuses on multi-morbid patients which make up the majority in primary care. It reports on the prevalence of senior obesity and its associations with lifestyle behaviors. Methods A total of 3,189 non-demented, multi-morbid participants aged 65–85 years were recruited in primary care within the German MultiCare-study. Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and quantity and quality of nutritional intake were classified as relevant lifestyle factors. Body Mass Index (BMI, general obesity) and waist circumference (WC, abdominal obesity) were used as outcome measures and regression analyses were conducted. Results About one third of all patients were classified as obese according to BMI. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 73.5%. Adjusted for socio-demographic variables and objective and subjective disease burden, participants with low physical activity had a 1.6 kg/m2 higher BMI as well as a higher WC (4.9 cm, p<0.001). Current smoking and high alcohol consumption were associated with a lower BMI and WC. In multivariate logistic regression, using elevated WC and BMI as categorical outcomes, the same pattern in lifestyle factors was observed. Only for WC, not current but former smoking was associated with a higher probability for elevated WC. Dietary intake in quantity and quality was not associated with BMI or WC in either model. Conclusions Further research is needed to clarify if the huge prevalence discrepancy between BMI and WC also reflects a difference in obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Yet, age-specific thresholds for the BMI are needed likewise. Encouraging and promoting physical activity in older adults might a starting point for weight

  8. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Elevated Glomerular ATP/AMP in Diabetes/obesity and Identifies Sphingomyelin as a Possible Mediator.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Satoshi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Hamm, Gregory; Darshi, Manjula; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Slater, Larkin; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Stauber, Jonathan; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is suppressed in diabetes and may be due to a high ATP/AMP ratio, however the quantitation of nucleotides in vivo has been extremely difficult. Via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to localize renal nucleotides we found that the diabetic kidney had a significant increase in glomerular ATP/AMP ratio. Untargeted MALDI-MSI analysis revealed that a specific sphingomyelin species (SM(d18:1/16:0)) accumulated in the glomeruli of diabetic and high-fat diet-fed mice compared with wild-type controls. In vitro studies in mesangial cells revealed that exogenous addition of SM(d18:1/16:0) significantly elevated ATP via increased glucose consumption and lactate production with a consequent reduction of AMPK and PGC1α. Furthermore, inhibition of sphingomyelin synthases reversed these effects. Our findings suggest that AMPK is reduced in the diabetic kidney due to an increase in the ATP/AMP ratio and that SM(d18:1/16:0) could be responsible for the enhanced ATP production via activation of the glycolytic pathway. PMID:27322466

  9. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). There is substantial variability in the effects of obesity on FRC and ERV, at least some of which is related to the location, rather than the total mass of adipose tissue. Obesity also results in airflow obstruction, which is only partially attributable to breathing at low lung volume, and can also promote airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Hypoxemia is common is obesity, and correlates well with FRC, as well as with measures of abdominal obesity. However, obese subjects are usually eucapnic, indicating that hypoventilation is not a common cause of their hypoxemia. Instead, hypoxemia results from ventilation perfusion mismatch caused by closure of dependent airways at FRC. Many obese subjects complain of dyspnea either at rest or during exertion, and the dyspnea score also correlates with reductions in FRC and ERV. Weight reduction should be encouraged in any symptomatic obese individual, since virtually all of the respiratory complications of obesity improve with even moderate weight loss. PMID:23737172

  10. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. PMID:27345309

  11. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  12. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  13. Development of a Mouse Model of Abdominal Cutaneous Flaps for Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Womac, Daniel John; Palanisamy, Arun Prathap; Eslick, Rene; Schimpf, Dennis Kenneth; Chavin, Kenneth David

    2013-01-01

    Autologous tissue transfer, in addition to replacing tissue that was lost during injury or surgery, offers women an excellent option to improve cosmetic appearance and self-confidence following mastectomy due to breast cancer. However, flap necrosis is a complication in obese patients undergoing this procedure. We created a mouse model to study the flap-related complications that leads to decreased flap survival in autologous breast reconstruction. Methods Left superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) pedicle abdominal-cutaneous flaps were elevated in 8 week-old, obese ob/ob male mice and their lean littermates. Flaps were followed by serial photography. Area of flap necrosis was measured at 7 days. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Necrosis was observed at the distal margin of the flaps, in both lean and obese groups. Lean left SIE flaps (n = 8) had a total area flap necrosis of 9.1% at 7 days whereas obese left SIE flaps (n = 8) had a total area flap necrosis of 45.5% at 7 days. Obese flaps had a statistically significant increase in necrosis compared to the lean flaps, p = 0.001. Conclusions There was a significant difference between flap survival in lean and obese SIE pedicle flaps in our mouse model. We have developed the first flap model of obesity utilizing the superficial epigastric pedicle in the mouse. This model is optimal for future studies to dissect out mechanisms that lead to the complications related to flap survival for breast reconstruction, especially in obese subjects. PMID:23308122

  14. Obesity and the lung: 3 · Obesity, respiration and intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, A; Hillman, D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem from a public health perspective and a difficult practical matter for intensivists. The obesity pandemic has required treating clinicians to develop an appreciation of the substantial pathophysiological effects of obesity on the various organ systems. The important physiological concepts are illustrated by focusing on obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, abdominal compartment syndrome and ventilatory management of the obese patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:18820119

  15. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  16. Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity on Metabolic Parameters and Reproductive Function in Female Ossabaw Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Clark, Sherrie G; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the effect of an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs. Cycling sows were fed a hypercaloric, high-fat, high-cholesterol, and high-fructose diet (obese, n = 4) or a control diet (control, n = 5) for 13 mo. During the final 4 mo, ovarian ultrasonography was done, blood was collected, and weights and measures were taken. Pigs then underwent ovarian stimulation. Cycle length and androstenedione, total testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin, fructosamine, lipid, and glucose levels were measured. In addition, adipose tissue aromatase gene expression was assessed. As compared with control pigs, obese pigs were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; had elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels, and demonstrated abdominal adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue of obese pigs, as compared with control pigs, showed increased aromatase gene expression. Obese pigs had longer estrous cycles, higher serum androstenedione, and higher luteal phase serum luteinizing hormone, compared with control pigs. During the luteal phase, obese pigs had more medium, ovulatory, and cystic ovarian follicles, whereas control pigs had more small ovarian follicles. When fed an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet, female Ossabaw minipigs develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and abnormal reproductive function. This animal model may be applicable to studies of the effects of obesity on fertility in women. PMID:24512960

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  18. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  19. [The epidemiology of obesity].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; López-R, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In excess of 50% of adult population and nearly one third of children in Mexico have overweight and obesity. This accounts for slightly >32,671,000 million persons, excluding children; thus, total numbers are even more significant. These figures are alarming for those responsible for the economic future and well-being of Mexico. Overweight and obesity lead to higher risk of mortality as well as development of multiple diseases, mainly coronary heart disease, diabetes type 2, cancer, and stroke, which are at present the principal causes of mortality in Mexico. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that there are throughout the world more than one billion adults with overweight, of whom 300 million have obesity. In addition to the obesity epidemic in Mexico, there is high prevalence of diabetes type 2. Coexistence of both epidemics has been denominated the twin epidemic. As many as 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes are linked with overweight or obesity, particularly abdominal obesity. The disease was once thought to be limited to adults, but obese children are now developing the illness. In Mexico, we are able to refer to at least three epidemics, because not only are obesity and type 2 diabetes advancing rapidly in the country, but also cardiovascular disease, linked with high prevalence of both hypertension and metabolic syndrome as reported by scientists based on Mexican National Health Survey 2000 data. PMID:15641467

  20. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  1. ST Segment Elevation with Normal Coronaries

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pooja; Sharma, Ashwini; Paul, Timir

    2016-01-01

    Noncardiac causes should be kept in the differential while evaluating ST elevation on EKG. Rarely abdominal pathologies like acute pancreatitis can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Once acute coronary syndrome is ruled out by emergent cardiac catheterization alternative diagnosis should be sorted. Abdominal pathologies, like acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis, can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Treating the underlying condition would result in resolution of these EKG changes. PMID:27403165

  2. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  3. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  4. Obesity and psoriasis: inflammatory nature of obesity, relationship between psoriasis and obesity, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, J M; Rocamora, V; Fernandez-Torres, R M; Jimenez-Puya, R; Moreno, J C; Coll-Puigserver, N; Fonseca, E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is currently considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition that plays an active role in the development of the pathophysiologic phenomena responsible for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease through the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines. In recent years clear genetic, pathogenic, and epidemiologic links have been established between psoriasis and obesity, with important implications for health. The relationship between the 2 conditions is probably bidirectional, with obesity predisposing to psoriasis and psoriasis favoring obesity. Obesity also has important implications in the treatment of psoriasis, such as a greater risk of adverse effects with conventional systemic drugs and reduced efficacy and/or increased cost with biologic agents, for which dosage should be adjusted to the patient's weight. PMID:23177976

  5. [Abdominal pain, constipation and anemia].

    PubMed

    Barresi, Fabio; Kunz Caflish, Isabel; Bayly-Schinzel, Leena; Dressel, Holger

    2016-03-30

    We present the case of a 42-year old man who went to the emergency department because of spasmodic abdominal pain. The abdomen was soft. A gastroscopy and a colonoscopy were without pathological findings. The laboratory analyses indicated anemia. The differential blood count showed basophilic granules in the red blood cells. The blood lead level was elevated. A lead poisoning was diagnosed. The cause was the oral intake of an ayurvedic medication which the patient had received in Bangladesh to treat his vitiligo. PMID:27005735

  6. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Aim Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Results Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm2 (males) and ≥203.46 cm2 (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Conclusion Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them. PMID:27190876

  7. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  8. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J; Bergin, Stephen; Caligiuri, Michael A; Hsueh, Willa A

    2016-05-23

    Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment. Excessive adipose expansion during obesity causes adipose dysfunction and inflammation to increase systemic levels of proinflammatory factors. Cells from adipose tissue, such as cancer-associated adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells, enter the cancer microenvironment to enhance protumoral effects. Dysregulated metabolism that stems from obesity, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, can further impact tumor growth and development. This review describes how adipose tissue becomes inflamed in obesity, summarizes ways these mechanisms impact cancer development, and discusses their role in four adipose-associated cancers that demonstrate elevated incidence or mortality in obesity. PMID:27193454

  9. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  11. [Obesity and thinness in painting].

    PubMed

    Schüller Pérez, Amador

    2004-01-01

    The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591

  12. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  13. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  14. Obesity. Part I--Pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, G A; Gray, D S

    1988-01-01

    Obesity--defined by a body mass index above 30 kg per m2--is a major problem for affluent nations. Its prevalence is higher in North America than in Europe--between 9% and 12% of the population. Reduced energy expenditure from exercise or metabolism or both may be an important contributory factor in the development of obesity because of a failure to reduce food intake sufficiently to maintain energy balance. A high ratio of abdominal circumference relative to gluteal circumference carries a twofold or greater risk of heart attack, stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, and death. The effect of increased quantities of abdominal fat is greater than that of a similar increase in total body fat on the risks of ill health associated with obesity. Genetic factors appear to contribute about 25% to its etiology. Images PMID:3067447

  15. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  16. Obesity and kidney protection

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: The concept of the “Metabolic Syndrome“ helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Conclusions: Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity. PMID:25093156

  17. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Results Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40–49 years group and women aged 50–59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Conclusions Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors. PMID:26075708

  18. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  19. Elevation of corticosteroid-binding globulin in Obese strain (OS) chickens: possible implications for the disturbed immunoregulation and the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, R.; Schauenstein, K.; Kroemer, G.; Schwarz, S.; Wick, G.

    1986-05-15

    Basal plasma levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) have been investigated in Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT). Corticosterone was determined radioimmunologically, and CBG by using a highly sensitive radioligand saturation assay. OS chickens displayed total corticosterone levels not different from healthy normal White Leghorn (NWL) chickens. CBG, however, was found to be twice as high in OS chickens as compared with their healthy counterparts, irrespective of sex or age. This quantitative difference in the CBG level is not compensated for by either altered affinity or specificity of the molecule. Furthermore, no differences were found in the response of OS and NWL lymphocytes to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. It was therefore assumed that OS animals are deficient in free, hormonally active corticosterone. An additional indication for such a diminished glucocorticoid tonus was that in vivo treatment of OS chickens with glucocorticoid hormones, thus increasing the free and active hormone fraction, normalizes the T cell hyperreactivity and significantly reduces thyroid infiltration. Possible pathophysiological implications of a diminished glucocorticoid tonus for spontaneous autoimmunity, as well as possible explanations for the beneficial effects of glucocorticoid treatment on the development of SAT, are discussed.

  20. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  1. What is Obesity Doing to Your Gut?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-emerging epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, with numbers paralleling the rising global prevalence within the past 30 years. The landscape of gut diseases in Asia has been drastically changed by obesity. In addition to more non-specific abdominal symptoms, obesity is the cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, various gastrointestinal cancers (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer and gallbladder cancer) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Abnormal cross-talk between the gut microbiome and the obese host seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis, but more studies are needed. PMID:25892944

  2. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  3. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  4. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  8. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35 kg/m2 (N = 114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m2) completed the GI symptoms survey between August 2011 and April 2012 were included in this study. The survey included 24 items pertaining to upper and lower GI symptoms. The participants rated the frequency of symptoms as absent (never, rarely) or present (occasionally, frequently). The symptoms were clustered into five categories: oral symptoms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p < 0.005 for each). After adjusting for age and gender, the obese patients were more likely to have upper GI symptoms: any oral symptom (OR = 2.3, p = 0.0013), dysphagia (OR 2.9, p = 0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p < 0.0001). Similarly, the obese patients were more likely to have lower GI symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR = 1.7, p = 0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR = 2.8, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These observations suggest a statistically significant increase in frequency of both upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

  9. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Ryo; Akasaka, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Minashima, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Inoue, Nao; Ikeda, Ikuo; Chen, Xiangning; Miyake, Masato; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Kan; Tahara, Kohji; Nagasawa, Yuya; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    There are two independent serotonin (5-HT) systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR) 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle. PMID:26766570

  10. Obesity in gulf countries.

    PubMed

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  11. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  12. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  13. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  14. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of inflammatory abdominal wall lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Rabinowitz, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with inflammatory lesions of the abdominal wall were examined by ultrasonography. Nine of these patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) scanning as well. Both ultrasonography and CT clearly delineated the exact location and extent of abdominal wall abscesses. Abscesses were easily differentiated from cellulitis or phlegmon with ultrasound. The peritoneal line was more clearly delineated on ultrasonograms than on CT scans; abscesses were also more distinct on the ultrasonograms because of their low echogenicity compared with the surrounding structures. Gas bubbles, fat density with specific low attenuation values, and underlying inflamed bowel loops in obese patients with Crohn's disease were better delineated by CT.

  15. Orexin: Pathways to obesity resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Butterick, Tammy A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Nixon, Joshua P.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA; hypocretin 1) may be a key component of brain mechanisms underlying obesity resistance. Prior work with models of obesity and obesity resistance in rodents has shown that increased orexin and/or orexin sensitivity is correlated with elevated spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and that orexin-induced SPA contributes to obesity resistance via increased non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). However, central hypothalamic orexin signaling mechanisms that regulate SPA remain undefined. Our ongoing studies and work of others support the hypothesis that one such mechanism may be upregulation of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent pathway, suggesting that orexin may promote obesity resistance both by increasing SPA and by influencing the metabolic state of orexin-responsive hypothalamic neurons. We discuss potential mechanisms based on both animal and in vitro pharmacological studies, in the context of elucidating potential molecular targets for obesity prevention and therapy. PMID:24005942

  16. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  17. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  18. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  19. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  1. Night eating and obesity in the EP3R-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Klein, Izabella; Brownell, Sara E; Tabarean, Iustin V; Davis, Christopher N; Conti, Bruno; Bartfai, Tamas

    2007-02-20

    Adult mice carrying a null mutation of the prostanoid receptor EP3R (EP3R(-/-) mice) exhibit increased frequency of feeding during the light cycle of the day and develop an obese phenotype under a normal fat diet fed ad libitum. EP3R(-/-) mice show increased motor activity, which is not sufficient to offset the increased feeding leading to increased body weight. Altered "nocturnal" activity and feeding behavior is present from a very early age and does not seem to require age-dependent factors for the development of obesity. Obesity in EP3R(-/-) mice is characterized by elevated leptin and insulin levels and >20% higher body weight compared with WT littermates. Abdominal and subcutaneous fat and increased liver weight account for the weight increase in EP3R(-/-) mice. These observations expand the roles of prostaglandin E(2) signaling in metabolic regulation beyond the reported stimulation of leptin release from adipose tissue to involve actions mediated by EP3R in the regulation of sleep architecture and feeding behavior. The findings add to the growing literature on links between inflammatory signaling and obesity. PMID:17307874

  2. Night eating and obesity in the EP3R-deficient mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Klein, Izabella; Brownell, Sara E.; Tabarean, Iustin V.; Davis, Christopher N.; Conti, Bruno; Bartfai, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    Adult mice carrying a null mutation of the prostanoid receptor EP3R (EP3R−/− mice) exhibit increased frequency of feeding during the light cycle of the day and develop an obese phenotype under a normal fat diet fed ad libitum. EP3R−/− mice show increased motor activity, which is not sufficient to offset the increased feeding leading to increased body weight. Altered “nocturnal” activity and feeding behavior is present from a very early age and does not seem to require age-dependent factors for the development of obesity. Obesity in EP3R−/− mice is characterized by elevated leptin and insulin levels and >20% higher body weight compared with WT littermates. Abdominal and subcutaneous fat and increased liver weight account for the weight increase in EP3R−/− mice. These observations expand the roles of prostaglandin E2 signaling in metabolic regulation beyond the reported stimulation of leptin release from adipose tissue to involve actions mediated by EP3R in the regulation of sleep architecture and feeding behavior. The findings add to the growing literature on links between inflammatory signaling and obesity. PMID:17307874

  3. Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles Associated with Chronic Complications in Overweight and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients in South China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongping; Yang, Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Lishu; Lin, Shaoda; Liang, Ganxiong; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by altered cardiometabolic risk profiles, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. The association of altered cardiometabolic risk profiles with chronic complications of diabetes is not well investigated. Methods We recruited 2954 type 2 diabetes patients with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 who visited the diabetes clinics of 62 hospitals in 21 cities in Guangdong province of China from August 2011 to March 2012. Demographic characteristics, personal and family medical histories, and data on chronic complications of diabetes were collected. Clinical examinations and laboratory assessment were conducted. Results Abdominal obesity was found in 91.6% of the study population, elevated blood pressure in 78.3%; elevated serum triacylglycerols in 57.8%, and reduced serum HDL-C in 55.9%. Among the cardiometabolic risk factors, elevated blood pressure was significantly associated with almost all the chronic complications of diabetes. After adjusting for age, gender, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c, elevated blood pressure was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.22–2.19), diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.16, 95% CI: 2.25–4.46), cardiovascular disease (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.70–4.32), and stroke (OR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15–3.12). Abdominal adiposity was significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy (OR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.11–1.74). Elevated triacylglycerols was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05–1.58) and diabetic nephropathy (OR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05–1.58). Reduced HDL-C was significantly associated with stroke (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05–1.88). Conclusions Altered cardiometabolic risk profiles, and elevated blood pressure in particular, were significantly associated with chronic complications in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Future studies on the prevention of chronic complications of diabetes might make lowering blood

  4. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  5. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  6. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  7. Obesity management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...

  8. Cameraless Peritoneal Entry in Abdominal Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, William H.; Tully, Griffeth; Rajguru, Amit; Burnett, Dan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite significant advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and techniques, injury to intraabdominal structures remains a potentially serious complication of peritoneal access. Consensus on the best method to obtain peritoneal access is lacking. A safe technique that does not rely on direct visualization of the abdominal layers could shorten the learning curve for surgeons and potentially be adopted by other physicians for a variety of nonsurgical indications for peritoneal entry. Methods: A prospective series of 99 consecutive patients who underwent upper-abdominal laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon between January 2009 and June 2010 was reviewed. The method used to obtain peritoneal access was the fluid-based peritoneal entry indication technique (C-PET) with the EndoTIP trocar. Results: Successful abdominal entry using C-PET was achieved in 90 (90.9%) of the patients; no trocar-related injuries or other injuries associated with peritoneal access occurred. The mean time from incision to confirmed peritoneal access was 21.4 s (range, 12 to 65). Of the 9 cases in which C-PET did not successfully gain entry, 6 occurred during the first 20 surgeries and only 3 in the final 79. Conclusions: C-PET is simple, safe, timely, and effective for gaining peritoneal access during laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. In this series, C-PET produced no complications and proved effective across a wide variety of patients, including the obese and those who had had previous surgery. Furthermore, C-PET does not require visual recognition of anatomic layers and potentially could easily be taught to nonsurgeon physicians who perform peritoneal access. PMID:23484564

  9. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  10. Acute Abdominal Pain in the Bariatric Surgery Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle D; Takenaka, Katrin Y; Luber, Samuel D

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is present in epidemic proportions in the United States, and bariatric surgery has become more common. Thus, emergency physicians will undoubtedly encounter many patients who have undergone one of these procedures. Knowledge of the anatomic changes specific to these procedures aids the clinician in understanding potential complications and devising an organized differential diagnosis. This article reviews common bariatric surgery procedures, their complications, and the approach to acute abdominal pain in these patients. PMID:27133251

  11. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  12. Epidemiologic Behavior of Obesity in the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Pacheco, Maikol; Rojas, Joselyn; Córdova, Evelyn; Velázquez, Rossibel; Carrillo, Daniela; Parra, María G.; Toledo, Alexandra; Añez, Roberto; Fonseca, Eneida; Marcano, Rafael París; Cano, Clímaco; Miranda, José López

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Since the epidemiological behaviour of this disease is not well established in our country, the purpose of this study was to determinate its prevalence in the Maracaibo City, Zulia State- Venezuela. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the data set from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study. The sample consists of 2108 individuals from both genders and randomly selected: 1119 (53.09%) women and 989 (46.91%) men. The participants were interrogated for a complete clinical history and anthropometric measurements. To classify obesity, the WHO criteria for Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Circumference (WC) from the IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO-2009 (IDF-2009) and ATPIII statements were applied. Results For BMI, obesity had an overall prevalence of 33.3% (n = 701), and according to gender women had 32.4% (n = 363) and men had 34.2% (n = 338). Overweight had a prevalence of 34.8% (n = 733), Normal weight had 29.8% (n = 629), and Underweight had 2.1% (n = 45). Adding Obesity and Overweight results, the prevalence of elevated BMI (>25 Kg/m2) was 68.1%. Using the IDF-2009 WC's cut-off, Obesity had 74.2% prevalence, compared to 51.7% using the ATPIII parameters. Conclusions These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in our locality defined by the WHO, IDF-2009 and ATPIII criteria, which were not designed for Latin-American populations. We suggest further investigation to estimate the proper values according to ethnicity, genetic background and sociocultural aspects. PMID:22530014

  13. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  14. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. PMID:23970905

  15. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  16. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  17. Is clinical examination an accurate indicator of raised intra-abdominal pressure in critically injured patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; McLean, Richard F.; Rapanos, Theodore; Boulanger, Bernard R.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the rate of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and to evaluate the accuracy of clinical abdominal examination in the assessment of IAP in the critically injured trauma patient. Design A prospective blinded study. Setting The medical-surgical critical care unit of a university-affiliated regional adult trauma centre. Patients Forty-two adult blunt trauma victims, who had a mean injury severity score of 36. Interventions Urinary bladder pressure was measured daily and classified as normal (10 mm Hg or less), elevated (more than 10 mm Hg) or significantly elevated (more than 15 mm Hg). A blinded clinical assessment of abdominal pressure was concurrently performed and recorded as elevated or normal. Main outcome measures The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy and the positive and negative predictive values of the 2 interventions in identifying elevated IAP. Results Twenty-one patients (50%) had an elevated IAP at some point during the study. Of the 147 bladder pressure measurements done in these 42 patients, 47 (32%) were more than 10 mm Hg and 16 (11%) were more than 15 mm Hg. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of clinical abdominal examination for identifying elevated IAP were 40%, 94%, 76%, 77% and 77%, respectively. Clinical abdominal examination had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 56%, 87%, 35%, 94% and 84% respectively, for significantly elevated IAP. Conclusions Urinary bladder pressure was commonly elevated among our population of critically injured adults. Compared with bladder pressure measurements, clinical abdominal assessment showed poor sensitivity and accuracy for elevated IAP. These findings suggest that more routine measurements of bladder pressure in patients at risk for intra-abdominal hypertension should be performed. PMID:10851415

  18. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  19. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  20. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  1. Does an expanding fetal abdominal mass produce pulmonary hypoplasia?

    PubMed

    Sauer, L; Harrison, M R; Flake, A W; Krummel, T R

    1987-06-01

    Fetal pulmonary hypoplasia has been related to multiple factors. In an effort to define which fetuses may benefit from prenatal intervention to prevent or reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, we studied the relative contribution of an enlarging abdominal mass in the fetus. We produced abdominal masses in fetal rabbits at 24 days gestation by two methods. In one group, a small cylindrical chip of Takasen, (a synthetic polymer that expands to 50 times its size in 1 week; Grobeast, Pop Art Co, Cleveland, OH) was inserted into the peritoneal cavity of the fetal rabbit; in another group, the bladder neck was obstructed with a surgical clip. Amniotic fluid volume was restored at the surgical procedure. Sham-operated littermates served as controls. At cesarean delivery on day 30, fetal lung, liver, and body weights were measured, and the abdominal masses were quantitated by volume displacement of the removed mass or bladder. In both groups large abdominal masses of comparable size were produced. Newborns with the synthetic abdominal mass did not have significant pulmonary hypoplasia, but often had a prune belly deformity of the abdominal wall, whereas newborns with bladder obstruction had significant pulmonary hypoplasia. Liver weight was not significantly affected. We conclude that a fetal abdominal mass does not independently produce pulmonary hypoplasia, possibly because the "mass effect" is relieved by distension of the abdominal wall rather than elevation of the diaphragm; the pulmonary hypoplasia that occurs in bladder outlet obstruction is probably due to the associated oligohydramnios rather than the mass effect of the dilated urinary tract; and prenatal decompression of an abdominal mass or dilated urinary tract is not justified to prevent pulmonary hypoplasia in the absence of oligohydramnios. PMID:3612441

  2. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158735.html Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight: Study Elevated blood ... blood sugar levels in pregnancy may put her child at increased risk for being ... for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ...

  3. Obesity Statistics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic. PMID:26896205

  4. Improvement of insulin resistance after diet with a whole-grain based dietary product: results of a randomized, controlled cross-over study in obese subjects with elevated fasting blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Rave, Klaus; Roggen, Kerstin; Dellweg, Sibylle; Heise, Tim; tom Dieck, Heike

    2007-11-01

    Subjects with obesity and elevated fasting blood glucose are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes which may be reduced by a dietary intervention leading to an improvement of insulin resistance. We investigated the potential of a whole-grain based dietary product (WG) with reduced starch content derived from double-fermented wheat during a hypo-energetic diet to positively influence body weight, fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance and lipids in comparison to a nutrient-dense meal replacement product (MR) in a randomized two-way cross-over study with two 4-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week wash-out. Subjects replaced at least two daily meals with WG and MR, respectively, targeting for a consumption of 200 g of either product per day. Total daily energy intake was limited to 7120 kJ. Thirty-one subjects (BMI 33.9 (SD 2.7) kg/m2, fasting blood glucose 6.3 (SD 0.8) mmol/l) completed the study. In both treatment groups body weight (-2.5 (SD 2.0) v. - 3.2 (SD 1.6) kg for WG v. MR), fasting blood glucose (-0.4 (SD 0.3) v. -0.5 (SD 0.5) mmol/l), total cholesterol (-0.5 (SD 0.5) v. -0.6 (SD 0.5) mmol/l), TAG (-0.3 (SD 0.9) v. -0.3 (SD 1.2) mmol/l) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance score (-0.7 (SD 0.8) v. -1.1 (SD 1.7) microU/ml x mmol/l) improved (P < 0.05) with no significant differences between the treatments. After statistical adjustment for the amount of body weight lost, however, the comparison between both groups revealed that fasting serum insulin (P = 0.031) and HOMA insulin resistance score (P = 0.049) improved better with WG than with MR. We conclude that WG favourably influences metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes independent from the amount of body weight lost during a hypo-energetic diet. PMID:17562226

  5. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  6. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. Methods Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Descriptive statistical methods were used to depict overall and factor-specific distributions of general and abdominal obesity among 16,013 respondents. Two-step logistic regression models were fitted on gender basis. Results The age-and-sex adjusted rates of general overweight, general obesity, abdominal overweight and abdominal obesity in study population were 28.9% (95%CI: 27.9%-29.9%), 7.5% (95%CI: 7.0%-8.1%), 32.2% (95%CI: 31.2%-33.3%) and 12.3% (95%CI: 11.6%-13.1%), respectively. Based on model fitting results, a significant inverse association between education and obesity only existed in women, while in men, income rather than education was positively related to obesity. Conclusions The atypical SES-obesity relationship we found reflected the on-going social economy transformation in affluent regions of China. High-income men and poorly-educated women were at higher risk of obesity in Zhejiang province, thus merit intense focuses. PMID:23590682

  7. Obesity reduces methionine sulfoxide reductase activity in visceral adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral obesity is linked to the development of comorbidities including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of oxidative stress are observed in obese individuals and in animal models of obesity, pointing to a mechanistic role of oxidative stress. A recent genetic study in...

  8. The effect of abdominal fat parameters on percutaneous nephrolithotomy success

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cimen, Sertac; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Oztekin, Ozgur; Can, Ertan; Suelozgen, Tufan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity has been suggested to lower the success of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, the relationship between abdominal fat parameters, such as visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and PCNL success remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of abdominal fat parameters on PCNL success. Methods: A total of 150 patients who underwent PCNL were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who had no residual stones or residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter while group 2 included patients with residual stone fragments ≥3 mm. PCNL procedure was defined as successful if all stones were eliminated or if there were residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed postoperatively. Preoperative NCCT was used to determine abdominal fat parameters. Results: Group 1 consisted of 117 (78.0%) patients while group 2 included 33 (22.0%) patients. On univariate analysis, stone number, stone surface area (SSA), visceral fat area (VFA), abdominal circumference on computerized tomography (ACCT), and duration of procedure were found to be predictive factors affecting PCNL success. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ACCT and SSA were independent prognostic factors for PCNL success. Conclusions: PCNL success was not affected by VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and body mass index (BMI) in our series. However, ACCT and SSA had negative associations with PCNL success. We conclude that both ACCT and SSA can be used as tools for predicting PCNL outcomes. PMID:27330587

  9. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  10. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  11. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  12. Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The interaction between overweight/obesity and alcohol intake on liver enzyme concentrations have been demonstrated. No studies have yet examined the interaction between metabolic syndrome or multiple metabolic risk factors and alcohol intake on liver enzymes. The aim of this study was to examine if alcohol consumption modifies the effect of metabolic risk on elevated serum GGT in Indigenous Australians. Methods Data were from N = 2609 Indigenous Australians who participated in a health screening program in rural far north Queensland in 1999-2000 (44.5% response rate). The individual and interactive effects of metabolic risk and alcohol drinking on elevated serum GGT concentrations (≥50 U/L) were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 26% of the population had GGT≥50 U/L. Elevated GGT was associated with alcohol drinking (moderate drinking: OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.6 - 3.2]; risky drinking: OR 6.0 [4.4 - 8.2]), and with abdominal obesity (OR 3.7 [2.5 - 5.6]), adverse metabolic risk cluster profile (OR 3.4 [2.6 - 4.3]) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.7 [2.1 - 3.5]) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity and BMI. The associations of obesity and metabolic syndrome with elevated GGT were similar across alcohol drinking strata, but the association of an adverse metabolic risk cluster profile with elevated GGT was larger in risky drinkers (OR 4.9 [3.7 - 6.7]) than in moderate drinkers (OR 2.8 [1.6 - 4.9]) and abstainers (OR 1.6 [0.9 - 2.8]). Conclusions In this Indigenous population, an adverse metabolic profile conferred three times the risk of elevated GGT in risky drinkers compared with abstainers, independent of sex and ethnicity. Community interventions need to target both determinants of the population's metabolic status and alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of elevated GGT. PMID:20682033

  13. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  14. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  15. Effects of different types of contraction in abdominal bracing on the asymmetry of left and right abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject's left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength. PMID:25540478

  16. Abdomen-thigh contact during forward reaching tasks in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder; Brown, Thomas D; Callaghan, John J; Yack, H John

    2013-10-01

    During seated forward reaching tasks in obese individuals, excessive abdominal tissue can come into contact with the anterior thigh. This soft tissue apposition acts as a mechanical restriction, altering functional biomechanics at the hip, and causing difficulty in certain daily activities such as bending down, or picking up objects from the floor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals. Ten healthy subjects (age 58.1 ± 4.4) with elevated BMI (39.04 ± 5.02) participated in the study. Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure-mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system. The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17 ± 5.18% of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by mean 16.5 ± 6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact. In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals. PMID:23183157

  17. Mineralocorticoid Receptors Modulate Vascular Endothelial Function in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity increases linearly with age and is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) contribute to impaired vascular endothelial function in cardiovascular disease; however, their role in uncomplicated human obesity is unknown. Because plasma aldosterone levels are elevated in obesity and adipocytes may be a source of aldosterone, we hypothesized that MR modulate vascular endothelial function in older adults in an adiposity-dependent manner. To test this hypothesis, we administered MR blockade (Eplerenone; 100 mg/day) for 1 month in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to 22 older adults (10 men, 55–79 years) varying widely in adiposity (body mass index: 20–45 kg/m2) but who were free from overt cardiovascular disease. We evaluated vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD] via ultrasonography) and oxidative stress (plasma F2-isoprostanes and vascular endothelial cell protein expression of nitrotyrosine and NADPH oxidase p47phox) during placebo and MR blockade. In the whole group, oxidative stress (P>0.05) and FMD did not change with MR blockade (6.39±0.67 vs. 6.23±0.73 %, P=0.7, placebo vs. Eplerenone). However, individual improvements in FMD in response to Eplerenone were associated with higher total body fat (body mass index: r=0.45, P=0.02 and DXA-derived % body fat: r=0.50, P=0.009) and abdominal fat (total: r=0.61, P=0.005, visceral: r=0.67, P=0.002 and subcutaneous: r=0.48, P=0.03). In addition, greater improvements in FMD with Eplerenone were related with higher baseline fasting glucose (r=0.53, P=0.01). MR influence vascular endothelial function in an adiposity-dependent manner in healthy older adults. PMID:23786536

  18. Combined parental obesity augments single-parent obesity effects on hypothalamus inflammation, leptin signaling (JAK/STAT), hyperphagia, and obesity in the adult mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Ornellas, Fernanda; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal and/or paternal obesity on offspring body mass, leptin signaling, appetite-regulating neurotransmitters and local inflammatory markers. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow (SC, lean groups) or high-fat diet (HF, obese groups) starting from one month of age. At three months, HF mice became obese relative to SC mice. They were then mated as follows: lean mother and lean father, lean mother and obese father, obese mother and lean father, and obese mother and obese father. The offspring received the SC diet from weaning until three months of age, when they were sacrificed. In the offspring, paternal obesity did not lead to changes in the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activation of the transcription (STAT) pathway or feeding behavior but did induce hypothalamic inflammation. On the other hand, maternal obesity resulted in increased weight gain, hyperleptinemia, decreased leptin OBRb receptor expression, JAK/STAT pathway impairment, and increased SOCS3 signaling in the offspring. In addition, maternal obesity elevated inflammatory markers and altered NPY and POMC expression in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, combined parental obesity exacerbated the deleterious outcomes compared to single-parent obesity. In conclusion, while maternal obesity is known to program metabolic changes and obesity in offspring, the current study demonstrated that obese fathers induce hypothalamus inflammation in offspring, which may contribute to the development of metabolic syndromes in adulthood. PMID:26485293

  19. [Inflammation and obesity (lipoinflammation)].

    PubMed

    Izaola, Olatz; de Luis, Daniel; Sajoux, Ignacio; Domingo, Joan Carles; Vidal, Montse

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with multiple origins. It is a widespread global phenomenon carrying potentially serious complications which requires a multidisciplinary approach due to the significant clinical repercussions and elevated health costs associated with the disease. The most recent evidence indicates that it shares a common characteristic with other prevalent, difficult-to-treat pathologies: chronic, low-grade inflammation which perpetuates the disease and is associated with multiple complications. The current interest in lipoinflammation or chronic inflammation associated with obesity derives from an understanding of the alterations and remodelling that occurs in the adipose tissue, with the participation of multiple factors and elements throughout the process. Recent research highlights the importance of some of these molecules, called pro-resolving mediators, as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the evidence published on the mechanisms that regulate the adipose tissue remodelling process and lipoinflammation both in obesity and in the mediators that are directly involved in the appearance and resolution of the inflammatory process. PMID:26040339

  20. Risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome among adult intensive care unit patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill adults, it remains unknown if prevention or treatment of these conditions improves patient outcomes. We sought to identify evidence-based risk factors for IAH and ACS in order to guide identification of the source population for future IAH/ACS treatment trials and to stratify patients into risk groups based on prognosis. Methods We searched electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database from 1950 until January 21, 2013) and reference lists of included articles for observational studies reporting risk factors for IAH or ACS among adult ICU patients. Identified risk factors were summarized using formal narrative synthesis techniques alongside a random effects meta-analysis. Results Among 1,224 citations identified, 14 studies enrolling 2,500 patients were included. The 38 identified risk factors for IAH and 24 for ACS could be clustered into three themes and eight subthemes. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation, the respiratory status of the patient, and shock/hypotension were common risk factors for IAH and ACS that transcended across presenting patient populations. Risk factors with pooled evidence supporting an increased risk for IAH among mixed ICU patients included obesity (four studies; odds ratio (OR) 5.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.92 to 13.58), sepsis (two studies; OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.23), abdominal surgery (four studies; OR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.85), ileus (two studies; OR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.98), and large volume fluid resuscitation (two studies; OR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.63). Among trauma and surgical patients, large volume crystalloid resuscitation and markers of shock/hypotension and metabolic derangement/organ failure were risk factors for IAH and ACS while increased disease severity scores and elevated creatinine were

  1. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  2. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominalPa in inCh ildre n What is functional abdominal pain, and why does it happen? Most otherwise-healthy ... stomachaches for two months or more have functional abdominal pain. The term “functional” refers to the fact that ...

  3. Adipokines Vaspin and Visfatin in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Hassan M.; Galal, Ashraf; Motawie, Ayat A.; Kamel, Ashraf F.; Ibrahim, Doaa M.; Aly, Azza A.; Hassan, Emman A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipokines provides new insights about the physiology, pathology and treatment of obesity. AIM: We investigated the association between serum vaspin and serum visfatin concentrations with obesity in Egyptian children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty two obese children with body mass index (BMI) above 95th percentile; 11 males and 11 females were included in this study. Their mean age was 9.18 ± 2.8 years. After general clinical examination, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in cases and controls (n=11). Fasting insulin, vaspin and visfatin were detected using ELIZA. Insulin resistance was estimated by Homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Blood pressure, in both systolic and diastolic measurements was elevated significantly in obese children. Significant elevation of serum insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA/IR) were observed in obese children too. Vaspin and visfatin showed significant elevation in obese children than controls. Significant positive correlations were detected between visfatin and BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and HOMA/IR. We found that Vaspin and visfatin are higher in obese children. CONCLUSION: Visfatin but not vaspin correlates positively with waist circumference and HOMA/IR in obese children.

  4. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079

  5. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  6. Outcome of abdominal wall hernia repair with Permacol™ biologic mesh.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Amy W; Abbas, Maher A; Tejirian, Talar

    2013-10-01

    The use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall operations has gained popularity despite a paucity of outcome data. We aimed to review the experience of a large healthcare organization with Permacol™. A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent abdominal hernia repair with Permacol™ in 14 Southern California hospitals. One hundred ninety-five patients were analyzed over a 4-year period. Operations included ventral/incisional hernia repairs, ostomy closures, parastomal hernia repairs, and inguinal hernia repairs. In 50 per cent of the patients, Permacol™ was used to reinforce a primary fascial repair and in 50 per cent as a fascial bridge. The overall complication rate was 39.5 per cent. The complication rate was higher in patients with infected versus clean wounds, body mass index (BMI) 40 kg/m(2) or greater versus BMI less than 40 kg/m(2), in patients with prior mesh repair, and when mesh was used as a fascial bridge. With a mean follow-up of 2.1 years, morbid obesity was associated with a higher recurrence. To date this is the largest study on the use of Permacol™ in abdominal wall hernia repair. In our patient population undergoing heterogeneous operations with a majority of wounds as Class II or higher, use of Permacol™ did not eliminate wound morbidity or prevent recurrence, especially in morbidly obese patients. PMID:24160785

  7. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established. PMID:25616589

  8. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  9. An In-depth Study of Abdominal Injuries Sustained by Car Occupants in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Richard; Lenard, James; Compigne, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Currently, neither abdominal injury risk nor rear seat passenger safety is assessed in European frontal crash testing. The objective of this study was to provide real world in-depth analysis of the factors related to abdominal injury for belted front and rear seat occupants in frontal crashes. Rear occupants were significantly more at risk of AIS 2+ and 3+ abdominal injury, followed by front seat passengers and then drivers. This was still the case even after controlling for occupant age. Increasing age was separately identified as a factor related to increased abdominal injury risk in all seating positions. One exception to this trend concerned rear seated 15 to 19 year olds who sustained moderate to serious abdominal injury at almost the same rate as rear occupants aged 65+.No strong association was seen between AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates and gender. The majority of occupant body mass indices ranged from underweight to obese. Across that range, the AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates were very similar but a small number of very obese and extremely obese occupants outside of the range did exhibit noticeably higher rates. An analysis of variance in the rate of AIS 2+ abdominal injury with different restraint systems showed that simple belt systems, as used by most rear seat passengers, were the least protective. Increasing sophistication of the restraint system was related to lower rates of injury. The ANOVA also confirmed occupant age and crash severity as highly associated with abdominal injury risk. The most frequently injured abdominal organs for front seat occupants were the liver and spleen. Abdominal injury patterns for rear seat passengers were very different. While they also sustained significant injuries to solid organs, their rates of injury to the hollow organs (jejunum-ileum, mesentary, colon) were far higher even though the rate of fracture of two or more ribs did not differ significantly between seat positions. These results have implications for the

  10. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases

    PubMed Central

    Parikesit, Dyandra; Mochtar, Chaidir Arief; Umbas, Rainy; Hamid, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. PMID:27014656

  11. The impact of obesity towards prostate diseases.

    PubMed

    Parikesit, Dyandra; Mochtar, Chaidir Arief; Umbas, Rainy; Hamid, Agus Rizal Ardy Hariandy

    2016-03-01

    Evidence has supported obesity as a risk factor for both benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Obesity causes several mechanisms including increased intra-abdominal pressure, altered endocrine status, increased sympathetic nervous activity, increased inflammation process, and oxidative stress, all of which are favorable in the development of BPH. In PCa, there are several different mechanisms, such as decreased serum testosterone, peripheral aromatization of androgens, insulin resistance, and altered adipokine secretion caused by inflammation, which may precipitate the development of and even cause high-grade PCa. The role of obesity in prostatitis still remains unclear. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of prostate disease and adiposity could allow the development of new therapeutic markers, prognostic indicators, and drug targets. This review was made to help better understanding of the association between central obesity and prostate diseases, such as prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. PMID:27014656

  12. Elevated total and central adiposity and low physical activity are associated with insulin resistance in children.

    PubMed

    Krekoukia, Maria; Nassis, George P; Psarra, Glykeria; Skenderi, Katerina; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to examine insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, and inflammatory markers in 9- to 11.5-year-old obese and lean children and (2) to identify factors that influence insulin resistance in this cohort of youths. Body mass index, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, physical activity (4-day triaxial accelerometer), cardiorespiratory fitness (submaximal bicycle ergometer test), and dietary intake (3-day food records) were evaluated in 27 obese and 27 lean boys and girls. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for insulin, glucose, lipids and lipoproteins, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Obese children presented higher HOMA-IR, CRP, and blood lipid levels (all P < .01) compared with lean children. Total body fat and waist circumference were positively associated with fasting insulin (r > or = 0.51), HOMA-IR (r > or = 0.56), CRP (r > or = 0.51), and blood triacylglycerol (r > or = 0.38), and were inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r > or = -0.39; all P < .01). Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (r = -0.24; P < .05), but this association disappeared when adjusted for age, sex, and fat mass. Waist circumference and total daily physical activity explained 49% of the variance in HOMA-IR in these children. In conclusion, these findings suggest that total and central adiposity are positively associated and physical activity is negatively associated with insulin resistance in children. Interventions to improve glucose metabolism in youth should target at reducing total body and abdominal fat and increasing physical activity. The lack of association between inflammatory markers and HOMA-IR suggests that obesity may precede the elevation of these markers in the evolution of insulin resistance in youth

  13. ICAM-1 expression in adipose tissue: Effects of diet-induced obesity in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has been linked to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome with elevated markers of systemic inflammation. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte migration to sites of inflammation. In human obesity...

  14. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Denise E.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Olson, Kristine C.; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed; Smith, William H.; Karpe, Fredrik; Humphreys, Sandy; Bedinger, Daniel H.; Dunn, Tamara N.; Thomas, Anthony P.; Oort, Pieter J.; Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Amin, Rajesh; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G.; Permana, Paska; Anthony, Tracy G.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35–50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals. PMID:23512805

  15. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  16. Potential for Higher Treatment Failure in Obese Patients: Correlation of Elevated Body Mass Index and Increased Daily Prostate Deviations From the Radiation Beam Isocenters in an Analysis of 1,465 Computed Tomographic Images

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, James R. Gao Zhanrong; Merrick, Scott; Wilson, Paula; Uematsu, Minoru; Woo, Kevin; Cheng, C.-W.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical outcome studies on prostate cancer have reported the influence of patient's obesity on the biochemical failure rates after various treatment modalities. In this study, we investigated the effect of patient's physical characteristics on prostate shift in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and hypothesized that there maybe a correlation between patient physique and tumor shift. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed using data for 117 patients who received image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer between January 2005 and April 2007. A total of 1,465 CT scans were analyzed. The standard deviations (SDs) of prostate shifts for all patients, along with patient weight, body mass index (BMI), and subcutaneous adipose-tissue thickness (SAT), were determined. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed. Results: Of the 117 patients, 26.5% were considered normal weight, 48.7% were overweight, 17.9% were mildly obese, and 6.9% were moderately to severely obese. Notably 1.3%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 21.2% of the respective shifts were greater than 10 mm in the left-right (LR) direction for the four patient groups, whereas in the anterior-posterior direction the shifts are 18.2%, 12.6%, 6.7%, and 21.0%, respectively. Strong correlations were observed between SAT, BMI, patient weight, and SDs of daily shifts in the LR direction (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The strong correlation between obesity and shift indicates that without image-guided radiation therapy, the target volume (prostate with or without seminal vesicles) may not receive the intended dose for patients who are moderate to severely obese. This may explain the higher recurrence rate with conventional external beam radiation therapy.

  17. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

  18. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  19. Micromanaging abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  20. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  1. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  2. [Single central obesity and combined with overweight/obesity in preeschool Mexican children].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana Maria; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Mathiew-Quirós, Alvaro; González-Guajardo, Eduardo Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a useful measure for identifying children at higher risk of complications related with abdominal fat. We determined the magnitude of central adiposity, single and combined with overweight and obesity in infants 1-5 years old. We also identified smoothed age-and sex-specific WC percentile values, which were compared with other countries available data. This was a cross-sectional study in children of 8 day care centers located in Monterrey, Mexico (n = 903, 431 boys and 472 girls). Because the risk due to abdominal obesity begins at WC percentile > or = 75, we considered two thresholds, percentile 75 y 90. Overweight was defined based on body mass index at percentile 85-94 for age and sex; and obesity, at percentile > or = 95. Analysis consisted of point prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. The LMS Chart Maker Light software was used for smoothing WC percentile values. The study population mean age was 2.7 +/- 1.0 years. Mexican children's WC was 1 cm above that of Afro-American; and it was up to 4 cm below that Mexican-American. Prevalence of central obesity with WC at percentile 75 combined with overweight/obesity was 25.1% (95% CI 22.3-28.0) and single, 15.4% (95 CI% 13.0-17.8). Prevalence of single abdominal obesity with WC at percentile > or = 90 was 4.4% (IC 95% 3.0, 5.8). Day care centers represent a key opportunity for defying central obesity. WC can be used since early age for screening and caring children at higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:24020252

  3. Obesity and late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Vignozzi, L; Sforza, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2015-12-15

    Obesity and male hypogonadism (HG) are often associated, as demonstrated in all cross-sectional studies. Prospective studies have indicated that i) having HG at baseline increases the risk of visceral obesity (and metabolic syndrome) and that ii) obesity induces incident HG. Hence, there is a bidirectional relationship between the two conditions. This is the main topic of this review, along with some pathogenic considerations. Meta-analysis of intervention studies indicates that treating obesity is a very efficient treatment for obesity-induced HG. The mechanism by which obesity induces HG has not yet been completely understood, but dietary-induced hypothalamic inflammation, along with a decreased GnRH release, is plausible. Among patients seeking medical care for obesity, the proportion of HG is relatively high. The prevalence of obesity among patients referring for sexual dysfunction is also elevated. Hence, in symptomatic, obese, hypogonadal subjects, testosterone supplementation (TS) can be considered. Whereas long-term uncontrolled register studies suggest that TS could decrease weight, analysis of controlled studies only support a parallel increase in lean mass and decrease in fat mass, with a resulting null effect on weight. Considering that T induces an increase in muscle mass, it is conceivable that the amount of activity obese people can undertake after TS will increase, allowing a closer adherence to physical exercise programs. Some studies, here meta-analyzed, support this concept. PMID:26143633

  4. Association between temporomandibular disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Eunmi; Han, Kyungdo; Yun, Kyoung-In

    2016-08-01

    Psychological stress can induce altered eating patterns, and studies have indicated that there is a correlation between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological stress. This study investigated the relationship between TMD and body mass index (BMI) in a large representative sample of the South Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Men and women with TMD showed decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity. Women with TMD had lower age, lower BMI, lower metabolic syndromic waist circumference, lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and lower prevalence of diabetes compared with the group without TMD. However, males with TMD didn't show any statistically significant difference between BMI, and metabolic syndromic waist circumference compared with the group without TMD, although there were similar tendencies in the female subject groups. Overall, TMD was associated with decreased BMI and abdominal obesity in women. PMID:27349686

  5. INFLAMMATORY ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM--A FORM OF CHRONIC PERIAORTITIS.

    PubMed

    Pop, Corina; Nemeş, Roxana Maria; Jantea, Petruţa; Tomescu, Alina; Postolache, Paraschiva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periaortitis represents a unique pathogenic concept for three entities: Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis and Perianeurysmal Retroperitoneal Fibrosis. The fundamental meaning of an inflammatory reaction to advanced atherosclerosis has been developed on the bottom of clinical and histological features. The triad of abdominal pain, weight loss and elevated inflammatory markers: erythrocyte sedimentation rate/C-reactive protein in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms revealed on contrast-enhanced computer tomography is highly suggestive for inflammatory aneurysm. We report a case of a heavy-smoker adult male presented with suddenly abdominal symptoms suggestive for mesenteric ischemia which have proved to be due to inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. The most favorable management of patients with inflammatory aneurysm is ambiguous. Surgical approach seems reasonable even supposing inflammatory aneurysm emerges less likely to rupture than the atherosclerotic variant. Corticosteroids are used in inoperable inflammatory aneurysm, even if is well known that this treatment does not change the long-term outcome of the disease. Surgical-open or Endovascular Repair of the aneurysm is the elective treatment. PMID:26793850

  6. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an operation. Umbilical hernia Abdominal wall Intestinal loop Peritoneum Skin Peritoneum Umbilical annulus SYMPTOMS The first symptom of a ... vomiting, or constipation. Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Peritoneum Deep inguinal ring Inguinal canal Superficial inguinal ring ...

  7. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  8. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  9. European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan; Tsigos, Constantine; Fried, Martin; Schindler, Karin; Busetto, Luca; Micic, Dragan; Toplak, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment should be based on

  10. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  11. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  12. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  13. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? ...

  14. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Lemieux, S; Rice, T; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of familial aggregation in abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Four measures of abdominal adipose tissue, obtained from an abdominal scan between the fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) taken in 366 adult subjects from 100 French-Canadian nuclear families, were considered in this study. Total abdominal fat, AVF, subcutaneous abdominal fat, obtained by computing the difference between total and AVF tissue areas, and the visceral to total abdominal fat ratio were measured. Spouses, parent-offspring, and sibling correlations were computed by maximum likelihood methods after adjustment of the four phenotypes for age and for age and total fat mass (FM) derived from underwater weighing. Significant familial aggregation was found for all phenotypes, whether adjusted or not for body FM. However, after adjustment of data for body FM, in addition to age, all spouse correlations became nonsignificant, suggesting that the familial aggregation of abdominal fat is primarily genetic. Heritability estimates reached 42% and 56% for subcutaneous fat and AVF, respectively. These results suggest that genetic factors are major determinants of the familial aggregation observed in the amount of abdominal fat, irrespective of total body fat content, and that AVF seems more influenced by genetic factors than abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. These findings imply that some individuals are more at risk than others to exhibit the various metabolic complications associated with upper-body obesity because of their inherited tendency to store abdominal fat in the visceral depot rather than in the subcutaneous depot. PMID:8606647

  15. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pecht, Tal; Haim, Yulia; Bashan, Nava; Shapiro, Hagit; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Clément, Karine; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient. Methods We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Results Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05) and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05). Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men. Conclusions Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs. PMID:27442250

  16. Prevalence of Obesity among Children and Adolescents in the United States and Canada. NCHS Data Brief. Number 211

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Margaret D.; Navaneelan, Tanya; Bryan, Shirley; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    About one-quarter of Canadian adults and more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. Obese children are at risk of becoming obese adults and can experience immediate health consequences such as psychosocial stress, elevated blood pressure and cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance. Monitoring trends in childhood obesity is…

  17. Severe Obesity and selected risk factors in a sixth grade multi-racial cohort: the HEALTHY study

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Marsha D.; Baranowski, Tom; DeBar, Lynn L.; Edelstein, Sharon; Kaufman, Francine R.; Schneider, Margaret; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Staten, Myrlene A.; Virus, Amy; Yin, Zenong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To document the prevalence of severe obesity and associated risk in the HEALTHY cohort. Methods 6,365 students were assessed at school-based screenings. Results 6.9% of students were severely obese. Severe obesity was associated with elevated cardiometabolic risk and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Severe obesity is common and requires preventive intervention. PMID:21094439

  18. Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Wärnberg, Julia; Estruch, Ramón; Román, Pilar; Arós, Fernando; Vinyoles, Ernest; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Covas, María-Isabel; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as <1, 1–3, and >3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to participants consuming <1 serving/wk of nuts, those consuming >3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. Conclusions Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:23460844

  19. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity. PMID:23885012

  20. β-HCG Elevation in Wilms Tumor: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya Kumar; Charlton, Amanda; Prelog, Kristina; Kellie, Stewart J

    2016-06-01

    Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma) is a readily diagnosed common abdominal tumor in children. Rarely, it may present with factors that may confound the diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing and invasive abdominal mass with the histopathologic features of Wilms tumor associated with an elevated serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin, which has not been previously reported in this condition. PMID:26894993

  1. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  2. [Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernias].

    PubMed

    Bezsilla, János

    2010-10-01

    Repair of abdominal wall defects is a challenge for all general surgeons and a variety of methods have been described in the past. Traditionally, primary suture repair was shown to have a high recurrence rate in long-term follow-up studies. Herniorrhaphies that apply a large prosthetic mesh are appear to have a lower failure rate, but extensive dissection of soft tissue contributes to an increased incidence of wound infections and wound-related complications. The method of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair was developed in the early 1990s. This technique is based on the same physical and surgical principles as the open underlay procedure. The laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) technique and mesh materials were developed further in subsequent years, and there have been numerous reports on successful use of the IPOM technique even for extremely large hernia openings in obese and elderly patients. Reduced surgical trauma and lower infection and recurrence rates are key advantages of the minimally invasive repair. Therefore, this operation has increased in popularity promising shorter hospital stay, improved outcome, and fewer complications than traditional open procedures. PMID:20965866

  3. Sarcopenic obesity and endocrinal adaptation with age.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:23690769

  4. Abdominal bloating: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, A Young; Kim, Nayoung; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  5. Abdominal pain with a twist

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Malrotation in children is due to either an incomplete or non-rotation of the foetal mid-gut during perinatal development. Presentation is usually in the first few weeks of life, often with life-threatening volvulus and ischaemia. However, it can be a rare cause of abdominal pain in older children and young adults. We present such a case, as a reminder to emergency physicians that malrotation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent or chronic abdominal pain not only in children but also in adolescents. PMID:21635723

  6. Ultrasonographic diagnosis in abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M; Moosa, I; Hussein, F M; Qurttom, M A; Behbehani, A I

    1999-05-01

    Sonographic findings were retrospectively analysed in 39 patients with proven abdominal tuberculosis (TB). The patients were treated over 15 years at a major teaching hospital, Mubarak Al-Kabber Hospital, in Kuwait. The findings included clear or complex ascites with fine strands, loculations and debris. The other findings were lymphadenopathy, bowel wall thickening, omental mass, focal lesions in the liver and spleen and psoas abscess. The sonographic findings in abdominal TB are not specific but may give valuable information to prevent unnecessary laparotomy. PMID:10901897

  7. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  8. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  9. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  10. Psychosocial factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Mustajoki, P

    1987-01-01

    Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994

  11. The epidemiology and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Rosalyn D; Gallagher, Emily J; Scheinman, Eyal J; Damouni, Rawan; LeRoith, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity is associated with increasing rates of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have reported that these conditions are linked to increased rates of cancer incidence and mortality. Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and the development of dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and ultimately type 2 diabetes. Although many metabolic abnormalities occur with obesity and type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia appear to be central to these conditions and may contribute to dyslipidemia and altered levels of circulating estrogens and androgens. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiological and molecular links between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, and how hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia may contribute to cancer development. We will discuss how these metabolic abnormalities may interact with estrogen signaling in breast cancer growth. Finally, we will discuss the effects of type 2 diabetes medications on cancer risk. PMID:23810003

  12. [Statement about diagnosis assessment ano non pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Manrique E, Mónica; de la Maza, María Pía; Carrasco, Fernando; Moreno, Manuel; Albala, Cecilia; García, Jaime; Díaz, Jaime; Liberman, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    The risk of complications of obesity is proportional to body mass index and is higher in severe or morbid obesities and when abdominal or visceral fat is predominant. In Chile the prevalence of obesity is increasing. According to the World Health Organization, obese subjects must reduce at least a 5% of their weight to reduce the risk of complications. Although this amount of reduction is seldom achieved with non pharmacological treatments, better results are obtained with multidisciplinary/ approaches that include a medical, psychosocial and laboratory assessment, to determine obesity level and different factors involved and the associated complications. In a second stage, goals of treatment are set and a personalized treatment is designed including dietary changes and physical activity. The aim is to obtain perdurable lifestyles modifications. PMID:19802427

  13. Obesity Patterns among Women in a Slum Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Romero W.; Pinto, Renato A.; Correia, Jailson B.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy diet and sedentary lifestyle fail to completely explain the epidemic of obesity in developing countries. In this cross-sectional survey, the prevalence and patterns of overweight/obesity were assessed among women in a slum in Brazil. Using anthropometric measurements, shorter form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a 24-hour diet recall questionnaire, data were collected from 632 women aged 20-60 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29% and 17% respectively. Physical inactivity was found in 17% of the women; 12% of them had short stature, and 44% had energy intake below the recommended dietary allowance. Results of multiple logistic regression showed that overweight/obesity differed significantly (p<0.05) in the following aspects: abdominal circumference, energy intake, and short stature. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity was found in a very poor community associated with high-energy intake and short stature. PMID:21766564

  14. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0 years) were analyzed. Stratification was analyzed with abdominal US. The threshold value of wall thickness to diagnose CRC was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The average wall thickness was 2.8±0.4 mm in the surrounding normal tissue and 12.7±5.2 mm in CRC (one-way analysis of variance, P<0.0001). The wall was significantly thicker in CRC compared with the normal colonic wall. The calculated threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC. Stratification was preserved in W, while it was lost in M (Chi-squared test, P=0.0196). The hemoglobin concentration was lower, while the C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were elevated above normal values. The threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC with abdominal US. PMID:27330768

  15. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  16. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  17. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  18. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  19. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. [Ultrasound measurement of visceral fat in obese patients (changes in certain parameters during an outpatient reducing program)].

    PubMed

    Urbánek, R; Simek, J

    2000-01-01

    Abdominal type of obesity is linked to risk factors of metabolic diseases. The determination of visceral fat with the ultrasound assessment by Armellini is a very simple method. 55 obese patients were such examined including other parameters during the weight reduction. The results of our small experimental group are shown in the Tab. 1 and 2. PMID:10953641

  2. Severe obesity and selected risk factors in a sixth grade multiracial cohort: the HEALTHY study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of severe obesity and associated risk in the HEALTHY cohort. A total of 6,365 students were assessed at school-based screenings. Results showed that 6.9% of students were severely obese. Severe obesity was associated with elevated cardiometabo...

  3. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges' g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z = 10.35, P < 0.05). Significant moderator effects of gender (Z = −2.90) and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z = −2.17) were found for visceral fat (P < 0.05), but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z = −5.10) and subcutaneous (Z = −7.09) abdominal adiposity volumes (P < 0.05). Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics) were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity. PMID:25525511

  4. The adverse effects of obesity on conception and implantation.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Christopher J; Balen, Adam H

    2010-09-01

    Whilst many multiparous women are obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)), obesity has been associated with impaired fecundity; however, the mechanism which links obesity to reduced fertility remains to be fully elucidated. Obese women, particularly those with central obesity, are less likely to conceive per cycle. Obese women suffer perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, menstrual cycle disturbance and are up to three times more likely to suffer oligo-/anovulation. A fine hormonal balance regulates follicular development and oocyte maturation, and it has been observed that obesity can alter the hormonal milieu. Leptin, a hormone produced by adipocytes, is elevated in obese women, and raised leptin has been associated with impaired fecundity. Obesity impairs ovulation but has also been observed to detrimentally affect endometrial development and implantation. The expression of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is regulated, in part, by weight, and so obese women with PCOS often have a more severe phenotype and experience more subfertility. Obesity also impairs the response of women to assisted conception treatments. Weight loss through lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery has been demonstrated to restore menstrual cyclicity and ovulation and improve the likelihood of conception. In this article, we will discuss the effect of obesity upon key reproductive mechanisms and its relation to fertility treatments. PMID:20395425

  5. Adenylate cyclase 3: a new target for anti-obesity drug development.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Shen, C; Seed Ahmed, M; Östenson, C-G; Gu, H F

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has become epidemic worldwide, and abdominal obesity has a negative impact on health. Current treatment options on obesity, however, still remain limited. It is then of importance to find a new target for anti-obesity drug development based upon recent molecular studies in obesity. Adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) is the third member of adenylyl cyclase family and catalyses the synthesis of cAMP from ATP. Genetic studies with candidate gene and genome-wide association study approaches have demonstrated that ADCY3 genetic polymorphisms are associated with obesity in European and Chinese populations. Epigenetic studies have indicated that increased DNA methylation levels in the ADCY3 gene are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Furthermore, biological analyses with animal models have implicated that ADCY3 dysfunction resulted in increased body weight and fat mass, while reduction of body weight is partially explained by ADCY3 activation. In this review, we describe genomic and biological features of ADCY3, summarize genetic and epigenetic association studies of the ADCY3 gene with obesity and discuss dysfunction and activation of ADCY3. Based upon all data, we suggest that ADCY3 is a new target for anti-obesity drug development. Further investigation on the effectiveness of ADCY3 activator and its delivery approach to treat abdominal obesity has been taken into our consideration. PMID:27256589

  6. Pathology Image of the Month: Abdominal Pain and Peripheral Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, Reggie; Alquist, Caroline Raasch; Farris, K Barton; McGoey, Robin

    2015-01-01

    A 69 year-old man presented to his primary care physician with abdominal discomfort. Medical history was notable for diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with recent (one week prior) steroid use and hypertension. Surgical history was significant for a remote sigmoid hemicolectomy for diverticulitis with a synthetic mesh abdominal repair. He was admitted to the hospital for suspected gastroparesis. An upper GI series showed a distended stomach with delayed gastric motility. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and a duodenal biopsy was taken. He remained afebrile but had an elevated white blood cell count of 19.1 x 103/mcL (4.5 - 11.0 x 103/mcL) with 28.8 percent eosinophils on differential. Microscopic images of the duodenal biopsy are shown below. PMID:27159605

  7. Biochemical effect of a ketogenic diet on the brains of obese adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hoda E; El-Swefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Leila A; Abd El-Latif, Sally K

    2010-07-01

    Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, can cause or exacerbate cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Obesity is also a proven risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Various studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) in weight reduction and in modifying the disease activity of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Therefore, in this study we examined the metabolic and neurodegenerative changes associated with obesity and the possible neuroprotective effects of a KD in obese adult rats. Compared with obese rats fed a control diet, obese rats fed a KD showed significant weight loss, improvement in lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and upregulation of adiponectin mRNA expression in adipose tissue. In addition, the KD triggered significant downregulation of brain amyloid protein precursor, apolipoprotein E and caspase-3 mRNA expression, and improvement of brain oxidative stress responses. These findings suggest that a KD has anti-obesity and neuroprotective effects. PMID:20395146

  8. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  9. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  10. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  11. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated. PMID:15219082

  12. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    PubMed

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  13. Management of voluminous abdominal incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, J-L; Poghosyan, T; Pogoshian, T; Corigliano, N; Canard, G; Veyrie, N

    2012-10-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the classic complications after abdominal surgery. The chronic, gradual increase in size of some of these hernias is such that the hernia ring widens to a point where there is a loss of substance in the abdominal wall, herniated organs can become incarcerated or strangulated while poor abdominal motility can alter respiratory function. The surgical treatment of small (<5 cm) incisional hernias is safe and straightforward, by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. For large hernias, surgical repair is often difficult. After reintegration of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity, the abdominal wall defect must be closed anatomically in order to restore the function to the abdominal wall. Prosthetic reinforcement of the abdominal wall is mandatory for long-term successful repair. There are multiple techniques for prosthetic hernia repair, but placement of Dacron mesh in the retromuscular plane is our preference. PMID:23137643

  14. [A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

  15. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  16. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  17. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  18. Severe obesity and selected risk factors in a sixth grade multiracial cohort: the HEALTHY study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marsha D; Baranowski, Tom; DeBar, Lynn L; Edelstein, Sharon; Kaufman, Francine R; Schneider, Margaret; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Staten, Myrlene A; Virus, Amy; Yin, Zenong

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of severe obesity and associated risk in the HEALTHY cohort. A total of 6,365 students were assessed at school-based screenings. Results showed that 6.9% of students were severely obese. Severe obesity was associated with elevated cardiometabolic risk and race/ethnicity. Severe obesity is common and requires preventive intervention. PMID:21094439

  19. Brain orexin promotes obesity resistance.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Catherine; Nixon, Joshua; Butterick, Tammy; Perez-Leighton, Claudio; Teske, Jennifer; Billington, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to obesity is becoming an exception rather than the norm, and understanding mechanisms that lead some to remain lean in spite of an obesigenic environment is critical if we are to find new ways to reverse this trend. Levels of energy intake and physical activity both contribute to body weight management, but it is challenging for most to adopt major long-term changes in either factor. Physical activity outside of formal exercise, also referred to as activity of daily living, and in stricter form, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), may be an attractive modifiable variable for obesity prevention. In this review, we discuss individual variability in SPA and NEAT (nonexercise thermogenesis, or the energy expended by SPA) and its relationship to obesity resistance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) may play a key role in regulating SPA and NEAT. We discuss how elevated orexin signaling capacity, in the context of a brain network modulating SPA, may play a major role in defining individual variability in SPA and NEAT. Greater activation of this SPA network leads to a lower propensity for fat mass gain and therefore may be an attractive target for obesity prevention and therapy. PMID:22803681

  20. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stichel, H; l'Allemand, D; Grüters, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction as assessed by TSH, T3 and T4 in a large cohort of 290 obese and 280 healthy children. In addition, thyroid autoantibodies were measured in random subgroups of 123 obese and 80 control children, iodine excretion in 50 and thyroid volume in 23 of the obese children. Elevated TSH levels (>4 U/l) were found in 22 obese children (7.5%), but only in one control (0.3%). The medians of TSH and T3 concentrations were normal, but significantly higher in the obese group than in the controls, while T4 levels did not differ. The prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies was increased in the obese children, for the most part in those with elevated TSH. There was no evidence for iodine deficiency as a cause of the average increase of TSH. We conclude that in childhood obesity TSH and T3 levels are significantly increased; in most cases, however, these increases are not accounted for by thyroid autoimmunity or iodine deficiency. As a consequence, TSH elevations with normal thyroid hormone levels in obese children don't need any thyroxine treatment, if thyroid disorders were definitely excluded beforehand. PMID:11182630

  1. Managing childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  2. Obesity-related phenotypes and the beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, A; Starling, R D; Walston, J D; Shuldiner, A R; Dvorak, R V; Silver, K; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    1999-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that postmenopausal women with the beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant (Trp64Arg) have reduced total daily energy expenditure (TEE), altered free fatty acid kinetics, and increased intra-abdominal fat. A secondary objective was to examine whether the obese state masks the effect of the variant on resting metabolic rate (RMR). There were 23 obese heterozygous women with the genetic variant (age 58 +/- 6 years; BMI 36 +/- 7 kg/m2) who were compared with 19 homozygous obese women with the normal allele (age 56 +/- 4 years; BMI 36 +/- 3 kg/m2). Daily energy expenditure was determined from doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, lipolysis from infusion of [1-13C]palmitate, and body fat distribution from computed tomography. No significant differences were found in TEE, RMR, energy expenditure of physical activity, the thermic effect of a meal, fat oxidation as estimated by fasting and postprandial respiratory quotients (RQs), or rate of lipolysis. Similarly, no difference was found in visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous fat areas. When RMR was compared between obese (n = 23) and never-obese women with the Trp64Arg variant (n = 16), we found a 317 kcal/day lower RMR in never-obese women after controlling for fat mass, fat-free mass, and age (P < 0.0017). These results do not support the hypothesis that already obese women with the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene have lower daily energy expenditure, altered lipolysis, and increased abdominal obesity. On the other hand, the lower RMR in never-obese women suggests that the obese state may mask a moderate effect of the Trp64Arg variant on energy expenditure. Although these results need to be confirmed in other populations, the obese state may have been a confounding factor in previous studies of the beta3-adrenoceptor Trp64Arg variant and energy expenditure. PMID:10389848

  3. Ambient Temperature and Prevalence of Obesity: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested a possible association between outdoor or indoor temperature and obesity. We aimed to examine whether ambient temperature is associated with the prevalence of obesity or abdominal obesity in the Korean population. Methods Data on anthropometric, socio-demographic, laboratory and lifestyle factors were retrieved from National Health Insurance System data obtained in 2009–2010. Thirty years (1981 to 2010) of meteorological parameters for 71 observation areas were acquired from the Korea Meteorological Administration. Included in this analysis were 124,354 individuals. A body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 cm (men) or 85 cm (women) were considered to represent obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results The mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 6.6°C to 16.6°C, and BMI was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0078, P = 0.0065). WC was positively correlated with MAT (r = 0.0165, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with the number of days with mean temperature < 0°C (DMT0; r = –0.0129, P = 0.0002). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise, income, residential area and altitude, the odds ratios (95% CI) for obesity and abdominal obesity in the highest quintile MAT group were 1.045 (1.010, 1.081) and 1.082 (1.042, 1.124), respectively, compared with the lower four quintiles of the MAT group. Similarly, subjects in the area of the lowest quintile of DMT0 had significantly higher odds of abdominal obesity compared with the higher four quintile groups of DMT0. Conclusion This study finds an association between ambient temperature and prevalence of obesity in the Korean population when controlling for several confounding factors. Adaptive thermogenesis might be a possible explanation for this phenomenon. PMID:26524686

  4. Metabolic profil in a group of obese Moroccan children enrolled in schools in the city of Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouane, Nezha; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Ettair, Said; Meskini, Toufik; Khalloufi, Nabil; Bouklouze, Aziz; Barkat, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine the metabolic profile in a group of obese children in Morocco. Methods The BMI, the waist circumference, the blood pressure and metabolic parameters in 73 children (37 obese and 36 normal) were compared. Results 80% of obese children had abdominal obesity (p <0.0001). For systolic blood pressure among children who have a higher value than the 95th percentile, 85.7% were obese and 14.3% children are normal children. For diastolic blood pressure, 83.34% of obese children had higher diastolic blood pressure values in the 95th percentile and 16.6% of normal children have a higher value than the 95th percentile (p=0.013). No obese child had hyperglycemia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. Conclusion Obesity is number one risk of cardiovascular disease for children. Early detection can help for an appropriate care. PMID:25977740

  5. Genetics of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Apurva; Srivastava, Neena; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-10-01

    Numerous classical genetic studies have proved that genes are contributory factors for obesity. Genes are directly responsible for obesity associated disorders such as Bardet-Biedl and Prader-Willi syndromes. However, both genes as well as environment are associated with obesity in the general population. Genetic epidemiological approaches, particularly genome-wide association studies, have unraveled many genes which play important roles in human obesity. Elucidation of their biological functions can be very useful for understanding pathobiology of obesity. In the near future, further exploration of obesity genetics may help to develop useful diagnostic and predictive tests for obesity treatment. PMID:27605733

  6. Effect of Obesity and Leptin Level on Migraineurs

    PubMed Central

    Ligong, Zhang; Jinjin, Qin; Chunfu, Chen; Congcong, Li; Xiaojun, Diao

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of obesity and leptin levels on patients with migraine, and to observe the change of leptin levels in migraineurs. Material/Methods We enrolled 52 migraine patients from the Headache Clinic in Shandong Provincial Hospital into a randomized controlled trial with another 52 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy subjects as controls. Leptin levels in all subjects were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with the control group, the migraineurs revealed no significant change in leptin levels (P>0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that neither abdominal obesity nor leptin had significant impact on migraine clinical features. Total body obesity had a significant effect on the frequency (OR=4.248), duration (OR=3.167), and intensity (OR=5.225) of the headache. Conclusions Total body obesity affected headache frequency, intensity, and duration, while leptin levels did not. PMID:26508370

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome as a rare complication following component separation repair: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Allen, H S; Hunter, C; Lee, G K

    2015-04-01

    One of the most feared complications following a massive ventral hernia repair is abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). ACS is caused by an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which can lead to multi-organ dysfunction and ultimately result in death. Component separation repair (CST) has been successful for most large hernia repairs in reducing the risk of ACS by increasing abdominal volume and reducing abdominal wall tension during a tight closure. However, reduction of a large hernia can lead to elevated IAP and possible progression to ACS. Here, we describe the detailed intra-operative and post-operative course of a patient who developed abdominal compartment syndrome following CST repair. PMID:25739715

  8. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, André; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Excess intra-abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, often termed visceral obesity, is part of a phenotype including dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride storage closely related to clustering cardiometabolic risk factors. Hypertriglyceridemia; increased free fatty acid availability; adipose tissue release of proinflammatory cytokines; liver insulin resistance and inflammation; increased liver VLDL synthesis and secretion; reduced clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; presence of small, dense LDL particles; and reduced HDL cholesterol levels are among the many metabolic alterations closely related to this condition. Age, gender, genetics, and ethnicity are broad etiological factors contributing to variation in visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Specific mechanisms responsible for proportionally increased visceral fat storage when facing positive energy balance and weight gain may involve sex hormones, local cortisol production in abdominal adipose tissues, endocannabinoids, growth hormone, and dietary fructose. Physiological characteristics of abdominal adipose tissues such as adipocyte size and number, lipolytic responsiveness, lipid storage capacity, and inflammatory cytokine production are significant correlates and even possible determinants of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with visceral obesity. Thiazolidinediones, estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women, and testosterone replacement in androgen-deficient men have been shown to favorably modulate body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk to various degrees. However, some of these therapies must now be considered in the context of their serious side effects. Lifestyle interventions leading to weight loss generally induce preferential mobilization of visceral fat. In clinical practice, measuring waist circumference in addition to the body mass index could be helpful for the identification and management of a subgroup of overweight or obese

  9. Anti-obesity activity of the marine carotenoid fucoxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food. PMID:25871295

  10. Anti-Obesity Activity of the Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food. PMID:25871295

  11. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  12. Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

  13. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Tepas, J J

    1993-06-01

    The growing popularity of nonoperative treatment of children with splenic injuries has seduced some physicians into a false sense of security regarding care of the injured child. Although it has been established that hemodynamically stable children with splenic, hepatic, and even renal injuries can safely be treated "expectantly," this concept cannot be applied indiscriminately. Accurate diagnosis and effective care of the child with blunt abdominal trauma is an exercise of clinical precision that demands attention to detail and thorough evaluation. This review addresses this process in light of recent advances in diagnostic imaging and in consideration of recent reports analyzing different protocols for therapeutic decision making. PMID:8374651

  14. BIOMECHANICS OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture. PMID:17254589

  15. Maternal obesity, lipotoxicity and cardiovascular diseases in offspring.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maolong; Zheng, Qijun; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ren, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Maternal obesity has risen dramatically over the past 20 years, by nearly 42% in African-Americans and 29% in Caucasians. Maternal obesity is afflicted with many maternal obstetric complications in the offspring including high blood pressure, obesity, gestational diabetes and increased perinatal morbidity. Maternal nutritional environment plays a rather important role in the programming of the health set-points in the offspring such as glucose and insulin metabolism, energy balance and predisposition to metabolic disorders. In particular, maternal obesity is associated with elevated prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. Evidence from human and experimental studies including rodents and nonhuman primates has indicated that maternal obesity or overnutrition programs offspring for an increased risk of adult obesity. Maternal obesity or fat diet exposure predisposes the onset and development of obesity, insulin resistance, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial contractile anomalies in the offspring. A number of mechanisms including elevated hormones (leptin, insulin), nutrients (fatty acids, triglycerides and glucose) and inflammatory cytokines have been postulated to play a key role in maternal obesity-induced postnatal cardiovascular sequelae. In addition, lipotoxicity (accumulation of lipid metabolites) resulting from maternal obesity is capable of activating a number of stress signaling cascades including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress to exacerbate maternal obesity-induced cardiovascular complications later on in adult life. This mini-review summarizes the recent knowledge with regard to the role of lipotoxicity in maternal obesity-induced change in cardiovascular function in the offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". PMID:22982026

  16. High energy expenditure masks low physical activity in obesity

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate energy expenditure in lean and obese individuals, focusing particularly on physical activity and severely obese individuals. Design Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry, activity EE (AEE) by difference and time spent in physical activity by multisensor activity monitors. Subjects 177 lean, Class I and severely obese individuals (age 31–56, BMI 20–64 kg/m2). Results All components of EE were elevated in obese individuals. For example, TDEE was 2404±95 kcal/d in lean and 3244 ± 48 kcal/d in Class III obese. After appropriate adjustment, RMR was similar in all groups. Analysis of AEE by body weight and obesity class indicated a lower AEE in the obese. Confirming lower physical activity, obese individuals spent less time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (2.7±1.3, 1.8±0.6, 2.0±1.4 and 1.2±1.0 hr/d in lean, Class I, Class II and Class III), and more time in sedentary behaviors. Conclusions There was no indication of metabolic efficiency in even the severely obese, as adjusted RMR was similar across all groups. The higher AEE observed in the obese is consistent with a higher cost of activities due to higher body weight. However, the magnitude of the higher AEE (20 to 25% higher in obese) is lower than expected (weight approximately 100% higher in Class III). Confirming a lower volume of physical activity in the obese, the total time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average daily MET level were lower with increasing obesity. These findings demonstrate that high body weight in obesity leads to a high TDEE and AEE which masks the fact that they are less physically active, which can be influenced by duration or intensity of activity, than lean individuals. PMID:23090575

  17. Abdominal wall reconstruction with implantable meshes.

    PubMed

    Masden, Derek; Felder, John M; Iorio, Matthew L; Bhanot, Parag; Attinger, Christopher E

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects present a difficult problem for the reconstructive surgeon. Over the years, numerous implantable materials have becomes available to aid the surgeon in recreating the abdominal wall. This spectrum of implants includes permanent synthetic meshes, absorbable meshes, composite meshes and biomaterials. This review includes the pros and cons for the commercially available abdominal wall implants as well as a review of the literature regarding outcomes for each material. This review will provide the surgeon with current evidence-based information on implantable abdominal materials to be able to make a more informed decision about which implant to use. PMID:21663579

  18. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  19. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. PMID:26169928

  20. Spleen volume on CT and the effect of abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Romero, Cinthia; Agarwal, Sheela; Abujudeh, Hani H; Thrall, James; Hahn, Peter F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of change in spleen volume on CT in subjects sustaining blunt abdominal trauma without hemorrhage relative to patients without disease and how the spleen volumes are distributed. Sixty-seven subjects with blunt abdominal trauma and 101 control subjects were included in this retrospective single-center, IRB-approved, and HIPAA-compliant study. Patients with an injured spleen were excluded. Using a semiautomatic segmentation program, two readers computed spleen volumes from CT. Spleen volume distribution in male and female trauma and control cohorts were compared nonparametrically. Spleen volume plotted against height, weight, and age were analyzed by linear regression. The number of females and males are, respectively, 35 and 32 in trauma subjects and 69 and 32 among controls. Female trauma patients (49.6 years) were older than males (39.8 years) (p = 0.02). Distributions of spleen volume were not normal, skewed above their means, requiring a nonparametric comparison. Spleen volumes in trauma patients were smaller than those in controls with medians of 230 vs 294 mL in males(p < 0.006) and 163 vs 191 mL in females(p < 0.04). Spleen volume correlated positively with weight in females and with height in male controls, and negatively with age in male controls (p < 0.01). Variation in reproducibility and repeatability was acceptable at 1.5 and 4.9 %, respectively. Reader variation was 1.7 and 4.6 % for readers 1 and 2, respectively. The mean spleen volume in controls was 245 mL, the largest ever reported. Spleen volume decreases in response to blunt abdominal trauma. Spleen volumes are not normally distributed. Our population has the largest spleen volume reported in the literature, perhaps a consequence of the obesity epidemic. PMID:27166964

  1. Pediatric Obesity and Traumatic Lower Extremity Long Bone Fracture Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Backstrom, Ian C.; MacLennan, Paul A.; Sawyer, Jeffrey R.; Creek, Aaron T.; Rue, Loring W.; Gilbert, Shawn R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric obesity is associated with lower extremity injuries and poor outcomes after blunt trauma. Our aim was to determine if obese pediatric patients with femur and tibia fractures have more severe injury patterns and worse outcomes compared to non-obese patients. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of obese and non-obese pediatric patients with femur or tibia fractures treated at two Level-1 trauma centers from 2004-2010. Patients weighing ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender were classified as obese. Patients were compared regarding demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), intra-abdominal, and orthopedic injuries. Outcomes included fracture treatment, orthopedic complications, ICU and hospital length of stay, ventilator days, and mortality. Results Of the 356 patients included in the study, 78 (21.9%) were obese and 278 (78.1%) were non-obese. Obese patients were older (9.9±3.7 vs. 8.8±3.9 years; p=0.0162), had a higher ISS (20.8±13.4 vs. 14.5±10.8; p=0.0002), and sustained more intra-abdominal solid organ (24.4% vs.13.5%; p=0.0200) and hollow viscus (3.9% vs. 0.0%; p=0.0105) injuries. They had more pelvic fractures (15.4% vs. 6.9%; p=0.0196), bilateral tibia fractures (8.0% vs. 0.0%; p=0.0332), and operatively-treated femur fractures (89.9% vs. 79.1%; p=0.0484). Adjusting for age, obese patients were more likely to be admitted to the ICU [relative risk (RR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-2.55] and die in the hospital (RR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.14-10.41). Adjusting for ISS, these associations were non-significant. Conclusions Obese patients with femur and tibia fractures have more severe injuries which may predispose them to greater inpatient morbidity and mortality than non-obese patients. PMID:22902734

  2. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  3. Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian LP

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits. PMID:25400997

  4. Prevalence of prediabetes and its association with obesity among college students in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ben Haider, Nour Y; Ziyab, Ali H

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and assess its association with obesity among young adults in Kuwait; a country with a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.1) and obesity was associated with elevated prediabetes prevalence. PMID:27484296

  5. [Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using retractor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    D'Urbano, C; Fuertes Guiro, F; Sampietro, R

    1996-03-01

    The Authors present a new gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy method using an abdominal wall elevator with subcutaneous traction ("laparotenser"). Fifty patients between May 1994 and March 1995 were operated by videolaparoscopy using this new gasless method. Twenty of them were operated with Nagai's method while the laparotenser was used in the remaining thirty. The results obtained are similar to those using pneumoperitoneum. It has been observed a global reduction of costs, less postoperative pain, no influence in cardiovascular and metabolic indexes. No complications were reported during the postoperative period but two cases of conversion to laparotomy not related to the method used were needed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy without pneumoperitoneum using the subcutaneous elevator of the abdominal wall ("laparotenser") has demonstrated that it's possible to operate in a working space similar to that created by the pneumoperitoneum. After an initial period of distrust towards the laparoscopic methods without pneumoperitoneum it has been accepted that gasless methods multiply the indications to minimally invasive surgery in patients with cardiorespiratory problems considered no ideal candidates to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum. PMID:8679422

  6. Laparoscopy in the morbidly obese: physiologic considerations and surgical techniques to optimize success.

    PubMed

    Scheib, Stacey A; Tanner, Edward; Green, Isabel C; Fader, Amanda N

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to analyze the literature describing the benefits of minimally invasive gynecologic surgery in obese women, to examine the physiologic considerations associated with obesity, and to describe surgical techniques that will enable surgeons to perform laparoscopy and robotic surgery successfully in obese patients. The Medline database was reviewed for all articles published in the English language between 1993 and 2013 containing the search terms "gynecologic laparoscopy" "laparoscopy," "minimally invasive surgery and obesity," "obesity," and "robotic surgery." The incidence of obesity is increasing in the United States, and in particular morbid obesity in women. Obesity is associated with a wide range of comorbid conditions that may affect perioperative outcomes including hypertension, atherosclerosis, angina, obstructive sleep apnea, and diabetes mellitus. In obese patients, laparoscopy or robotic surgery, compared with laparotomy, is associated with a shorter hospital stay, less postoperative pain, and fewer wound complications. Specific intra-abdominal access and trocar positioning techniques, as well as anesthetic maneuvers, improve the likelihood of success of laparoscopy in women with central adiposity. Performing gynecologic laparoscopy in the morbidly obese is no longer rare. Increases in the heaviest weight categories involve changes in clinical practice patterns. With comprehensive and thoughtful preoperative and surgical planning, minimally invasive gynecologic surgery may be performed safely and is of particular benefit in obese patients. PMID:24100146

  7. Relationship of obesity and insulin resistance with the cerebrovascular reactivity: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased risk for stroke. The breath-holding index (BHI) is a measure of vasomotor reactivity of the brain which can be measured with the transcranial Doppler (TCD). We aim to evaluate obesity as an independent factor for altered cerebrovascular reactivity. Methods Cerebrovascular hemodynamics (mean flow velocities MFV, pulsatility index, PI, resistance index, RI, and BHI) was determined in 85 non-obese (Body Mass Index, BMI ≤27 kg/m2) and 85 obese subjects (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) without diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Anthropometric and metabolic variables, and scores to detect risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were analyzed for their association with the cerebrovascular reactivity. Results The BHI was significantly lower in subjects with obesity according to BMI and in subjects with abdominal obesity, but the PI and RI were not different between groups. There was a linear association between the BMI, the HOMA-IR, the Matsuda index, the waist circumference, and the neck circumference, with the cerebrovascular reactivity. After adjusting for insulin resistance, neck circumference, and abdominal circumference, obesity according to BMI was negatively correlated with the cerebrovascular reactivity. Conclusions We found a diminished vasomotor reactivity in individuals with obesity which was not explained by the presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24383894

  8. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  9. Lifestyle Intervention for Sleep Disturbances Among Overweight or Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Stewart, Kerry J; Dobrosielski, Devon A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of different lifestyle interventions on sleep disturbances among sedentary obese or overweight persons. We randomized men and women aged 35-65 to 6 months of a weight loss diet (D); or D combined with supervised exercise training [Formula: see text] Measurements were self-reported sleep disturbances, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire, BMI, total abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and aerobic fitness expressed as VO2peak. The groups did not differ in changes for body weight, abdominal total fat, VO2peak, and sleep disturbances. The novel finding herein is that reduced abdominal subcutaneous fat and depressive symptoms, with either D or [Formula: see text] were associated with less sleep disturbances. PMID:26375410

  10. Obesity Disease and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mulhim, Abdulrahman Saleh; Al-Hussaini, Hessah Abdulaziz; Al-Jalal, Bashaeer Abdullah; Al-Moagal, Rehab Omar; Al-Najjar, Sara Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a medical disease that is increasing significantly nowadays. Worldwide obesity prevalence doubled since 1980. Obese patients are at great risk for complications with physical and psychological burdens, thus affecting their quality of life. Obesity is well known to have higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal diseases and shorter life expectancy. In addition, obesity has a great impact on surgical diseases, and elective surgeries in comparison to general population. There is higher risk for wound infection, longer operative time, poorer outcome, and others. The higher the BMI (body mass index), the higher the risk for these complications. This literature review illustrates the prevalence of obesity as a diseases and complications of obesity in general as well as, in a surgical point of view, general surgery perioperative risks and complications among obese patients. It will review the evidence-based updates in these headlines. PMID:26464861

  11. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih-LA-shun) syndrome (OHS) is ... e-DE-mah), pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), cor pulmonale (pul-meh-NAL- ...

  12. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  13. Obesity and Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  14. Obesity and health (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  15. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  16. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  17. Obesity: pathophysiology and intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  18. Obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...

  19. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... To help counter the current epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States, five NIH institutes joined together in 2005 to start and promote an obesity-prevention program " We Can! "—"Ways to Enhance Children's ...

  20. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  1. Hypoxia inhibits abdominal expiratory nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, R F; Knuth, S L; Ward, D K; Bartlett, D

    1987-07-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of steady-state changes in chemical stimuli, as well as discrete peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, on abdominal expiratory motor activity. In decerebrate, paralyzed, vagotomized, and ventilated cats that had bilateral pneumothoraces, we recorded efferent activity from a phrenic nerve and from an abdominal nerve (cranial iliohypogastric nerve, L1). All cats showed phasic expiratory abdominal nerve discharge at normocapnia [end-tidal PCO2 38 +/- 2 Torr], but small doses (2-6 mg/kg) of pentobarbital sodium markedly depressed this activity. Hyperoxic hypercapnia consistently enhanced abdominal expiratory activity and shortened the burst duration. Isocapnic hypoxia caused inhibition of abdominal nerve discharge in 11 of 13 cats. Carotid sinus nerve denervation (3 cats) exacerbated the hypoxic depression of abdominal nerve activity and depressed phrenic motor output. Stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors with NaCN increased abdominal nerve discharge in 7 of 10 cats, although 2 cats exhibited marked inhibition. Four cats with intact neuraxis, but anesthetized with ketamine, yielded qualitatively similar results. We conclude that when cats are subjected to steady-state chemical stimuli in isolation (no interference from proprioceptive inputs), hypercapnia potentiates, but hypoxia attenuates, abdominal expiratory nerve activity. Mechanisms to explain the selective inhibition of expiratory motor activity by hypoxia are proposed, and physiological implications are discussed. PMID:3624126

  2. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation: a tool for obesity therapy?

    PubMed

    Carbonelli, M G; Di Renzo, L; Bigioni, M; Di Daniele, N; De Lorenzo, A; Fusco, M A

    2010-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation has supposed as the major biochemical alteration underling oxidant-induced cell injury in stress including numerous diseases. One of the natural molecules know to prevent or retard oxidation is alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and, therefore, the lipoic acid/dihydrolipoic acid (LA/DHLA) redox couple has received considerable attention. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of free LA and DHLA as powerful metabolic antioxidants that are able to scavenge the reactive oxygen species, to recycle other antioxidants. Our aim was to investigate the beneficial effects of LA in the treatment of Italian pre-obese and obese subjects. We screened 1612 subjects for enrollment; of these, 1127 subjects (445 men and 682 women, 18-60 age) met enrolment criteria and were enrolled in the study. According to body mass index (BMI) the 53% was obese and the 43% was pre-obese. The subjects were treated for 4 month with 800 mg/day of LA. In pre-obese subject significant reduction (p<0.001) of weight (8%, both gender), BMI (2 points), blood pressure, and abdominal circumference (female 6 cm, male 7 cm) were observed. In obese subjects significant reductions (p<0.001) of weight (9%, both gender), BMI (female 3 point, male 4 point), blood pressure and abdominal circumference (female 9 cm, male 11 cm) were observed. Our study indicated that LA is an ideal antioxidant candidate for the therapy of obesity related diseases. Further clinical studies should be considered to highlight the role and efficacy of LA treatment. PMID:20388095

  3. Autotransfusion utilization in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Barker, D E; Burns, R P

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to investigate the utility of autotransfusion in trauma patients in the past 3 years. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts for whom the Haemonetics Cell Saver autotransfusion device (Haemonetics Corp., Natick, MA) was utilized between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1995. The estimated blood loss and quantity of blood transfused were noted for abdominal trauma patients. Costs of autotransfusion were then compared to estimated blood bank costs for this group. The Haemonetics Cell Saver autotransfusion device was requested for 592 cases from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1995. Nonorthopedic trauma cases comprised 25 per cent of all autotransfusion cases. One hundred twenty-six patients had isolated abdominal trauma and had a mean estimated blood loss of 4864 +/- 6070 cc. The average volume of intraoperatively salvaged autologous blood transfused (autotransfusion) per patient was 1547 +/- 2359 cc, or a bank blood equivalent of 6.9 units of packed red blood cells. The total cost of autotransfusion in these patients was $63,252.00. Had bank blood been used instead of salvaged autologous blood, the cost would have been $114,523.00; thus, autotransfusion resulted in a savings of $51,271.00. The use of salvaged autologous blood comprised 45 per cent of total blood transfused. On a case-by-case basis, 75 per cent of cases were cost-effective compared to blood bank costs for an equivalent transfusion. Transfusion of intraoperatively salvaged autologous blood (autotransfusion) is a cost-effective, efficient way to provide blood products to operative trauma patients. PMID:8985070

  4. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O; Andersen, Ulrik B; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Edvinsson, Lars; Skovsted, Gry F

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130/80 mmHg (ObeseHT) and 40 had 24-hr ABP < 130/80 mmHg (ObeseNT). As controls, we studied 27 men with BMI between 20.0 and 24.9 kg/m(2) and 24-hr ABP < 130/80 mmHg (LeanNT). Serum concentrations of adiponectin and body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were determined. In vitro, the direct vasomotor response of adiponectin was tested on subcutaneous resistance arteries from human abdominal adipose tissue. The two obese groups had lower adiponectin concentrations compared with LeanNT (p < 0.01) [median (interquartile range)]: ObeseHT 6.5 (5.1-8.3) mg/L; ObeseNT 6.6 (5.2-7.8) mg/L; and LeanNT 9.4 (6.7-12.4) mg/L, with no significant difference in adiponectin concentrations (or body composition) between ObeseHT and ObeseNT (p = 0.67). In vitro, adiponectin did not have any direct vasodilatory effect and adiponectin did not affect angiotensin II-stimulated vasoconstriction. In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension. PMID:26272341

  5. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  6. The Complexity of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  7. Childhood environment and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  8. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  9. Obesity and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    This report describes a collaborative study undertaken by 72 psychoanalysts in an effort to (1) collect systematic data about obese patients in psychoanalysis and (2) assess the effect of psychoanalysis in the treatment of obesity. A total of 84 obese and 63 normal weight patients was studied. Each analyst completed a detailed questionnaire on his…

  10. Abdominal Burkitt-type lymphomas in Algeria.

    PubMed Central

    Ladjadj, Y.; Philip, T.; Lenoir, G. M.; Tazerout, F. Z.; Bendisari, K.; Boukheloua, R.; Biron, P.; Brunat-Mentigny, M.; Aboulola, M.

    1984-01-01

    In a previous retrospective analysis from the principal paediatric centres of Algeria, Burkitt-type lymphomas (BL) were shown to account for around 46.5% of the total childhood non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas in that country. In the present study, a series of 49 abdominal BL from the Paediatric Clinic of Surgery, Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, has been studied. The age distribution shows a peak between 4 and 5 years of age, and the sex ratio is (M:F) 2.26:1. The disease is characterized by a rapid evolution in the absence of therapy. The major problem is an explosive form of the disease, which at present seems difficult to control in this country. Fifteen of the 49 patients (30.6%) died before completion of the first course of chemotherapy; however, complete remission (CR) was obtained for 30 patients (61%). Overall survival was 42.85% (21/49), whereas survival of patients who reached CR is 70% (21/30). When CR was obtained, deaths were related to cerebrospinal fluid involvement, local recurrence, secondary bone marrow involvement or therapeutic accidents. All patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8-months after CR can be considered definitively cured. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology performed on 31 BL patients and on a control group of 25 children with other malignant tumours showed that most Algerian BL have elevated EBV titres. A search for viral markers within malignant cells in 17 patients indicated that 88% (15/17) of the BL cases were EBV-associated. Analysis of the immunological and cytogenetic data showed that, as in the rest of the world, these BL cases involve proliferation of B-cell-type lymphocytes, with characteristic cytogenetic translocations involving chromosome 8. This report represents the most detailed description so far of BL from an area in non-equatorial Africa and the first report of a large series from North Africa. PMID:6324843

  11. Increased Circulating ANG II and TNF-α Represents Important Risk Factors in Obese Saudi Adults with Hypertension Irrespective of Diabetic Status and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Bindahman, Lotfi S.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Saleem, Tahia H.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Draz, Hossam M.; Yakout, Sobhy; Mohamed, Amany O.; Harte, Alison L.; McTernan, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m2), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m2), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m2) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m2). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-α (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-α with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-α, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk. PMID:23251471

  12. Bimodal distribution of risk for childhood obesity in urban Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Schwartz, Norah; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    In Mexico, higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated with increased risk for obesity in children. Within developed urban areas, however, there may be increased risk among lower SES children. Students in grades 4-6 from five public schools in Tijuana and Tecate, Mexico, were interviewed and weight, height and waist circumference (WC) measurements were taken. Interviews consisted of questions on food frequency, food insecurity, acculturation, physical activity and lifestyle practices. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess risk factors for obesity (having a body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) and abdominal obesity (a WC >90th percentile) using Stata 11.0. Five hundred and ninety students were enrolled; 43.7% were overweight or obese, and 24.3% were obese and 20.2% had abdominal obesity. Independent risk factors for obesity included watching TV in English (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.41) and perceived child food insecurity (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.36). Decreased risk for obesity was associated with female sex (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96), as was regular multivitamin use (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Risk obesity was also decreased with increased taco consumption (≥1×/week; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96). Independent risk factors for abdominal obesity included playing video games ≥1×/week (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-2.96) and older age group (10-11 years, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.29-4.73 and ≥12 years, OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.09-4.49). Increased consumption of tacos was also associated with decreased risk for abdominal obesity (≥1×/week; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.40-1.00). We found a bimodal distribution for risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in school aged children on the Mexican border with the United States. Increased risk for obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with factors indicative of lower and higher SES including watching TV in English, increased video game playing and perceived food insecurity

  13. Gender and Obesity Specific MicroRNA Expression in Adipose Tissue from Lean and Obese Pigs.

    PubMed

    Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette J; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S; Jørgensen, Claus B; Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six miRNAs are differentially expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the lean and obese group of pigs, and in addition gender specific significant differential expression is observed for a number of miRNAs. The differentially expressed miRNAs have been verified using qPCR. The results of these studies in general confirm the trends found by RNAseq. Mir-9 and mir-124a are significantly differentially expressed with large fold changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue between lean and obese pigs. Mir-9 is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 10 and a p-value < 0.001. Mir-124a is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 114 and a p-value < 0.001. In addition, mir-124a is significantly higher expressed in abdominal adipose tissue in male pigs with a fold change of 119 and a p-value < 0.05. Both miRNAs are also significantly higher expressed in the liver of obese male pigs where mir-124a has a fold change of 12 and mir-9 has a fold change of 1.6, both with p-values < 0.05. PMID:26222688

  14. [Obesity and asthma].

    PubMed

    Vázquez García, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and asthma are two disorders of high and increasing worldwide prevalence. A consistent association between obesity and asthma has been recently found in case-control, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This association is more consistent in women after the puberty. Moreover, an improvement in the severity of asthma has been described after weight reduction in obese patients. A causal association between asthma and obesity may represent an additional respiratory work that could increase the morbidity and medical expenditures. The most striking studies which demonstrate association between obesity and asthma and the possible causal mechanisms are reviewed. PMID:12587420

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  16. Obesity Outweighs Protection Conferred by Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Hertz, Tomer; Johnson, Cydney; Mehle, Andrew; Krammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe influenza virus infection, making vaccination of utmost importance for this high-risk population. However, vaccinated obese animals and adults have decreased neutralizing antibody responses. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of either alum or a squalene-based adjuvant (AS03) to an influenza vaccine would improve neutralizing antibody responses and protect obese mice from challenge. Our studies demonstrate that adjuvanted vaccine does increase both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibody levels compared to vaccine alone. Although obese mice mount significantly decreased virus-specific antibody responses, both the breadth and the magnitude of the responses against hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are decreased compared to the responses in lean mice. Importantly, even with a greater than fourfold increase in neutralizing antibody levels, obese mice are not protected against influenza virus challenge and viral loads remain elevated in the respiratory tract. Increasing the antigen dose affords no added protection, and a decreasing viral dose did not fully mitigate the increased mortality seen in obese mice. Overall, these studies highlight that, while the use of an adjuvant does improve seroconversion, vaccination does not fully protect obese mice from influenza virus challenge, possibly due to the increased sensitivity of obese animals to infection. Given the continued increase in the global obesity epidemic, our findings have important implications for public health. PMID:27486196

  17. Cross-sectional imaging of thoracic and abdominal complications of cerebrospinal fluid shunt catheters.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Ferdia; Fardanesh, Reza; Morgan, Tara; Katz, Douglas S; Daly, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to review the imaging findings of distal (thoracic and abdominal) complications related to ventriculo-peritoneal (VP), ventriculo-pleural (VPL), and ventriculo-atrial (VA) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt catheter placement. Institution review board-approved single-center study of patients with thoracic and abdominal CSF catheter-related complications on cross-sectional imaging examinations over a 14-year period was performed. Clinical presentation, patient demographics, prior medical history, and subsequent surgical treatment were recorded. The presence or absence of CSF catheter-related infection and/or acute hydrocephalus on cross-sectional imaging was also recorded. There were 81 distal CSF catheter-related complications identified on 47 thoracic or abdominal imaging examinations in 30 patients (age 5-80 years, mean 39.3 years), most often on CT (CT = 42, MRI = 1, US = 4). Complications included 38 intraperitoneal and 11 extraperitoneal fluid collections. Extraperitoneal collections included nine abdominal wall subcutaneous (SC) pseudocysts associated with shunt migration and obesity, an intrapleural pseudocyst, and a breast pseudocyst. There were also two large VPL-related pleural effusions, a fractured catheter in the SC tissues, and a large VA shunt thrombus within the right atrium. Ten patients (33.3 %) had culture-positive infection from CSF or shunt catheter samples. Ten patients (33.3 %) had features of temporally related acute or worsening hydrocephalus on neuroimaging. In four of these patients, the detection of thoracic and abdominal complications on CT preceded and predicted the findings of acute hydrocephalus on cranial imaging. Thoracic and abdominal complications of CSF shunts, as can be identified on CT,  include shunt infection and/or obstruction, may be both multiple and recurrent, and may be predictive of concurrent acute intracranial problems. PMID:26610766

  18. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  19. [Atherosclerosis in childhood: the role of obesity].

    PubMed

    Sarni, P; Vinci, A; Fierro, S; Del Buono, S

    1997-01-01

    A variety of studies indicates that the process of atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses during adulthood. Chronic obesity, inadequate caloric intake, and hypertension and smoke, are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate if the presence of some risk factors during adolescence may involve in accelerated atherosclerosis disease. 50 subjects, median age 11 +/- 0.6 SD (27 females, and 23 males) are admitted to the study. After overnight fasting we have investigated: lipoproteina A (nephelometric test), glycemia and insulin baseline and after load 120', tryglycerides, cholesterolo, apolipoproteina A, B, plasma concentrations. In addition to general medical evaluation, anthropometric measurements of weight, height, blood pressure, BMI, overnight ratio were calculated according to Tanner's charts. The means anthropometric and metabolic values in different groups were compared. One group affected with abdominal obesity state (waist-hips ratio > 0.9), the second with mid obesity condition (waist-hip ratio < 0.9). Tryglycerides, cholesterolo, insulin plasma concentrations in both groups were considered similar. However in the first group higher levels of apolipoproteina A (means 102 + 10.2 SD) and lipoproteina A were demonstrated (P = 0.03 in males, P = 0.01 Statview for Mann Whitney test). Childhood is an important period for the development of the atherosclerosis such as the presence of obesity during this time has a very high likelihood of persisting into adulthood. The severity of obesity in adults is greater in those who were obese as adolescents. In accord with other authors we have not observed abnormal tryglicerides and cholesterolo plasma concentrations, which probably are found in adulthood obesity. We believe indeed the risk factors are different in obesity of childhood, atherosclerosis may be induced by high endogenous insulin secretion and abnormal uptake of lipoprotein. However the potential

  20. Challenges in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  1. Impact of Obesity on Complications of Laparoscopic Simple or Radical Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Arfi, Nicolas; Baldini, Arnaud; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Ecochard, Rene; Ruffion, Alain; Paparel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of obesity on complications in laparoscopic simple or radical nephrectomy. Patients and Methods The medical files of 215 patients who underwent laparoscopic simple or radical nephrectomy in our center between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed. A body mass index of 30 kg/m² was used to divide the patients into obese and non-obese groups. Pre-operative data and intra- and post-operative complications were compared between the 2 groups. Results There were respectively 163 and 52 patients in the non-obese and obese groups, which were comparable in terms of age, sex, and history of surgery. In the obese group, operative specimens were significantly heavier (772 vs. 534 g in the non-obese group; p = 0.005) and durations of surgery was significantly longer (244 vs. 216 minutes; p = 0.003). However no significant differences were found between the 2 groups for duration of hospitalization, surgical conversion, estimated blood loss, or intra- or post-operative complications. Conclusion Laparoscopic simple or radical nephrectomy is technically feasible in obese patients but the surgery may take more time, notably due to dissection difficulties. Our results showed that the risk of intra- and post-operative complications is not higher in obese patients compared to non-obese patients, except for a possible, but statistically undemonstrated, higher risk of abdominal wall complications, and that the laparoscopic approach should be the preferred technique in patients with high body mass index. PMID:26889135

  2. Evaluation of microalbuminuria in obese children and its relation to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Mohammed; Gharib, Amal

    2011-12-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have clearly demonstrated that obesity increases the risk of kidney diseases. We have attempted to evaluate the association of obesity with albuminuria, an early marker of kidney disease, among obese children and its relation to metabolic syndrome. This study included 150 obese children. Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and the lipid profile were assessed. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate in vivo insulin resistance. Urinary albumin and creatinine were estimated. Microalbuminuria was detected in 22 (14.7%) of the obese children. Waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose were significantly higher in obese children with microalbuminuria than in those with normoalbuminuria and showed significant positive correlations with microalbuminuria. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly lower in obese children with microalbuminuria than in those with normoalbuminuria, with a significant negative correlation with microalbuminuria. We found that body mass index, abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose level and insulin resistance significantly increased the odds of microalbuminuria in the obese children enrolled in this study. Moreover, high triglyceride, high LDL and low HDL were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. In our patient group, childhood obesity was a risk factor for the development of microalbuminuria, which in turn was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and its different constituents. PMID:21638155

  3. Serum IL-12 Is Increased in Mexican Obese Subjects and Associated with Low-Grade Inflammation and Obesity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Álvarez, K.; Solís-Lozano, L.; Leon-Cabrera, S.; González-Chávez, A.; Gómez-Hernández, G.; Quiñones-Álvarez, M. S.; Serralde-Zúñiga, A. E.; Hernández-Ruiz, J.; Ramírez-Velásquez, J.; Galindo-González, F. J.; Zavala-Castillo, J. C.; De León-Nava, M. A.; Robles-Díaz, G.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-(IL-) 12 has been recently suggested to participate during development of insulin resistance in obese mice. Nevertheless, serum IL-12 levels have not been accurately determined in overweight and obese humans. We thus studied serum concentrations of IL-12 in Mexican adult individuals, examining their relationship with low-grade inflammation and obesity-related parameters. A total of 147 healthy individuals, 43 normal weight, 61 overweight, and 43 obese subjects participated in the study. Circulating levels of IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured after overnight fasting in all of the study subjects. Waist circumference and body fat percentage were recorded for all the participants. Serum IL-12 was significantly higher in overweight and obese individuals than in normal weight controls. Besides being strongly related with body mass index (r = 0.5154), serum IL-12 exhibited a significant relationship with abdominal obesity (r = 0.4481), body fat percentage (r = 0.5625), serum glucose (r = 0.3158), triglyceride (r = 0.3714), and TNF-α (r = 0.4717). Thus, serum levels of IL-12 are increased in overweight and obese individuals and show a strong relationship with markers of low-grade inflammation and obesity in the Mexican adult population. Further research is needed to understand the role of IL-12 in developing obesity-associated alterations in humans. PMID:23533314

  4. Psychosocial factors and obesity in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries: the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Rosengren, A; Teo, K; Rangarajan, S; Kabali, C; Khumalo, I; Kutty, V R; Gupta, R; Yusuf, R; Iqbal, R; Ismail, N; Altuntas, Y; Kelishadi, R; Diaz, R; Avezum, A; Chifamba, J; Zatonska, K; Wei, L; Liao, X; Lopez-Jaramillo, P; Yusufali, A; Seron, P; Lear, S A; Yusuf, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Psychosocial stress has been proposed to contribute to obesity, particularly abdominal, or central obesity, through chronic activation of the neuroendocrine systems. However, these putative relationships are complex and dependent on country and cultural context. We investigated the association between psychosocial factors and general and abdominal obesity in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study. Subjects/Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled 151 966 individuals aged 35–70 years from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries. Data were collected for 125 290 individuals regarding education, anthropometrics, hypertension/diabetes, tobacco/alcohol use, diet and psychosocial factors (self-perceived stress and depression). Results: After standardization for age, sex, country income and urban/rural location, the proportion with obesity (body mass index ⩾30 kg m−2) increased from 15.7% in 40 831 individuals with no stress to 20.5% in 7720 individuals with permanent stress, with corresponding proportions for ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity of 48.6% and 53.5%, respectively (P<0.0001 for both). Associations between stress and hypertension/diabetes tended to be inverse. Estimating the total effect of permanent stress with age, sex, physical activity, education and region as confounders, no relationship between stress and obesity persisted (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for obesity 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.99–1.10)). There was no relationship between ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity (adjusted PR 1.00 (0.97–1.02)). Stratification by region yielded inconsistent associations. Depression was weakly but independently linked to obesity (PR 1.08 (1.04–1.12)), and very marginally to abdominal obesity (PR 1.01 (1.00–1.03)). Conclusions: Although individuals with permanent stress tended to be slightly more obese, there was no overall

  5. [Cardiovascular complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Orio, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is one of the major coronary risk factor representing an increasingly important worldwide health problem. The increased prevalence of obesity among younger population is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome and contributes to increase the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relationship between obesity (especially visceral obesity) and CVD appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and polycystic ovary syndrome represents an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women. PMID:17312846

  6. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

  7. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity. PMID:27115879

  8. Obesity: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Ogunbode, A M; Ladipo, Mma; Ajayi, I O; Fatiregun, A A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is rapidly becoming an emerging disease in developing countries due to the increasing westernization of societies and change in the lifestyle. The etiology of obesity is said to be multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Literature has been extensively reviewed to provide a broad overview of obesity. Data for this review were obtained from original articles, review articles and textbooks. Internet search engines were also employed. The years searched were from 1993 to 2008. Obesity, classified in terms of the body mass index and the waist-hip ratio, has several associated co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, degenerative osteoarthritis and infertility. In Nigeria, there is limited information on obesity. A literature review on obesity is necessary to improve the knowledge about obesity in developing countries, its prevention and its management. PMID:22248935

  9. Obesity and gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

  10. Obesity and obligation.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    The belief that obese people ought to lose weight and keep it off is widespread, and has a profound negative impact on the lives of the obese. I argue in this paper that most obese people have no such obligation, even if obesity is bad, and caused by calorie input exceeding output. Obese people do not have an obligation to achieve long-term weight loss if this is impossible for them, is worse than the alternative, or requires such an enormous effort in relation to what stands to be gained that this option is supererogatory rather than obligatory. It is highly plausible that most obese people fall into one of these three groups. Politicians may still have obligations to fight obesity, but they ought to do so through progressive politics rather than blaming and shaming. PMID:25843121

  11. Obesity, hypertension and aldosterone: is leptin the link?

    PubMed

    Xie, Ding; Bollag, Wendy B

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a serious health hazard with rapidly increasing prevalence in the United States. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated that nearly 2 billion people worldwide were overweight with an estimated 600 million of these obese. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Data from the Framingham Heart study suggest that approximately 78% of the risk for hypertension in men and 65% in women is related to excess body weight, a relationship that is further supported by studies showing increases in blood pressure with weight gain and decreases with weight loss. However, the exact mechanism by which excess body fat induces hypertension remains poorly understood. Several clinical studies have demonstrated elevated plasma aldosterone levels in obese individuals, especially those with visceral adiposity, with decreased aldosterone levels measured in concert with reduced blood pressure following weight loss. Since aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone that regulates blood volume and pressure, serum aldosterone levels may link obesity and hypertension. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which obesity induces aldosterone production is unclear. A recent study by Belin de Chantemele and coworkers suggests that one adipose-released factor, leptin, is a direct agonist for aldosterone secretion; other adipose-related factors may also contribute to elevated aldosterone levels in obesity, such as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the levels of which are elevated in obesity and which also directly stimulates aldosterone biosynthesis. This focused review explores the possible roles of leptin and VLDL in modulating aldosterone secretion to underlie obesity-associated hypertension. PMID:27252389

  12. [The patient with intra-abdominal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sakka, Samir G

    2016-01-01

    An intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) defined as a pathological increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is commonly found on ICU admission or during the ICU stay. Several studies confirmed that an IAH is an independent predictor for mortality of critically ill patients. The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) which is defined as a sustained IAP>20 mmHg (with or without an abdominal perfusion pressure [APP]<60mmHg) that is associated with new organ dysfunction or failure has a mortality of up to 60%. In general, an IAH may be induced by several intra-abdominal as well as extra-abdominal conditions. Reduced abdominal wall compliance, intra-abdominal pathologies (either of the peritoneal space or parenchymateous organs) may lead to an IAH. Most commonly, intra-abdominal infections and/or sepsis and severe trauma or burns are predisposing for an IAH. An early sign may be a decrease in urinary output. The effects of an increased IAP on cardiovascular function are well recognized and include negative effects on preload, afterload and contractility. However, all other compartments of the body may be affected by an IAH. Thus, by an increase of the respective compartment pressure, e.g. intracranial pressure, a poly-compartment syndrome may result. Adequate prevention, a forward-looking strategy, and objective techniques for measurement of IAP are required to avoid or early detect an IAH or ACS. Finally, an immediate and consequent interdisciplinary management using conservative, interventional and operative options are necessary to solve an IAH or ACS. PMID:26863642

  13. The role of obesity in oesophageal cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the developed world in the last half century. Over approximately the same period there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Multiple epidemiological studies and meta-analyses have confirmed that obesity, especially abdominal, visceral obesity, is a risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux, Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Although visceral obesity enhances gastro-oesophageal reflux, the available data also show that visceral obesity increases the risk of Barrett’s oesophagus and adenocarcinoma via reflux-independent mechanisms. Several possible mechanisms could link obesity with the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in addition to mechanical effects increasing reflux. These include reduced gastric Helicobacter pylori infection, altered intestinal microbiome, factors related to lifestyle, the metabolic syndrome and associated low-grade inflammation induced by obesity and the secretion of mediators by adipocytes which may directly influence the oesophageal epithelium. Of these adipocyte-derived mediators, increased leptin levels have been independently associated with progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and in laboratory studies leptin enhances malignant behaviours in cell lines. Adiponectin is also secreted by adipocytes and levels decline with obesity: decreased serum adiponectin levels are associated with malignant progression in Barrett’s oesophagus and experimentally adiponectin exerts anticancer effects in Barrett’s cell lines and inhibits growth factor signalling. At present there are no proven chemopreventative interventions that may reduce the incidence of obesity-associated oesophageal cancer: observational studies suggest that the combined use of a statin and aspirin or another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor is associated with a significantly reduced cancer incidence in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus. PMID:25364384

  14. Hypertension and obesity: epidemiology, mechanisms and clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Becton, Lauren J; Shatat, Ibrahim F; Flynn, Joseph T

    2012-08-01

    Obesity-related hypertension in pediatric patients is becoming more prevalent around the world as a consequence of the childhood obesity epidemic. Hypertension and the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity will significantly increase the health risks for these children as they grow into adulthood. The pathophysiology of obesity-related hypertension is complex, and multiple potential mechanisms likely contribute to the development of higher blood pressure in obese children. These include hyperinsulinemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, abnormalities in adipokines such as leptin, direct effects of perinephric fat on the renal parenchyma, and cytokines acting at the vascular endothelial level. As in any child with elevated blood pressure, diagnostic evaluation should focus on confirmation of hypertension, determine if an underlying cause can be identified and whether hypertensive target organ damage is present. Therapy should begin with lifestyle modifications, but will often need to include one or more antihypertensive medications. PMID:22664863

  15. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity. PMID:24103493

  16. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. PMID:27133249

  17. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki

    2015-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  18. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  19. [Diagnostic laparocentesis in closed abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Berkutov, A N; Deriabin, I I; Zakurdaev, V E

    1976-09-01

    To improve the diagnosis of closed abdominal trauma since 1966 the authors have been widely employing laparocentesis. The results of using abdominal punctures an 260 patients are reported. The method proved to be reliable in 97.7%. The use of laparocentesis enabled the authors to reduce the number of errors by 7.3 times, to shorten the terms of establishing the diagnosis by 4 times as compared with the control group of patients (190 subjects in whom the recognition of abdominal injuries is based on common clinical symptoms). PMID:136785

  20. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    PubMed

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  1. Imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Amy R; Johnson, Philip L; Meyer, Mark C

    2002-04-15

    Given the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation are essential for improved patient outcomes. Ultrasonography is the standard method of screening and monitoring AAAs that have not ruptured. In the past, aortography was commonly used for preoperative planning in the repair of AAAs. More recently, computed tomography (CT) has largely replaced older, more invasive methods. Recent advances in CT imaging technology, such as helical CT and CT angiography, offer significant advantages over traditional CT. These methods allow for more rapid scans and can produce three-dimensional images of the AAA and important adjacent vascular structures. Use of endovascular stent grafts has increased recently and is less invasive for the repair of AAAs in selected cases. Aortography and CT angiography can precisely determine the size and surrounding anatomy of the AAA to identify appropriate candidates for the use of endovascular stent grafts. Helical CT and CT angiography represent an exciting future in the preoperative evaluation of AAAs. However, this technology is not the standard of care because of the lack of widespread availability, the cost associated with obtaining new equipment, and the lack of universal protocols necessary for acquisition and reconstruction of these images. PMID:11989632

  2. Safely Combining Abdominoplasty with Aggressive Abdominal Liposuction Based on Perforator Vessels: Technique and a Review of 300 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lane F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There continues to be controversy about performing abdominoplasty concurrently with abdominal liposuction. The concern is that liposuction on the already vascularly compromised abdominal flap will lead to increased complications and flap necrosis. The central abdomen is supplied by the epigastric system. If perforator vessels from this system are spared, the blood supply to the abdomen can be spared and liposuction should be able to be safely performed on the elevated abdominal flap. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of abdominoplasty with concurrent abdominal liposuction when a perforator vessel is spared. Methods: A standard abdominoplasty was performed, sparing one or two perforator vessels from the deep superior epigastric artery system. A retrospective chart review of 300 consecutive patients who underwent abdominoplasty surgery combined with concurrent abdominal liposuction was performed. Complications, total volume of abdominal liposuction, and results were reviewed. Results: The overall complication rate was 17.3 percent (52 patients). Sixteen percent (48 patients) suffered minor complications and 1.3 percent (four patients) suffered major complications. Conclusions: Abdominoplasty can be combined safely with concurrent abdominal liposuction when a perforator vessel is spared. The combination of concurrent liposuction with abdominoplasty showed no increase in complication rates when a perforator vessel was spared. The perforator vessels are located consistently in a 2-cm radius located 4 cm from the midline and 6 cm from the subcostal margin. The potential advantages of abdominoplasty with concurrent liposuction include a better postoperative cosmetic result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25919250

  3. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 1996, Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate was introduced and has been shown to be safe and highly effective. Case presentation We report a case of a rare complication that resulted in intra-abdominal compartment syndrome with prolonged intubation and intensive care, involving an 74-year-old male after holmium laser enucleation of prostate, with a massive irrigant fluid leakage into the retroperitoneal space. The elevated abdominal pressure was reduced by forced diuresis. The tracheal tube was removed 18 hours after the patient’s transfer to the ICU. The patient was discharged to home one week after the operation. Conclusion In rare cases when no obvious ruptures of the prostate capsule or the bladder occur during laser enucleation of prostate, knowledge regarding possible emersion of massive amounts of irrigant fluid into the retroperitoneal space leading to intra-abdominal compartment syndrome aids in the diagnosis and subsequent successful therapy of intra-abdominal hypertension. PMID:24910537

  4. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35–74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), general obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and < 88 in women, ≥ 94 and < 102 in men), abdominal obesity (WC ≥88 cm ≥102 cm in women and men, respectively) and WHtR ≥0.5 was estimated, standardized for the European population. Results We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). Conclusions The

  5. Obese patients have similar short-term outcomes to non-obese in laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Manish; De’Ath, Henry D; Siddiqui, Muhammed; Mehta, Chetanya; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Bromilow, James; Qureshi, Tahseen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery program had worse short-term outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection was carried out between 2008 and 2011 in a single institution. Patients were divided in groups based on body mass index (BMI). Short-term outcomes including operative data, length of stay, complications and readmission rates were recorded and compared between the groups. Continuous data were analysed using t-test or one-way Analysis of Variance. χ2 test was used to compare categorical data. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty four patients were included over the study period. The majority of individuals (41.7%) recruited were of a healthy weight (BMI < 25), whilst 50 patients were classified as obese (19.6%). Patients were matched in terms of the presence of co-morbidities and previous abdominal surgery. Obese patients were found to have a statistically significant difference in The American Society of Anesthesiologists grade. Length of surgery and intra-operative blood loss were no different according to BMI. CONCLUSION: Obesity (BMI > 25) does not lead to worse short-term outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and therefore such patients should not be precluded from laparoscopic surgery. PMID:26527560

  6. Perirenal fat promotes renal arterial endothelial dysfunction in obese swine through tumor necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuangtao; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Woollard, John R.; Jordan, Kyra L.; Tang, Hui; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perirenal fat is associated with poor blood pressure control and chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that perirenal fat impairs renal arterial endothelial function in pigs with obesity-metabolic derangements (ObM). Material and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were studied after 16 weeks of a high-fat/high-fructose diet (ObM) or standard chow (Lean). Renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and visceral fat volumes were studied in-vivo with CT. Renal arterial endothelial function was also studied ex-vivo in the organ bath. Results ObM pigs demonstrated increased body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, and intra-abdominal fat compared to lean pigs, and perirenal fat volume was significantly larger. RBF and GFR were markedly elevated, while urinary protein level was preserved. Ex-vivo acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation of renal artery rings was substantially impaired in ObM compared to Lean. Endothelial function was further blunted in both ObM and Lean arterial rings by incubation with perirenal fat harvested from ObM, but not from Lean pigs, and was restored by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. ObM perirenal fat also showed increased pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration and TNF-α expression. Conclusions ObM perirenal fat directly causes renal artery endothelial dysfunction, partly mediated by TNF-α. PMID:26417644

  7. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  8. Paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastaisis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONGXING; ZHANG, MINJIA; CHENG, NANSHENG; ZHOU, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Typical human paragonimiasis demonstrates an elevated eosinophil count, positive immunoblot, nodular shadows of the lung and pleural thickening with pleural effusion, and these symptoms may be confused with chest cancer. In the present case, a rare case of human paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastasis is described, the 39-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital for cough, weight loss 5 kg and a firm mass in right upper abdominal wall. The laboratory test showed unremarkable hematology and biochemistry results. Chest X-ray, Plain computed tomography of the chest and abdomen showed right pleural effusion, several nodules in right lower lung and a mass in the right upper abdominal wall. The initial diagnosis was lung or chest cancer with abdominal wall metastasis, and the abdominal wall mass was resected for the final diagnosis. The biopsy revealed eosinophilic granuloma with Charcot-Leyden crystal formation infiltrated in the muscular fibers. Subsequent to assessment of the antibodies against parasites, the final diagnosis of paragonimiasis was made. PMID:27313691

  9. Obesity and asthma.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal. PMID:24313764

  10. The sociology of obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907

  11. Sphingolipid metabolism and obesity-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se-Chan; Kim, Bo-Rahm; Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Tae-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder developed by overnutrition and a major cause for insulin resistance and cardiovascular events. Since adipose tissue is one of the major sites for the synthesis and secretion of cytokines, enlarged adipose tissue in obese condition alters inflammatory state leading to pathophysiological conditions such as type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk. A plausible theory for development of metabolic dysregulation is that obesity increases secretion of inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue and causes a chronic inflammation in the whole body. Additionally accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissues elevates the cellular levels of bioactive lipids that inhibit the signaling pathways implicated in metabolic regulation together with activated inflammatory response. Recent findings suggest that obesity-induced inflammatory response leads to modulation of sphingolipid metabolism and these bioactive lipids may function as mediators for increased risk of metabolic dysfunction. Importantly, elucidation of mechanism regarding sphingolipid metabolism and inflammatory disease will provide crucial information to development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity-induced pathological inflammation. PMID:23761785

  12. Relationship Between Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Oh, In-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity rates have been increasing for all population groups worldwide, leading to the increased development of various diseases. This study was designed is to identify the relationships between obesity and several important otorhinolaryngologic diseases, including chronic otitis media (COM), chronic rhinosinusitis, and chronic tonsillitis. Methods Mean body mass index (BMI) was compared in patients with COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis and in a control group. The relationships among the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity, morbidity period, and BMI were assessed in each group. Results Mean BMIs in the COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis groups were 24.45±2.72 kg/m2, 24.68±3.25 kg/m2, and 24.67±3.82 kg/m2, respectively, with each significantly higher than in the control group (23.22±3.01 kg/m2, P<0.05). The rates of obesity in the COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis groups were 37.5%, 42.9%, and 40.1%, respectively, each significantly higher than in the control group (24.3%, P<0.05). However, the rates of overweight did not differ significantly in the COM, rhinosinusitis, and tonsillitis compared with the control group (P>0.05 each). Conclusion Mean BMI and the prevalence of obesity were elevated in the three groups of patients with representative otorhinolaryngologic inflammatory diseases, including COM, chronic rhinosinusitis, and chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26330910

  13. Thyroid axis alterations in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gertig, Anna M; Niechciał, Elżbieta; Skowrońska, Bogda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years researchers have become increasingly interested in the particular relation between the function of the thyroid gland and the body mass in the population of obese children. Numerous studies have been conducted and the literature on the related issues has been abounding. Several thereof have strived at pinpointing a significant link between the function of the thyroid axis and the body mass. Yet, it still remains to be clarified whether these subtle changes in the level of thyroid hormones and TSH observed in childhood obesity are responsible for the increased body mass or rather they represent a secondary phenomenon. The mechanism most often put forward by the researchers that links obesity to thyroid function is the increased level of leptin, which affects neurones in the hypothalamus and the thyroid axis causing TRH and TSH secretion. The body mass is positively correlated with serum leptin and elevated level of leptin is connected with an increase in TSH level. However, there is still controversy whether these inconspicuous differences observed in thyroid axis merit the treatment with thyroxine since these changes seem to constitute a consequence rather than a cause of obesity. Therefore, as most authors postulate, primary importance should be placed on lifestyle changes and body weight reduction leaving substitutive treatment as a supplementary option. The purpose of this review is to present the most current issues on child obesity and the related malfunction of the thyroid axis through an overview of international publications from the years 1996-2011. PMID:23146791

  14. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  15. Abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Justin R; Vega-López, Sonia; Djedjos, Constantine S; Shaibi, Gabriel Q

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR) place youth at higher risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In adults, abdominal obesity and IR contribute to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Whether similar mechanisms are operational in Latino adolescents is unknown. Therefore, we determined whether IR and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher oxLDL concentrations in Latino adolescents. Data from 123 Latino adolescents (16.3 ± 2.5 years; female = 74) were used for the present analysis. Participants were assessed for waist circumference, fasting serum oxLDL, and insulin sensitivity by the whole body insulin sensitivity index. In separate linear regression models adjusting for age and sex, both waist circumference and insulin sensitivity were significant predictors of oxLDL (β = 1.9; p = 0.002; R2 = 0.13, β = -1.7; p = 0.006; R2 = 0.11, respectively). When insulin sensitivity and waist circumference were included in the same model, both remained independent predictors of oxLDL (β = 1.7; p = 0.016 and, β = -1.5; p = 0.055, respectively; R2 = 0.16). These results suggest that insulin resistance and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher levels of LDL oxidation which may be a mechanism contributing to increased CVD risk in Latino adolescents. PMID:24238302

  16. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  17. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... this kind of pain when they have a stomach virus, indigestion, gas, or when they become constipated. ...

  18. Familial abdominal chemodectomas with associated cutaneous angiolipomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S P; Nicholson, G I; Hitchcock, G

    1977-04-01

    The occurrence of cutaneous angiolipomas and intra-abdominal retroperitoneal chemodectomas in two brothers is described. Both died from malignant dissemination of the chemodectomas. It is possible but speculative that two other brothers suffered from the same syndrome. PMID:195258

  19. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Cleva, Roberto; de Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L) and FVC (2.0±0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p = 0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery. PMID:25029580

  20. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  1. Using abdominal massage in bowel management.

    PubMed

    Connor, Michelle; Hunt, Catherine; Lindley, Alison; Adams, John

    2014-07-15

    This article describes the introduction of abdominal massage techniques by a community team as part of a total bowel management programme for people with learning disabilities. A trust-wide audit of prescribed laxative use by this client group raised concerns, and led to a more systematic approach to managing constipation in people with learning disabilities. An education programme for carers proved to be successful. Some reported that adopting abdominal massage provided further opportunity to develop the therapeutic relationship. PMID:25005415

  2. Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Barchiche, R; Bové, T; Demanet, H; Goldstein, J P; Deuvaert, F E

    1999-08-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare entity, occurring as the result of a missed aortic lesion at the time of the initial injury. Therefore, clinical suspicion and careful abdominal exploration at first laparotomy is mandatory to prevent aortic pseudoaneurysm formation and its risk of delayed rupture. We present a case of successful surgical treatment of a suprarenal aortic false aneurysm, presenting 4 weeks after a life-threatening gunshot wound in a 13-year-old child. PMID:10499389

  3. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  4. [The pharmacotherapy of obesity].

    PubMed

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Mirzahosseini, Arash; Noszál Béla; Tóth, Gergő

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered the most concerning and blatantly visible--yet most neglected--public health problem by the WHO. The steadily increasing number of overweight and obese people has reached 2.3 billion and 700 million worldwide, respectively. Obesity is a complex condition, one that presents serious health risks with respect to type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, therefore controlling the global obesity epidemic decreases not only health problems, but also expenditure. The underlying cause of obesity is a metabolic disorder of genetic, central nervous system or endocrine etiology that manifests in increased nutritional intake and/or decreased physical activity ultimately leading to excessive lipogenesis. The natural treatment of obesity, that is often advised, is comprised of healthy lifestyle choices, namely low-calorie diet and exercise. However, the pharmaceutic treatment of obesity is just as important; having a better compliance rate, anti-obesity drugs also improve quality of life and patient-care outcome concerning accompanying diseases. In most countries only one drug is currently available against obesity: orlistat, which is a specific and irreversible lipase inhibitor. One of the reasons for the scarce number of anti-obesity drugs is the complex pathomechanism involved in obesity. Interference with the intricate biochemical processes that govern alimentation may lead to widespread adverse effects. The advances of the field however, have prompted novel drug leads. In the past few years FDA has approved new drugs for the treatment of obesity, recently liraglutide in 2014. The approval of drug combinations, such as phentermine/topiramate and bupropion/naltrexone are also noteworthy, the components of which have been previously approved, but not necessarily for obesity as main indication. Furthermore, there are many anti-obesity drug candidates currently in clinical phase trials, with promisingly modest adverse effect profiles; hence

  5. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  6. Obesity and obstetric anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mace, H S; Paech, M J; McDonnell, N J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in the population as a whole, and especially in the obstetric population, among whom pregnancy-induced physiological changes impact on those already present due to obesity. In particular, changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during pregnancy further alter the physiological effects and comorbidities of obesity. Obese pregnant women are at increased risk of diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, ischaemic heart disease, congenital malformations, operative delivery postpartum infection and thromboembolism. Regional analgesia and anaesthesia is usually preferred but may be challenging. Obese pregnant women appear to have increased morbidity and mortality associated with caesarean delivery and general anaesthesia for caesarean delivery in particular, and more anaesthesia-related complications. This article summarises the physiological and pharmacological implications of obesity and pregnancy and describes the issues surrounding the management of these women for labour and delivery. PMID:21823371

  7. Obesity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems. PMID:25702971

  8. Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there is, in fact, limited evidence to support the thrifty gene hypothesis and that alternative hypotheses have been suggested. This review presents evidence for and against the thrifty gene hypothesis and introduces readers to additional hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of the obesity epidemic. Because these alternate hypotheses imply significantly different strategies for research and clinical management of obesity, their consideration is critical to halting the spread of this epidemic. PMID:24910556

  9. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences. PMID:16856773

  10. Obesity in Children

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades all over the world. The majority of obesity in adulthood has its origins in childhood which makes obesity a pediatric concern and the period when interventions should be done. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adult life and several adverse consequences in childhood like insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pulmonary and orthopedic disorders and psychological problems. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of obesity. Prevention of obesity is critical, since effective treatment of this disease is limited. Food management and increased physical activity must be encouraged, promoted, and prioritized to protect children. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318065

  11. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  12. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  13. Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development of a number of chronic diseases which include hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type II diabetes mellitus and has now become a major health problem worldwide. Elevated serum cholesterol and lipids are commonly observed in obesity. Adipos...

  14. Programming towards childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Tounian, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that a constitutional susceptibility to fat gain is necessary for children to become obese under the pressure of an obesogenic environment; this is the programming towards obesity. The role of genetics in this programming is dominant. Besides the rare monogenic recessive forms of obesity secondary to mutations in genes involved in the hypothalamic appetite control pathways, obesity linked to mutations in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors are more frequent due to their dominant mode of transmission. Predisposition to common obesity is polygenic and involves a network of genes; nevertheless, more research is required to elucidate their exact role. Fetal and perhaps early postnatal programming is also possible. Under- and overnutrition, diabetes, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were shown to promote later obesity and may affect the central body weight regulatory system during fetal development. The role of early postnatal factors such as formula-feeding rather than breastfeeding, excess in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or protein intakes, and excessive weight gain early in life is more questionable and needs further investigation. Taking into consideration that childhood obesity is a programmed disease should modify its clinical management. Childhood obesity should no longer be considered as the result of inappropriate eating habits and/or excessive inactivity in order to relieve the obese children's discrimination and their parents' guilt. Since treatment of obese children requires a substantial motivation to continuously fight against the programmed excessive drive to eat, it seems wiser to wait for children to be old enough, thus more motivated, to initiate energy restriction. Moreover, with the great majority of children being not predisposed to obesity, prevention strategies should not be addressed to the whole pediatric population but targeted to those children at risk. Improvement of knowledge on programming towards

  15. Associations between Short Sleep Duration and Central Obesity in Women

    PubMed Central

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Berne, Christian; Janson, Christer; Sahlin, Carin; Lindberg, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim was to assess associations between sleep duration, sleep stages, and central obesity in women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: City of Uppsala, Sweden. Participants: Population-based sample of 400 women (range 20-70 years). Interventions: Full-night polysomnography and measurement of anthropometric variables. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration was inversely related to both waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter. Sleep duration remained inversely related to waist circumference (adj. β = −1.22 cm/h; P = 0.016) and sagittal abdominal diameter (adj. β = −0.46 cm/h; P = 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. Duration of slow wave sleep (SWS, adj. β = −0.058 cm/min; P = 0.025) and REM sleep (adj. β = −0.062 cm/min; P = 0.002) were both inversely related to waist circumference after adjustments. Moreover, duration of REM sleep was inversely related to sagittal abdominal diameter (adj. β = −0.021 cm/min; P < 0.0001). These associations were stronger in young women (age < 50 years). Conclusion: An inverse relationship between short sleep duration and central obesity was found in women after adjusting for confounders. Loss of SWS and REM sleep may be important factors in the association between sleep loss and central obesity. Citation: Theorell-Haglöw J; Berne C; Janson C; Sahlin C; Lindberg E. Associations between short sleep duration and central obesity in women. SLEEP 2010;33(5): 593-598. PMID:20469801

  16. Thrombus Volume Change Visualization after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiora, Josu; García, Guillermo; Macía, Iván; Legarreta, Jon Haitz; Boto, Fernando; Paloc, Céline; Graña, Manuel; Abuín, Javier Sanchez

    A surgical technique currently used in the treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) is the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR). This minimally invasive procedure involves inserting a prosthesis in the aortic vessel that excludes the aneurysm from the bloodstream. The stent, once in place acts as a false lumen for the blood current to travel down, and not into the surrounding aneurysm sac. This procedure, therefore, immediately takes the pressure off the aneurysm, which thromboses itself after some time. Nevertheless, in a long term perspective, different complications such as prosthesis displacement or bloodstream leaks into or from the aneurysmatic bulge (endoleaks) could appear causing a pressure elevation and, as a result, increasing the danger of rupture. The purpose of this work is to explore the application of image registration techniques to the visual detection of changes in the thrombus in order to assess the evolution of the aneurysm. Prior to registration, both the lumen and the thrombus are segmented

  17. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population—Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta S. L.; Forti, Adriana C. e; Vilela, Brunna S.; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. Methods A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. Results After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population. PMID:25951458

  18. Tonic Hyper-Connectivity of Reward Neurocircuitry in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Black, William R.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Powell, Joshua N.; Bruce, Jared M.; Martin, Laura E.; Davis, Ann M.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obese children demonstrate less activation in prefrontal regions associated with self-control and inhibition when presented with food cues and advertisements. The current study evaluates the differences between obese and healthy weight children in resting-state functional connectivity to these brain regions. Design and Methods Seed regions in bilateral middle frontal gyri were chosen based on previous task-based analysis showing differences between obese and healthy weight children’s responses to food-associated stimuli. Functional connectivity to these seed regions was measured in resting-state scans collected in obese and lean children undergoing fMRI. Results Obese children exhibited greater resting-state functional connectivity than healthy weight children between the left middle frontal gyrus and reward-related regions in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as the left lateral OFC. Conclusion Previously published results demonstrate that obese children exhibit less activity in brain regions associated with self-control when viewing motivationally salient food advertisements. Here we show that obese children also have tonically greater input to these self-control regions from reward neurocircuitry. The greater functional connectivity between reward and self-control regions, in conjunction with weaker activation of self-control neurocircuitry, may render these children more susceptible to food advertisements, placing them at elevated risk for over-feeding and obesity. PMID:24634397

  19. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting. PMID:10340798

  20. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources & Publications Reports Prevention Strategies & Guidelines Fact Sheets Social Media Tools ... now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  1. DBS for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ruth; Fonoff, Erich T; Alvarenga, Pedro; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Miguel, Euripides C; Teixeira, Manoel J; Damiani, Durval; Hamani, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity. PMID:27438859

  2. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  3. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  4. Impact of Obesity on Surgical Site Infection in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hourigan, Jon Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Obesity affects over 30% of the United States population. Over the past 10 years, there has been increased recognition of the prevalence of obesity and its contribution to worse outcomes among medical and surgical patients. In particular, obesity has been validated as a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) among patients undergoing major abdominal surgery with some reports demonstrating an increased risk of SSI as high as sixty percent (60%) among obese patients. For patients undergoing elective colon and rectal surgery, a higher incidence of SSI (up to 45%) has been reported in comparison to outcomes of other surgical procedures. Obesity, as well as numerous other variables, have been implicated as a potential source for this increased incidence. Although the pathophysiology of obesity-related SSI has been suggested (decreased wound oxygen tension, impaired tissue antibiotic penetration, altered immune function, etc.), the true effect of obesity has not been clearly described. The purpose of this review is to examine the growing epidemic of obesity and its specific impact on SSI for both general and colorectal surgical patients. The proposed mechanisms for why obesity increases the risk of SSI will be briefly discussed, as well. PMID:23204944

  5. Severe obesity, gestational weight gain, and adverse birth outcomes123

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Himes, Katherine P; Abrams, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines by obesity severity. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5–9 kg at term, for all obese women. Objective: We explored associations between gestational weight gain and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs), and medically indicated preterm births (iPTBs) among obese women who were stratified by severity of obesity. Design: We studied a cohort of singleton, live-born infants without congenital anomalies born to obesity class 1 (prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)]: 30–34.9; n = 3254), class 2 (BMI: 35–39.9; n = 1451), and class 3 (BMI: ≥40; n = 845) mothers. We defined the adequacy of gestational weight gain as the ratio of observed weight gain to IOM-recommended gestational weight gain. Results: The prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain declined, and weight loss increased, as obesity became more severe. Generally, weight loss was associated with an elevated risk of SGA, iPTB, and sPTB, and a high weight gain tended to increase the risk of LGA and iPTB. Weight gains associated with probabilities of SGA and LGA of ≤10% and a minimal risk of iPTB and sPTB were as follows: 9.1–13.5 kg (obesity class 1), 5.0–9 kg (obesity class 2), 2.2 to <5.0 kg (obesity class 3 white women), and <2.2 kg (obesity class 3 black women). Conclusion: These data suggest that the range of gestational weight gain to balance risks of SGA, LGA, sPTB, and iPTB may vary by severity of obesity. PMID:20357043

  6. OBESITY PREVALENCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A PARK USERS

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira

    2015-01-01

    Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270

  7. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents. PMID:25666100

  8. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  9. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634

  10. Leucine and Protein Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    She, Pengxiang; Olson, Kristine C.; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Inukai, Ayami; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Hoppel, Charles L.; Adams, Sean H.; Kawamata, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Lang, Charles H.; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-14C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old) had increased body weight (BW, 53%), liver (107%) and fat (∼300%), but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (−21–24%). Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45–69% and ∼100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%), leucine (Leu) turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM), urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183%) and 4-hydroxyproline (766%)] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (−47–66%). A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23–29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected), gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193–418%) than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and

  11. Postherpetic pseudohernia: delayed onset of paresis of abdominal muscles due to herpes zoster causing an ipsilateral abdominal bulge.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shunsuke; Togawa, Yasuhiro; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Postherpetic pseudohernia causes an abdominal bulge as well as an abdominal wall herniation. This disease is one of the neurological complications of herpes zoster and essentially consists of paresis of ipsilateral abdominal muscles. Postherpetic pseudohernia may be mistaken for abdominal wall herniation because it is not well known. We describe two cases presenting an abdominal bulge. The ipsilateral abdominal bulge appeared after recovery from abdominal zoster. Abdominal CT showed no evidence of a herniation or mass. We diagnosed a postherpetic pseudohernia. One of the patients recovered spontaneously 4 months after the onset, and the other partially recovered after 2 months. This disease can be expected to disappear spontaneously, unlike abdominal herniation requiring surgery. It has been reported that 79.3% of patients eventually recovered spontaneously. For surgeons and general practitioners, it is beneficial to keep this disease in mind when examining a patient presenting an abdominal bulge. PMID:27229900

  12. Overview of epidemiology and contribution of obesity to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Marjorie; Poirier, Paul; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide and is a source of concern since the negative consequences of obesity start as early as in childhood. The most commonly used anthropometric tool to assess relative weight and classify obesity is the body mass index (BMI); BMI alone shows a U- or a J-shaped association with clinical outcomes and mortality. Such an inverse relationship fuels a controversy in the literature, named the 'obesity paradox', which associates better survival and fewer cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with elevated BMI afflicted with chronic diseases compared to non-obese patients. However, BMI cannot make the distinction between an elevated body weight due to high levels of lean vs. fat body mass. Generally, an excess of body fat (BF) is more frequently associated with metabolic abnormalities than a high level of lean body mass. Another explanation for the paradox is the absence of control for major individual differences in regional BF distribution. Adipose tissue is now considered as a key organ regarding the fate of excess dietary lipids, which may determine whether or not body homeostasis will be maintained (metabolically healthy obesity) or a state of inflammation/insulin resistance will be produced, with deleterious CV consequences. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, also induces a variety of structural adaptations/alterations in CV structure/function. Adipose tissue can now be considered as an endocrine organ orchestrating crucial interactions with vital organs and tissues such as the brain, the liver, the skeletal muscle, the heart and blood vessels themselves. Thus, the evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that adipose tissue quality/function is as important, if not more so, than its amount in determining the overall health and CV risks of overweight/obesity. PMID:24438728

  13. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:25705591

  14. Ameliorative role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists and are clinically used for treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate is reported as a cardioprotective agent in various models of cardiac dysfunction; however, limited literature is available regarding the role of gemfibrozil as a possible cardioprotective agent, especially in a non-obese model of cardiac remodelling. The present study investigated the role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction in rats and they survived for 4 weeks. The cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by measuring left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, left ventricular wall thickness, and protein and collagen content. The oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The haematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining was used to observe cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen deposition, respectively. Moreover, serum levels of cholesterol, hi