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Sample records for abdominal organ injury

  1. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Abdominal Solid Organ Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Demetriades, Demetrios; Hadjizacharia, Pantelis; Constantinou, Costas; Brown, Carlos; Inaba, Kenji; Rhee, Peter; Salim, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and safety of selective nonoperative management in penetrating abdominal solid organ injuries. Background: Nonoperative management of blunt abdominal solid organ injuries has become the standard of care. However, routine surgical exploration remains the standard practice for all penetrating solid organ injuries. The present study examines the role of nonoperative management in selected patients with penetrating injuries to abdominal solid organs. Patients and Methods: Prospective, protocol-driven study, which included all penetrating abdominal solid organ (liver, spleen, kidney) injuries admitted to a level I trauma center, over a 20-month period. Patients with hemodynamic instability, peritonitis, or an unevaluable abdomen underwent an immediate laparotomy. Patients who were hemodynamically stable and had no signs of peritonitis were selected for further CT scan evaluation. In the absence of CT scan findings suggestive of hollow viscus injury, the patients were observed with serial clinical examinations, hemoglobin levels, and white cell counts. Patients with left thoracoabdominal injuries underwent elective laparoscopy to rule out diaphragmatic injury. Outcome parameters included survival, complications, need for delayed laparotomy in observed patients, and length of hospital stay. Results: During the study period, there were 152 patients with 185 penetrating solid organ injuries. Gunshot wounds accounted for 70.4% and stab wounds for 29.6% of injuries. Ninety-one patients (59.9%) met the criteria for immediate operation. The remaining 61 (40.1%) patients were selected for CT scan evaluation. Forty-three patients (28.3% of all patients) with 47 solid organ injuries who had no CT scan findings suspicious of hollow viscus injury were selected for clinical observation and additional laparoscopy in 2. Four patients with a “blush” on CT scan underwent angiographic embolization of the liver. Overall, 41 patients (27

  3. Single Versus Multiple Solid Organ Injuries Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; AbdelAziz, Hiba; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to describe the pattern of solid organ injuries (SOIs) and analyze the characteristics, management and outcomes based on the multiplicity of SOIs. A retrospective study in a Level 1 trauma center was conducted and included patients admitted with blunt abdominal trauma between 2011 and 2014. Data were analyzed and compared for patients with single versus multiple SOIs. A total of 504 patients with SOIs were identified with a mean age of 28 ± 13 years. The most frequently injured organ was liver (45%) followed by spleen (30%) and kidney (18%). One-fifth of patients had multiple SOIs, of that 87% had two injured organs. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher frequency of head injury and injury severity scores (p < 0.05). The majority of SOIs were treated nonoperatively, whereas operative management was required in a quarter of patients, mostly in patients with multiple SOIs (p = 0.01). Blood transfusion, sepsis and hospital stay were greater in multiple than single SOIs (p < 0.05). The overall mortality was 11% which was comparable between the two groups. In patients with single SOIs, the mortality was significantly higher in those who had pancreatic (28.6%) or hepatic injuries (13%) than the other SOIs. SOIs represent one-tenth of trauma admissions in Qatar. Although liver was the most frequently injured organ, the rate of mortality was higher in pancreatic injury. Patients with multiple SOIs had higher morbidity which required frequent operative management. Further prospective studies are needed to develop management algorithm based on the multiplicity of SOIs.

  4. The Value of Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Scale in the Management of Traumatic Injuries of Parenchymal Abdominal Organs.

    PubMed

    Grandić, Leo; Olić, Ivna; Pogorelić, Zenon; Mrklić, Ivana; Perko, Zdravko

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of etiology, types of injury, levels of consciousness and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) values on the selection of treatment modality and survival in patients with injuries of parenchymal abdominal organs. Case records of 224 patients treated for traumatic injury of parenchymal abdominal organs from January 2003 until December 2015 were reviewed. Th e values of ISS and AIS of injury severity were calculated and compared to the values obtained according to the etiology, state of consciousness and survival. Of the 224 patients, 172 (76.8%) were treated by surgical approach and 52 (23.2%) were treated conservatively. Th e mean patient age was 40.1}18.3 years. Th ere were 97 (43.3%) polytrauma cases. Of the 224 injured patients, 143 (63.8%) were treated with transfusions of blood products. Two hundred and six (92%) patients survived. Th e mean AIS and ISS values were significantly lower in patients that survived (AIS=3; ISS=28) than in those that died (AIS=5; ISS=34) (p< 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in AIS and ISS values between conscious (AIS=2.7; ISS=25.9) and unconscious (AIS=3.2; ISS=33) patients (p< 0.001). Of the 224 patients that did not survive, 18 (8%) were hemodynamically unstable. Survival depended on hemodynamic stability at admission; the ISS and AIS values were associated with the injuries and state of consciousness at admission. Hemodynamic stability, state of consciousness, and ISS and AIS values were the quality predictors of survival after abdominal traumatic injury.

  5. Nature and etiology of hollow-organ abdominal injuries in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Poplin, Gerald S; McMurry, Timothy L; Forman, Jason L; Hartka, Thomas; Park, Gwansik; Shaw, Greg; Shin, Jangho; Kim, Hyung joo; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Injuries to the hollow organs of the lower digestive system carry substantial risk of complication due to infection and blood loss, and commonly require invasive abdominal surgery to diagnose and treat. The causes of, and risk factors for, lower abdomen injury in automobile collisions are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the risk factors and potential mechanisms of hollow-organ, lower abdomen injury in belted automobile occupants in frontal collisions. A field survey data analysis was performed to examine the relationship between various occupant and collision factors and the risk of moderate or greater severity injury (i.e., Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS 2+) to the small intestine, large intestine, or mesentery among belted occupants involved in frontal collisions. Descriptive and comparative risk factor analyses were performed with data originating from that National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) over the years 2000-2011. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to describe the effects of these factors on hollow-organ injury risk. Potential injury mechanisms were further investigated through in-depth examination of select cases exhibiting hollow-organ injuries from the Crash Investigation Research and Engineering Network (CIREN). The inclusion criteria yielded 25,407 individual cases from NASS-CDS, representing a weighted population of 11,373,358 exposed automobile occupants. Within this dataset, 143 cases (weighted frequency: 7962 occupants) exhibited AIS 2+ injury to hollow abdominal organs. Multivariable regression analysis indicated a statistically significant increased risk of moderate or greater severity injuries to the hollow organs of the abdomen with increased in ΔV (odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.09) and age (OR: 1.03, 1.01-1.06). Albeit non-statistically significant, a positive association between BMI and injury risk was observed, especially among

  6. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, İrfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  7. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  8. Significance of computed tomography finding of intra-abdominal free fluid without solid organ injury after blunt abdominal trauma: time for laparotomy on demand.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Ismail; Tawfek, Zainab; Abdelrahman, Yassir; Siddiuqqi, Tariq; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Tuma, Mazin; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad; Yakhlef, Sawsan; Hamzawi, Hazim; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-06-01

    Optimal management of patients with intra-abdominal free fluid found on computed tomography (CT) scan without solid organ injury remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of CT scan findings of free fluid in the management of blunt abdominal trauma patients who otherwise have no indications for laparotomy. During the 3-year study period, all patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent abdominal CT examination were retrospectively reviewed. All hemodynamically stable patients who presented with abdominal free fluid without solid organ injury on CT scan were analyzed for radiological interpretation, clinical management, operative findings, and outcome. A total of 122 patients were included in the study, 91 % of whom were males. The mean age of the patients was 33 ± 12 years. A total of 34 patients underwent exploratory laparotomy, 31 of whom had therapeutic interventions. Small bowel injuries were found in 12 patients, large bowel injuries in ten, and mesenteric injuries in seven patients. One patient had combined small and large bowel injury, and one had traumatic gangrenous appendix. In the remaining three patients, laparotomy was non-therapeutic. A total of 36 patients had associated pelvic fractures and 33 had multiple lumbar transverse process fractures. Detection of intra-peritoneal fluid by CT scan is inaccurate for prediction of bowel injury or need for surgery. However, the correlation between CT scan findings and clinical course is important for optimal diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injuries.

  9. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  10. Morphometric analysis of abdominal organs and rib cage: Implication for risk of solid organ injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Calista M; Shlykov, Maksim A; Tsuchida, Ryan E; Holcombe, Sven A; Hirschl, Jake; Wang, Stewart C; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2015-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of injury-related mortality in children, with a higher rate of multiorgan injuries than in adults. This may be related to increased solid organ volume relative to abdominal cavity and decreased protection of an underdeveloped cartilaginous rib cage in young children. To date, these anatomic relationships have not been fully described. Our study used analytic morphomics to obtain precise measures of the pediatric liver, spleen, kidneys, and ribs. This pilot study included 215 trauma patients (aged 0-18 years) with anonymized computed tomography (CT) scans. Liver, spleen, and kidney volumes were modeled using semiautomatic algorithms (MATLAB 2013a, MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA). Thirty-one scans were adequate to model the rib cage. Pearson's r was used to correlate absolute organ volume, fractional organ volume, and organ exposure with age and weight. Spleen, right and left kidney, and liver volumes increased with age and weight (p < 0.01). Right/left kidney and liver fractional volumes decreased with age (p < 0.01), whereas spleen fractional volume remained relatively constant. Exposed surface area of the liver only significantly decreased with age in the anterior (p < 0.01), right (p < 0.01), and posterior views (p = 0.02). With this study, we have demonstrated the ability to model solid organ and rib cage anatomy of children using cross-sectional imaging. In younger children, there may be a decrease in fractional organ volume and increase in liver surface exposure, although analysis of a larger sample size is warranted. In the future, this information may be used to improve the design of safety restraints in motor vehicles.

  11. Concurrent rib and pelvic fractures as an indicator of solid abdominal organ injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassani, Ammar; Afifi, Ibrahim; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Almadani, Ammar; Recicar, Jan; Al-Thani, Hassan; Maull, Kimball; Latifi, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    To study the association of solid organ injuries (SOIs) in patients with concurrent rib and pelvic fractures. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from November 2007 to May 2010. Patients' demographics, mechanism of injury, Injury severity scoring, pelvic fracture, and SOIs were analyzed. Patients with SOIs were compared in rib fractures with and without pelvic fracture. The study included 829 patients (460 with rib fractures ± pelvic fracture and 369 with pelvic fracture alone) with mean age of 35 ± 12.7 years. Motor vehicle crashes (45%) and falls from height (30%) were the most common mechanism of injury. The overall incidence of SOIs in this study was 22% (185/829). Further, 15% of patient with rib fractures had associated pelvic fracture. SOI was predominant in patients with concurrent rib fracture and pelvic fracture compared to ribs or pelvic fractures alone (42% vs. 26% vs. 15%, respectively, p = 0.02). Concurrent multiple rib fractures and pelvic fracture increases the risk of SOI compared to either group alone. Lower RFs and pelvic fracture had higher association for SOI and could be used as an early indicator of the presence of SOIs. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Case report highlighting how wound path identification on CT can help identify organ damage in abdominal blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tatjana V; Folio, Les R; Backus, Christopher E; Bunger, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Penetrating trauma is frequently encountered in forward deployed military combat hospitals. Abdominal blast injuries represent nearly 11% of combat injuries, and multiplanar computed tomography imaging is optimal for injury assessment and surgical planning. We describe a multiplanar approach to assessment of blast and ballistic injuries, which allows for more expeditious detection of missile tracts and damage caused along the path. Precise delineation of the trajectory path and localization of retained fragments enables time-saving and detailed evaluation of associated tissue and vascular injury. For consistent and reproducible documentation of fragment locations in the body, we propose a localization scheme based on Cartesian coordinates to report 3-dimensional locations of fragments and demonstrating the application in three cases of abdominal blast injury.

  13. [Diagnosis and treatment of patients with closed injury of abdominal cavity organs in combination with craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Kravets, A V; Kravets, V P

    2003-07-01

    Results of diagnosis and treatment of 114 injured persons with closed abdominal trauma, combined with craniocerebral trauma were suggested. In 34 (29.8%) observations the injury of two or more organs of peritoneal cavity was diagnosed, the parenchymatous organs trauma--in 35 (30.7%) and the hole organs trauma--in 45 (39.5%). Cerebral concussion was established in 61 (53.5%) of injured persons, cerebral contusion--in 26 (22.8%), cerebral compression on the contusion background--in 16 (14%) and subdural hematoma--in 11 (9.7%). In all the injured persons the operative intervention was performed. In 32 (28%) the blood of their own was transfused. To reduce the endogenous intoxication severity there were performed the forced diuresis, hemosorption--in 10 (8.7%), the blood ultraviolet irradiation--in 41 (35.9%), intravenous laserotherapy--in 40 (35%). After the operation 14 (12.3%) of patients died. High mortality in combined cranioabdominal trauma is caused by the injury severity, the traumatic shock and mutual burden syndrome presence.

  14. LAPAROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF RETROPERITONEAL INJURIES IN PENETRATING ABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    PubMed

    Mosai, F

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal injuries is now accepted and practiced in many modern trauma centres. However its role in evaluating and managing retroperitoneal injuries is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to document our experience in using laparoscopy in a setting of penetrating abdominal injuries with suspected retroperitoneal injury in haemodynamically stable patients. A retrospective descriptive study of prospectively collected data from a trauma unit at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH) was done. All haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injury who were offered laparoscopy from January 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed and those who met the inclusion criteria were analysed. A total of 284 patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were reviewed and 56 met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The median age was 30.8 years (15-60 years) and males constituted 87.5% of the study population. The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating stab wounds (62.5%). Forty-five patients (80.3%) were managed laparoscopically, of these n=16 (28.5%) had retroperitoneal injuries that required surgical intervention. The most commonly injured organ was the colon (19.6%). The conversion rate was 19.6% with most common indication for conversion been active bleeding (14%). The complication rate was 7.14% (N=4) and were all Clavien-Dindo grade 3. There were no recorded missed injuries and no mortality. The positive outcomes documented in this study with no missed injuries and absence of mortality suggests that laparoscopy is a feasible option in managing stable patients with suspected retroperitoneal injuries.

  15. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  16. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  17. Non-operative management of blunt trauma in abdominal solid organ injuries: a prospective study to evaluate the success rate and predictive factors of failure.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh, S H; Hashemzadeh, K H; Dehdilani, M; Rezaei, S

    2010-06-01

    Over the past several years, non-operative management (NOM) has increasingly been recommended for the care of selected blunt abdominal solid organ injuries. No prospective study has evaluated the rate of NOM of blunt abdominal trauma in the northwest of Iran. The objective of our study was to evaluate the success rate of this kind of management in patients who do not require emergency surgery. This prospective study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital (as a referral center of trauma) at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between 20 March 2004 and 20 March 2007. All trauma patients who had suffered an injury to a solid abdominal organ (kidney, liver, or spleen) were selected for initial analysis, using the Student's t test or the c2 test. During the three years of the study, 98 patients (83 males and 15 females) with blunt trauma were selected to NOM for renal, hepatic and splenic injuries. Mean age was 26.1+/-17.7 years (range, 2 to 89) and mean injury severity score (ISS) was 14.5+/-7.4. The success rate of NOM was 93.8%. Fifty-one patients (43 males, 8 females; mean ISS, 14.2+/-5.8) underwent NOM of splenic trauma; 38 patients (33 males, 5 females; mean ISS, 12.9+/-8.2) hepatic trauma, and nine patients (7 males, 2 females; mean ISS, 22.2+/-7.6) renal trauma. Six patients underwent laparotomy due to the failure of NOM. The success rates of this treatment were 94.1%, 94.7% and 88.8% for the spleen, liver and kidney injuries, respectively. Age, female gender and ISS were significant predictors of the failure of NOM (P<0.05). According to the authors NOM can be successfully performed for the hemodynamically stable patients with solid organ blunt trauma. The study indicates that the rates of NOM vary in relation to the severity of the organ injury. This suggests trauma centers should use this approach.

  18. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. A total of 3783 cases were included, with a mean age of 39.1 ± 17.7 years (14-99), 76.1% being male. Abdominal injuries were detected in 130 patients (3.4%). Patients sustaining abdominal injuries had significantly lower mean age (35.4 + 15.4 vs. 39.2 + 17.7), lower mean systolic blood pressure on admission (114.7 + 32.4 mmHg vs. 129.1 + 21.7 mmHg), lower mean Glasgow coma scale (12.9 + 3.9 vs. 14.3 + 2.0), as well as higher head AIS (0.95 + 1.5 vs. 0.67 + 1.1), higher thorax AIS (1.10 + 1.5 vs. 0.11 + 0.6) and higher extremities AIS (1.70 ± 1.8 vs. 1.03 ± 1.2). Patients sustaining abdominal injuries also presented higher frequency of severe injuries (AIS>3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  19. Splenic injury after blunt abdominal trauma during a soccer (football) game.

    PubMed

    Padlipsky, Patricia S; Brindis, Seth; Young, Kelly D

    2014-10-01

    The spleen is the most commonly injured abdominal organ in children who sustain blunt abdominal trauma, and pediatric splenic injury may result from minor mechanisms of injury, including sports participation. We present 2 cases of splenic injury in soccer goalies because of blunt abdominal trauma sustained during game play. Although abdominal organ injuries are uncommon in soccer, emergency medicine and primary care physicians must be aware of the possibility. A high index of suspicion and careful physical examination are key in making the diagnosis.

  20. Patterns of abdominal injuries in frontal and side impacts.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Gennarelli, T A; Maltese, M R

    2000-01-01

    Public awareness for safety and vehicle improvements has contributed to significant reduction in injuries secondary to motor vehicle crashes. The spectrum of trauma has shifted from one region of the body to another with varying consequences. For example, airbags have minimized head and neck injuries for adults while emphasizing the lower regions of the human body. Studies have concentrated on the changing patterns of these injuries in frontal impacts. However, there is almost a paucity of data with regard to the characterization of abdominal injuries. Consequently, this study was conducted to determine the patterns of abdominal injuries in frontal and side impacts with an emphasis on more recent crashes. In particular, the frequency and severity of trauma were investigated with a focus on the various abdominal organs (e.g., spleen and liver). Results indicate that side crashes contribute to a large percentage of injuries to the abdomen. The liver and spleen organs are most vulnerable; therefore, it may be beneficial to apply concerted efforts to focus on injury biomechanics research and prioritization activities in these areas of the abdomen. These data may be of benefit to develop anthropomorphic dummies with improved biofidelity.

  1. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  2. Associated injuries, management, and outcomes of blunt abdominal aortic injury.

    PubMed

    de Mestral, Charles; Dueck, Andrew D; Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Nathens, Avery B

    2012-09-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) is very rare, and current literature is limited to case series of single-center experience. Through an analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank, the largest aggregation of United States trauma registry data, our aim was to characterize the associated injury pattern, contemporary management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with BAAI. We used a nested case-control design. The overall cohort consisted of adult patients (age ≥ 16 years) severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16) after blunt trauma who were treated at a level 1 or 2 trauma center in years 2007 to 2009. Cases were patients with BAAI and were frequency-matched by age group and mechanism to randomly selected controls at a one-to-five ratio. Multivariable matched analysis (conditional logistic regression) was used to derive adjusted measures of association between BAAI and adjacent arterial, intra-abdominal, and bony injuries. We identified 436 patients with BAAI from 180 centers. The mean Injury Severity Score was 35 ± 14, and most patients were injured in motor vehicle crashes (84%). Multivariable analysis showed injury to the thoracic aorta, renal and iliac artery, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidney, as well as lumbar spine fractures were independently associated with BAAI. A total of 394 patients (90%) were managed nonoperatively, and 42 (10%) underwent repair. Of these 42 patients, 29 (69%) underwent endovascular repair, with 11 patients undergoing open aortic repair and two extra-anatomic bypasses. Median time from admission to repair was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-2 days). Overall mortality was 29%. A total of 271 (69%) patients managed nonoperatively survived to hospital discharge. The index of suspicion for BAAI should be raised in severely injured patients by the presence of injuries to the lumbar spine, bowel, retroperitoneal organs, and adjacent major arteries. Although endovascular repair is the most common intervention, most

  3. Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, Angela; Ugare, Udey G; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A

    2012-11-14

    Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 1), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) all until January 2012; CINAHL until January 2009. We also searched the reference lists of all eligible studies and the trial registers www.controlled-trials.com and www.clinicaltrials.gov in January 2012. Randomised controlled trials of surgical and non surgical interventions among patients with abdominal injury who are haemodynamically stable and with no signs of peritonitis. Two review authors independently applied the search criteria. One study involving participants with penetrating abdominal injury met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form. One study including 51 participants with moderate risk of bias was included. Participants were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. There were no deaths among the participants. Seven participants had complications; 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the non-surgical group; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 who had surgery six (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non-therapeutic. Based on the findings of one study involving 51 participants, which was at moderate risk of bias, there is no evidence to support the use of surgery over observation for people with abdominal trauma.

  4. Gastrointestinal Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Traumas.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both

  5. Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, Angela; Chinnock, Paul; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A

    2015-11-13

    Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, and large blood vessels. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma in a haemodynamically stable and non-peritonitic abdomen. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic+EMBASE (Ovid), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), and clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. We ran the most recent search on 17 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials of surgical interventions and non-surgical interventions involving people with abdominal injury who were haemodynamically stable with no signs of peritonitis. The abdominal injury could be blunt or penetrating. Two review authors independently applied the selection criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form, and are reported narratively. Two studies are included, which involved a total of 114 people with penetrating abdominal injuries. Both studies are at moderate risk of bias because the randomisation methods are not fully described, and the original study protocols are no longer available. The studies were undertaken in Finland between 1992 and 2002, by the same two researchers.In one study, 51 people were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. None of the participants in the study died. Seven people had complications: 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the observation group; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 people who had surgery, 6 (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non

  6. An In-depth Study of Abdominal Injuries Sustained by Car Occupants in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Richard; Lenard, James; Compigne, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Currently, neither abdominal injury risk nor rear seat passenger safety is assessed in European frontal crash testing. The objective of this study was to provide real world in-depth analysis of the factors related to abdominal injury for belted front and rear seat occupants in frontal crashes. Rear occupants were significantly more at risk of AIS 2+ and 3+ abdominal injury, followed by front seat passengers and then drivers. This was still the case even after controlling for occupant age. Increasing age was separately identified as a factor related to increased abdominal injury risk in all seating positions. One exception to this trend concerned rear seated 15 to 19 year olds who sustained moderate to serious abdominal injury at almost the same rate as rear occupants aged 65+.No strong association was seen between AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates and gender. The majority of occupant body mass indices ranged from underweight to obese. Across that range, the AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates were very similar but a small number of very obese and extremely obese occupants outside of the range did exhibit noticeably higher rates. An analysis of variance in the rate of AIS 2+ abdominal injury with different restraint systems showed that simple belt systems, as used by most rear seat passengers, were the least protective. Increasing sophistication of the restraint system was related to lower rates of injury. The ANOVA also confirmed occupant age and crash severity as highly associated with abdominal injury risk. The most frequently injured abdominal organs for front seat occupants were the liver and spleen. Abdominal injury patterns for rear seat passengers were very different. While they also sustained significant injuries to solid organs, their rates of injury to the hollow organs (jejunum-ileum, mesentary, colon) were far higher even though the rate of fracture of two or more ribs did not differ significantly between seat positions. These results have implications for the

  7. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital - a descriptive study from northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. Methods This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. Results The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1–57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT < 60 min after emergency room arrival. Penetrating trauma caused injuries in seven patients. Solid organ injuries constituted 78% of abdominal injuries. Non-operative management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Conclusions Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly

  8. Gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    2004-04-01

    To determine the pattern, presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children. A retrospective study. Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma from 1984-2002. The pattern, presentation, management and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma. In the 19 year period, 1984-2002, 92 children were treated for blunt abdominal trauma, 21(23%) of who had injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Three presenting after 24 hours had evidence of peritonitis. In six children with isolated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) injury who presented within two hours, abdominal signs were vague at initial evaluation but became marked over a few hours at repeated examination. In eight with associated intraabdominal injuries, abdominal signs were marked at initial examination and five presented with shock. Free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiograph in three of ten patients, dilated bowel loops in six and fluid levels in one. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis was positive in four patients with isolated GIT injuries and eight with associated intraabdominal injuries. There were 24 injuries in the 21 patients consisting of 15 perforations, five contusions, two seromuscular tears, and two gangrene from mesenteric injury. The small intestine was involved in 11 patients, colon six, stomach five, duodenum one and rectum one. Seven (35%) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury. One patient each developed prolonged ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in

  9. Complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Meghoo, Colin A L; Gonzalez, Ernest A; Tyroch, Alan H; Wohltmann, Christopher D

    2003-10-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma is uncommon. When this injury results in complete vessel occlusion, the presentation is dramatic. Timely intervention is essential. After a case report, we examined all reported cases of complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta and reviewed the cause, presentation, and management of this injury. Complete vessel occlusion arises from intimal injury. The most frequent mechanism is compression from a seat belt or steering wheel during a motor vehicle crash. Patients present with absent femoral and distal pulses in association with lower extremity neuropathy. Intervention commonly involves bypass grafting of the abdominal aorta. Complete occlusion after blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is rare. Neurologic deficits most commonly arise from peripheral nerve ischemia. Reperfusion within 6 hours confers a greater chance of limb salvage and neurologic recovery.

  10. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation.

  11. Does this adult patient have a blunt intra-abdominal injury?

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Simel, David L; Wisner, David H; Holmes, James F

    2012-04-11

    Blunt abdominal trauma often presents a substantial diagnostic challenge. Well-informed clinical examination can identify patients who require further diagnostic evaluation for intra-abdominal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. To systematically assess the precision and accuracy of symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, and bedside imaging studies to identify intra-abdominal injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. We conducted a structured search of MEDLINE (1950-January 2012) and EMBASE (1980-January 2012) to identify English-language studies examining the identification of intra-abdominal injuries. A separate, structured search was conducted for studies evaluating bedside ultrasonography. We included studies of diagnostic accuracy for intra-abdominal injury that compared at least 1 finding with a reference standard of abdominal computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, laparotomy, autopsy, and/or clinical course for intra-abdominal injury. Twelve studies on clinical findings and 22 studies on bedside ultrasonography met inclusion criteria for data extraction. Critical appraisal and data extraction were independently performed by 2 authors. The prevalence of intra-abdominal injury in adult emergency department patients with blunt abdominal trauma among all evidence level 1 and 2 studies was 13% (95% CI, 10%-17%), with 4.7% (95% CI, 2.5%-8.6%) requiring therapeutic surgery or angiographic embolization of injuries. The presence of a seat belt sign (likelihood ratio [LR] range, 5.6-9.9), rebound tenderness (LR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.8-24), hypotension (LR, 5.2; 95% CI, 3.5-7.5), abdominal distention (LR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.6), or guarding (LR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.3-5.9) suggest an intra-abdominal injury. The absence of abdominal tenderness to palpation does not rule out an intra-abdominal injury (summary LR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.80). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid or organ injury on bedside ultrasound assessment is more accurate than any history and

  12. Determinants of splenectomy in splenic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Akinkuolie, A A; Lawal, O O; Arowolo, O A; Agbakwuru, E A; Adesunkanmi, A R K

    2010-02-01

    The management of splenic injuries has shifted from splenectomy to splenic preservation owing to the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). This study aimed to identify the factors that determine splenectomy in patients with isolated splenic injuries, with a view to increasing the rate of splenic preservation. Files of 55 patients managed for isolated splenic injuries from blunt abdominal trauma between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively analysed using a pro forma. Management options were classified into nonoperative, operative salvage and splenectomy. The majority of patients suffered splenic injury as a result of motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma or falls. Splenectomy was undertaken in 33 (60%) patients, 12 (22%) had non-operative management, and operative salvage was achieved in 10 (18%) patients. Significant determinants of splenectomy were grade of splenic injury, hierarchy of the surgeon, and hierarchy of the assistant. MVA injury and falls accounted for the vast majority of blunt abdominal trauma in this study. The rate and magnitude of energy transferred versus splenic protective mechanisms at the time of blunt abdominal trauma seems to determine the grade of splenic injury. Interest in splenic salvage surgery, availability of technology that enables splenic salvage surgery, and the experience of the surgeon and assistant appear to determine the surgical management. Legislation on vehicle safety and good parental control may reduce the severity of splenic injury in blunt abdominal trauma. When surgery is indicated, salvage surgery should be considered in intermediate isolated splenic injury to reduce the incidence of OPSI.

  13. Predicting hollow viscus injury in blunt abdominal trauma with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bhagvan, Savitha; Turai, Matthew; Holden, Andrew; Ng, Alexander; Civil, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma is controversial. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen is commonly used but has limitations, especially in excluding hollow viscus injury in the presence of solid organ injury. To determine whether CT reports alone could be used to direct operative treatment in abdominal trauma, this study was undertaken. The trauma database at Auckland City Hospital was accessed for patients who had abdominal CT and subsequent laparotomy during a five-year period. The CT scans were reevaluated by a consultant radiologist who was blinded to operative findings. The CT findings were correlated with the operative findings. Between January 2002 and December 2007, 1,250 patients were evaluated for blunt abdominal injury with CT. A subset of 78 patients underwent laparotomy, and this formed the study group. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in predicting hollow viscus injury was 55.33 and 92.06 % respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 61.53 and 89.23 % respectively. Presence of free fluid in CT scan was sensitive in diagnosing hollow viscus injury (90 %). Specific findings for hollow viscus injuries on CT scan were free intraperitoneal air (93 %), retroperitoneal air (100 %), oral contrast extravasation (100 %), bowel wall defect (98 %), patchy bowel enhancement (97 %), and mesenteric abnormality (94 %). CT alone cannot be used as a screening tool for hollow viscus injury. The decision to operate in hollow viscus injury has to be based on mechanism of injury and clinical findings together with radiological evidence.

  14. [Injuries of pancreatoduodenal organs].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P A; Grishin, A V; Korneev, D A; Ziniakov, S A

    2003-01-01

    Ten-year experience of treatment of 213 patients with trauma of the pancreas and 56 patients with trauma of the duodenum is analyzed. Combined injury of other organs was seen in 80% patients. Diagnostic policy included intraoperative revision in open abdominal trauma and dynamic observation with US, roentgenography, CT and laboratory tests in closed trauma wich doesn't require urgent surgery. The diagnosis was verified during laparoscopy and contrast duodenography. Surgical treatment results in patients with trauma of the pancreas depending on the variant of surgery are analyzed. The role of drug treatment of traumatic pancreatitis with 5-ftoruracil and octreotid is stressed. It is demonstrated that these principles allowed us to reduce complications rate to 11.7% and lethality to 6.7% from 71.7% and 37.0% respectively. It is established that suturing of duodenal wall on the decompressive nasoduodenal tube is effective within 6 hours after trauma. Later, for prophylaxis of suture insufficiency the duodenum must be switched off. Adequate drainage and depression of secretion with octreotid are very important for success of surgery. In this approach there were no cases of sutures insufficiency among 16 patients in the last 3 years.

  15. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  16. The spectrum of injuries resulting from posterior abdominal stab wounds: a South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Oosthuizen, GV; Clarke, DL

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The spectrum of injury associated with anterior abdominal stab wounds (SWs) is well established. The literature on the spectrum of organ injury associated with SWs to the posterior abdomen, however, is limited. Methods We reviewed our experience of 105 consecutive patients who had established indications for laparotomy managed over a 4-year period in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. Results Of the 105 patients, 97 (92%) were male and the overall mean age was 24 years. Fifty-seven patients (54%) had immediate indications for laparotomy. The remaining 48 patients (46%) initially underwent active clinical observation and the indications for laparotomy became apparent during the observation period. Of the 105 laparotomies performed, 94 (90%) were positive and 11 (10%) were negative. Of the 94 positive laparotomies, 92 were therapeutic and 2 were non-therapeutic. A total of 176 organ injuries were identified: 50 (53%) of the 94 patients sustained a single organ injury while the remaining 44 (47%) sustained multiple organ injuries. The most commonly injured organs were the colon (n=63), spleen (n=21) and kidney (n=19). Conclusions The pattern of intra-abdominal injuries secondary to SWs to the posterior abdomen is different to that seen with the anterior abdomen. Colonic injury is most commonly encountered, followed by injuries to the spleen and kidney. Clinicians must remain vigilant because of the potential for occult injuries. PMID:26263933

  17. The spectrum of injuries resulting from posterior abdominal stab wounds: a South African experience.

    PubMed

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-05-01

    The spectrum of injury associated with anterior abdominal stab wounds (SWs) is well established. The literature on the spectrum of organ injury associated with SWs to the posterior abdomen, however, is limited. We reviewed our experience of 105 consecutive patients who had established indications for laparotomy managed over a 4-year period in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. Of the 105 patients, 97 (92%) were male and the overall mean age was 24 years. Fifty-seven patients (54%) had immediate indications for laparotomy. The remaining 48 patients (46%) initially underwent active clinical observation and the indications for laparotomy became apparent during the observation period. Of the 105 laparotomies performed, 94 (90%) were positive and 11 (10%) were negative. Of the 94 positive laparotomies, 92 were therapeutic and 2 were non-therapeutic. A total of 176 organ injuries were identified: 50 (53%) of the 94 patients sustained a single organ injury while the remaining 44 (47%) sustained multiple organ injuries. The most commonly injured organs were the colon (n=63), spleen (n=21) and kidney (n=19). The pattern of intra-abdominal injuries secondary to SWs to the posterior abdomen is different to that seen with the anterior abdomen. Colonic injury is most commonly encountered, followed by injuries to the spleen and kidney. Clinicians must remain vigilant because of the potential for occult injuries.

  18. Injuries of the Portal Vein in Patients With Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, B.; Lloyd, D. M.; Meyer-Pannwitt, U.

    1993-01-01

    Between January 1987 and September 1991, 68 severely traumatized patients underwent emergency laparotomy because of blunt abdominal trauma. Intraoperatively, 54.4% of the patients had a major injury to one organ, 23.5% had injuries to two organs, 16.2% had injuries to three organs and 5.9% to four or more organs. Additionally, in 11.8% of these cases (n = 8) a major vascular injury (portal vein n = 5, vena cava n = 2, mesenteric root n = 1) was found. Injuries to the portal vein were always associated with complete rupture of the pancreas, requiring distal pancreatic resection in four cases and a duodenum preserving resection of the head of the pancreas in one. In two of these patients the portal vein had to be reconstructed with a Goretex prosthetic graft. Mortality was 14.7% for the whole group (n = 68) and 0% for patients with additional portal venous injuries. PMID:8489966

  19. Trauma center variation in the management of pediatric patients with blunt abdominal solid organ injury: a national trauma data bank analysis.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Arash; Skarsgard, Erik D; Rhee, Peter; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; O'Keeffe, Terence; Friese, Randall S; Joseph, Bellal

    2016-03-01

    Nonoperative management of hemodynamically stable children with Solid Organ Injury (SOI) has become standard of care. The aim of this study is to identify differences in management of children with SOI treated at Adult Trauma Centers (ATC) versus Pediatric Trauma Centers (PTC). We hypothesized that patients treated at ATC would undergo more procedures than PTC. Patients younger than 18 years old with isolated SOI (spleen, liver, kidney) who were treated at level I-II ATC or PTC were identified from the 2011-2012 National Trauma Data Bank. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of operative management. Data was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Procedures were defined as surgery or transarterial embolization (TAE). 6799 children with SOI (spleen: 2375, liver: 2867, kidney: 1557) were included. Spleen surgery was performed more frequently at ATC than PTC {101 (7.7%) vs. 52 (4.9%); P=0.007}. After adjusting for potential confounders (grade of injury, age, gender and injury severity score), admission at ATC was associated with higher odds of splenic surgery (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.02-2.25; p=0.03). 11 and 8 children underwent kidney and liver operations respectively. TAE was performed in 17 patients with splenic, 34 with liver and 14 with kidney trauma. There was no practice variation between ATC and PTC regarding kidney and liver operations or TAE incidence. Operative management for SOI was more often performed at ATC. The presence of significant disparity in the management of children with splenic injuries justifies efforts to use these surgeries as a reported national quality indicator for trauma programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Incidence, Patterns, and Factors Predicting Mortality of Abdominal Injuries in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammad A; Saber, Aly; Farrag, Shereif; Shams, Mohamed E; Ellabban, Goda M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abdominal trauma is a major public health problem for all nations and all socioeconomic strata. Aim: This study was designed to determine the incidence and patterns of abdominal injuries in trauma patients. Materials and Methods: We classified and identified the incidence and subtype of abdominal injuries and associated trauma, and identified variables related to morbidity and mortality. Results: Abdominal trauma was present in 248 of 300 cases; 172 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and 76 with penetrating. The most frequent type of abdominal trauma was blunt trauma; its most common cause was motor vehicle accident. Among patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, the most common cause was stabbing. Most abdominal trauma patients presented with other injuries, especially patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Mortality was higher among penetrating abdominal trauma patients. Conclusions: Type of abdominal trauma, associated injuries, and Revised Trauma Score are independent risk factors for mortality in abdominal trauma patients. PMID:22454826

  1. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Kargl, S; Breitwieser, J; Gitter, R; Pumberger, W

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma with liver damage. We report the case of a child who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery after a bicycle accident with central liver rupture. After an episode of hemodynamically relevant hemobilia due to delayed bleeding, the asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed coincidentally by ultrasound. Because of the progression in size angiographic coiling was performed and led to thrombotic occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. After a symptom-free period of 1 month the child required surgery because of acute cholecystitis.

  2. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15–78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  3. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  4. [Gangrene of the right colon after blast injury caused by abdominal gunshot wounds].

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Dragan; Misović, Sidor; Jevtić, Miodrag

    2005-06-01

    To present a patient with an indirect secondary non-perforating blast injury of the right colon following abdominal gunshot injury, which led to necrosis and the right colon gangrene, and was surgically managed. A 26-year-old male was shot in the abdomen by four projectiles causing the secondary indirect blast injury of the right colon that turned into gangrene after 24 hours. Two days after admission, laparotomy was performed, but the primary anastomosis was not done because of the stomach and pancreatic injury, and the resection of the colon with terminal ileostomy was done instead. Three months later, the reconstruction of the colon was performed using ileocolotransverso-terminolatetral anastomosis. Secondary blast injuries should be anticipated in gunshot injuries, and could be expected to any organs, particularly the air filled ones.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2010-04-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. This paper presents examples of various injuries in trauma patients depicted in abdominal CT images. We hope these images provide a resource for radiologists, surgeons and medical officers, as well as a learning tool for medical students.

  6. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  7. Current Trends in the Management of Blunt Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan; Yanar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    The management of patients with solid organ injuries has changed since the introduction of technically advanced imaging tools, such as ultrasonography and multiple scan computerized tomography, interventional radiological techniques and modern intensive care units. In spite of this development in the management of these patients, major solid organ traumas can still be challenging. There has been great improvement in the non-operative management (NOM) of intra-abdominal solid organ injury in recent decades. In most cases treatment of injuries has shifted from early surgical treatment to NOM.

  8. Severity and treatment of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Parreira, José G; Oliari, Camilla B; Malpaga, Juliano M D; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Soldá, Silvia C; Assef, José C

    2016-01-01

    to assess the severity and treatment of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma victims. Retrospective analysis of charts and trauma register data of adult blunt trauma victims, admitted without abdominal pain or alterations in the abdominal physical examination, but were subsequently diagnosed with intra-abdominal injuries, in a period of 2 years. The severity was stratified according to RTS, AIS, OIS and ISS. The specific treatment for abdominal injuries and the complications related to them were assessed. Intra-abdominal injuries were diagnosed in 220 (3.8%) out of the 5785 blunt trauma victims and 76 (34.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The RTS and ISS median (lower quartile, upper quartile) were 7.84 (6.05, 7.84) and 25 (16, 34). Sixty seven percent had a GCS≥13 on admission. Injuries were identified in the spleen (34), liver (33), kidneys (9), intestines (4), diaphragm (3), bladder (3) and iliac vessels (1). Abdominal injuries scored AIS≥3 in 67% of patients. Twenty-one patients (28%) underwent laparotomy, 5 of which were nontherapeutic. The surgical procedures performed were splenectomy (8), suturing of the diaphragm (3), intestines (3), bladder (2), kidneys (1), enterectomy/anastomosis (1), ligation of the common iliac vein (1), and revascularization of the common iliac artery (1). Angiography and embolization of liver and/or spleen injuries were performed in 3 cases. Three patients developed abdominal complications, all of which were operatively treated. There were no deaths directly related to the abdominal injuries. Severe "occult" intra-abdominal injuries, requiring specific treatment, may be present in adult blunt trauma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The mechanisms of formation of liver injuries associated with the blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dubrovina, I A; Dubrovin, I A

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of liver damage associated with the blunt abdominal trauma are considered based on the analysis of the literature publications. The general characteristic of these mechanisms and the processes underlying the development of liver injuries is presented. It is argued that the mechanisms underlying the formation of damages to the liver differ depending on the form of the traumatic impact, the injurious factor, and the processes leading to the destruction of the hepatic tissue. The main forms of traumatic impact in the case of a blunt abdominal trauma include the strike (blow), pressure, and concussion of the organ while the major traumatic factors are deformation, displacement, and "shock-resistant effects". The mechanisms underlying tissue destruction are compression and stretching. These two mechanisms are responsible for the formation of different variants of liver destruction. The results of the study suggest the necessity of the search for other mechanisms of degradation of the hepatic tissue following a blunt abdominal trauma for the improvement of forensic medical diagnostics of its cause and the underlying mechanism.

  10. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries.

  11. In Vivo Measurement of Surface Pressures and Retraction Distances Applied on Abdominal Organs During Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dignesh; Alderson, Andrew; Corden, James; Satyadas, Thomas; Augustine, Titus

    2018-02-01

    This study undertook the in vivo measurement of surface pressures applied by the fingers of the surgeon during typical representative retraction movements of key human abdominal organs during both open and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Surface pressures were measured using a flexible thin-film pressure sensor for 35 typical liver retractions to access the gall bladder, 36 bowel retractions, 9 kidney retractions, 8 stomach retractions, and 5 spleen retractions across 12 patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery. The maximum and root mean square surface pressures were calculated for each organ retraction. The maximum surface pressures applied to these key abdominal organs are in the range 1 to 41 kPa, and the average maximum surface pressure for all organs and procedures was 14 ± 3 kPa. Surface pressure relaxation during the retraction hold period was observed. Generally, the surface pressures are higher, and the rate of surface pressure relaxation is lower, in the more confined hand-assisted laparoscopic procedures than in open surgery. Combined video footage and pressure sensor data for retraction of the liver in open surgery enabled correlation of organ retraction distance with surface pressure application. The data provide a platform to design strategies for the prevention of retraction injuries. They also form a basis for the design of next-generation organ retraction and space creation surgical devices with embedded sensors that can further quantify intraoperative retraction forces to reduce injury or trauma to organs and surrounding tissues.

  12. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Iflazoglu, Nidal; Ureyen, Orhan; Oner, Osman Z; Tusat, Mustafa; Akcal, Mehmet A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high kinetic energy, of bullets and explosive gun particles, their paths through the abdomen (permanent cavity effect), and the blast effect (temporary cavity effect), firearm injuries (FAI) can produce damage not only in the organ they enter, but in the surrounding tissues as well. Since they change route after entering the body they may cause organ damage in locations other than those at the path of entry. For example, as a result of the crushing onto bone tissues, bullet particles or broken bone fragments may cause further damage outside of the path of travel, For these reasons it is very difficult to predict the possible complications from the size of the actual injury in patients with penetrating abdominal firearm injuries. The factors affecting the mortality and morbidity from firearm injuries have been evaluated in various studies. Insufficient blood transfusion, long duration of time until presenting to a hospital and the presence of colon injuries are common factors that cause the high complication rates and mortality. A total of 120 cases injured in the civil war at Turkey’s southern neighbouring countries were admitted to our hospital and evaluated in terms of: development of complications and factors affecting mortality; age, gender, time of presentation to the hospital, number of injured organs, the type of injuring weapon, the entrance site of the bullet, the presence of accompanying chest trauma, the amount of administered blood, the penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI) and the injury severity score (ISS) scores were determined and evaluated retrospectively. The most significant factors for the development of complications and mortality include: accompanying clinical shock, high number of injured organs, numerous blood transfusions administered and accompanying thoracic trauma. It has also been observed that the PATI and ISS scoring systems can be used in predicting the complication and mortality rates in firearm injuries

  13. Laparoscopic management of retroperitoneal injuries from penetrating abdominal trauma in haemodynamically stable patients.

    PubMed

    Koto, Modise Zacharia; Matsevych, Oleh Y; Mosai, Fusi; Balabyeki, Moses; Aldous, Colleen

    2018-02-27

    Laparoscopy is increasingly utilised in the trauma setting. However, its safety and reliability in evaluating and managing retroperitoneal injuries are not known. The aim of this study was to analyse our experience with laparoscopic management of retroperitoneal injuries due to penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) and to investigate its feasibility, safety and accuracy in haemodynamically stable patients. Over a 4-year period, patients approached laparoscopically with retroperitoneal injuries were analysed. Mechanism, location and severity of injuries were recorded. Surgical procedures, conversion rate and reasons for conversion and outcomes were described. Of the 284 patients with PAT, 56 patients had involvement of retroperitoneum. Stab wounds accounted 62.5% of patients. The mean Injury Severity Score was 7.4 (4-20). Among retroperitoneal injuries, the colon (27%) was the most commonly involved hollow viscera followed by duodenum (5%). The kidney (5%) and the pancreas (4%) were the injured solid organs. The conversion rate was 19.6% and was mainly due to active bleeding (73%). Significantly more patients with gunshot wound were converted to laparotomy (38% vs. 9%). Therapeutic laparoscopy was performed in 36% of patients. There were no recorded missed injuries or mortality. Five (9%) patients developed the Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 complications, three were managed with reoperation, one with drainage/debridement and one with endovascular technique. Laparoscopic management of retroperitoneal injuries is safe and feasible in haemodynamically stable patients with PAT. However, a high conversion rate indicates difficulties in managing these injuries. The requirements are the dexterity in laparoscopy and readiness to convert in the event of bleeding.

  14. Penetrating abdominal gunshot wounds caused by high-velocity missiles: a review of 51 military injuries managed at a level-3 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Gorgulu, Semih; Gencosmanoglu, Rasim; Akaoglu, Cuneyt

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the outcomes of military penetrating abdominal gunshot injuries, to identify factors that predict morbidity, and to compare the present results with those from two civilian trauma centers. Fifty-one consecutive patients who had suffered high-velocity gunshot wounds to the abdomen were assessed retrospectively. Penetrating abdominal trauma index, the number of injured organs, and the presence of colonic injury were significantly associated with high morbidity by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that only the number of organs injured and presence of colonic injury were independent predictors of morbidity. Our results showed that military rifle bullets do not cause greater tissue disruption than that found in wounds created by lower-velocity projectiles. The presence of colonic injury and the number of organs injured (more than three) seem to be important predictors of morbidity in penetrating abdominal gunshot wounds caused by high-velocity missiles.

  15. The association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries revisited: a multicenter review.

    PubMed

    Tyroch, Alan H; McGuire, Emmett L; McLean, Susan F; Kozar, Rosemary A; Gates, Keith A; Kaups, Krista L; Cook, Charles; Cowgill, Sarah M; Griswold, John A; Sue, Larry A; Craun, Michael L; Price, Jan

    2005-05-01

    The association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries is reported to be as high as 89 per cent. Because prior studies were small series or case reports, we conducted a multicenter review to learn the true association between Chance fractures and intra-abdominal injuries as well as diagnostic trends. Trauma registry data, medical records, and radiology reports from 7 trauma centers were used to characterize 79 trauma patients with Chance fractures. Initial methods of abdominal assessment were computed tomography (CT) scan (79%), clinical examination (16%), and diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) (5%). Twenty-six (33%) patients had intraabdominal injuries of which hollow viscus injuries predominated (22%). Twenty patients (25%) underwent laparotomy. The presence of an abdominal wall contusion and automobile restraint use were highly predictive of intra-abdominal injury and the need for laparotomy. The association between a Chance fracture and intra-abdominal injury is not as high as previously reported. CT scan has become the primary modality to assess the abdominal cavity of patients with Chance fractures, whereas the role of DPL has diminished.

  16. Computed tomography has an important role in hollow viscus and mesenteric injuries after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Liu, Jody Zhiyang; Go, Tsung-Shyen; Vijayan, Appasamy; Chiu, Ming-Terk

    2010-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans have become invaluable in the management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. No clear consensus exists on its role in hollow viscus injuries (HVI) and mesenteric injuries (MI). The aim of this study was to correlate operative findings of HVI and MI to findings on pre-operative CT. All patients treated for blunt abdominal trauma at Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2003 to January 2008 were reviewed. CT scans were only performed if the patients were haemodynamically stable and indicated. All scans were performed with intravenous contrast using a 4-slice CT scanner from 2003 to December 2004 and a 64-slice CT scanner from January 2005 onwards. All cases with documented HVI/MI that underwent both CT scans and exploratory laparotomy were analysed. Thirty-one patients formed the study group, with median age of 40 (range, 22-65) years and a significant male (83.9%) predominance. Vehicular-related incidents accounted for 67.7% of the injuries and the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 13 (4-50). The 2 commonest findings on CT scans were extra-luminal gas (35.5%) and free fluid without significant solid organ injuries (93.5%). During exploratory laparotomy, perforation of hollow viscus (51.6%) occurred more frequently than suspected from the initial CT findings of extra-luminal gas. Other notable findings included haemoperitoneum (64.5%), and mesenteric tears (67.7%). None of our patients with HVI and MI had a normal pre-operative CT scan. Our study suggests that patients with surgically confirmed HVI and MI found at laparotomy were very likely to have an abnormal pre-operative CT scan. Unexplained free fluid was a very common finding in blunt HVI/MI and is one major indication to consider exploratory laparotomy. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimated Probability of Traumatic Abdominal Injury During an International Space Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Weavr, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; McRae, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to spaceflight mission planners and medical system designers when assessing risks and optimizing medical systems. The IMM project maintains a database of medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight. The IMM project is in the process of assigning an incidence rate, the associated functional impairment, and a best and a worst case end state for each condition. The purpose of this work was to develop the IMM Abdominal Injury Module (AIM). The AIM calculates an incidence rate of traumatic abdominal injury per person-year of spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). The AIM was built so that the probability of traumatic abdominal injury during one year on ISS could be predicted. This result will be incorporated into the IMM Abdominal Injury Clinical Finding Form and used within the parent IMM model.

  18. Specific Radiological Findings of Traumatic Gastrointestinal Tract Injuries in Patients With Blunt Chest and Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Harmouche, Elie; Xing, Minzhi; Shuaib, Waqas; Mittal, Pardeep K; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal hollow viscus injury after blunt chest and abdominal trauma is uncommon and complicates 0.6%-1.2% of all cases of trauma. Early recognition of such injuries significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Since physical examination is not accurate in detecting such injuries, contrast-enhanced computed tomography has been the mainstay for diagnosis in many emergency departments. This pictorial essay aims to review the incidence, mechanisms, and signs of gastrointestinal hollow viscus injuries in the setting of blunt chest and abdominal trauma. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seropositive abdominal and thoracic donor organs are largely underutilized.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R M; Pietroski, R E; Hagan, M; Eisenbrey, A B; Fontana, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and utilization of anti-hepatitis B core protein(+) and anti-hepatitis C virus(+) organ donor referrals in a large organ procurement organization. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,134 deceased organ donor referrals were tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV using commercial assays. The prevalence of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals significantly increased from 3.4% in 1994-1996 to 8.1% in 2003-2005 (P < .001), whereas the prevalence of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals remained unchanged at 3%-4% (P = .20). The 112 anti-HBc(+) (3.5%) and 173 anti-HCV(+) (5.5%) organ donor referrals were significantly older and more likely to be noncaucasian than seronegative organ donor referrals (P < .02). The procurement and utilization rates of seropositive thoracic and abdominal donor organs were significantly lower compared with seronegative organ donors (P < .0001). However, liver utilization rates significantly increased from anti-HBc(+) donors over time (21% vs 46%; P = .026), whereas utilization of anti-HCV(+) liver donors remained unchanged over time (5% vs 18%; P = .303). In summary, the proportion of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals has significantly increased and the proportion of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals has remained stable. Both thoracic and abdominal organs from seropositive donors are largely underutilized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for and the prevention of acute kidney injury after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    An, Yongbo; Shen, Kai; Ye, Yingjiang

    2018-06-01

    Postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing abdominal surgery is not rare and often results in bad outcomes for patients. The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury is hard to evaluate reliably due to its non-unified definitions in different studies. Risk factors for acute kidney injury specific to abdominal surgery include preoperative renal insufficiency, intraabdominal hypertension, blood transfusion, bowel preparation, perioperative dehydration, contrast agent and nephrotoxic drug use. Among these, preoperative renal insufficiency is the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury. The peri-operative management of high-risk patients should include meticulous selection of fluid solutions. Balanced crystalloid solutions and albumin are generally thought to be relatively safe, while the safety of hydroxyethyl starch solutions has been controversial. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the current knowledge regarding postoperative acute kidney injury in abdominal surgical settings to help surgeons make better decisions concerning the peri-operative management.

  1. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P < .001); 151 patients had spleen injuries with 119 (79%) associated left rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P < .003). Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraperitoneal curcumin decreased lung, renal and heart injury in abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion model in rat.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Caliskan, Ahmet; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Yildiz, Ali; Günay, Samil; Savik, Emin; Hazar, Abdussemet; Yalcin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. We aimed to determine whether CUR has favorable effects on tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham, control and treatment (CUR) group. Control and CUR groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 60 min followed by a 120 min period of reperfusion. In the CUR group, CUR was given 5 min before reperfusion at a dose of 200 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured, and lung, renal and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. TOS and OSI activity in blood samples were statistically decreased in sham and CUR groups compared to the control group (p < 0.001 for TOS and OSI). Renal, lung, heart injury scores of sham and CUR groups were statistically decreased compared to control group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in CUR group than in the control group. CUR administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta I/R rat model. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Perforation of hollow organs in the abdominal contusion: diagnostic features and prognostic factors of death].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, A E; Merlan, V; Dinescu, G; Crăciun, M; Kitkani, A; Beuran, M

    2012-01-01

    Blunt hollow viscus perforations (HVP) due to abdominal contusions (AC), although rare, are difficult to diagnose early and are associated with a high mortality. Our paper analyses retrospectively data from patients operated for HVP between January 2005 and January 2009, the efficiency of different diagnostic tools, mortality and prognostic factors for death. There were 62 patients operated for HVP, 14 of which had isolated abdominal contusion and 48 were poly trauma patients. There were 9 women and 53 men, the mean age was 41.5 years (SD: +17,9), the mean ISS was 32.94 (SD: +15,94), 23 patients had associated solid viscus injuries (SVI). Clinical examination was irelevant for 16 of the 62 patients, abdominal Xray was false negative for 30 out of 35 patients and abdominal ultrasound was false negative for 16 out of 60 patients. Abdominal CT was initially false negative for 7 out of 38 patients: for 4 of them the abdominal CT was repeated and was positive for HVP, for 3 patients a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. Direct signs for HVP on abdominal CT were present for 3 out of 38 patients. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed for 7 patients with suspicion for HVP, and was positive for 6 of them and false negative for a patient with a duodenal perforation. Single organ perforations were present in 55 cases, multi organ perforations were present in 7 cases. There were 15 deaths (15.2%), most of them caused by haemodynamic instability (3 out of 6 patients) and associated lesions: SOL for 9 out of 23 cases, pelvic fracture (PF) for 6 out of 14 patients, craniocerebral trauma (CCT) for 12 out of 33 patients.Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic factors for death were ISS value (p = 0,023) and associated CCT (odds ratio = 4,95; p = 0,017). The following factors were not confirmed as prognostic factors for death: age, haemodynamic instability, associated SVI, thoracic trauma (TT), pelvic fractures (PF), limbs fractures (LF) and admission-operation interval

  4. Analysis of urobilinogen and urine bilirubin for intra-abdominal injury in blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Gorchynski, Julie; Dean, Kevin; Anderson, Craig L

    2009-05-01

    To determine the point prevalence of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin and urobilinogen in blunt trauma patients, and to evaluate its utility as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury. Data analysis of 986 consecutive trauma patients of which 698 were adult blunt trauma patients. Five-hundred sixteen subjects had a urinalysis and a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis or exploratory laparotomy. We reviewed initial urinalysis results from trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) for the presence of urine hemoglobin, uroblinogen and urine bilirubin. Computed tomography (CT) scan results and operative reports were reviewed from the trauma registry for evidence of liver laceration, spleen laceration, bowel or mesenteric injuries. There were 73 injuries and 57/516 patients (11%) with intra-abdominal injury. Urinalysis was positive for urobilinogen in 28/516 (5.4%) patients, urine bilirubin in 15/516 (2.9%) patients and urine hemoglobin in 313/516 (61%) patients. Nineteen/forty-seven (4%) subjects had liver lacerations, 28/56 (5%) splenic lacerations, and 15/5 (3%) bowel or mesenteric injury. Comparing the proportion of patients that had urobilinogen detected in the group with and without intra-abdominal injury, 8/28 (29%) subjects with urobilinogen, 5/15 (33%) subjects with bilirubin and 47/313 (15%) subjects with urine hemoglobin were found to have liver lacerations, spleen lacerations, or bowel/mesenteric injuries. Preexisting liver or biliary conditions were not statistically associated with elevation of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin or urobilinogen on initial urinalysis after blunt abdominal trauma. Point prevalence for urobilinogen, urine bilirubin and urine hemoglobin are 5.43% (28/516), 2.91% (15/516) and 60.7% (313/516) respectively. The utility of the initial routine urinalysis in the ED for adult blunt abdominal trauma patients should not be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of intra-abdominal injury.

  5. Injuries to the colon from blast effect of penetrating extra-peritoneal thoraco-abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P; Oswanski, Michael F; White, Patrick W

    2004-03-01

    Although rare, blast injury to the intestine can result from penetrating thoraco-abdominal extra-peritoneal gunshot (and shotgun) wounds despite the absence of injury to the diaphragm or to the peritoneum. Injuries of the spleen, small intestine and the mesentery by this mechanism have been previously reported in the world literature. This paper reports the first two cases of non-penetrating ballistic trauma to the colon.

  6. Predictors of "occult" intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Parreira, José Gustavo; Malpaga, Juliano Mangini Dias; Olliari, Camilla Bilac; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Soldá, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2015-01-01

    to assess predictors of intra-abdominal injuries in blunt trauma patients admitted without abdominal pain or abnormalities on the abdomen physical examination. We conducted a retrospective analysis of trauma registry data, including adult blunt trauma patients admitted from 2008 to 2010 who sustained no abdominal pain or abnormalities on physical examination of the abdomen at admission and were submitted to computed tomography of the abdomen and/or exploratory laparotomy. Patients were assigned into: Group 1 (with intra-abdominal injuries) or Group 2 (without intra-abdominal injuries). Variables were compared between groups to identify those significantly associated with the presence of intra-abdominal injuries, adopting p<0.05 as significant. Subsequently, the variables with p<0.20 on bivariate analysis were selected to create a logistic regression model using the forward stepwise method. A total of 268 cases met the inclusion criteria. Patients in Group I were characterized as having significantly (p<0.05) lower mean AIS score for the head segment (1.0 ± 1.4 vs. 1.8 ± 1.9), as well as higher mean AIS thorax score (1.6 ± 1.7 vs. 0.9 ± 1.5) and ISS (25.7 ± 14.5 vs. 17,1 ± 13,1). The rate of abdominal injuries was significantly higher in run-over pedestrians (37.3%) and in motorcyclists (36.0%) (p<0.001). The resultant logistic regression model provided 73.5% accuracy for identifying abdominal injuries. The variables included were: motorcyclist accident as trauma mechanism (p<0.001 - OR 5.51; 95%CI 2.40-12.64), presence of rib fractures (p<0.003 - OR 3.00; 95%CI 1.47-6.14), run-over pedestrian as trauma mechanism (p=0.008 - OR 2.85; 95%CI 1.13-6.22) and abnormal neurological physical exam at admission (p=0.015 - OR 0.44; 95%CI 0.22-0.85). Intra-abdominal injuries were predominantly associated with trauma mechanism and presence of chest injuries.

  7. Increased Depth of Subcutaneous Fat is Protective against Abdominal Injuries in Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Stewart C.; Bednarski, Brian; Patel, Smita; Yan, Alice; Kohoyda-Inglis, Carla; Kennedy, Theresa; Link, Elizabeth; Rowe, Stephen; Sochor, Mark; Arbabi, Saman

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in subcutaneous fat depth on adult injury patterns in motor vehicle collisions. Sixty-seven consecutive adult crash subjects aged 19–65 who received computed tomography of their chest, abdomen and pelvis as part of their medical evaluation and who consented to inclusion in the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) study were included. Subcutaneous fat was measured just lateral to the rectus abdominus muscle in a transverse section taken through the subject at the level of L4. Women had significantly greater subcutaneous fat depth than men. Increased subcutaneous fat depth was associated with significantly decreased injury severity to the abdominal region of females. A similar trend was noted in males although it did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that increased subcutaneous fat may be protective against injuries by cushioning the abdominal region against injurious forces in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:12941250

  8. Mixed hydroblast and missile injury with abdominal eventeration: case report

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Wojciech; Białko, Marek; Stasiak, Mariusz; Deja, Włodzimierz; Penkowski, Michał; Golabek-Dropiewska, Katarzyna; Lasek, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Gunshot injuries are quite common nowadays. Increasing numbers of high-pressure injection injuries are also being observed with a good correlation with industrial progress. High-pressure devices produce pressures and velocities of fluid streams similar to those generated in firearms. However, no missile plays a part in high-pressure injection injuries. We present the unusual case of mixed missile and hydroblast injury, which has not yet been reported. Physical characteristics, typical patterns of injury and the possibility of infectious complications are shown. The importance of educating workers about safety precautions is emphasised. PMID:21686888

  9. Mixed hydroblast and missile injury with abdominal eventeration: case report.

    PubMed

    Marks, Wojciech; Białko, Marek; Stasiak, Mariusz; Deja, Włodzimierz; Penkowski, Michał; Golabek-Dropiewska, Katarzyna; Lasek, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Gunshot injuries are quite common nowadays. Increasing numbers of high-pressure injection injuries are also being observed with a good correlation with industrial progress. High-pressure devices produce pressures and velocities of fluid streams similar to those generated in firearms. However, no missile plays a part in high-pressure injection injuries. We present the unusual case of mixed missile and hydroblast injury, which has not yet been reported. Physical characteristics, typical patterns of injury and the possibility of infectious complications are shown. The importance of educating workers about safety precautions is emphasised.

  10. Fully Convolutional Neural Networks Improve Abdominal Organ Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bobo, Meg F; Bao, Shunxing; Huo, Yuankai; Yao, Yuang; Virostko, Jack; Plassard, Andrew J; Lyu, Ilwoo; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G; Hilmes, Melissa A; Landman, Bennett A

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Yet, deep learning approaches have not been applied to whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Herein, we evaluate the applicability of an existing fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) designed for CT imaging to segment abdominal organs on T2 weighted (T2w) MRI's with two examples. In the primary example, we compare a classical multi-atlas approach with FCNN on forty-five T2w MRI's acquired from splenomegaly patients with five organs labeled (liver, spleen, left kidney, right kidney, and stomach). Thirty-six images were used for training while nine were used for testing. The FCNN resulted in a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.930 in spleens, 0.730 in left kidneys, 0.780 in right kidneys, 0.913 in livers, and 0.556 in stomachs. The performance measures for livers, spleens, right kidneys, and stomachs were significantly better than multi-atlas (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In a secondary example, we compare the multi-atlas approach with FCNN on 138 distinct T2w MRI's with manually labeled pancreases (one label). On the pancreas dataset, the FCNN resulted in a median DSC of 0.691 in pancreases versus 0.287 for multi-atlas. The results are highly promising given relatively limited training data and without specific training of the FCNN model and illustrate the potential of deep learning approaches to transcend imaging modalities.

  11. Fully convolutional neural networks improve abdominal organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobo, Meg F.; Bao, Shunxing; Huo, Yuankai; Yao, Yuang; Virostko, Jack; Plassard, Andrew J.; Lyu, Ilwoo; Assad, Albert; Abramson, Richard G.; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal image segmentation is a challenging, yet important clinical problem. Variations in body size, position, and relative organ positions greatly complicate the segmentation process. Historically, multi-atlas methods have achieved leading results across imaging modalities and anatomical targets. However, deep learning is rapidly overtaking classical approaches for image segmentation. Recently, Zhou et al. showed that fully convolutional networks produce excellent results in abdominal organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) scans. Yet, deep learning approaches have not been applied to whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. Herein, we evaluate the applicability of an existing fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) designed for CT imaging to segment abdominal organs on T2 weighted (T2w) MRI's with two examples. In the primary example, we compare a classical multi-atlas approach with FCNN on forty-five T2w MRI's acquired from splenomegaly patients with five organs labeled (liver, spleen, left kidney, right kidney, and stomach). Thirty-six images were used for training while nine were used for testing. The FCNN resulted in a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.930 in spleens, 0.730 in left kidneys, 0.780 in right kidneys, 0.913 in livers, and 0.556 in stomachs. The performance measures for livers, spleens, right kidneys, and stomachs were significantly better than multi-atlas (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In a secondary example, we compare the multi-atlas approach with FCNN on 138 distinct T2w MRI's with manually labeled pancreases (one label). On the pancreas dataset, the FCNN resulted in a median DSC of 0.691 in pancreases versus 0.287 for multi-atlas. The results are highly promising given relatively limited training data and without specific training of the FCNN model and illustrate the potential of deep learning approaches to transcend imaging modalities. 1

  12. [Successful treatment of injuries of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Merkl, J; Bat'alík, B; Mydlo, J

    1990-03-01

    The authors describe successful treatment of severe haemorrhagic shock caused by profuse haemorrhage from the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. After primary treatment of the perforation by a vascular suture reoperation was necessary because of repeated haemorrhage from that site, and for closure of the dehiscence Dacron stitch was used.

  13. Discriminative dictionary learning for abdominal multi-organ segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tong; Wolz, Robin; Wang, Zehan; Gao, Qinquan; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    An automated segmentation method is presented for multi-organ segmentation in abdominal CT images. Dictionary learning and sparse coding techniques are used in the proposed method to generate target specific priors for segmentation. The method simultaneously learns dictionaries which have reconstructive power and classifiers which have discriminative ability from a set of selected atlases. Based on the learnt dictionaries and classifiers, probabilistic atlases are then generated to provide priors for the segmentation of unseen target images. The final segmentation is obtained by applying a post-processing step based on a graph-cuts method. In addition, this paper proposes a voxel-wise local atlas selection strategy to deal with high inter-subject variation in abdominal CT images. The segmentation performance of the proposed method with different atlas selection strategies are also compared. Our proposed method has been evaluated on a database of 150 abdominal CT images and achieves a promising segmentation performance with Dice overlap values of 94.9%, 93.6%, 71.1%, and 92.5% for liver, kidneys, pancreas, and spleen, respectively. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic value of unenhanced postmortem computed tomography in the detection of traumatic abdominal injuries.

    PubMed

    Carballeira Álvarez, A; Mancini, J; Tuchtan-Torrents, L; Gach, P; Bartoli, C; Desfeux, J; Piercecchi, M D; Gorincour, G

    2018-02-20

    To determine the diagnostic capabilities of unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (UPMCT) in detecting traumatic abdominal injuries. Cases of traumatic death with both UPMCT and classical autopsy were collected retrospectively from our institution "virtopsy" database in a period of 5 years. Cadavers with gunshot injuries were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative (NPV) and positive (PPV) predictive values of PMCT globally and for hemoperitoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney injuries individually were estimated using the autopsy report as gold standard. Seventy-one cadavers were included. UPMCT had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity 94%, with an accuracy of 83%, a PPV of 98% and a NPV of 59% for the diagnosis of traumatic abdominal injuries. The highest sensitivity was obtained for the detection of hepatic injuries (71%) and the lowest for pancreatic injuries (12%). UPMCT had a specificity of 100% for the detection of hemoperitoneum. A NPV of 98% was found for the detection of perihepatic hematomas. The low sensitivity and low NPV do not support the use of UPMCT as an alternative to conventional autopsy to diagnose and/or rule out traumatic abdominal injuries. Nevertheless, UPMCT remains a helpful tool as it helps detect hemoperitoneum and virtually exclude presence of perihepatic hematomas. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic enzymes have a role in the diagnosis of hepatic injury after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Bang, Shieh-Ling; Vijayan, Appasamy; Chiu, Ming-Terk

    2009-09-01

    Delayed diagnosis of patients with severe liver injuries is associated with an adverse outcome. As computed tomographic (CT) scan is not always available in the management of blunt abdominal trauma worldwide, the present study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of selected haematological markers in predicting the presence of hepatic injury and its severity after blunt abdominal trauma. A retrospective review of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma presented to our institution over a 3-year period was performed. Patients were excluded if they suffered penetrating injuries, died in the emergency department or if the required blood tests were not performed within 24h of the accident. The grading of the hepatic injury was verified using CT scans or surgical findings. Ninety-nine patients with blunt abdominal trauma had the required blood tests performed and were included in the study. The median injury severity score was 24 (range 4-75). Fifty-five patients had hepatic injuries, of which 47.3% were minor (Grades I and II) while 52.7% had major hepatic injuries (Grades III-V). There were no patients with Grade VI injuries. A raised ALT was strongly associated with presence of hepatic injuries (OR, 109.8; 95% CI, 25.81-466.9). This relation was also seen in patients with raised AST>2 times (OR, 21.33; 95% CI, 7.27-62.65). This difference was not seen in both bilirubin and ALP. ALT>2 times normal was associated with major hepatic injuries (OR, 7.15; 95% CI, 1.38-37.14; p=0.012) while patients with simultaneous raised AST>2 times and ALT>2 times had a stronger association for major hepatic injuries (OR, 8.44; 95% CI, 1.64-43.47). Abnormal transaminases levels are associated with hepatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. Patients with ALT and AST>2 times normal should be assumed to possess major hepatic trauma and managed accordingly. Patients with normal ALT, AST and LDH are unlikely to have major liver injuries.

  16. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management.

    PubMed

    Torba, M; Gjata, A; Buci, S; Bushi, G; Zenelaj, A; Kajo, I; Koceku, S; Kagjini, K; Subashi, K

    2015-01-01

    The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 - 1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 - 21.3, p<0.001). Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries.

  17. The influence of the risk factor on the abdominal complications in colon injury management

    PubMed Central

    TORBA, M.; GJATA, A.; BUCI, S.; BUSHI, G.; ZENELAJ, A.; KAJO, I.; KOCEKU, S.; KAGJINI, K.; SUBASHI, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of colon injuries has distinctly evolved over the last three decades. However, trauma surgeons often find themselves in a dilemma, whether to perform a diversion or to perform a primary repair. The purpose of this study is to evaluate risk factors in colon injury management and their influence on abdominal complications. Patients and methods This is a prospective study conducted at a national level I trauma center in Tirana, Albania from January 2009 to December 2012. The data with respect to demographics, physiological risk factors, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were collected. Colonic injury-related morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed by assessing the influence of risk factors on abdominal complications. Results Of the 157 patients treated with colon injury, was performed a primary repair in 107 (68.15%) of the patients and a diversion in the remaining 50 (31.85%). The mean PATI was 18.6, while 37 (23.6%) of patients had PATI greater than 25. The complications and their frequencies according to the surgical technique used (primay repair vs diversion respectively) includes: wound infections (9.3% vs 50%), anastomotic leak (1.8% vs 8.7%), and intra-abdominal abscess (1.8% vs 6.5%). The multivariate analysis identified two independent risk factors for abdominal complications: transfusions of 4 units of blood within the first 24 hours (OR = 1.2 95% CI (1.03 –1.57) p =0.02), and diversion (OR = 9.6, 95% CI 4.4 – 21.3, p<0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusions of more than 4 units within the first 24 hours and diversion during the management of destructive colon injuries are both independent risk factors for abdominal complications. The socioeconomic impact and the need for a subsequent operation in colostomy patients are strong reasons to consider primary repair in the management of colon injuries. PMID:26017103

  18. Giant spigelian hernia due to abdominal wall injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ersun; Kaya, Ekrem; Topal, Naile Bolca; Sahin, Ilker

    2007-02-01

    Spigelian hernia is a rare clinical entity. It is difficult to diagnose due to its location. In this article we report the case of a giant spigelian hernia consequent to abdominal wall injury. The neck of the hernia was 10 cm in diameter. We repaired this hernia with a polypropylene mesh.

  19. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome after complicated traumatic lower extremity vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Macedo, F I B; Sciarretta, J D; Otero, C A; Ruiz, G; Ebler, D J; Pizano, L R; Namias, N

    2016-04-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can occur in trauma patients without abdominal injuries. Surgical management of patients presenting with secondary ACS after isolated traumatic lower extremity vascular injury (LEVI) continues to evolve, and associated outcomes remain unknown. From January 2006 to September 2011, 191 adult trauma patients presented to the Ryder Trauma Center, an urban level I trauma center in Miami, Florida with traumatic LEVIs. Among them 10 (5.2 %) patients were diagnosed with secondary ACS. Variables collected included age, gender, mechanism of injury, and clinical status at presentation. Surgical data included vessel injury, technical aspects of repair, associated complications, and outcomes. Mean age was 37.4 ± 18.0 years (range 16-66 years), and the majority of patients were males (8 patients, 80 %). There were 7 (70 %) penetrating injuries (5 gunshot wounds and 2 stab wounds), and 3 blunt injuries with mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) 21.9 ± 14.3 (range 9-50). Surgical management of LEVIs included ligation (4 patients, 40 %), primary repair (1 patient, 10 %), reverse saphenous vein graft (2 patients, 20 %), and PTFE interposition grafting (3 patients, 30 %). The overall mortality rate in this series was 60 %. The association between secondary ACS and lower extremity vascular injuries carries high morbidity and mortality rates. Further research efforts should focus at identifying parameters to accurately determine resuscitation goals, and therefore, prevent such a devastating condition.

  20. Fetal head injury from intentional penetrating abdominal trauma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shehu, B B; Ismail, N J; Hassan, I; Mahmud, M R; Lasseini, A

    2010-01-01

    A male fetus was extruded from the uterus following multiple lower abdominal stab wounds to the mother. He was brought to the emergency room at 8 hours of age. He had sustained a compound skull fracture with brain contusion. There was no neurological deficit. Debridement and primary wound closure were undertaken. His mother had multiple lacerations to the uterus and a laceration of the fundus of the bladder. Following resuscitation, she had repair of the uterus and bladder and made an uneventful recovery. At 3 years of age, the boy is developing normally.

  1. Continuous Negative Abdominal Pressure Reduces Ventilator-induced Lung Injury in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Engelberts, Doreen; Otulakowski, Gail; Katira, Bhushan; Post, Martin; Ferguson, Niall D; Brochard, Laurent; Amato, Marcelo B P; Kavanagh, Brian P

    2018-04-27

    In supine patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the lung typically partitions into regions of dorsal atelectasis and ventral aeration ("baby lung"). Positive airway pressure is often used to recruit atelectasis, but often overinflates ventral (already aerated) regions. A novel approach to selective recruitment of dorsal atelectasis is by "continuous negative abdominal pressure." A randomized laboratory study was performed in anesthetized pigs. Lung injury was induced by surfactant lavage followed by 1 h of injurious mechanical ventilation. Randomization (five pigs in each group) was to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) alone or PEEP with continuous negative abdominal pressure (-5 cm H2O via a plexiglass chamber enclosing hindlimbs, pelvis, and abdomen), followed by 4 h of injurious ventilation (high tidal volume, 20 ml/kg; low expiratory transpulmonary pressure, -3 cm H2O). The level of PEEP at the start was ≈7 (vs. ≈3) cm H2O in the PEEP (vs. PEEP plus continuous negative abdominal pressure) groups. Esophageal pressure, hemodynamics, and electrical impedance tomography were recorded, and injury determined by lung wet/dry weight ratio and interleukin-6 expression. All animals survived, but cardiac output was decreased in the PEEP group. Addition of continuous negative abdominal pressure to PEEP resulted in greater oxygenation (PaO2/fractional inspired oxygen 316 ± 134 vs. 80 ± 24 mmHg at 4 h, P = 0.005), compliance (14.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.3 ± 2.2 ml/cm H2O, P = 0.049), and homogeneity of ventilation, with less pulmonary edema (≈10% less) and interleukin-6 expression (≈30% less). Continuous negative abdominal pressure added to PEEP reduces ventilator-induced lung injury in a pig model compared with PEEP alone, despite targeting identical expiratory transpulmonary pressure.

  2. The Accuracy of Urinalysis in Predicting Intra-Abdominal Injury Following Blunt Traumas.

    PubMed

    Sabzghabaei, Anita; Shojaee, Majid; Safari, Saeed; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Shirvani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In cases of blunt abdominal traumas, predicting the possible intra-abdominal injuries is still a challenge for the physicians involved with these patients. Therefore, this study was designed, to evaluate the accuracy of urinalysis in predicting intra-abdominal injuries. Patients aged 15 to 65 years with blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted to emergency departments were enrolled. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast and urinalysis were requested for all the included patients. Demographic data, trauma mechanism, the results of urinalysis, and the results of abdominopelvic CT scan were gathered. Finally, the correlation between the results of abdominopelvic CT scan, and urinalysis was determined. Urinalysis was considered positive in case of at least one positive value in gross appearance, blood in dipstick, or red blood cell count. 325 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were admitted to the emergency departments (83% male with the mean age of 32.63±17.48 years). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of urinalysis, were 77.9% (95% CI: 69.6-84.4), 58.5% (95% CI: 51.2-65.5), 56% (95% CI: 48.5-63.3), 79.6% (95% CI: 71.8-85.7), 1.27% (95% CI: 1.30-1.57), and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.18-0.36), respectively. The diagnostic value of urinalysis in prediction of blunt traumatic intra-abdominal injuries is low and it seems that it should be considered as an adjuvant diagnostic tool, in conjunction with other sources such as clinical findings and imaging.

  3. Penetrating abdominal injuries during the Syrian war: Patterns and factors affecting mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Shawqi; Alsabek, Mhd Belal; Ahmad, Mousa; Hamo, Iman; Munder, Eskander

    2017-05-01

    A large number of innocent Syrians were injured or killed during the years of war. This retrospective study investigates the differences in patterns of injury and factors affecting the mortality rate in 324 patients coming to Damascus Hospital with penetrating abdominal trauma, and illustrates the difficulties of diagnosis and decision making in crisis situations. A retrospective study was registered from patient's records between October 2012 and June 2013 in Damascus Hospital. All victims were injured either by explosions or gunshots. A total of 325 patients: 183 by explosion; 56.3%, 141 by gunshot; 43.3%, and one patient by other means; 0.3% were reviewed. The study focused on the two large groups with a total of 324 patients. Males were predominant (82.1%; n=266) and the majority of patients were between 19 and 35 years old. Patients suffering from multi abdominal organ injury were more common in gunshot group (n=72, 51.1%) compared to the explosion group (n=83, 45.3%). 264 patients (81.5%) underwent surgical operations and only 22 (8.3%) had normal laparotomy. The inpatient mortality rate was (17.0%; n=55), and there was no difference in mortality rate between the two groups. More than the half of deaths (n=42; 76.4%) had a P.A.T.I score≥25 where the death rate was 35.6% which is higher compared to 6.3% in those with a P.A.T.I<25. In the ICU 33 patients died, of these (87.9%; n=29) died after immediate admission to the ICU which is higher compared with a later admission (12.1%; n=4). The need for massive blood transfusion affected the mortality rate. Efforts must be directed toward training of medical staff to deal with crisis incidents. The need for massive blood transfusion and ICU admissions can affects mortality. P.A.T.I was found to be an effective predictor of mortality. Clinical experience in this field can produce better health care and faster judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of 162 colon injuries in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: concomitant stomach injury results in a higher rate of infection.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Patricia A; Kirton, Orlando C; Dresner, Lisa S; Tortella, Bartholomew; Kestner, Mark M

    2004-02-01

    Fecal contamination from colon injury has been thought to be the most significant factor for the development of surgical site infection (SSI) after trauma. However, there are increasing data to suggest that other factors may play a role in the development of postinjury infection in patients after colon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of gastric wounding on the development of SSI and nonsurgical site infection (NSSI) in patients with colon injury. Post hoc analysis was performed on data prospectively collected for 317 patients presenting with penetrating hollow viscus injury. One hundred sixty-two patients with colon injury were subdivided into one of three groups: patients with isolated colon wounds (C), patients with colon and stomach wounds with or without other organ injury (C+S), and patients with colon and other organ injury but no stomach injury (C-S) and assessed for the development of SSI and NSSI. Infection rates were also determined for patients who sustained isolated gastric injury (S) and gastric injury in combination with other injuries other than colon (S-C). Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, operative times, and transfusion were assessed. Discrete variables were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Risk factor analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. C+S patients had a higher rate of SSI infection (31%) than C patients (3.6%) (p=0.008) and C-S patients (13%) (p=0.021). Similarly, the incidence of NSSI was also significantly greater in the C+S group (37%) compared with the C patients (7.5%) (p=0.07) and the C-S patients (17%) (p=0.019). There was no difference in the rate of SSI or NSSI between the C and C-S groups (p=0.3 and p=0.24, respectively). The rate of SSI was significantly greater in the C+S patients when compared with the S-C patients (31% vs. 10%, p=0.008), but there was no statistical difference in the rate of NSSI in the C+S group and the S-C group (37

  5. Epidemiology and Impact of Abdominal Oblique Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Christopher L.; Conte, Stan; Cohen, Steven B.; Thompson, Matthew; D’ Angelo, John; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Dines, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oblique injuries are known to be a common cause of time out of play for professional baseball players, and prior work has suggested that injury rates may be on the rise in Major League Baseball (MLB). Purpose: To better understand the current incidence of oblique injuries, determine their impact based on time out of play, and to identify common injury patterns that may guide future injury prevention programs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Using the MLB Health and Injury Tracking System, all oblique injuries that resulted in time out of play in MLB and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) during the 2011 to 2015 seasons were identified. Player demographics such as age, position/role, and handedness were included. Injury-specific factors analyzed included the following: date of injury, timing during season, days missed, mechanism, side, treatment, and reinjury status. Results: A total of 996 oblique injuries occurred in 259 (26%) MLB and 737 (74%) MiLB players. Although the injury rate was steady in MiLB, the MLB injury rate declined (P = .037). A total of 22,064 days were missed at a mean rate of 4413 days per season and 22.2 days per injury. The majority of these occurred during batting (n = 455, 46%) or pitching (n = 348, 35%), with pitchers losing 5 days more per injury than batters (P < .001). The leading side was injured in 77% of cases and took 5 days longer to recover from than trailing side injuries (P = .009). Seventy-nine (7.9%) players received either a corticosteroid or platelet-rich plasma injection, and the mean recovery time was 11 days longer compared with those who did not receive an injection (P < .001). Conclusion: Although the rate of abdominal oblique injuries is on the decline in MLB, this is not the case for MiLB, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of time out of play in professional baseball. The vast majority of injuries occur on the lead side, and these injuries result in the

  6. Synergistic Effect of Combined Hollow Viscus Injuries on Intra-Abdominal Abscess Formation.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Elena M; Croce, Martin A; Shahan, Charles P; Zarzaur, Ben L; Sharpe, John P; Dileepan, Amirtha; Boyd, Brandon S; Fabian, Timothy C

    2015-07-01

    The strong association between penetrating colon injuries and intra-abdominal abscess (IAA) formation is well established and attributed to high colon bacterial counts. Since trauma patients are rarely fasting at injury, stomach and small bowel colony counts are also elevated. We hypothesized that there is a synergistic effect of increased IAA formation with concomitant stomach and/or colon injuries when compared to small bowel injuries alone. Consecutive patients at a level one trauma center with penetrating small bowel (SB), stomach (S), and/or colon (C) injuries from 1996 to 2012 were reviewed. Logistic regression determined associations with IAA, adjusting for age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS), admission Glasgow Coma Score, transfusions, and concurrent pancreas or liver injury. A total of 1518 patients (91% male, ISS = 15.9 ± 8.4) were identified: 496 (33%) SB, 231 (15%) S, 288 (19%) C, 40 (3%) S + SB, 69 (5%) S + C, 338 (22%) C + SB, and 56 (4%) S + C + SB. 148 (10%) patients developed IAA: 4 per cent SB, 9 per cent S, 10 per cent C, 5 per cent S + SB, 22 per cent S + C, 13 per cent C + SB, and 25 per cent S + C + SB. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that ISS, 24 hour blood transfusions, and concomitant pancreatic or liver injuries were associated with IAA. Compared with reference SB, S or S + SB injuries were no more likely to develop IAA. However, S + C, SB + C, and S + C + SB injuries were significantly more likely to have IAA. In conclusion, combined stomach + colon, small bowel + colon, and stomach, colon, + small bowel injuries have a synergistic effect leading to increased IAA formation after penetrating injuries. Heightened clinical suspicion for IAA formation is necessary in these combined hollow viscus injury patients.

  7. Acute transfusion-related abdominal injury in trauma patients: a case report.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Wähnert, D; Freistühler, M; Laukoetter, M G; Rehberg, S; Raschke, M J; Garcia, P

    2016-10-19

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is well known as a life-threatening complication in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. Massive crystalloid fluid resuscitation has been identified as the most important risk factor. The time interval from hospital admittance to the development of manifest abdominal compartment syndrome is usually greater than 24 hours. In the absence of any direct abdominal trauma, we observed a rapidly evolving secondary abdominal compartment syndrome shortly after hospital admittance associated with massive transfusion of blood products and only moderate crystalloid resuscitation. We report the case of an acute secondary abdominal compartment syndrome developing within 3 to 4 hours in a 74-year-old polytraumatized white woman. Although multiple fractures of her extremities and a B-type pelvic ring fracture were diagnosed by a full body computed tomography scan, no intra-abdominal injury could be detected. Hemorrhagic shock with a drop in her hemoglobin level to 5.7 g/dl was treated by massive transfusion of blood products and high doses of catecholamines. Shortly afterwards, her pulmonary gas exchange progressively deteriorated and mechanical ventilation became almost impossible with peak airway pressures of up to 60 cmH 2 O. Her abdomen appeared rigid and tense accompanied by a progressive hemodynamic decompensation necessitating mechanic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Although preoperative computed tomography scans showed no signs of intra-abdominal fluid, a decompressive laparotomy under cardiopulmonary resuscitation conditions was performed and 2 liters of ascites-like fluid disgorged. Her hemodynamics and pulmonary ventilation improved immediately. This case report describes for the first time acute secondary abdominal compartment syndrome in a trauma patient, evolving in a very short time period. We hypothesize that the massive transfusion of blood products along with high doses of catecholamines triggered the acute

  8. Non-operative management of abdominal gunshot injuries: Is it safe in all cases?

    PubMed

    İflazoğlu, Nidal; Üreyen, Orhan; Öner, Osman Zekai; Meral, Ulvi Mehmet; Yülüklü, Murat

    2018-01-01

    In line with advances in diagnostic methods and expectation of a decrease in the number of negative laparotomies, selective non-operative management of abdominal gunshot wounds has been increasingly used over the last three decades. We aim to detect the possibility of treatment without surgery and present our experience in selected cases referred from Syria to a hospital at the Turkish-Syrian border. Between February 2012 and June 2014, patients admitted with abdominal gunshot wounds were analyzed. Computed tomography was performed for all patients on admission. Patients who were hemodynamically stable and did not have symptoms of peritonitis at the time of presentation were included in the study. The primary outcome parameters were mortality and morbidity. Successful selective non-operative management (Group 1) and unsuccessful selective non-operative management (Group 2) groups were compared in terms of complications, blood transfusion, injury site, injury severity score (ISS), and hospital stay. Of 158 truncal injury patients, 18 were considered feasible for selective non-operative management. Of these, 14 (78%) patients were treated without surgery. Other Four patients were operated upon progressively increasing abdominal pain and tenderness during follow-up. On diagnostic exploration, all of these cases had intestinal perforations. No mortality was observed in selective non-operative management. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2, in terms of length of hospital stay (96 and 127 h, respectively). Also, there was no difference between groups in terms of blood transfusion necessity, injury site, complication rate, and injury severity score (p>0.05). Decision making on patient selection for selective non-operative management is critical to ensure favorable outcomes. It is not possible to predict the success of selective non-operative management in advance. Cautious clinical examination and close monitoring of these

  9. Abdominal trauma in infants and children: prompt identification and early management of serious and life-threatening injuries. Part II: Specific injuries and ED management.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, S G; Green, S M; Morgan, R

    2000-06-01

    Evaluation of children with suspected abdominal trauma could be a difficult task. Unique anatomic and physiologic features render vital sign assessment and the physical examination less useful than in the adult population. Awareness of injury patterns and associations will improve the early diagnosis of abdominal trauma. Clinicians must have a complete understanding of common and atypical presentations of children with significant abdominal injuries. Knowledge of the utility and limitations of available laboratory and radiologic adjuncts will assist in accurately identifying abdominal injury. While other obvious injuries (eg, facial, cranial, and extremity trauma) can distract physicians from less obvious abdominal trauma, an algorithmic approach to evaluating and managing children with multisystem trauma will improve overall care and help to identify and treat abdominal injuries in a timely fashion. Finally, physicians must be aware of the capabilities of their own facility to handle pediatric trauma. Protocols must be in place for expediting the transfer of children who require a higher level of care. Knowledge of each of these areas will help to improve the overall care and outcome of children with abdominal trauma.

  10. [Prognostic factors related to non surgical treatment failure of splenic injuries in the abdominal blunt trauma].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fábio Henrique de; Romeiro, Paula Christina Marra; Collaço, Iwan Augusto; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto

    2009-04-01

    Identify prognostic factors related to treatment failure of blunt splenic injuries managed by non surgical treatment (NST). Fifty six adult patients submitted to NST were prospectively studied. The injuries were diagnosed by computed axial tomography scan and classified according to AAST (American Association for Surgery of Trauma) criteria. Patients were divided in success and failure groups. NST failure was defined as the need for laparotomy for any reason. NST failures (19.6%) were due to: abdominal pain (45.4%), hemodinamic instability (36.4%), splenic haematoma associated to a fall in hematocrit (9.1%) and splenic abscess (9.1%). There were no failures in grade I and II of the splenic injuries; failure rate was 17.5% in grade III and IV injuries grouped, and 80% in grade V injuries (p = 0,0008). In the success group, 31.3% patients received red cell transfusions, versus 63.6% patients in the failure group (p = 0,05). Failure rate in patients with ISS = 8 was zero; 15.9% in patients with ISS 9 to 25; and 50% in patients with ISS = 26 (p = 0,05). There were no deaths or missed bowel injuries. ISS and splenic injury grade were related to failure of NST.

  11. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Methods Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35–60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. Results For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Conclusion Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury. PMID:26745868

  12. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  13. The value of endoscopic diagnosis and the treatment of pancreas injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Wolf, A; Bernhardt, J; Patrzyk, M; Heidecke, C-D

    2005-05-01

    Injuries to the pancreas following blunt abdominal trauma are rare due to its protected retroperitoneal position. Many pancreatic lesions remain unnoticed at first and only become apparent when complications arise or during treatment of other injuries. The mortality rate is between 12 and 30%, and if treatment is delayed it is as high as 60%. Using medical records over the past 5 years, we investigated when and in what circumstances endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) was used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreas injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. Penetrating injuries were not taken into consideration. An ERCP was performed on a total of five patients with suspected injuries to the pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma. No duct participation could be determined in three of the patients with a first degree pancreatic lesion. A 44-year-old woman sustained severe internal and external injuries after a traffic accident. Because of the nature of her injuries, pancreatic left resection with splenectomy was necessary. After the operation, a pancreatic fistula diagnosed. The ductus pancreaticus (DP) was successfully treated by stenting with the use of endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography. A 24-year old woman was kicked in the epigastrium by a horse. On the day after the incident, she complained of increasing pain in the upper abdomen, and she had elevated amylase and lipase levels. Computed tomography scan showed free fluid. Less than 48 h after the accident, ERCP was performed and a leakage in the DP in the head-body region (fourth degree) was identified. We placed a stent, and during the subsequent laparoscopy the omental bursa was flushed out and a drainage laid. After 14 days, the patient was sent home. We removed the drainage 4 weeks after the accident, and the stent after 12 weeks. The major advantage of the prompt retrograde discription of the pancreatobiliary system after an accident in which pancreas involvement is suspected is the

  14. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Bayapa; Hanumantha; Madithati, Pallavi; Reddy, N Nagarjuna; Reddy, C Sainarasimha

    2014-04-01

    The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%), most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%); and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%). Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3%) victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%), sternum was 6 (8.4%), and vertebrae 6 (8.4%) of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3%) followed by the heart 2 (7.6%). Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1%) than contusions 5 (20.8%). Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6%) followed by spleen 9 (18.3%). Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the planners to take safety measures, to implement strict traffic rules, to

  15. Abdominal injuries in a major Scandinavian trauma center – performance assessment over an 8 year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Damage control surgery and damage control resuscitation have reduced mortality in patients with severe abdominal injuries. The shift towards non-operative management in haemodynamically stable patients suffering blunt abdominal trauma has further contributed to the improved results. However, in many countries, low volume of trauma cases and limited exposure to trauma laparotomies constitute a threat to trauma competence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional patient volume and performance for patients with abdominal injuries over an eight-year period. Methods Data from 955 consecutive trauma patients admitted in Oslo University Hospital Ulleval with abdominal injuries during the eight-year period 2002-2009 were retrospectively explored. A separate analysis was performed on all trauma patients undergoing laparotomy during the same period, whether abdominal injuries were identified or not. Variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) was used in order to describe risk-adjusted survival trends throughout the period and the patients admitted before (Period 1) and after (Period 2) the institution of a formal Trauma Service (2005) were compared. Results There was a steady increase in admitted patients with abdominal injuries, while the number of patients undergoing laparotomy was constant exposing the surgical trauma team leaders to an average of 8 trauma laparotomies per year. No increase in missed injuries or failures of non-operative management was detected. Unadjusted mortality rates decreased from period 1 to period 2 for all patients with abdominal injuries as well as for the patients undergoing laparotomy. However, this apparent decrease was not confirmed as significant in TRISS-based analysis of risk-adjusted mortality. VLAD demonstrated a steady performance throughout the study period. Conclusion Even in a high volume trauma center the exposure to abdominal injuries and trauma laparotomies is limited. Due to increasing NOM, an increasing

  16. Avulsion of Ampulla of Vater Secondary to a Blunt Abdominal Injury Treated with Pancreatoduodenectomy; A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Mustafa; Ersen, Ogun; Ozsoy, Zehra; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Arıkan, Yüksel

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of complex hepatobiliary injury secondary to blunt abdominal injuries varies between 3.4 and 5%. A 25-year old male patient underwent an urgent operation due to a motorcycle accident. During intraabdominal exploration, Grade 4 laceration was detected at the liver and bleeding was controlled through primary repair. In the postoperative seventh day, he was referred due to 1500 cc bile leakage from the drainage tube. During the operation, an extensive Kocher maneuver was done and the second part of duodenum was observed to be exposed to total avulsion from the head of the pancreas. Pancreatoduodenectomy was planned due to presence of ischemic changes in the second part of duodenum. In the postoperative follow-up, the abdomen was closed with a controlled abdominal closure procedure. The clinical findings of biliary tract injuries secondary to blunt abdominal injuries often manifest themselves late and early diagnosis is possible only with suspicion.

  17. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: geert.maleux@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Heye, Sam

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealedmore » an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.« less

  18. Endovascular repair of an actively hemorrhaging stab wound injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  19. [The Effectiveness of Abdominal Massage on Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzu-Jung; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenic bowel dysfunction is a common comorbidity in spinal cord injury patients that may result in fecal incontinence. Abdominal massage is one intestinal training method that is used to improve bowel movement and defecation. To review the effectiveness of abdominal massage on neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. A systematic review of Chinese and English-language articles was performed in six databases using the following key words: spinal cord injury, abdominal massage, neurogenic bowel dysfunction, and bowel training. Relevant studies published prior to June 2016 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The Downs and Black scale was used to appraise the quality of each of the included studies. Eight studies were included in the final analysis. Four of these studies indicated that abdominal massage significantly improved bowel functions and the regularity and frequency of bowel movements. Although two of the studies indicated that abdominal massage significantly reduced the use of glycerin and laxatives, the remaining six did not. The eight studies earned respective quality scores ranging between 13 and 25. The current literature lacks consensus on the efficacy of abdominal massage in terms of improving bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injuries. Future studies should use more stringent experimental designs such as randomized controlled studies to explore the correlations among massage time and frequency and bowel function improvements in order to provide guidelines for clinical care applications.

  20. Management of children with solid organ injuries after blunt torso trauma.

    PubMed

    Wisner, David H; Kuppermann, Nathan; Cooper, Arthur; Menaker, Jay; Ehrlich, Peter; Kooistra, Josh; Mahajan, Prashant; Lee, Lois; Cook, Lawrence J; Yen, Kenneth; Lillis, Kathy; Holmes, James F

    2015-08-01

    Management of children with intra-abdominal solid organ injuries has evolved markedly. We describe the current management of children with intra-abdominal solid organ injuries after blunt trauma in a large multicenter network. We performed a planned secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter observational study of children (<18 years) with blunt torso trauma. We included children with spleen, liver, or kidney injuries identified by computed tomography, laparotomy/laparoscopy, or autopsy. Outcomes included disposition and interventions (blood transfusion for intra-abdominal hemorrhage, angiography, laparotomy/laparoscopy). We performed subanalyses of children with isolated injuries. A total of 12,044 children were enrolled; 605 (5.0%) had intra-abdominal solid organ injuries. The mean (SD) age was 10.7 (5.1) years, and injured organs included spleen 299 (49.4%), liver 282 (46.6%), and kidney 147 (24.3%). Intraperitoneal fluid was identified on computed tomography in 461 (76%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 73-80%), and isolated solid organ injuries were present in 418 (69%; 95% CI, 65-73%). Treatment included therapeutic laparotomy in 17 (4.1%), angiographic embolization in 6 (1.4%), and blood transfusion in 46 (11%) patients. Laparotomy rates for isolated injury were 11 (5.4%) of 205 (95% CI, 2.7-9.4%) at non-freestanding children's hospitals and 6 (2.8%) of 213 (95% CI, 1.0-6.0%) at freestanding children's hospitals (difference, 2.6%; 95% CI, -7.1% to 12.2%). Dispositions of the 212 children with isolated Grade I or II organ injuries were home in 6 (3%), emergency department observation in 9 (4%), ward in 114 (54%), intensive care unit in 73 (34%), operating suite in 7 (3%), and transferred in 3 (1%) patients. Intensive care unit admission for isolated Grade I or II injuries varied by center from 9% to 73%. Most children with solid organ injuries are managed with observation. Blood transfusion, while uncommon, is the most frequent therapeutic intervention

  1. Abdominal Circumference Versus Body Mass Index as Predictors of Lower Extremity Overuse Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Nye, Nathaniel S; Kafer, Drew S; Olsen, Cara; Carnahan, David H; Crawford, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal circumference (AC) is superior to body mass index (BMI) as a measure of risk for various health outcomes. Our objective was to compare AC and BMI as predictors of lower extremity overuse injury (LEOI) risk. Retrospective review of electronic medical records of 79,868 US Air Force personnel over a 7-year period (2005-2011) for incidence of new LEOI. Subjects were stratified by BMI and AC. Injury risk for BMI/AC subgroups was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve were used to compare each model's predictive value. Cox proportional-hazards regression showed significant risk association between elevated BMI, AC, and all injury types, with hazard ratios ranging 1.230-3.415 for obese versus normal BMI and 1.665-3.893 for high-risk versus low-risk AC (P < .05 for all measures). Receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve showed equivalent performance between BMI and AC for predicting all injury types. However, the combined model (AC and BMI) showed improved predictive ability over either model alone for joint injury, overall LEOI, and most strongly for osteoarthritis. Although AC and BMI alone performed similarly well, a combined approach using BMI and AC together improved risk estimation for LEOI.

  2. Multi-atlas segmentation for abdominal organs with Gaussian mixture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Ryan P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Lee, Christopher P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation with clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) is drawing increasing interest in the medical imaging community. Gaussian mixture models (GMM) have been extensively used through medical segmentation, most notably in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid / gray matter / white matter differentiation. Because abdominal CT exhibit strong localized intensity characteristics, GMM have recently been incorporated in multi-stage abdominal segmentation algorithms. In the context of variable abdominal anatomy and rich algorithms, it is difficult to assess the marginal contribution of GMM. Herein, we characterize the efficacy of an a posteriori framework that integrates GMM of organ-wise intensity likelihood with spatial priors from multiple target-specific registered labels. In our study, we first manually labeled 100 CT images. Then, we assigned 40 images to use as training data for constructing target-specific spatial priors and intensity likelihoods. The remaining 60 images were evaluated as test targets for segmenting 12 abdominal organs. The overlap between the true and the automatic segmentations was measured by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). A median improvement of 145% was achieved by integrating the GMM intensity likelihood against the specific spatial prior. The proposed framework opens the opportunities for abdominal organ segmentation by efficiently using both the spatial and appearance information from the atlases, and creates a benchmark for large-scale automatic abdominal segmentation.

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of Abdominal Injury in Tennis Serves. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tubez, François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Cordonnier, Caroline; Brüls, Olivier; Denoël, Vincent; Berwart, Gilles; Joris, Maurice; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Schwartz, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kinematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player’s knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as reference. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries. Key points In the proximal-distal sequence, energy is transmitted from lower limbs to upper limps via trunk. The 3D analysis tool is an indispensable test for an objective evaluation of the kinematic in the tennis serve. Multiple evaluations techniques are useful for fuller comprehension of the kinematics and contribute to the awareness of the player’s staff concerning pathologies and performance. PMID:25983591

  4. [Delayed perforation of the cecum and sigmoid colon after blunt abdominal trauma in a patient with multiple injuries].

    PubMed

    Miranda, E; Arroyo, A; Ronda, J M; Muñoz, J L; Alonso, C; Martínez-Peñuelas, F; Martí-Viaño, J L

    2007-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can damage the intestinal vasculature and may occasionally lead to delayed intestinal perforation, associated with a combined rate of morbidity and mortality of 25%. The diagnosis of such complications is hindered by sedation in critical patients, however, and morbimortality in this population is therefore higher. We report the case of a man with multiple injuries admitted to the intensive care unit, where delayed perforations of the sigmoid colon and cecum were diagnosed. The management of blunt abdominal trauma is reviewed and the possible causes, diagnostic approaches, and treatment options for colon injuries are discussed.

  5. Combined Abdominal and Spine Injuries after High Energy Flexion-Distraction Trauma.

    PubMed

    Woltmann, Alexander; Beisse, Rudolph; Eckardt, Henrik; Potulski, Michael; Bühren, Volker

    2007-10-01

    Combined abdominal (AT) and spine (ST) trauma in the multiply traumatized patient (MT) requires optimal clinical management. At the Traumacenter Murnau, Germany all multiply injured patients (injury severity score ≥ 16) are registered in a large prospective database (DGU-Tramaregister). From 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2004, 731 multiply injured patients (ISS ≥ 16) were admitted to the Trauma Center Murnau. In this population, ST was diagnosed in 287 patients (39%), AT was diagnosed in 100 patients (14%), and in 35 patients (5%) a combined ST and AT was observed. The most frequent injury mechanism in patients with a combined ST and AT was high-energy flexion-distraction trauma caused by motor vehicle accident with seat belt fastened passengers, bicycle accident, and fall from great height. In the cohort group of 35 patients, 29 required either abdominal or spinal operation. In 23 patients the AT and in 18 patients the ST necessitated operation. In 14 patients both the AT and ST called for surgery. The AT was predominately treated with splenectomies, resections and suturing of the intestine. The ST resulted in 14 posterior and four postponed anterior stabilizations of the thoracolumbar and four anterior fusions of the cervical spine. Mean age of these patients was 37 years in comparison to 47 years in the control group (MT without combined AT and ST). ISS of patients with combined AT and ST was 38 points compared to 26 points in the control group, and mortality was 7% in the combined group compared to 14% in the control group. The present study documents that damage control principles applied to patients sustaining the complex combination of AT and ST can result in low mortality rates despite the severity of this injury.

  6. Abdominal Twin Pressure Sensors for the assessment of abdominal injuries in Q dummies: in-dummy evaluation and performance in accident reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Beillas, Philippe; Alonzo, François; Chevalier, Marie-Christine; Lesire, Philippe; Leopold, Franck; Trosseille, Xavier; Johannsen, Heiko

    2012-10-01

    The Abdominal Pressure Twin Sensors (APTS) for Q3 and Q6 dummies are composed of soft polyurethane bladders filled with fluid and equipped with pressure sensors. Implanted within the abdominal insert of child dummies, they can be used to detect abdominal loading due to the belt during frontal collisions. In the present study - which is part of the EC funded CASPER project - two versions of APTS (V1 and V2) were evaluated in abdominal belt compression tests, torso flexion test (V1 only) and two series of sled tests with degraded restraint conditions. The results suggest that the two versions have similar responses, and that the pressure sensitivity to torso flexion is limited. The APTS ability to detect abdominal loading in sled tests was also confirmed, with peak pressures typically below 1 bar when the belt loaded only the pelvis and the thorax (appropriate restraint) and values above that level when the abdomen was loaded directly (inappropriate restraint). Then, accident reconstructions performed as part of CASPER and previous EC funded projects were reanalyzed. Selected data from 19 dummies (12 Q6 and 7 Q3) were used to plot injury risk curves. Maximum pressure, maximum pressure rate and their product were all found to be injury predictors. Maximum pressure levels for a 50% risk of AIS3+ were consistent with the levels separating appropriate and inappropriate restraint in the sled tests (e.g. 50% risk of AIS3+ at 1.09 bar for pressure filtered CFC180). Further work is needed to refine the scaling techniques between ages and confirm the risk curves.

  7. The academic challenge of teaching psychomotor skills for hemostasis of solid organ injury.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Charles E; Ledgerwood, Anna M

    2009-03-01

    This study highlights the inherent challenges of achieving psychomotor skills in an era of nonoperative therapy for solid organ injuries. Technical procedures on the liver, the most frequent intra-abdominal solid organ injured, were assessed in five decades. Guided by prospective assessment and registry data, all patients with liver injury seen during 24 months in five consecutive decades were reviewed. Initially (1960s), all injuries were explored; currently (2000s), most injuries are observed. The number of patients was 235 (1960s), 228 (1970s), 79 (1980s), 116 (1990s), and 64 (2000s). The greater number in the 1990s reflects the diagnosis of minor, clinically insignificant, blunt injuries after abdominal CAT scan became available. Each injury was categorized by cause, severity (Abbreviated Injury Scale), associated shock, and primary therapy (observe [OBS], operation alone [OR], hepatorrhaphy [SUT], tractotomy [TRACT] with intraparenchymal hemostasis, hepatic dearterialization [HAL], and resection [RESECT]). Packing, used in each decade, was placed in one of the above primary treatment groups. The primary techniques for hemostasis are shown in the text table.Shock and Abbreviated Injury Scale correlated with mortality averaged 16%; 40 of 116 deaths (34%) exsanguinated from hepatic injury. During training, a resident performed an average of 12.0, 12.0, 2.4, 4.0, and 1.3 procedures for hemostasis. Reduced incidence and decreased therapeutic laparotomies for liver injury have created a training vacuum for future trauma surgeons. Surgical residents will need to supplement their clinical experience with solid organ hemostasis by practice on appropriate animal models of injury and cadaver dissections.

  8. Evaluation of body-wise and organ-wise registrations for abdominal organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Panjwani, Sahil A.; Lee, Christopher P.; Burke, Ryan P.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Identifying cross-sectional and longitudinal correspondence in the abdomen on computed tomography (CT) scans is necessary for quantitatively tracking change and understanding population characteristics, yet abdominal image registration is a challenging problem. The key difficulty in solving this problem is huge variations in organ dimensions and shapes across subjects. The current standard registration method uses the global or body-wise registration technique, which is based on the global topology for alignment. This method (although producing decent results) has substantial influence of outliers, thus leaving room for significant improvement. Here, we study a new image registration approach using local (organ-wise registration) by first creating organ-specific bounding boxes and then using these regions of interest (ROIs) for aligning references to target. Based on Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Mean Surface Distance (MSD) and Hausdorff Distance (HD), the organ-wise approach is demonstrated to have significantly better results by minimizing the distorting effects of organ variations. This paper compares exclusively the two registration methods by providing novel quantitative and qualitative comparison data and is a subset of the more comprehensive problem of improving the multi-atlas segmentation by using organ normalization.

  9. Hollow organ perforation in blunt abdominal trauma: the role of diagnostic peritoneal lavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Fu, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2012-05-01

    With recent advances in radiologic diagnostic procedures, the use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has markedly declined. In this study, we reviewed data to reevaluate the role of DPL in the diagnosis of hollow organ perforation in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Adult patients who had sustained blunt abdominal trauma and who were hemodynamically stable after initial resuscitation underwent an abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was performed for patients who were indicated to receive nonoperative management and where hollow organ perforation could not be ruled out. During a 60-month period, 64 patients who had received abdominal CT scanning underwent DPL. Nineteen patients were diagnosed as having a positive DPL based on cell count ratio of 1 or higher. There were 4 patients who sustained small bowel perforation. The sensitivity and specificity of the cell count ratio for a hollow organ perforation in this study were 100% and 75%, respectively. No missed hollow organ perforations were detected. For patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemoperitoneum who plan to receive nonoperative management, DPL is still a useful tool to exclude hollow organ perforation that is undetected by CT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overlap between functional abdominal pain disorders and organic diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Langshaw, A H; Rosen, J M; Pensabene, L; Borrelli, O; Salvatore, S; Thapar, N; Concolino, D; Saps, M

    2018-04-02

    Functional abdominal pain disorders are highly prevalent in children. These disorders can be present in isolation or combined with organic diseases, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal inflammation (infectious and non-infectious) predisposes children to the development of visceral hypersensitivity that can manifest as functional abdominal pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. The new onset of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a patient with an underlying organic disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is clinically challenging, given that the same symptomatology may represent a flare-up of the inflammatory bowel disease or an overlapping functional abdominal pain disorder. Similarly, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in a child previously diagnosed with celiac disease may occur due to poorly controlled celiac disease or the overlap with a functional abdominal pain disorder. There is little research on the overlap of functional abdominal disorders with organic diseases in children. Studies suggest that the overlap between functional abdominal pain disorders and inflammatory bowel disease is more common in adults than in children. The causes for these differences in prevalence are unknown. Only a handful of studies have been published on the overlap between celiac disease and functional abdominal pain disorders in children. The present article provides a review of the literature on the overlap between celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and functional abdominal pain disorders in children and establish comparisons with studies conducted on adults. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Intra-Abdominal Cooling System Limits Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury During Robot-Assisted Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meier, R P H; Piller, V; Hagen, M E; Joliat, C; Buchs, J-B; Nastasi, A; Ruttimann, R; Buchs, N C; Moll, S; Vallée, J-P; Lazeyras, F; Morel, P; Bühler, L

    2018-01-01

    Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follows: Robotic renal transplantation with (n = 11) and without (n = 6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n = 6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology were analyzed. Robotic renal transplantation required a longer anastomosis time, either with or without the cooling system, compared to the open approach (70.4 ± 17.7 min and 74.0 ± 21.5 min vs. 48.7 ± 11.2 min, p-values < 0.05). The temperature was lower in the robotic group with cooling system compared to the open approach group (6.5 ± 3.1°C vs. 22.5 ± 6.5°C; p = 0.001) or compared to the robotic group without the cooling system (28.7 ± 3.3°C; p < 0.001). Magnetic resonance imaging parenchymal heterogeneities and histologic ischemia-reperfusion lesions were more severe in the robotic group without cooling than in the cooled (open and robotic) groups. Robot-assisted kidney transplantation prolongs the warm ischemia time of the donor kidney. We developed a novel intra-abdominal cooling system that suppresses the noncontrolled rewarming of donor kidneys during the transplant procedure and prevents ischemia-reperfusion injuries. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. New scoring system for intra-abdominal injury diagnosis after blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Shojaee, Majid; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yaseri, Mehdi; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Malekirastekenari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    An accurate scoring system for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) based on clinical manifestation and examination may decrease unnecessary CT scans, save time, and reduce healthcare cost. This study is designed to provide a new scoring system for a better diagnosis of IAI after blunt trauma. This prospective observational study was performed from April 2011 to October 2012 on patients aged above 18 years and suspected with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Imam Hussein Hospital and Shohadaye Hafte Tir Hospital. All patients were assessed and treated based on Advanced Trauma Life Support and ED protocol. Diagnosis was done according to CT scan findings, which was considered as the gold standard. Data were gathered based on patient's history, physical exam, ultrasound and CT scan findings by a general practitioner who was not blind to this study. Chi-square test and logistic regression were done. Factors with significant relationship with CT scan were imported in multivariate regression models, where a coefficient (β) was given based on the contribution of each of them. Scoring system was developed based on the obtained total β of each factor. Altogether 261 patients (80.1% male) were enrolled (48 cases of IAI). A 24-point blunt abdominal trauma scoring system (BATSS) was developed. Patients were divided into three groups including low (score<8), moderate (8≤score<12) and high risk (score≥12). In high risk group immediate laparotomy should be done, moderate group needs further assessments, and low risk group should be kept under observation. Low risk patients did not show positive CT-scans (specificity 100%). Conversely, all high risk patients had positive CT-scan findings (sensitivity 100%). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated a close relationship between the results of CT scan and BATSS (sensitivity=99.3%). The present scoring system furnishes a high precision and reproducible diagnostic tool for BAT

  13. A rare case of hepatic duct injury from blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Hasaniya, Nahidh W; Premaratne, Shyamal; Premaratne, Ishani D; McNamara, J Judson

    2013-01-01

    A 25 year-old male was brought to the emergency room following an apparent suicide attempt by jumping from the fourth floor. Patient had a large abdominal laceration in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). CT scan showed a sub-scapular hematoma of the liver. Due to the repeated episodes of hypotension, a laporotomy was performed and the left hepatic artery was ligated while the ductal injury was managed with a Roux-en-Y left hepatic jejunostomy and stent. Bile leakage was resolved post-operatively by day 5 and the patient was discharged home on day 13 after clearance from psychiatry. While non-iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary trauma is rare, a high degree of suspicion is essential, especially in cases like the one discussed in this report. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients undergoing observation.

  14. Tomodensitometric survey of the distance between thoracic and abdominal vital organs and the wall according to BMI, abdominal diameter and gender: proposition of an indicative chart for the forensic activities.

    PubMed

    Venara, A; Gaudin, A; Lebigot, J; Airagnes, G; Hamel, J F; Jousset, N; Ridereau-Zins, C; Mauillon, D; Rouge-Maillart, C

    2013-06-10

    Forensic doctors are frequently asked by magistrates when dealing principally with knife wounds, about the depth of the blade which may have penetrated the victim's body. Without the use of imaging, it is often difficult to respond to this question, even in an approximate way. Knowledge of the various distances between organs and the skin wall would allow an assessment to be made of the minimum blade length required to obtain the injuries observed. The objective of this study is thus to determine average distances between the vital organs of the thorax and abdomen, and the skin wall, taking into account the person's body mass index (BMI). This is a prospective single-center study, carried out over a 2-month period at University Hospital in Angers. A sample of 200 people was studied. The inclusion criteria were as follows: all patients coming to the radiology department and the emergency department for an abdominal, thoracic or thoraco-abdominal scan with injection. The exclusion criteria included patients presenting a large lymphoma, a large abdominal or retroperitoneal tumor, a tumor in one of the organs targeted by our study and patients presenting ascites. The organs focused on were: the pericardium, pleura, aorta, liver, spleen, kidneys, abdominal aorta and femoral arteries. The shortest distance between the organ and the skin wall was noted. Median distances were calculated according to gender, abdominal diameter and BMI. We associated these values to propose an indicative chart which may be used by doctors in connection with their forensic activities. The problem of the depth of a wound is frequently exposed to the expert. Without a reliable tool, it is difficult to value and a personal interpretation is often done. Even if, in current days, tomodensitometry is frequently done in vivo or after death, measurement can be difficult because of the local conditions. We classified values according to the different factors of fat repartition (BMI, abdominal diameter

  15. DICOM structured report to track patient's radiation dose to organs from abdominal CT exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Craig; Turner, Adam; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Zankl, Maria; Meng, Frank; El-Saden, Suzie

    2011-03-01

    The dramatic increase of diagnostic imaging capabilities over the past decade has contributed to increased radiation exposure to patient populations. Several factors have contributed to the increase in imaging procedures: wider availability of imaging modalities, increase in technical capabilities, rise in demand by patients and clinicians, favorable reimbursement, and lack of guidelines to control utilization. The primary focus of this research is to provide in depth information about radiation doses that patients receive as a result of CT exams, with the initial investigation involving abdominal CT exams. Current dose measurement methods (i.e. CTDIvol Computed Tomography Dose Index) do not provide direct information about a patient's organ dose. We have developed a method to determine CTDIvol normalized organ doses using a set of organ specific exponential regression equations. These exponential equations along with measured CTDIvol are used to calculate organ dose estimates from abdominal CT scans for eight different patient models. For each patient, organ dose and CTDIvol were estimated for an abdominal CT scan. We then modified the DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Report (RDSR) to store the pertinent patient information on radiation dose to their abdominal organs.

  16. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of abdominal muscle function in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Squair, Jordan W; Chua, Romeo; Lam, Tania; Chen, Zhen; Carpenter, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    To use transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography to assess the potential for preserved function in the abdominal muscles in individuals classified with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6. Five individuals with spinal cord injury (C5-T3) and 5 able-bodied individuals. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the abdominal region of primary motor cortex during resting and sub-maximal (or attempted) contractions. Surface electromyography was used to record motor-evoked potentials as well as maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions in the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in the abdominal muscles occurred in all spinal cord injury subjects. Latencies of muscle response onsets were similar in both groups; however, peak-to-peak amplitudes were smaller in the spinal cord injury group. During maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions all spinal cord injury subjects were able to elicit electromyography activity above resting levels in more than one abdominal muscle across tasks. Individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 were able to activate abdominal muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and during maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions. The activation was induced directly through corticospinal pathways, and not indirectly by stretch reflex activations of the diaphragm. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography measurements provide a useful method to assess motor preservation of abdominal muscles in persons with spinal cord injury.

  18. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  19. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy  for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management can contribute  to high mortality and morbidity. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy plays a limited but important role in managing serious trauma to proximal pancreas and duodenum. Author presents a case where isolated injury to head of pancreas required emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. After a bizarre road accident, a middle aged male underwent emergency laparotomy for intraperitoneal bleeding and during exploration a deep transverse laceration with ampullary disruption was found in the head of the organ. Duodenum in all its part was intact and there was no other injury. The nature and site of injury made emergency pancreatoduodenectomy the only viable option. Leaking pancreatojejunostomy enhances infective complications that lead to late mortality. To circumvent this problem there is enthusiasm for staged surgery with resection and tube pancreatostomy in first stage, leaving the difficult anastomosis for a later date, However, if the patient is haemodynamically stable and operated reasonably early, one stage pancreatoduodenectomy gives good result and avoids repeating surgery with inherent problems and reduces hospital stay. For successful management of pancreatic trauma it is essential to make early diagnosis of duct disruption, with sound application of operative skill and judgement by treating surgeon.

  20. Abdominal multi-organ CT segmentation using organ correlation graph and prediction-based shape and location priors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal CT data. We propose a framework of multi-organ segmentation which is adaptable to any imaging conditions without using intensity information in manually traced training data. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) the organ correlation graph (OCG) is introduced, which encodes the spatial correlations among organs inherent in human anatomy; (2) the patient-specific organ shape and location priors obtained using OCG enable the estimation of intensity priors from only target data and optionally a number of untraced CT data of the same imaging condition as the target data. The proposed methods were evaluated through segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidney, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 86 CT data obtained by four imaging conditions at two hospitals. The performance was comparable to the state-of-the-art method using intensity priors constructed from manually traced data.

  1. Evaluation of chest and abdominal injuries in trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of poursina teaching hospital, guilan, iran.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Hossein; Kazemnezhad-Leili, Ehsan; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Darzi, Ali Asghar; Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Dehnadi-Moghaddam, Anoush; Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Trauma, especially chest and abdominal trauma are increasing due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads, which leads to an increased incidence of road accidents. Urbanization, industrialization and additional problems are the other associated factors which accelerate this phenomenon. A better understanding of the etiology and pattern of such injuries can help to improve the management and ultimate the outcomes of these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the patients with chest and abdominal trauma hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital, Guilan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the data of all chest and abdominal trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital were collected from March 2011 to March 2012. Information about age, gender, injured areas, type of injury (penetrating or blunt), etiology of the injury, accident location (urban or rural) and patients' discharge outcomes were collected by a questionnaire. In total, 211 patients with a mean age of 34.1 ± 1.68 years was entered into the study. The most common cause of trauma was traffic accidents (51.7%). Among patients with chest trauma, 45 cases (35.4%) had penetrating injuries and 82 cases (64.6%) blunt lesions. The prevalence of chest injuries was 35.5% and rib fractures 26.5%. In chest injuries, the prevalence of hemothorax was 65.3%, pneumothorax 2.7%, lung contusion 4% and emphysema 1.3%, respectively. There were 24 cases (27.9%) with abdominal trauma which had penetrating lesions and 62 cases (72.1%) with blunt lesions. The most common lesions in patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were spleen (24.2%) and liver (12.1%) lesions. The outcomes of the patients were as follow: 95.7% recovery and 4.3% death. The majority of deaths were observed among road traffic victims (77.7%). Considering the fact that road-related accidents are quite predictable and controllable; therefore, the quality promotion of traumatic patients' care

  2. Evaluation of Chest and Abdominal Injuries in Trauma Patients Hospitalized in the Surgery Ward of Poursina Teaching Hospital, Guilan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Hossein; Kazemnezhad-Leili, Ehsan; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Darzi, Ali Asghar; Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Dehnadi-Moghaddam, Anoush; Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background Trauma, especially chest and abdominal trauma are increasing due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads, which leads to an increased incidence of road accidents. Urbanization, industrialization and additional problems are the other associated factors which accelerate this phenomenon. A better understanding of the etiology and pattern of such injuries can help to improve the management and ultimate the outcomes of these patients. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the patients with chest and abdominal trauma hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital, Guilan, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of all chest and abdominal trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital were collected from March 2011 to March 2012. Information about age, gender, injured areas, type of injury (penetrating or blunt), etiology of the injury, accident location (urban or rural) and patients' discharge outcomes were collected by a questionnaire. Results In total, 211 patients with a mean age of 34.1 ± 1.68 years was entered into the study. The most common cause of trauma was traffic accidents (51.7%). Among patients with chest trauma, 45 cases (35.4%) had penetrating injuries and 82 cases (64.6%) blunt lesions. The prevalence of chest injuries was 35.5% and rib fractures 26.5%. In chest injuries, the prevalence of hemothorax was 65.3%, pneumothorax 2.7%, lung contusion 4% and emphysema 1.3%, respectively. There were 24 cases (27.9%) with abdominal trauma which had penetrating lesions and 62 cases (72.1%) with blunt lesions. The most common lesions in patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were spleen (24.2%) and liver (12.1%) lesions. The outcomes of the patients were as follow: 95.7% recovery and 4.3% death. The majority of deaths were observed among road traffic victims (77.7%). Conclusions Considering the fact that road-related accidents are quite predictable and controllable

  3. Trauma patient adverse outcomes are independently associated with rib cage fracture burden and severity of lung, head, and abdominal injuries.

    PubMed

    Dunham, C Michael; Hileman, Barbara M; Ransom, Kenneth J; Malik, Rema J

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that lung injury and rib cage fracture quantification would be associated with adverse outcomes. Consecutive admissions to a trauma center with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9, age 18-75, and blunt trauma. CT scans were reviewed to score rib and sternal fractures and lung infiltrates. Sternum and each anterior, lateral, and posterior rib fracture was scored 1 = non-displaced and 2 = displaced. Rib cage fracture score (RCFS) = total rib fracture score + sternal fracture score + thoracic spine Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Four lung regions (right upper/middle, right lower, left upper, and left lower lobes) were each scored for % of infiltrate: 0% = 0; ≤ 20% = 1, ≤ 50% = 2, > 50% = 3; total of 4 scores = lung infiltrate score (LIS). Of 599 patients, 193 (32%) had 854 rib fractures. Rib fracture patients had more abdominal injuries (p < 0.001), hemo/pneumothorax (p < 0.001), lung infiltrates (p < 0.001), thoracic spine injuries (p = 0.001), sternal fractures (p = 0.0028) and death or need for mechanical ventilation ≥ 3 days (Death/Vdays ≥ 3) (p < 0.001). Death/Vdays ≥ 3 was independently associated with RCFS (p < 0.001), LIS (p < 0.001), head AIS (p < 0.001) and abdominal AIS (p < 0.001). Of the 193 rib fracture patients, Glasgow Coma Score 3-12 or head AIS ≥ 2 occurred in 43%. A lung infiltrate or hemo/pneumothorax occurred in 55%. Thoracic spine injury occurred in 23%. RCFS was 6.3 ± 4.4 and Death/Vdays ≥ 3 occurred in 31%. Death/Vdays ≥ 3 rates correlated with RCFS values: 19% for 1-3; 24% for 4-6; 42% for 7-12 and 65% for ≥ 13 (p < 0.001). Death/Vdays ≥ 3 was independently associated with RCFS (p = 0.02), LIS (p = 0.001), head AIS (p < 0.001) and abdominal AIS (p < 0.001). Death/Vdays ≥ 3 association was better for RCFS (p = 0.005) than rib fracture score (p = 0.08) or number of fractured ribs (p = 0.80). Rib fracture patients have increased risk for truncal injuries and adverse outcomes. Adverse outcomes are independently

  4. [Application of standardized systems for assessment of prognosis of the traumatic process in patients with penetrating abdominal wounds and hepatic injuries].

    PubMed

    Hur'iev, S O; Novykov, F M; Shuryhin, O Iu; Ivanov, V I

    2011-04-01

    There were examined 131 injured persons, suffering penetrating abdominal wounding and hepatic injury. Correlation analysis was done, basing on studying of the results of the injured persons state estimation, using prognostic scales, aiming to prognosticate the traumatic process course.

  5. Tachycardia may prognosticate life- or organ-threatening diseases in children with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Yukari; Hataya, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal pain is common in children, but expeditious diagnosis of life- or organ-threatening diseases can be challenging. An evidence-based definition of tachycardia in children was established recently, but its diagnostic utility has not yet been studied. To test the hypothesis that abdominal pain with tachycardia may pose a higher likelihood of life- or organ-threatening diseases in children. A nested case-control study was conducted in a pediatric emergency department in 2013. Tachycardia was defined as a resting heart rate of more than 3 standard deviations above the average for that age. Life- or organ-threatening diseases were defined as "disorders that might result in permanent morbidity or mortality without appropriate intervention." A triage team recorded vital signs before emergency physicians attended patients. Patients with tachycardia (cases) and without tachycardia (controls) were systematically matched for age, sex, and month of visit. The groups were compared for the presence of life- or organ-threatening diseases. There were 1683 visits for abdominal pain, 1512 of which had vital signs measured at rest. Eighty-three patients experienced tachycardia, while 1429 did not. Fifty-eight cases and 58 controls were matched. Life- or organ-threatening diseases were more common in the case group (19%) than the control group (5%, p=0.043). The relative risk of tachycardia to the presence of the diseases was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2-12.0). Tachycardia significantly increased the likelihood of life- or organ-threatening diseases. Tachycardia in children with abdominal pain should alert emergency physicians to the possibility of serious illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel practical scoring for early diagnosis of traumatic bowel injury without obvious solid organ injury in hemodynamically stable patients.

    PubMed

    Zarour, Ahmad; El-Menyar, Ayman; Khattabi, Mazen; Tayyem, Raed; Hamed, Osama; Mahmood, Ismail; Abdelrahman, Husham; Chiu, William; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    To develop a scoring tool based on clinical and radiological findings for early diagnosis and intervention in hemodynamically stable patients with traumatic bowel and mesenteric injury (TBMI) without obvious solid organ injury (SOI). A retrospective analysis was conducted for all traumatic abdominal injury patients in Qatar from 2008 to 2011. Data included demographics and clinical, radiological and operative findings. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the predictors for the need of therapeutic laparotomy. A total of 105 patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 33 ± 15. Motor Vehicle Crashes (58%) and fall (21%) were the major MOI. Using Receiver operating characteristic curve, Z-score of >9 was the cutoff point (AUC = 0.98) for high probability of the presence of TBMI requiring surgical intervention. Z-Score >9 was found to have sensitivity (96.7%), specificity (97.4%), PPV (93.5%) and NPV (98.7%). Multivariate regression analysis found Z-score (>9) to be an independent predictor for the need of exploratory laparotomy (OR7.0; 95% CI: 2.46-19.78, p = 0.001). This novel tool for early diagnosis of TBMI is found to be simple and helpful in selecting stable patients with free intra-abdominal fluid without SOI for exploratory Laparotomy. However, further prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  8. Trauma surgeons practice what they preach: The NTDB story on solid organ injury management.

    PubMed

    Hurtuk, Michael; Reed, R Lawrence; Esposito, Thomas J; Davis, Kimberly A; Luchette, Fred A

    2006-08-01

    Recent studies advocate a nonoperative approach for hepatic and splenic trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the literature has impacted surgical practice and, if so, whether or not the overall mortality of these injuries had changed. The American College of Surgeons' National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB 4.0) was analyzed using trauma admission dates ranging from 1994 to 2003. All hepatic and splenic injuries were identified by ICD-9 codes. As renal trauma management has not changed during the study period, renal injuries were included as a control. Nonoperative management (NOM) rates and overall mortality were determined for each organ. Proportions were compared using chi analysis with significance set at p < 0.05. There were 87,237 solid abdominal organ injuries reported and included: 35,767 splenic, 35,510 hepatic, 15,960 renal injuries. There was a significant (p < 0.00000000005) increase in percentage of NOM for hepatic and splenic trauma whereas renal NOM remained stable for the study period. Despite an increase in NOM for splenic and hepatic injuries, mortality has remained unchanged. This study demonstrates that the management of hepatic and splenic injuries has significantly changed in the past 10 years with no appreciable effect on mortality. NOM has become the standard of care for the management of hepatic and splenic trauma. The NTDB can be used to monitor changes in trauma care in response to new knowledge regarding improved outcomes.

  9. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    PubMed

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-10-01

    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  10. Urological injuries following trauma.

    PubMed

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  11. Torsion of Abdominal Organs in Sows: A Report of 36 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Morin, M.; Sauvageau, R.; Phaneuf, J.-B.; Teuscher, E.; Beauregard, M.; Lagacé, A.

    1984-01-01

    Necropsy records of 36 sows with torsion of abdominal organs involving individually the stomach, the spleen, a liver lobe or the intestine were reviewed for the years 1970 to 1983, and the age, the clinical signs and the gross lesions were recorded. These acute abdominal accidents were characterized clinically by sudden death. Dry sows from large breeding units were affected. Twenty-six cases were diagnosed between January 1981 and December 1983 while only ten cases had been seen between 1970 and 1980. Gastric torsion was the most common condition (40% of the cases) and the other three conditions were equally represented (20% each). Management practises that could be responsible for the apparent increase in occurrence of this problem are discussed. PMID:17422483

  12. Colon injury after blunt abdominal trauma: results of the EAST Multi-Institutional Hollow Viscus Injury Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael D; Watts, Dorraine; Fakhry, Samir

    2003-11-01

    Blunt injury to the colon is rare. Few studies of adequate size and design exist to allow clinically useful conclusions. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-institutional Hollow Viscus Injury (HVI) Study presents a unique opportunity to definitively study these injuries. Patients with blunt HVI were identified from the registries of 95 trauma centers over 2 years (1998-1999). Patients with colon injuries (cases) were compared with blunt trauma patient undergoing a negative laparotomy (controls). Data were abstracted by chart review. Of the 227,972 patients represented, 2,632 (1.0%) had an HVI and 798 had a colonic/rectal injury (0.3%). Of patients diagnosed with HVI, 30.2% had a colon injury. No physical findings or imaging modalities were able to discriminate colonic injury. Logistic regression modeling yielded no clinically useful combination of findings that would reliably predict colonic injury. In patients undergoing laparotomy, presence of colon injury was associated with a higher risk of some complications but not mortality. Colon injury was associated with increased hospital (17.4 vs. 13.1, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (9.7 vs. 6.9, p = 0.003) length of stay. Almost all colon patients (92.0%) underwent laparotomy within 24 hours of injury. Colonic injury after blunt trauma is rare and difficult to diagnose. No diagnostic test or combination of findings reliably excluded blunt colonic injury. Despite the inadequacy of current diagnostic tests, almost all patients with colonic injury were taken to the operating room within 24 hours. Even with relatively prompt surgery, patients with colon injury were at significantly higher risk for serious complications and increased length of stay. In contrast to small bowel perforation, delay in operative intervention appears to be less common but is still associated with serious morbidity.

  13. Determination of comprehensive arterial blood inflow in abdominal-pelvic organs: impact of respiration and posture on organ perfusion.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroyasu; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2011-02-01

    Arterial blood flow (BF) to all abdominal-pelvic organs (AP) shows potential for an indicator of comprehensive splanchnic organ circulation (reservoir of blood supply for redistribution) in cardiovascular disease, hepato-gastrointestinal disease or hemodynamic disorders. Our previous assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics, as magnitude of BFAP [measuring by subtracting BF in both femoral arteries (FAs) from the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the celiac trunk] using Doppler ultrasound, was reported as the relationship between Ao and FAs, day-to-day variability and response to exercise. For accurate determination of BFAP, it is important to consider the various factors that potentially influence BFAP. However, little information exists regarding the influence of respiration (interplay between inspiration and expiration) and posture on BFAP. Ten healthy males were evaluated in sitting/supine positions following a 12 hr fast. Magnitude of BFAP was determined as measurement of Ao and FAs hemodynamics (blood velocity and vessel diameter) using pulsed Doppler with spectral analysis during spontaneous 4-sec inspiration/4-sec expiration phases. BF/blood velocity in the Ao and FAs showed significant lower in inspiration than expiration. BFAP showed a significant (P<0.005) reduction of ~20% in inspiratory phase (sitting, 2213 ± 222 ml/min; supine, 2059 ± 215 ml/min) compared with expiratory phase (sitting, 2765 ± 303 ml/min; supine, 2539 ± 253 ml/min), with no difference between sitting and supine. Respiratory-related to alterations in BFAP were observed. It may be speculated that changes in intra-abdominal pressure during breathing (thoracic-abdominal movement) is possibly reflecting transient changes in blood velocity in the Ao and FAs. Respiratory effects should be taken into account for evaluation of BFAP.

  14. Determination of comprehensive arterial blood inflow in abdominal-pelvic organs: Impact of respiration and posture on organ perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroyasu; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Arterial blood flow (BF) to all abdominal-pelvic organs (AP) shows potential for an indicator of comprehensive splanchnic organ circulation (reservoir of blood supply for redistribution) in cardiovascular disease, hepato-gastrointestinal disease or hemodynamic disorders. Our previous assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics, as magnitude of BFAP [measuring by subtracting BF in both femoral arteries (FAs) from the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the celiac trunk] using Doppler ultrasound, was reported as the relationship between Ao and FAs, day-to-day variability and response to exercise. For accurate determination of BFAP, it is important to consider the various factors that potentially influence BFAP. However, little information exists regarding the influence of respiration (interplay between inspiration and expiration) and posture on BFAP. Material/Methods Ten healthy males were evaluated in sitting/supine positions following a 12 hr fast. Magnitude of BFAP was determined as measurement of Ao and FAs hemodynamics (blood velocity and vessel diameter) using pulsed Doppler with spectral analysis during spontaneous 4-sec inspiration/4-sec expiration phases. Results BF/blood velocity in the Ao and FAs showed significant lower in inspiration than expiration. BFAP showed a significant (P<0.005) reduction of ~20% in inspiratory phase (sitting, 2213±222 ml/min; supine, 2059±215 ml/min) compared with expiratory phase (sitting, 2765±303 ml/min; supine, 2539±253 ml/min), with no difference between sitting and supine. Conclusions Respiratory-related to alterations in BFAP were observed. It may be speculated that changes in intra-abdominal pressure during breathing (thoracic-abdominal movement) is possibly reflecting transient changes in blood velocity in the Ao and FAs. Respiratory effects should be taken into account for evaluation of BFAP. PMID:21278689

  15. [Duodenal and pancreatic injuries].

    PubMed

    De Angelis, P; Bergaminelli, C; Pastore, S; Giardiello, C; Salzano, A; Vecchio, G

    2000-04-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal injuries occur rather infrequently and the incidence ranges between 1% and 12% of all abdominal injuries. The high rate of mortality and morbidity (10-40%) depends on associated complication rate of all intra-abdominal organs (90%). Twenty-five cases of pancreatic and duodenal injuries observed between 1987 and 1997, with an incidence of 0.7% of all abdominal injuries, are reported. In 16 cases the cause was penetrating injury (gunshot) and in 9 cases it was blunt abdominal trauma. Only two patients presented an isolated pancreatic lesion, all the others had at least an associated lesion. In all the cases the patients were male and they were submitted to emergency laparotomy. The mortality rate was 20%, the morbidity was 24%. The relatively low incidence of these injuries and the high rate of associated lesions cause a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic approach, the absence of a unified method to follow and the unsatisfactory results observed.

  16. An integrated model-based software for FUS in moving abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, Michael; Strehlow, Jan; Haase, Sabrina; Jenne, Juergen; Tanner, Christine; Langø, Thomas; Loeve, Arjo J; Karakitsios, Ioannis; Xiao, Xu; Levy, Yoav; Sat, Giora; Bezzi, Mario; Braunewell, Stefan; Guenther, Matthias; Melzer, Andreas; Preusser, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a non-invasive method for tissue ablation that has the potential for complete and controlled local tumour destruction with minimal side effects. The treatment of abdominal organs such as the liver, however, requires particular technological support in order to enable a safe, efficient and effective treatment. As FUS is applied from outside the patient's body, suitable imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging or diagnostic ultrasound, are needed to guide and track the procedure. To facilitate an efficient FUS procedure in the liver, the organ motion during breathing and the partial occlusion by the rib cage need to be taken into account in real time, demanding a continuous patient-specific adaptation of the treatment configuration. Modelling the patient's respiratory motion and combining this with tracking data improves the accuracy of motion predictions. Modelling and simulation of the FUS effects within the body allows the use of treatment planning and has the potential to be used within therapy to increase knowledge about the patient status. This article describes integrated model-based software for patient-specific modelling and prediction for FUS treatments of moving abdominal organs.

  17. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using harmonic motion imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Sastra, Stephen A.; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50 Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8 MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young’s moduli measured by rheometry compression testing. HMI was capable of providing reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. The HMI displacement amplitude was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo, thus providing a potentially critical tool to assess pathologies affecting organ elasticity.

  18. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    PubMed Central

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Sastra, Steve; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5-MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50-Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8-MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young’s moduli measured by rheometry compression tests. HMI was able to provide reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. HMI displacement was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo providing a crucial tool to understand pathologies affecting organ elasticity. PMID:27401609

  19. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Sastra, Stephen A; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2016-08-07

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50 Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8 MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young's moduli measured by rheometry compression testing. HMI was capable of providing reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. The HMI displacement amplitude was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo, thus providing a potentially critical tool to assess pathologies affecting organ elasticity.

  20. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  1. Analysis on the use of Multi-Sequence MRI Series for Segmentation of Abdominal Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selver, M. A.; Selvi, E.; Kavur, E.; Dicle, O.

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of abdominal organs from MRI data sets is a challenging task due to various limitations and artefacts. During the routine clinical practice, radiologists use multiple MR sequences in order to analyze different anatomical properties. These sequences have different characteristics in terms of acquisition parameters (such as contrast mechanisms and pulse sequence designs) and image properties (such as pixel spacing, slice thicknesses and dynamic range). For a complete understanding of the data, computational techniques should combine the information coming from these various MRI sequences. These sequences are not acquired in parallel but in a sequential manner (one after another). Therefore, patient movements and respiratory motions change the position and shape of the abdominal organs. In this study, the amount of these effects is measured using three different symmetric surface distance metrics performed to three dimensional data acquired from various MRI sequences. The results are compared to intra and inter observer differences and discussions on using multiple MRI sequences for segmentation and the necessities for registration are presented.

  2. [What is the potential for acute laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal injuries?].

    PubMed

    Petrás, D; Javora, J

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to show current opinions on performing acute laparoscopic exploration in penetrating injuries of the abdomen and to assess the authors' own experience in performing the above operation in conditions of the regional hospital. The authors present 17 patients treated between the years 1997-2002 for penetrating injuries of the abdomen or suspected for a penetrating injury. Acute laparotomy was performed in 11 cases, acute laparoscopy in 6 patients. The authors specify certain indications which lead to the acute laparoscopy, the method performed and its diagnostic value. In the group observed, an intraabdominal injury was diagnosed in 41% of the patients, in 59% of cases findings were negative. When the intraabdominal injuries were assessed, the group of the acute laparotomies had 54% of negative findings, the group of the acute laparoscopies had 66.6% of negative findings. Laparoscopy decreased the total number of all negative laparotomies from 59% down to 35%. Diagnostic laparotomy fits to complement a spectrum of examination methods. Especially in equivocal cases, when a penetrating injury is suspected, it decreases the number of so called "necessary" non-therapeutic laparotomies to a minimum. It is most efficient, compared to other diagnostic methods, in verifying injuries of the peritoneum and diaphragm. However, acute laparoscopy should be always performed by an experienced surgeon. A therapeutic potential of the acute laparoscopy depend on proficiency of the operating surgeon and on the technical potential of each hospital. However, they, mostly, still remain restricted to caring for minor, isolated intraabdominal injuries.

  3. Prevention of infections associated with combat-related thoracic and abdominal cavity injuries.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J; Dunne, James R; Cho, John M; Solomkin, Joseph S

    2011-08-01

    Trauma-associated injuries of the thorax and abdomen account for the majority of combat trauma-associated deaths, and infectious complications are common in those who survive the initial injury. This review focuses on the initial surgical and medical management of torso injuries intended to diminish the occurrence of infection. The evidence for recommendations is drawn from published military and civilian data in case reports, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and previously published guidelines, in the interval since publication of the 2008 guidelines. The emphasis of these recommendations is on actions that can be taken in the forward-deployed setting within hours to days of injury. This evidence-based medicine review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.

  4. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  5. Computerized organ localization in abdominal CT volume with context-driven generalized Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Fast localization of organs is a key step in computer-aided detection of lesions and in image guided radiation therapy. We developed a context-driven Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) for robust localization of organ-of-interests (OOIs) in a CT volume. Conventional GHT locates the center of an organ by looking-up center locations of pre-learned organs with "matching" edges. It often suffers from mislocalization because "similar" edges in vicinity may attract the prelearned organs towards wrong places. The proposed method not only uses information from organ's own shape but also takes advantage of nearby "similar" edge structures. First, multiple GHT co-existing look-up tables (cLUT) were constructed from a set of training shapes of different organs. Each cLUT represented the spatial relationship between the center of the OOI and the shape of a co-existing organ. Second, the OOI center in a test image was determined using GHT with each cLUT separately. Third, the final localization of OOI was based on weighted combination of the centers obtained in the second stage. The training set consisted of 10 CT volumes with manually segmented OOIs including liver, spleen and kidneys. The method was tested on a set of 25 abdominal CT scans. Context-driven GHT correctly located all OOIs in the test image and gave localization errors of 19.5±9.0, 12.8±7.3, 9.4±4.6 and 8.6±4.1 mm for liver, spleen, left and right kidney respectively. Conventional GHT mis-located 8 out of 100 organs and its localization errors were 26.0±32.6, 14.1±10.6, 30.1±42.6 and 23.6±39.7mm for liver, spleen, left and right kidney respectively.

  6. [The influnence of dachengqi tang on acute lung injury and intra abdominal hypertension in rats with acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Wan, Mei-Hua; Li, Juan; Tang, Wen-Fu; Gong, Han-Lin; Chen, Guang-Yuan; Xue, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Lin; Xia, Qing

    2011-09-01

    To test the hypothesis "lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related" through investgating into the effect of Dacheng qi tang (DCQT) on intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and acute lung injury (ALI) in rats with acute pancreatitis. Male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with ten rats for each group: rats with sham-operations (SO); rats with acute necrosis pancreatitis (ANP); rats with ANP plus DCQT treatment. ANP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% taurocholic acid into pancreatic duct. Two hours after operations, 10 mL/kg of normal saline was orally adminstered to the rats in both SO and ANP groups, whereas 10 mL/kg DCQT was adminstered to the rats in the treatment group. Aterial blood, pancreas and lung tissues were collected for biomarkers and histopathology 24 hours after operations. Intra-abdominal pressure and intestinal propulsion rate were also measured. RESULTS; DCQT treatment reduced intra-abdominal pressure and improved intestinal propulsion rate compared with those treated with saline (P < 0.05). The ANP rats treated with DCQT had lower wet to dry weight ratio, and milder myeloperoxidase activity and histopathology changes in pancreas and lung than those treated with saline (P < 0.05). Higher pressure of oxygen (PO2) was found in the rats treated with DCQT, while no difference in PCO2 was found between the DCQT and ANP groups (P > 0.05). Only two rats in the ANP group died. DCQT can effectively relieve IAH and cure ALI at the same time in rats with acute pancreatitis. The result provides evidence to support the hypothesis "lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related".

  7. Outcome of selective non-operative management of penetrating abdominal injuries from the North American National Trauma Database.

    PubMed

    Zafar, S N; Nabeel Zafar, S; Rushing, A; Haut, E R; Kisat, M T; Villegas, C V; Chi, A; Stevens, K; Efron, D T; Zafar, H; Haider, A H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the practice of selective non-operative management (SNOM) for penetrating abdominal injury (PAI) and to determine factors associated with its failure. The National Trauma Data Bank for 2002-2008 was reviewed. Patients with PAI were categorized as those who underwent successful SNOM (operative management not required) and those who failed SNOM (surgery required more than 4 h after admission). Yearly rates of SNOM versus non-therapeutic laparotomy (NTL) were plotted. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with failed SNOM and mortality. A total of 12 707 patients with abdominal gunshot and 13 030 with stab wounds were identified. Rates of SNOM were 22.2 per cent for gunshot and 33.9 per cent for stab wounds, and increased with time (P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the rise in SNOM and the decline in NTL (r = - 0.70). SNOM failed in 20.8 and 15.2 per cent of patients with gunshot and stab wounds respectively. Factors predicting failure included the need for blood transfusion (odds ratio (OR) 1.96, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.11 to 3.46) and a higher injury score. Failed SNOM was independently associated with mortality in both the gunshot (OR 4.48, 2.07 to 9.70) and stab (OR 9.83, 3.44 to 28.00) wound groups. The practice of SNOM is increasing, with an associated decrease in the rate of NTL for PAI. In most instances SNOM is successful; however, its failure is associated with increased mortality. Careful patient selection and adherence to protocols designed to decrease the failure rate of SNOM are recommended. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effect of permissive hypotension in combined traumatic brain injury and blunt abdominal trauma: an experimental study in swines.

    PubMed

    Vrettos, T; Poimenidi, E; Athanasopoulos, P; Balasis, S; Karagiorgos, N; Siklis, T; Gatzounis, G; Fligkou, F

    2016-01-01

    Optimal hemodynamic resuscitation strategy of the trauma patient with uncontrolled hemorrhage and severe head injury in the pre-hospital setting remains a special challenge. Permissive hypotension prior to definite surgical haemostasis promotes coagulation, decreases blood loss and favors survival. However, hypotension is associated with poor outcome in severe head injury. The purpose of this experimental animal study was to assess the impact of permissive hypotension on survival, hemodynamic profile and brain oxygenation parameters before and/or after definite surgical haemostasis. Six-week-old pigs (n=12) underwent general anesthesia and brain injury was produced by the fluid percussion model. Animals were instrumented to measure hemodynamic parameters and cerebral blood flow. All animals (n=12) were subjected to laparotomy and a surgical knot was placed through the abdominal aorta wall. Uncontrolled hemorrhage was simulated by pulling out the intentionally left protruding free ends of the suture (goal MAP=30 mmHg). Animals were randomly divided into two groups; group A (n=6) was subjected to aggressive fluid resuscitation (goal SAP >80 mmHg) and group B (n=6) was left hypotensive (permissive hypotension). Animals who survived one hour of hypotensive shock underwent definite surgical haemostasis and were resuscitated for one hour. We measured survival, hemodynamic and brain oxygenation parameters at different time points before and after surgical haemostasis. All animals from Group A and 50% from Group B died before surgical haemostasis. In surviving animals (Group B, 50%, p=0.033), MAP, CO, rCBF, SjO2 and AVDO2 were restored to pre-procedural levels. Permissive hypotension by delaying fluid resuscitation up to definite surgical haemostasis improves survival, hemodynamics and allows restoration of cerebral oxygenation in severe head injury.

  9. Visceral injury in electrical shock trauma: proposed guideline for the management of abdominal electrocution and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Evelyne GSC; Júnior, Gerson A Pereira; Neto, Bruno F Muller; Freitas, Rodrigo A; Yaegashi, Lygia B; Almeida, Carlos E Fagotti; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Victims of electrical burns account for approximately 5% of admissions to major burn centers. The first case of visceral injury caused by electrical burns was described in 1927 by Simonin, who reported perforation of the small intestine. Other rare cases were reported over the following years. The colon and small intestine were the organs most frequently affected. Less frequently involved organs were the heart, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, lung, and kidney. We highlight the potential fatal visceral injuries after the electrical trauma. This study provides a review on this topic and proposes a management flowchart that should be adopted by the multidisciplinary team to treat these patients. Conclusion: Visceral injuries are rare in electrical burns victims, but it can be severe and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, sometimes requiring a more interventional approach. PMID:24624308

  10. Evaluation of Hip Internal and External Rotation Range of Motion as an Injury Risk Factor for Hip, Abdominal and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Richard; Zhou, Hanbing; Thompson, Matthew; Dawson, Courtney; Nguyen, Joseph; Coleman, Struan

    2015-01-01

    Normal hip range of motion (ROM) is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc) and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201) in one professional organization (major and minor league) during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011). Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201) with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37). Both pitchers (N=93) and catchers (N=22) had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86). Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries. PMID:26793294

  11. Maternal organ donation and acute injuries in surviving children.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Woodfine, Jason D; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Scales, Damon C

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether maternal deceased organ donation is associated with rates of subsequent acute injuries among surviving children after their mother's death. This is a longitudinal cohort analysis of children linked to mothers who died of a catastrophic brain event in Ontario, Canada, between April 1988 and March 2012. Surviving children were distinguished by whether their mother was an organ donor after death. The primary outcome was an acute injury event in surviving children during the year after their mother's death. Surviving children (n=454) had a total of 293 injury events during the year after their mother's death, equivalent to an average of 65 events per 100 children per year and a significant difference comparing children of mothers who were organ donors to children of mothers who were not organ donors (21 vs 82, P<.001). This difference in subsequent injury rates between groups was equal to a 76% relative reduction in risk (95% confidence interval, 62%-85%). Deceased organ donation was associated with a reduction in excess acute injuries among surviving children after their mother's death. An awareness of this positive association provides some reassurance about deceased organ donation programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  13. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  14. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity) are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR) were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91) p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31) p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for the association of

  15. Long-term remote organ consequences following acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Huang, Tao-Min; Lai, Tai-Shuan; Yang, Wei-Shun; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Wu, Vin-Cent; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2015-12-28

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been a global health epidemic problem with soaring incidence, increased long-term risks for multiple comorbidities and mortality, as well as elevated medical costs. Despite the improvement of patient outcomes following the advancements in preventive and therapeutic strategies, the mortality rates among critically ill patients with AKI remain as high as 40-60 %. The distant organ injury, a direct consequence of deleterious systemic effects, following AKI is an important explanation for this phenomenon. To date, most evidence of remote organ injury in AKI is obtained from animal models. Whereas the observations in humans are from a limited number of participants in a relatively short follow-up period, or just focusing on the cytokine levels rather than clinical solid outcomes. The remote organ injury is caused with four underlying mechanisms: (1) "classical" pattern of acute uremic state; (2) inflammatory nature of the injured kidneys; (3) modulating effect of AKI of the underlying disease process; and (4) healthcare dilemma. While cytokines/chemokines, leukocyte extravasation, oxidative stress, and certain channel dysregulation are the pathways involving in the remote organ damage. In the current review, we summarized the data from experimental studies to clinical outcome studies in the field of organ crosstalk following AKI. Further, the long-term consequences of distant organ-system, including liver, heart, brain, lung, gut, bone, immune system, and malignancy following AKI with temporary dialysis were reviewed and discussed.

  16. Blue light reduces organ injury from ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Du; Collage, Richard D.; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xianghong; Kautza, Benjamin C.; Lewis, Anthony J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Tsung, Allan; Angus, Derek C.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that light and circadian rhythms profoundly influence the physiologic capacity with which an organism responds to stress. However, the ramifications of light spectrum on the course of critical illness remain to be determined. Here, we show that acute exposure to bright blue spectrum light reduces organ injury by comparison with bright red spectrum or ambient white fluorescent light in two murine models of sterile insult: warm liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and unilateral renal I/R. Exposure to bright blue light before I/R reduced hepatocellular injury and necrosis and reduced acute kidney injury and necrosis. In both models, blue light reduced neutrophil influx, as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) within each organ, and reduced the release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a neutrophil chemotactant and key mediator in the pathogenesis of I/R injury. The protective mechanism appeared to involve an optic pathway and was mediated, in part, by a sympathetic (β3 adrenergic) pathway that functioned independent of significant alterations in melatonin or corticosterone concentrations to regulate neutrophil recruitment. These data suggest that modifying the spectrum of light may offer therapeutic utility in sterile forms of cellular injury. PMID:27114521

  17. The Role of Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate in Ischemic Organ Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailin; Kilgas, Susan; Alam, Azeem; Eguchi, Shiori; Ma, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic tissue injury contributes to significant morbidity and mortality and is implicated in a range of pathologic conditions, including but not limited to myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and acute kidney injury. The associated reperfusion phase is responsible for the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, further accentuating inflammation. Adenosine triphosphate molecule has been implicated in various ischemic conditions, including stroke and myocardial infarction. Adenosine triphosphate is a well-defined intracellular energy transfer and is commonly referred to as the body's "energy currency." However, Laboratory studies have demonstrated that extracellular adenosine triphosphate has the ability to initiate inflammation and is therefore referred to as a damage-associated molecular pattern. Purinergic receptors-dependent signaling, proinflammatory cytokine release, increased Ca influx into cells, and subsequent apoptosis have been shown to form a common underlying extracellular adenosine triphosphate molecular mechanism in ischemic organ injury. In this review, we aim to discuss the molecular mechanisms behind adenosine triphosphate-mediated ischemic tissue injury and evaluate the role of extracellular adenosine triphosphate in ischemic injury in specific organs, in order to provide a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex process. We also appraise potential future therapeutic strategies to limit damage in various organs, including the heart, brain, kidneys, and lungs.

  18. Use of positive oral contrast agents in abdominopelvic computed tomography for blunt abdominal injury: meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chau Hung; Haaland, Benjamin; Earnest, Arul; Tan, Cher Heng

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether positive oral contrast agents improve accuracy of abdominopelvic CT compared with no, neutral or negative oral contrast agent. Literature was searched for studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT with positive oral contrast agents against imaging with no, neutral or negative oral contrast agent. Meta-analysis reviewed studies correlating CT findings of blunt abdominal injury with positive and without oral contrast agents against surgical, autopsy or clinical outcome allowing derivation of pooled sensitivity and specificity. Systematic review was performed on studies with common design and reference standard. Thirty-two studies were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 15 studies comparing CT with positive and without oral contrast agents. Meta-analysis of five studies from group 1 provided no difference in sensitivity or specificity between CT with positive or without oral contrast agents. Group 2 comprised 17 studies comparing CT with positive and neutral or negative oral contrast agents. Systematic review of 12 studies from group 2 indicated that neutral or negative oral contrasts were as effective as positive oral contrast agents for bowel visualisation. There is no difference in accuracy between CT performed with positive oral contrast agents or with no, neutral or negative oral contrast agent. • There is no difference in the accuracy of CT with or without oral contrast agent. • There is no difference in the accuracy of CT with Gastrografin or water. • Omission of oral contrast, utilising neutral or negative oral contrast agent saves time, costs and decreases risk of aspiration.

  19. Automatic abdominal multi-organ segmentation using deep convolutional neural network and time-implicit level sets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peijun; Wu, Fa; Peng, Jialin; Bao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Feng; Kong, Dexing

    2017-03-01

    Multi-organ segmentation from CT images is an essential step for computer-aided diagnosis and surgery planning. However, manual delineation of the organs by radiologists is tedious, time-consuming and poorly reproducible. Therefore, we propose a fully automatic method for the segmentation of multiple organs from three-dimensional abdominal CT images. The proposed method employs deep fully convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for organ detection and segmentation, which is further refined by a time-implicit multi-phase evolution method. Firstly, a 3D CNN is trained to automatically localize and delineate the organs of interest with a probability prediction map. The learned probability map provides both subject-specific spatial priors and initialization for subsequent fine segmentation. Then, for the refinement of the multi-organ segmentation, image intensity models, probability priors as well as a disjoint region constraint are incorporated into an unified energy functional. Finally, a novel time-implicit multi-phase level-set algorithm is utilized to efficiently optimize the proposed energy functional model. Our method has been evaluated on 140 abdominal CT scans for the segmentation of four organs (liver, spleen and both kidneys). With respect to the ground truth, average Dice overlap ratios for the liver, spleen and both kidneys are 96.0, 94.2 and 95.4%, respectively, and average symmetric surface distance is less than 1.3 mm for all the segmented organs. The computation time for a CT volume is 125 s in average. The achieved accuracy compares well to state-of-the-art methods with much higher efficiency. A fully automatic method for multi-organ segmentation from abdominal CT images was developed and evaluated. The results demonstrated its potential in clinical usage with high effectiveness, robustness and efficiency.

  20. Spectrophotometer properties of vein blood plasma in UF-region patients with sharp surgical pathology of abdominal region organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminestskij, S. G.; Polianski, I. J.; Motrich, A. V.; Grunchuk, F. W.

    2006-05-01

    It is set that there are two maximums in UF- region absorption of vein blood plasma of a man: at λ = 235 nm and at λ = 280 nm. It is shown that there are the substantial changes of values of the optical density D comparative with controls (for donors) exactly in a maximum at development of sharp surgical diseases of organs of abdominal region λ = 280 nm, in that time as maximum at λ = 235 nm in this plan is not informing. Resulted results of researches of dynamics of changes of optical properties of vein blood plasma in UF- region of patients with pathology of abdominal region organs in after operating period (sharp appendicitis, sharp pancreatitis, intestinal impassability and others like that), which can have the diagnostic value.

  1. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  2. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology. PMID:25993295

  3. The impact of a massive transfusion protocol (1:1:1) on major hepatic injuries: does it increase abdominal wall closure rates?

    PubMed

    Ball, Chad G; Dente, Christopher J; Shaz, Beth; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Feliciano, David V

    2013-10-01

    Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) using high plasma and platelet ratios for exsanguinating trauma patients are increasingly popular. Major liver injuries often require massive resuscitations and immediate hemorrhage control. Current published literature describes outcomes among patients with mixed patterns of injury. We sought to identify the effects of an MTP on patients with major liver trauma. Patients with grade 3, 4 or 5 liver injuries who required a massive blood component transfusion were analyzed. We compared patients with high plasma:red blood cell:platelet ratio (1:1:1) transfusions (2007-2009) with patients injured before the creation of an institutional MTP (2005-2007). Among 60 patients with major hepatic injuries, 35 (58%) underwent resuscitation after the implementation of an MTP. Patient and injury characteristics were similar between cohorts. Implementation of the MTP significantly improved plasma: red blood cell:platelet ratios and decreased crystalloid fluid resuscitation (p = 0.026). Rapid improvement in early acidosis and coagulopathy was superior with an MTP (p = 0.009). More patients in the MTP group also underwent primary abdominal fascial closure during their hospital stay (p = 0.021). This was most evident with grade 4 injuries (89% vs. 14%). The mean time to fascial closure was 4.2 days. The overall survival rate for all major liver injuries was not affected by an MTP (p = 0.61). The implementation of a formal MTP using high plasma and platelet ratios resulted in a substantial increase in abdominal wall approximation. This occurred concurrently to a decrease in the delivered volume of crystalloid fluid.

  4. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  5. Spinal cord blood flow and ischemic injury after experimental sacrifice of thoracic and abdominal segmental arteries.

    PubMed

    Etz, Christian D; Homann, Tobias M; Luehr, Maximilian; Kari, Fabian A; Weisz, Donald J; Kleinman, George; Plestis, Konstadinos A; Griepp, Randall B

    2008-06-01

    Spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) after sacrifice of thoracoabdominal aortic segmental arteries (TAASA) during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair remains poorly understood. This study explored SCBF for 72 h after sacrifice of all TAASA. Fourteen juvenile Yorkshire pigs underwent complete serial TAASA sacrifice (T4-L5). Six control pigs underwent anesthesia and cooling to 32 degrees C with no TAASA sacrifice. In the experimental animals, spinal cord function was continuously monitored using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) until 1h after clamping the last TAASA. Fluorescent microspheres enabled segmental measurement of SCBF along the entire spinal cord before, and 5 min, 1 h, 5 h, 24 h and 72 h after complete TAASA sacrifice. A modified Tarlov score was obtained for 3 days after surgery. All the pigs with complete TAASA sacrifice retained normal cord function (MEP) until 1h after TAASA ligation. Seven pigs (50%) with complete TAASA sacrifice recovered after 72 h; seven pigs suffered paraparesis or paraplegia. Intraoperatively, and until 1h postoperatively, SCBF was similar among the three groups along the entire cord. Postoperatively, SCBF did not decrease in any group, but significant hyperemia occurred at 5h in controls and recovery animals, but did not occur in pigs that developed paraparesis or paraplegia in the T8-L2 segments (p=0.0002) and L3-S segments (p=0.0007). At 24h, SCBF remained marginally lower from T8 caudally; at 72h, SCBF was similar among all groups along the entire cord. SCBF in the segments T8-L2 at 5h predicted functional recovery (p=0.003). This study suggests that critical spinal cord ischemia after complete TAASA sacrifice does not occur immediately (intraoperatively), but is delayed 1-5h or longer after clamping, and represents failure to mount a hyperemic response to rewarming and awakening. The short duration of low SCBF associated with spinal cord injury suggests that hemodynamic and metabolic manipulation lasting only 24-72 h may

  6. Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Blood Flow in the Microvasculature of Abdominal Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truica, Loredana Sorina

    In this thesis, water diffusion in human liver and placenta is studied using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. For short, randomly oriented vascular segments, intravascular water motion is diffusion-like. For tissues with large vascular compartments the diffusion decay is bi-exponential with one component corresponding to diffusing water and the other to water in the microvasculature. This model, known as the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model, is seldom used with abdominal organs because of motion artifacts. This limitation was overcome for the experiments reported here by introducing: 1) parallel imaging, 2) navigator echo respiratory triggering (NRT), 3) a double echo diffusion sequence that inherently compensates for eddy current effects, 4) SPAIR fat suppression and 5) a superior approach to image analysis. In particular, the use of NRT allowed us to use a free breathing protocol instead of the previously required breath hold protocol. The resulting DWI images were of high quality and motion artifact free. Diffusion decays were measured over a larger portion of the decay than had previously been reported and the results are considerably better than those previously reported. For both studies, reliable measurements of the diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D) and perfusion fraction (f), were obtained using a region of interest analysis as well as a pixel-by-pixel approach. To within experimental error, all patients had the same values of D (1.10 mum 2/ms +/- 0.16 mum2/ms), D* (46 mum2/ms +/- 17 mum2/ms) and f (44.0% +/- 6.9%) in liver and D (1.8 mum 2/ms +/- 0.2 mum2/ms), D* (30 mum 2/ms +/- 12 mmu2/ms), and f (40% +/- 6%) in the placenta. No dependence on gestational age was found for the placental study. Parametric maps of f and D* were consistent with blood flow patterns in both systems. The model worked well for both investigated organs even though their anatomical structures are quite different. A method for

  7. Impact of High-Dose Acyclovir Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Failure in Abdominal Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Siodlak, Magdalena; Jorgenson, Margaret R; Descourouez, Jillian L; Leverson, Glen E; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Smith, Jeannina A; Redfield, Robert R

    2018-05-25

    To evaluate the clinical course and long-term impact of high-dose acyclovir (HD-A, 800 mg 4 times daily) cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis failure in a CMV- seropositive abdominal solid organ transplant population. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary academic medical center. A total of 691 adults who received solid organ transplants between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013, without lymphocyte-depleting induction and were prescribed 3 months of HD-A prophylaxis at the time of hospital discharge; of those patients, 54 experienced prophylaxis failure, defined as CMV detected via molecular diagnostics or on biopsy while receiving HD-A (prophylaxis failure group), and 637 did not (comparator group). Mean ± SD time to failure was 64 ± 23 days; 98% (53/54 patients) was attributable to viremia diagnosed via positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these 53 patients, 34% (18 patients) were below the quantifiable range when detected. Median initial and peak CMV PCR for quantifiable readings were 1531 IU/ml (interquartile range [IQR] <250-2947) and 4442 IU/ml (IQR <250-32,500; 19 (36%) had a single detectable CMV PCR. Treatment was required in 56% (30/54 patients), with a median duration of 63 days; 40% (12 patients) were treated with valganciclovir alone, the remainder received intravenous ganciclovir. CMV disease resulted in hospitalization in 28% (15 patients). Immunosuppression was modified in 52% (28 patients). The rate of CMV recurrence after 100 days was significantly higher in the prophylaxis failure group (59% vs 13%, p<0.0001). Higher rates of rejection; higher rates of 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft failure; and higher rates of 1-, 3-, and 5-year mortality were noted in the prophylaxis failure group on univariate analysis (43% vs 30%, p=0.045; 8%, 17%, and 34% vs 4%, 12%, and 17%, p=0.006; and 6%, 17%, and 26% vs 1%, 6%, and 10%, p=0.003, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated an increased risk of graft failure in the prophylaxis failure group (hazard

  8. A heuristic approach and heretic view on the technical issues and pitfalls in the management of penetrating abdominal injuries.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Tugba H; Ndofor, Brown C; Smith, Martin D; Degiannis, Elias

    2010-07-14

    There is a general decline in penetrating abdominal trauma throughout the western world. As a result of that, there is a significant loss of expertise in dealing with this type of injury particularly when the patient presents to theatre with physiological instability. A significant percentage of these patients will not be operated by a trauma surgeon but, by the "occasional trauma surgeon", who is usually trained as a general surgeon. Most general surgeons have a general knowledge of operating penetrating trauma, knowledge originating from their training years and possibly enhanced by reading operative surgery textbooks. Unfortunately, the details included in most of these books are not extensive enough to provide them with enough armamentaria to tackle the difficult case. In this scenario, their operative dexterity and knowledge cannot be compared to that of their trauma surgeon colleagues, something that is taken for granted in the trauma textbooks. Techniques that are considered basic and easy by the trauma surgeons can be unfamiliar and difficult to general surgeons. Knowing the danger points and pitfalls that will be encountered in penetrating trauma to the abdomen, will help the occasional trauma surgeons to avoid intraoperative errors and improve patient care. This manuscript provides a heuristic approach from surgeons working in a high volume penetrating trauma centers in South African. Some of the statements could be considered heretic by the "accepted" trauma literature. We believe that this heuristic ("rule of thumb" approach, that originating from "try and error" experience) can help surgical trainees or less experienced in penetrating trauma surgeons to improve their surgical decision making and technique, resulting in better patient outcome.

  9. A heuristic approach and heretic view on the technical issues and pitfalls in the management of penetrating abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is a general decline in penetrating abdominal trauma throughout the western world. As a result of that, there is a significant loss of expertise in dealing with this type of injury particularly when the patient presents to theatre with physiological instability. A significant percentage of these patients will not be operated by a trauma surgeon but, by the "occasional trauma surgeon", who is usually trained as a general surgeon. Most general surgeons have a general knowledge of operating penetrating trauma, knowledge originating from their training years and possibly enhanced by reading operative surgery textbooks. Unfortunately, the details included in most of these books are not extensive enough to provide them with enough armamentaria to tackle the difficult case. In this scenario, their operative dexterity and knowledge cannot be compared to that of their trauma surgeon colleagues, something that is taken for granted in the trauma textbooks. Techniques that are considered basic and easy by the trauma surgeons can be unfamiliar and difficult to general surgeons. Knowing the danger points and pitfalls that will be encountered in penetrating trauma to the abdomen, will help the occasional trauma surgeons to avoid intraoperative errors and improve patient care. This manuscript provides a heuristic approach from surgeons working in a high volume penetrating trauma centers in South African. Some of the statements could be considered heretic by the "accepted" trauma literature. We believe that this heuristic ("rule of thumb" approach, that originating from "try and error" experience) can help surgical trainees or less experienced in penetrating trauma surgeons to improve their surgical decision making and technique, resulting in better patient outcome. PMID:20630100

  10. An Analysis of the Characteristics of Thoracic and Abdominal Injuries Due to Gunshot Homicides in Israel.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Hiss, Jehuda; Gips, Hadas; Hocherman, Gil; Levin, Nadav; Kosachevsky, Olga; Vinokurov, Asya; Zelkowicz, Avraham; Byard, Roger W

    2016-01-01

    De-identified wound data from 197 homicidal gunshot postmortems were obtained between 2000 and 2008. Forensic ballistics data were only available for cases between 2004 and 2008. Males represent 91% of gunshot victims and were struck in the thorax/abdomen with an average of 2.3 bullets. The type of firearms involved were semi-automatic pistols in the predominant caliber 9-mm Luger and assault rifles in caliber 5.56 × 45 mm and caliber 7.62 × 39 mm Soviet, using full metal jacket bullets. The majority of shootings occurred at ranges of 1 m or greater. The most common bullet path was front to back in 66% of cases. Entry wounds occurred more often on the left side of the thorax, abdomen, and back. The most common critical organs/tissues to sustain bullet trauma in descending order were as follows: heart, lungs, liver, aorta, spleen, kidneys, and vena cava. Ribs were struck by most bullets that entered the thorax. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at different time points: Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization using a reference organ.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Soo; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Byon, Jung Hee; Jin, Gong Yong

    2017-05-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of upper abdominal organs acquired at different time points, and to investigate the usefulness of normalization. We retrospectively evaluated 58 patients who underwent three rounds of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging of the upper abdomen. MR examinations were performed using three different 3.0 Tesla (T) and one 1.5T systems, with variable b value combinations and respiratory motion compensation techniques. The ADC values of the upper abdominal organs from three different time points were analyzed, using the ADC values of the paraspinal muscle (ADC psm ) and spleen (ADC spleen ) for normalization. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and comparison of dependent ICCs were used for statistical analysis. The ICCs of the original ADC and ADC psm showed fair to substantial agreement, while ADC spleen showed substantial to almost perfect agreement. The ICC of ADC spleen of all anatomical regions showed less variability compared with that of the original ADC (P < 0.005). Normalized ADC using the spleen as a reference organ significantly decreased variability in measurement of the upper abdominal organs in different MR systems at different time points and could be regarded as an imaging biomarker for future multicenter, longitudinal studies. 5 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1494-1501. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. A case of traumatic pancreaticoduodenal injury: a simple and an organ-preserving approach as damage control surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sae Byeol; You, Jiyoung; Choi, Sang Yong

    2012-01-10

    Traumatic pancreaticoduodenal injury still remains challenging with high morbidity and mortality. Optimal management by performing simple and fast damage control surgery ensures better outcomes. A 36-year-old man was admitted with a combined pancreaticoduodenal injury after being assaulted. More than 80% of duodenal circumference (first portion) was disrupted and the neck of the pancreas was transected. Primary repair of the duodenum and pancreaticogastrostomy were performed. The stump of the proximal pancreatic duct was also sutured. The patient developed an intra-abdominal abscess with pancreatic fistula that eventually recovered by conservative treatment. Pancreaticogastrostomy can be a treatment option for pancreatic transection. Rapid and simple damage control surgery with functional preservation of the organ will be beneficial for trauma patients.

  13. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  14. Blunt gastric injuries.

    PubMed

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  15. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape–location and unsupervised intensity priors

    PubMed Central

    Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape–location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape–location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. PMID:26277022

  16. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape-location and unsupervised intensity priors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape-location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape-location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. Copyright © 2015

  17. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  18. Mixed Organic Solvents Induce Renal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2∶2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5–6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli. PMID:23029287

  19. Improving the Outcomes of Organs Obtained From Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death Donors Using Abdominal Normothermic Regional Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Miñambres, E; Suberviola, B; Dominguez-Gil, B; Rodrigo, E; Ruiz-San Millan, J C; Rodríguez-San Juan, J C; Ballesteros, M A

    2017-08-01

    The use of donation after circulatory death (DCD) has increased significantly during the past decade. However, warm ischemia results in a greater risk for transplantation. Indeed, controlled DCD (cDCD) was associated with inferior outcomes compared with donation after brain death. The use of abdominal normothermic regional perfusion (nRP) to restore blood flow before organ recovery in cDCD has been proposed as better than rapid recovery to reverse the effect of ischemia and improve recipients' outcome. Here, the first Spanish series using abdominal nRP as an in situ conditioning method is reported. A specific methodology to avoid restoring circulation to the brain after death determination is described. Twenty-seven cDCD donors underwent abdominal nRP during at least 60 min. Thirty-seven kidneys, 11 livers, six bilateral lungs, and one pancreas were transplanted. The 1-year death-censored kidney survival was 91%, and delayed graft function rate was 27%. The 1-year liver survival rate was 90.1% with no cases of ischemic cholangiopathy. Transplanted lungs and pancreas exhibited primary function. The use of nRP may represent an advance to increase the number and quality of grafts in cDCD. Poor results in cDCD livers could be reversed with nRP. Concerns about restoring brain circulation after death are easily solved. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Minimally Invasive, Organ-preserving Surgery for Large Submucosal Tumors in the Abdominal Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Eiji; Tanida, Takashi; Kamei, Aya; Takahashi, Kodai

    2017-06-01

    Surgical resection of submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the abdominal esophagus is not standardized. Enucleation may be a minimally invasive option, whereas its oncological validity is not very clear. Moreover, how to treat the esophageal wall defect after enucleation and necessity of additional antireflux procedure are also undetermined. In 13 patients with a SMT originating the abdominal esophagus laparoscopic enucleation was performed with preserving the integrity of submucosa. When the muscular layer defect was <4 cm it was directly closed by suturing, whereas it was left open in case the defect was larger. Fundoplication was added when the esophagus was dissected posteriorly or the myotomy was not closed. Tumors were resected en-bloc without rupture in all cases. In 5 patients myotomy was closed, whereas in the remaining 8 it was left open. In 11 patients fundoplication was added (Toupet in 5 and Dor in 6). The patients developed neither regurgitation nor stenosis postoperatively. The histopathologic findings revealed leiomyoma in 9 patients, whereas the other 4 were miscellaneous. The average tumor size was 5.5 cm (range, 2.8 to 8.8). Microscopically surgical margin was negative in all cases. Laparoscopic enucleation of SMTs in the abdominal esophagus seems to be safe, reproducible operation enabling preservation of function of the lower esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Even when the muscular defect is not approximated additional fundoplication can minimize the risk of postoperative reflux disease.

  1. Understanding the Full Spectrum of Organ Injury Following Intrapartum Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    LaRosa, Domenic A.; Ellery, Stacey J.; Walker, David W.; Dickinson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a significant global health problem, responsible for ~1.2 million neonatal deaths each year worldwide. Those who survive often suffer from a range of health issues including brain damage—manifesting as cerebral palsy (CP)—respiratory insufficiency, cardiovascular collapse, and renal dysfunction, to name a few. Although the majority of research is directed toward reducing the brain injury that results from intrapartum birth asphyxia, the multi-organ injury observed in surviving neonates is of equal importance. Despite the advent of hypothermia therapy for the treatment of hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), treatment options following asphyxia at birth remain limited, particularly in low-resource settings where the incidence of birth asphyxia is highest. Furthermore, although cooling of the neonate results in improved neurological outcomes for a small proportion of treated infants, it does not provide any benefit to the other organ systems affected by asphyxia at birth. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the multi-organ effects of intrapartum asphyxia, with particular reference to the findings from our laboratory using the precocial spiny mouse to model birth asphyxia. Furthermore, we reviewed the current treatments available for neonates who have undergone intrapartum asphyxia, and highlight the emergence of maternal dietary creatine supplementation as a preventative therapy, which has been shown to provide multi-organ protection from birth asphyxia-induced injury in our preclinical studies. This cheap and effective nutritional supplement may be the key to reducing birth asphyxia-induced death and disability, particularly in low-resource settings where current treatments are unavailable. PMID:28261573

  2. [The volume of surgery on the abdominal cavity organs in patients with associated cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, M V

    2004-08-01

    The cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances are the main risk factor in acute and chronic surgical deseases of the abdominal cavity organs, including oncological. It is limits the possibility and volume of the diagnostics and surgical tactics choice. The complicated current of main disease is a risk factor of operation perform and the reason of the undertaking inadequate and palliative intervention, which significant reduce of the quality of life. Real by risk level reductions in surgery is a determination of tissues viability, estimation of compensatory reserve sick evidences for determination for operation performance including simultaneous and staged.

  3. Alpha-galactosidase versus active charcoal for improving sonographic visualization of abdominal organs in patients with excessive intestinal gas

    PubMed Central

    Maconi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Radice, E.; Marzocchi, M.; Badini, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Intestinal gas is a frequent cause of poor visualization during gastrointestinal ultrasound (US). The enzyme alpha-galactosidase may reduce intestinal gas production, thereby improving abdominal US visualization. We compared the efficacies of alpha-galactosidase and active charcoal in improving US visualization in patients with previous unsatisfactory abdominal US scans caused by excessive intestinal gas. Materials and methods: 45 patients with poor visualization of at least one target organ: pancreas, hepatic lobes (score 0–2) or common bile duct (CBD) (score 0–1) were enrolled in a prospective randomized, crossover, observer-blinded study. The patients received alpha-galactosidase (Sinaire Forte, Promefarm, Milan, Italy) 600 GalU t.i.d. for 2 days before abdominal US plus 900 GalU the morning of exam or active charcoal 448 mg t.i.d., for 2 days before the exam plus 672 mg the morning of the exam. Visualization was graded as follows: 0 = none (complete gas interference); 1 = severe interference, 2 = moderate interference, 3 = mild interference; 4 = complete (no gas interference). Results: 42 patients completed the study. Both alpha-galactosidase and active charcoal improved the visualization of target organs. Visualization of the right hepatic lobe, CBD and pancreatic tail was significantly improved (vs. baseline) only by alpha-galactosidase (p < 0.01). Scores ≥3 for all parts of the pancreas and both hepatic lobes were achieved in only 12.5% of the patients after both treatments. Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion: Alpha-galactosidase and active charcoal can improve US visualization of abdominal organs in patients whose scans are frequently unsatisfactory due to excessive intestinal gas. Visualization of the pancreatic tail and right hepatic lobe was significantly improved only by alpha-galactosidase. However, both treatments allowed adequate visualization of all target organs during the same examination only

  4. Role of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of solid organ injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H; Jaffer, T; Eguchi, S; Wang, Z; Linkermann, A; Ma, D

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is a type of regulated cell death dependent on the activity of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein (RIP) kinases. However, unlike apoptosis, it is caspase independent. Increasing evidence has implicated necroptosis in the pathogenesis of disease, including ischemic injury, neurodegeneration, viral infection and many others. Key players of the necroptosis signalling pathway are now widely recognized as therapeutic targets. Necrostatins may be developed as potent inhibitors of necroptosis, targeting the activity of RIPK1. Necrostatin-1, the first generation of necrostatins, has been shown to confer potent protective effects in different animal models. This review will summarize novel insights into the involvement of necroptosis in specific injury of different organs, and the therapeutic platform that it provides for treatment. PMID:26583318

  5. Real-time method for motion-compensated MR thermometry and MRgHIFU treatment in abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Celicanin, Zarko; Auboiroux, Vincent; Bieri, Oliver; Petrusca, Lorena; Santini, Francesco; Viallon, Magalie; Scheffler, Klaus; Salomir, Rares

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound is considered to be a promising treatment for localized cancer in abdominal organs such as liver, pancreas, or kidney. Abdominal motion, anatomical arrangement, and required sustained sonication are the main challenges. MR acquisition consisted of thermometry performed with segmented gradient-recalled echo echo-planar imaging, and a segment-based one-dimensional MR navigator parallel to the main axis of motion to track the organ motion. This tracking information was used in real-time for: (i) prospective motion correction of MR thermometry and (ii) HIFU focal point position lock-on target. Ex vivo experiments were performed on a sheep liver and a turkey pectoral muscle using a motion demonstrator, while in vivo experiments were conducted on two sheep liver. Prospective motion correction of MR thermometry yielded good signal-to-noise ratio (range, 25 to 35) and low geometric distortion due to the use of segmented EPI. HIFU focal point lock-on target yielded isotropic in-plane thermal build-up. The feasibility of in vivo intercostal liver treatment was demonstrated in sheep. The presented method demonstrated in moving phantoms and breathing sheep accurate motion-compensated MR thermometry and precise HIFU focal point lock-on target using only real-time pencil-beam navigator tracking information, making it applicable without any pretreatment data acquisition or organ motion modeling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills. PMID:18625076

  7. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  8. Double jeopardy revisited: clinical decision making in unstable patients with, thoraco-abdominal stab wounds and, potential injuries in multiple body cavities.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Damian L; Gall, Tamara M H; Thomson, Sandie R

    2011-05-01

    In the setting of the hypovolaemic patient with a thoraco-abdominal stab wound and potential injuries in both the chest and abdomen, deciding which cavity to explore first may be difficult.Opening the incorrect body cavity can delay control of tamponade or haemorrhage and exacerbate hypothermia and fluid shifts. This situation has been described as one of double jeopardy. All stab victims from July 2007 to July 2009 requiring a thoracotomy and laparotomy at the same operation were identified from a database. Demographics, site and nature of injuries, admission observations and investigations as well as operative sequence were recorded. Correct sequencing was defined as first opening the cavity with most lethal injury. Incorrect sequencing was defined as opening a cavity and finding either no injury or an injury of less severity than a simultaneous injury in the unopened cavity. The primary outcome was survival or death. Sixteen stab victims underwent thoracotomy and laparotomy during the same operation. All were male with an age range of 18–40 (mean/median 27). Median systolic blood pressure on presentation was 90 mm Hg. (quartile range 80–90 mm Hg). Median base excess was 6.5 (quartile range 12 to 2.2). All the deaths were the result of cardiac injuries. Incorrect sequencing occurred in four patients (25%). In this group there were four negative abdominal explorations prior to thoracotomy with two deaths. There was one death in the correct sequencing group. Incorrect sequencing in stab victims who require both thoracotomy and laparotomy at the same sitting is associated with a high mortality. This is especially true when the abdomen is incorrectly entered first whilst the life threatening pathology is in the chest. Clinical signs may be confusing, leading to incorrect sequencing of exploration. The common causes for confusion include failure to appreciate that cardiac tamponade does not present with bleeding and difficulty in assessing peritonism in an

  9. Point Organ Radiation Dose in Abdominal CT: Effect of Patient Off-Centering in an Experimental Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Ali Khawaja, Ranish Deedar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Lira, Diego; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Primak, Andrew; Xu, George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of patient off-centering on point organ radiation dose measurements in a human cadaver scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol. A human cadaver (88 years, body-mass-index 20 kg/m2) was scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol on 128-slice dual source MDCT (Definition Flash, Siemens). A total of 18 scans were performed using two scan protocols (a) 120 kV-200 mAs fixed-mA (CTDIvol 14 mGy) (b) 120 kV-125 ref mAs (7 mGy) with automatic exposure control (AEC, CareDose 4D) at three different positions (a) gantry isocenter, (b) upward off-centering and (c) downward off-centering. Scanning was repeated three times at each position. Six thimble (in liver, stomach, kidney, pancreas, colon and urinary bladder) and four MOSFET dosimeters (on cornea, thyroid, testicle and breast) were placed for calculation of measured point organ doses. Organ dose estimations were retrieved from dose-tracking software (eXposure, Radimetrics). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance. There was a significant difference between the trends of point organ doses with AEC and fixed-mA at all three positions (p < 0.01). Variation in point doses between fixed-mA and AEC protocols were statistically significant across all organs at all Table positions (p < 0.001). There was up to 5-6% decrease in point doses with upward off-centering and in downward off-centering. There were statistical significant differences in point doses from dosimeters and dose-tracking software (mean difference for internal organs, 5-36% for fixed-mA & 7-48% for AEC protocols; p < 0.001; mean difference for surface organs, >92% for both protocols; p < 0.0001). For both protocols, the highest mean difference in point doses was found for stomach and lowest for colon. Measured absorbed point doses in abdominal CT vary with patient-centering in the gantry isocenter. Due to lack of consideration of patient positioning in the dose estimation on automatic software-over estimation of the

  10. An efficient and robust MRI-guided radiotherapy planning approach for targeting abdominal organs and tumours in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Luke; Tullis, Iain D. C.; Newman, Robert G.; Corroyer-Dulmont, Aurelien; Falzone, Nadia; Azad, Abul; Vallis, Katherine A.; Sansom, Owen J.; Muschel, Ruth J.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Hill, Mark A.; Fokas, Emmanouil; Smart, Sean C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Preclinical CT-guided radiotherapy platforms are increasingly used but the CT images are characterized by poor soft tissue contrast. The aim of this study was to develop a robust and accurate method of MRI-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) delivery to abdominal targets in the mouse. Methods A multimodality cradle was developed for providing subject immobilisation and its performance was evaluated. Whilst CT was still used for dose calculations, target identification was based on MRI. Each step of the radiotherapy planning procedure was validated initially in vitro using BANG gel dosimeters. Subsequently, MR-IGRT of normal adrenal glands with a size-matched collimated beam was performed. Additionally, the SK-N-SH neuroblastoma xenograft model and the transgenic KPC model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were used to demonstrate the applicability of our methods for the accurate delivery of radiation to CT-invisible abdominal tumours. Results The BANG gel phantoms demonstrated a targeting efficiency error of 0.56 ± 0.18 mm. The in vivo stability tests of body motion during MR-IGRT and the associated cradle transfer showed that the residual body movements are within this MR-IGRT targeting error. Accurate MR-IGRT of the normal adrenal glands with a size-matched collimated beam was confirmed by γH2AX staining. Regression in tumour volume was observed almost immediately post MR-IGRT in the neuroblastoma model, further demonstrating accuracy of x-ray delivery. Finally, MR-IGRT in the KPC model facilitated precise contouring and comparison of different treatment plans and radiotherapy dose distributions not only to the intra-abdominal tumour but also to the organs at risk. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate preclinical MR-IGRT in intra-abdominal organs. The proposed MR-IGRT method presents a state-of-the-art solution to enabling robust, accurate and efficient targeting of extracranial organs in the mouse and can operate with a

  11. Is estimated bullet trajectory a reliable predictor of severe injury? Case report of a thoraco-abdominal gunshot with a protracted trajectory managed nonoperatively.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Sohaib; Khan, Bilal Masood; Naz, Sumbul; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2013-02-15

    Operative management of all gunshot's traumas carries a high rate of unwarranted interventions that are known to cause serious complications. Selective nonoperative management is thus being increasingly practiced which has reduced these avoidable interventions. Physical examination and computed tomography scans are most sensitive in assessing need of laparotomy. Assessment of internal injuries on the basis of an estimated bullet trajectory is often practiced but has seldom been studied. We report a case of conservative management of a thoraco abdominal gun shot patient where an estimated bullet trajectory was indicative of serious injuries. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a thoraco abdominal gunshot that, despite of a protracted trajectory, had no sequelae and was thus managed nonoperatively. A 30 year old male patient having height of 180 cm and weight of 70 kg (Body Mass Index 21.6) presented with complaint of a penetrating injury at left side of upper torso. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination a 1 cm × 1 cm entry wound at the left 3rd intercostal space in the mid clavicular line was identified. The chest and abdomen were otherwise unremarkable on examination. The chest radiograph displayed clear lung fields. The abdominal radiographs displayed a bullet in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen lateral to the spine. The bullets estimated trajectory from 3rd intercostal space and its lodgment in the abdomen lateral to the spine indicated severe visceral injury. The computed tomography scan showed that the bullet was lodged postero-medially to the left kidney. All thoracic, intra peritoneal and retroperitoneal visceral structures were identified to be normal. The patient remained clinically and vitally stable, hence was managed nonoperatively being discharged after 48 h of observation. From this case we conclude that decision for managing gun shot patients should be based on objective

  12. Is estimated bullet trajectory a reliable predictor of severe injury? Case report of a thoraco-abdominal gunshot with a protracted trajectory managed nonoperatively

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Operative management of all gunshot’s traumas carries a high rate of unwarranted interventions that are known to cause serious complications. Selective nonoperative management is thus being increasingly practiced which has reduced these avoidable interventions. Physical examination and computed tomography scans are most sensitive in assessing need of laparotomy. Assessment of internal injuries on the basis of an estimated bullet trajectory is often practiced but has seldom been studied. We report a case of conservative management of a thoraco abdominal gun shot patient where an estimated bullet trajectory was indicative of serious injuries. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a thoraco abdominal gunshot that, despite of a protracted trajectory, had no sequelae and was thus managed nonoperatively. Case presentation A 30 year old male patient having height of 180 cm and weight of 70 kg (Body Mass Index 21.6) presented with complaint of a penetrating injury at left side of upper torso. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination a 1 cm × 1 cm entry wound at the left 3rd intercostal space in the mid clavicular line was identified. The chest and abdomen were otherwise unremarkable on examination. The chest radiograph displayed clear lung fields. The abdominal radiographs displayed a bullet in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen lateral to the spine. The bullets estimated trajectory from 3rd intercostal space and its lodgment in the abdomen lateral to the spine indicated severe visceral injury. The computed tomography scan showed that the bullet was lodged postero-medially to the left kidney. All thoracic, intra peritoneal and retroperitoneal visceral structures were identified to be normal. The patient remained clinically and vitally stable, hence was managed nonoperatively being discharged after 48 h of observation. Conclusion From this case we conclude that decision for managing gun

  13. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, p<0.001). The loss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (p<0.05). The presented fully automatic algorithm showed good performance in abdominal adipose tissue and organ segmentation, and allowed the detection of SAT and VAT subcompartments changes during weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  15. Mass screening of multiple abdominal solid organs using mobile helical computed tomography scanner--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Susumu; Aoki, Jun; Ohwada, Susumu; Takahashi, Toru; Morishita, Yasuo; Ueda, Keisuke

    2007-04-01

    The possibility of a new screening procedure for multiple abdominal solid organs using a mobile helical computed tomography (CT) scanner was evaluated. A total of 4,543 residents, who were 40 years of age or older, received CT scanning without contrast medium. The mean age of participants was 64 years including 2,022 males and 2,521 females. A total of 2,105 abnormal findings were uniquely detected in 1,594 participants. Liver and kidney diseases including ureter occupied around 30% of total abnormal findings, respectively. Besides frequent cystic or calcified lesions, solid tumours were suspected in 56 lesions, which received further examination by specialized physicians. Five (9%) of them were confirmed as being malignant tumours including pancreatic cancer in two patients, and liver, lung and ovary cancers in one patient each, respectively. All five patients with each malignant lesion received curative operations. Small-sized abdominal aortic aneurysms and heart valve diseases were uniquely found in 22 and two patients, respectively. Qualitative diagnoses of solid tumours were difficult using CT findings without contrast medium. CT screening procedures require further investigation in aspect of the selection of examinees, CT scanning procedure, sensitivity and specificity, and cost-effectiveness.

  16. SU-E-J-208: Fast and Accurate Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain groundmore » truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto

  17. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010.

    PubMed

    Hassapidou, Maria; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Makri, Evangelia; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Abrahamian, Annet; Polymeris, Antonis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-28

    In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0-7.9 and 9.0-9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively). Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS). Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005). Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6-6.8 and 21.8-49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages. The prevalence of pediatric abdominal obesity in Greece is among

  18. The evaluation of the effect of body positioning on intra-abdominal pressure measurement and the effect of intra-abdominal pressure at different body positioning on organ function and prognosis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Yi, Min; Leng, Yuxin; Bai, Yu; Yao, Gaiqi; Zhu, Xi

    2012-04-01

    Current literatures confirmed the widespread and frequent development of both intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) among the critically ill with a significant associated risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The 2004 International ACS Consensus Conference committee proposed that intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) be measured in complete supine position; however, the supine position of intensive care unit (ICU) patients (<30° of bed increase) presented a significant risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, the potential contribution of head of bed (HOB) position in elevating IAP should be considered. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of body positioning on IAP measurement and the effect of IAP at different body positions on organ function and prognosis in critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study to investigate the effect of different patient positioning on IAP, organ function, and prognosis was conducted on 88 patients admitted to a medical-surgical ICU. On admission, patients' epidemiological data and risk factors for IAH were studied; daily mean IAPs, abdominal perfusion pressure, filtration gradient, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, and multiple organ dysfunction scores were registered; next, conventional hemodynamic variables, intrathoracic blood volume index, global end-diastolic volume index and extravascular lung water using the pulse contour cardiac output system were recorded. Intra-abdominal pressures were recorded through a bladder catheter every 4 hours on the first day. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured with the patient HOB increases from 0° to 45°. Mean arterial pressure was recorded simultaneously, whereas abdominal perfusion pressure and filtration gradient (FG) were also calculated simultaneously. The main results of this study were the incidence of IAH (28.4%) and ACS (2.3%) in ICU patients

  19. Life- threatening hemothorax due to the inferior pulmonary ligament injury without obvious organ injuries: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Choi, Si Young; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Moon, Seok Whan

    2015-03-21

    Traumatic hemothorax is usually associated with obvious organ injuries, such as rib fractures, pulmonary injuries, and other mediastinal injuries. We present a rare case in which a 42-year- old Korean man who fell off of a roof, approximately 3 meters in height, resulting in a life-threatening hemothorax without obvious injuries to the thoracic organs. Chest CT showed a large amount of hemothorax in the right side of the thoracic cavity, and an active bleeding, presumably from the posterior intercostal or the phrenic artery, with a focal aneurysmal change. The emergency thoracotomy was performed to bring the active bleeding under control. The operative findings showed there were only the inferior pulmonary ligament tears, and the active bleeding from it. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged without any complications. We should consider the inferior pulmonary ligamental injury as one of causes for traumatic hemothorax.

  20. Evaluation of Free Breathing Versus Breath Hold Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Terms Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Values for Solid Abdominal Organs.

    PubMed

    Herek, Duygu; Karabulut, Nevzat; Kocyıgıt, Ali; Yagcı, Ahmet Baki

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal abdominal parenchymal organs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements in the same patients with breath hold (BH) and free breathing (FB) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Forty-eight patients underwent both BH and FB DWI. Spherical region of interest (ROI) was placed on the right hepatic lobe, spleen, pancreas, and renal cortices. ADC values were calculated for each organ on each sequence using an automated software. Image noise, defined as the standard deviation (SD) of the signal intensities in the most artifact-free area of the image background was measured by placing the largest possible ROI on either the left or the right side of the body outside the object in the recorded field of view. SNR was calculated using the formula: SNR=signal intensity (SI) (organ) /standard deviation (SD) (noise) . There were no statistically significant differences in ADC values of the abdominal organs between BH and FB DWI sequences ( p >0.05). There were statistically significant differences between SNR values of organs on BH and FB DWIs. SNRs were found to be better on FB DWI than BH DWI ( p <0.001). Free breathing DWI technique reduces image noise and increases SNR for abdominal examinations. Free breathing technique is therefore preferable to BH DWI in the evaluation of abdominal organs by DWI.

  1. Abdominal MR imaging in children: motion compensation, sequence optimization, and protocol organization.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Babyn, Paul S; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2013-05-01

    Familiarity with basic sequence properties and their trade-offs is necessary for radiologists performing abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Acquiring diagnostic-quality MR images in the pediatric abdomen is challenging due to motion, inability to breath hold, varying patient size, and artifacts. Motion-compensation techniques (eg, respiratory gating, signal averaging, suppression of signal from moving tissue, swapping phase- and frequency-encoding directions, use of faster sequences with breath holding, parallel imaging, and radial k-space filling) can improve image quality. Each of these techniques is more suitable for use with certain sequences and acquisition planes and in specific situations and age groups. Different T1- and T2-weighted sequences work better in different age groups and with differing acquisition planes and have specific advantages and disadvantages. Dynamic imaging should be performed differently in younger children than in older children. In younger children, the sequence and the timing of dynamic phases need to be adjusted. Different sequences work better in smaller children and in older children because of differing breath-holding ability, breathing patterns, field of view, and use of sedation. Hence, specific protocols should be maintained for younger children and older children. Combining longer-higher-resolution sequences and faster-lower-resolution sequences helps acquire diagnostic-quality images in a reasonable time. © RSNA, 2013.

  2. Injury - kidney and ureter

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney ... or falling blood pressure Signs of kidney failure Tests that may be done include: Abdominal CT scan ...

  3. Unenhanced Computed Tomography to Visualize Hollow Viscera and/or Mesenteric Injury After Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu-Yang; Wei, Ming-Tian; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    To identify and describe the major features of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images of blunt hollow viscera and/or mesenteric injury (BHVI/MI) and to determine the value of unenhanced CT in the diagnosis of BHVI/MI. This retrospective study included 151 patients who underwent unenhanced CT before laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma between January 2011 and December 2013. According to surgical observations, patients were classified as having BHVI/MI (n = 73) or not (n = 78). Sensitivity, specificity, P values, and likelihood ratios were calculated by comparing CT findings between the 2 groups. Six significant CT findings (P < 0.05) for BHVI/MI were identified and their sensitivity and specificity values determined, as follows: bowel wall thickening (39.7%, 96.2%), mesentery thickening (46.6%, 88.5%), mesenteric fat infiltration (12.3%, 98.7%), peritoneal fat infiltration (31.5%, 87.1%), parietal peritoneum thickening (30.1%, 85.9%), and intra- or retro-peritoneal air (34.2%, 96.2%). Unenhanced CT scan was useful as an initial assessment tool for BHVI/MI after blunt abdominal trauma. Six key features on CT were correlated with BHVI/MI.

  4. A comparison study of pelvic fractures and associated abdominal injuries between pediatric and adult blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Swaid, Forat; Peleg, Kobi; Alfici, Ricardo; Olsha, Oded; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Pelvic fractures are a marker of severe injury, mandating a thorough investigation for the presence of associated injuries. Anatomical and physiological differences between adults and children may lead to a different impact of pelvic fractures on these populations. The purpose of this study is to compare pelvic fractures between pediatric and adult blunt trauma victims, mainly regarding their severity and associated intraabdominal injuries. A retrospective study involving blunt trauma patients suffering pelvic fractures, according to the records of the Israeli National Trauma Registry. Patients included children, aged 0-14years, and adults between 15 and 64years. The presence and severity of associated injuries were assessed. Overall, 7621 patients aged 0-64years were identified with pelvic fractures following blunt trauma. The incidence of pelvic fractures in children was (0.8%), as compared to 4.3% in adults, p <0.0001. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (MVA) in adults, and pedestrian hit by car (PHBC) in children. About a quarter of the patients in both groups had an ISS >25. Adults sustained significantly more moderate to severe pelvic fractures (AIS≥3) than children (26.7% vs. 17.4%, p<0.0001). The overall mortality rate was similar among the two groups (5.4% in adults, 5.2% in children, p=0.7554). The only associated injury with statistically significant difference in incidence among the two groups was rectal injury (1.2% among children, 0.2% among adults, p<0.0001). Among adult patients, there was a clear correlation between the severity of pelvic fractures and the severity of concomitant splenic and hepatic injuries (p=0.026, p=0.0004, respectively). Among children, a similar correlation was not demonstrated. Adults involved in blunt trauma are more likely to sustain pelvic fractures, and these are generally more severe fractures, as compared to children suffering from blunt trauma. Nonetheless, mortality rates were found

  5. The impact of morbid obesity on solid organ injury in children using the ATOMAC protocol at a pediatric level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nathan; Tweed, Jeff; Greenwell, Cynthia; Notrica, David M; Langlais, Crystal S; Peter, Shawn D St; Leys, Charles M; Ostlie, Daniel J; Maxson, R Todd; Ponsky, Todd; Tuggle, David W; Eubanks, James W; Bhatia, Amina; Greenwell, Cynthia; Garcia, Nilda M; Lawson, Karla A; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Letton, Robert W; Alder, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016. SOI was managed based upon the ATOMAC protocol. Obesity status was derived using CDC definitions; patients were categorized as non-obese (BMI <95th percentile) or obese (BMI ≥95th percentile). The ISS, injury grade, and NOM failure rate were calculated among other data points. Of 1012 patients enrolled, 117 were identified as having data regarding BMI. Eighty-four percent of patients were non-obese; 16% were obese. The groups did not differ by age, sex, mechanism of injury, or associated injuries. There was no significant difference in the rate of failure of non-operative management (8.2% versus 5.3%). Obesity was associated with higher likelihood of severe (grade 4 or 5) hepatic injury (36.8% versus 15.3%, P=0.048) but not a significant difference in likelihood of severe (grade 4 or 5) splenic injury (15.3% versus 10.5%, P=0.736). Obese patients had a higher mean ISS (22.5 versus 16.1, P=0.021) and mean abdominal AIS (3.5 versus 2.9, P=0.024). Obesity is a risk factor for more severe abdominal injury, specifically liver injury, but without an associated increase in failure of NOM. This may be explained by the presence of hepatic steatosis making the liver more vulnerable to injury. A protocol based upon physiologic parameters was associated with a low rate of failure regardless of the pediatric obesity status. Level II prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of Respiratory Motion in Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Upper Abdominal Organs: Current Status and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A., E-mail: arnaud.muller@chu-lyon.fr; Petrusca, L.; Auboiroux, V.

    2013-12-15

    Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive therapy considered with increased interest for the ablation of small tumors in deeply located organs while sparing surrounding critical tissues. A multitude of preclinical and clinical studies have showed the feasibility of the method; however, concurrently they showed several obstacles, among which the management of respiratory motion of abdominal organs is at the forefront. The aim of this review is to describe the different methods that have been proposed for managing respiratory motion and to identify their advantages and weaknesses. First, we specify the characteristics of respiratory motion for the liver,more » kidneys, and pancreas and the problems it causes during HIFU planning, treatment, and monitoring. Second, we make an inventory of the preclinical and clinical approaches used to overcome the problem of organ motion. Third, we analyze their respective benefits and drawbacks to identify the remaining physical, technological, and clinical challenges. We thereby consider the outlook of motion compensation techniques and those that would be the most suitable for clinical use, particularly under magnetic resonance thermometry monitoring.« less

  7. Multi-organ segmentation from multi-phase abdominal CT via 4D graphs using enhancement, shape and location optimization.

    PubMed

    Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A; Chowdhury, Ananda S; Summers, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) applications. Diagnosis also relies on the comprehensive analysis of multiple organs and quantitative measures of soft tissue. An automated method optimized for medical image data is presented for the simultaneous segmentation of four abdominal organs from 4D CT data using graph cuts. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained at two phases: non-contrast and portal venous. Intra-patient data were spatially normalized by non-linear registration. Then 4D erosion using population historic information of contrast-enhanced liver, spleen, and kidneys was applied to multi-phase data to initialize the 4D graph and adapt to patient specific data. CT enhancement information and constraints on shape, from Parzen windows, and location, from a probabilistic atlas, were input into a new formulation of a 4D graph. Comparative results demonstrate the effects of appearance and enhancement, and shape and location on organ segmentation.

  8. [Experimental study of multiple organ injuries after high-velocity missiles].

    PubMed

    Fu, X B

    1990-06-01

    Multiple organ injuries after high-velocity missiles shot were studied on the 8 pigs. The experimental results showed that (1) more than two organs (the maximum six organs) wounded could be seen in all the pigs; (2) the injuries were characterized by hemorrhage, tissue rupture and hematoma, etc., the pathologic changes were local edema and necrosis; (3) the marked increase of LPO on the vital organs indicates that multiple organ injuries can also occur at the molecular level; (4) they are due to direct effects of pressure waves and not to shock or infection.

  9. [The organ-preserving surgical treatment of the splenic rupture after the blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Alimov, A N; Zubarev, A R; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Murashina, I V; Safronov, É P; Kim, Iu E

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of 383 cases of heavy combined traumas (n=273) and isolated (n=110) closed injuries of the abdomen with spleen damage were analyzed. The overall mortality was 11.74% (n=45), whereas the mortality rate during the first day after admission was 7.83% (n=30). Removal of a spleen was executed at 228 patients. The spleen-preserving operation with ligation of splenic artery, was performed in 155 patients. The optimal level of the splenic artery ligation proved to be in its proximal and median parts. The postoperative CT-angiogarphy and Doppler US scanning together with the three-dimensional reconstruction confirmed that blood supply of the body and tail of the pancreas was satisfactory thanks to the natural collateral blood circulation. The dramatic decrease in lethality and of postoperative complication rates allows to consider spleen-preserving resections to be a good alternative to spleenectomy.

  10. Prevention of Organ Injury in Exertional Heat Stroke: Preclinical Evaluation of a New Class of NSAIDs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    both sexes ), neurological symptoms and organ injury resembling human EHS. Blood and tissue samples were collected at 0.5 h, 3 h, 24 h 4d,9d and 14d of...associated with adipose tissue. Analyses of metabolic hormones and histology in both sexes suggest transient injury or “stunning” to the pancreas...15. SUBJECT TERMS Sex differences, exertional heat stroke, multi-organ injury, heat stress, metabolic hormones 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17

  11. Anticipated Transfusion Requirements and Mortality in Patients with Orthopedic and Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Devon S; Ashman, Zane; Kim, Dennis Y; Plurad, David S

    2016-10-01

    Long bone fractures are cited as an etiology for significant blood loss; however, there is scant supporting literature. We examined the relationship between long bone fractures, blood transfusions, and solid organ injuries. We hypothesize that transfusions are rare with long bone fractures in the absence of a liver or splenic injury. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with femur, tibia, and humerus fractures. Outcomes included transfusion requirements and mortality. A total of 1837 patients were included. There were 182 patients with at least one solid organ injury. A greater portion of patients with femur fractures and a lower proportion of patients with tibia fractures required transfusion. Adjusting for solid organ injuries, there was no difference in transfusions for any patient with these fractures compared with the group, or when grouped by organ injury severity. A solid organ injury significantly increases the risk of death among patients with long bone fractures. Blood loss requiring transfusion in patients with orthopedic and solid organ injuries should not be attributed to the presence of fractures alone. The need for transfusions in these patients should lower the threshold for reimaging or intervention for the solid organ injury. Further study is warranted to quantify blood loss by fracture type with or without solid organ.

  12. Abdominal Pediatric Cancer Surveillance using Serial CT: Evaluation of Organ Absorbed Dose and Effective Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Diana; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; McGahan, John P.; Stern, Robin; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used extensively in cancer diagnosis, staging, evaluation of response to treatment, and in active surveillance for cancer reoccurrence. A review of CT technology is provided, at a level of detail appropriate for a busy clinician to review. The basis of x-ray CT dosimetry is also discussed, and concepts of absorbed dose and effective dose are distinguished. Absorbed dose is a physical quantity (measured in milliGray) equal to the x-ray energy deposited in a mass of tissue, whereas effective dose utilizes an organ-specific weighting method which converts organ doses to effective dose measured in milliSieverts. The organ weighting values carry with them a measure of radiation risk, and so effective dose (in mSv) is not a physical dose metric but rather is one that conveys radiation risk. The use of CT in a cancer surveillance protocol was used as an example of a pediatric patient who had kidney cancer, with surgery and radiation therapy. The active use of CT for cancer surveillance along with diagnostic CT scans led to a total of 50 CT scans performed on this child in a 7 year period. It was estimated that the patient received an average organ dose of 431 mGy from these CT scans. By comparison, the radiation therapy was performed and delivered 50.4 Gy to the patient’s abdomen. Thus, the total dose from CT represented only 0.8% of the patients radiation dose. PMID:21362521

  13. Organ culture in 3-dimensional matrix: in vitro model for evaluating biological compliance of synthetic meshes for abdominal wall repair.

    PubMed

    Dasdia, T; Bazzaco, S; Bottero, L; Buffa, R; Ferrero, S; Campanelli, G; Dolfini, E

    1998-01-01

    A new in vitro method to evaluate the early critical interactions between synthetic prosthetic materials and growing tissues is reported. The correct spatial organization and proper cell to cell interaction required to mimic the in vivo environment was obtained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) embryo organ culture. The clot formed by plasma and chick-embryo extract provided a natural 3-D extracellular matrix that was able to support the growth and differentiation of intestinal tissue dissected from 12-day-old chick embryos. Different materials used for the repair of abdominal wall defects were taken as standards; all the prosthetic materials were devoid of any evident cytotoxic potential over a 10-day culture period, so they did not interfere with the organogenesis process. A polyglactin mesh (Vicryl) was fully incorporated into the growing tissue, but early signs of its degradation were detectable. The biologically inert materials polyethylene terephthalate (Mersilene) and polypropylene (Marlex, Prolene, and Herniamesh) retained their structural integrity when incubated with cultured tissue at 37 degrees C, and they did not hinder cellular proliferation or fibroblast migration. However, the outgrowth behavior was very different while the connective tissue invaded the interstices of the polyethylene terephthalate mesh; the explants and the migrating cells were repelled by hydrophobic polypropylene meshes. These findings are in agreement with other reported results in in vivo studies. Therefore, this method can be considered as reliable and predictable for the evaluation of biopolymers.

  14. Can We Spare the Pancreas and Other Abdominal Organs at Risk? A Comparison of Conformal Radiotherapy, Helical Tomotherapy and Proton Beam Therapy in Pediatric Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jouglar, Emmanuel; Wagner, Antoine; Delpon, Grégory; Campion, Loïc; Meingan, Philippe; Bernier, Valérie; Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Mahé, Marc-André; Lacornerie, Thomas; Supiot, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Late abdominal irradiation toxicity during childhood included renal damage, hepatic toxicity and secondary diabetes mellitus. We compared the potential of conformal radiotherapy (CRT), helical tomotherapy (HT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) to spare the abdominal organs at risk (pancreas, kidneys and liver- OAR) in children undergoing abdominal irradiation. We selected children with abdominal tumors who received more than 10 Gy to the abdomen. Treatment plans were calculated in order to keep the dose to abdominal OAR as low as possible while maintaining the same planned target volume (PTV) coverage. Dosimetric values were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The dose distribution of 20 clinical cases with a median age of 8 years (range 1-14) were calculated with different doses to the PTV: 5 medulloblastomas (36 Gy), 3 left-sided and 2 right-sided nephroblastomas (14.4 Gy to the tumor + 10.8 Gy boost to para-aortic lymphnodes), 1 left-sided and 4 right-sided or midline neuroblastomas (21 Gy) and 5 Hodgkin lymphomas (19.8 Gy to the para-aortic lymphnodes and spleen). HT significantly reduced the mean dose to the whole pancreas (WP), the pancreatic tail (PT) and to the ipsilateral kidney compared to CRT. PBT reduced the mean dose to the WP and PT compared to both CRT and HT especially in midline and right-sided tumors. PBT decreased the mean dose to the ispilateral kidney but also to the contralateral kidney and the liver compared to CRT. Low dose to normal tissue was similar or increased with HT whereas integral dose and the volume of normal tissue receiving at least 5 and 10 Gy were reduced with PBT compared to CRT and HT. In children undergoing abdominal irradiation therapy, proton beam therapy reduces the dose to abdominal OAR while sparing normal tissue by limiting low dose irradiation.

  15. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  16. Assessment of subclinical acute kidney injury after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery using novel markers: L-FABP and H-FABP.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Michał; Biolik, Grzegorz; Ziaja, Damian; Fojt, Tadeusz; Kędzierski, Leszek; Antoniak, Katarzyna; Janowska, Mirosława; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof; Duława, Jan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe complications of repair surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is acute kidney injury (AKI). Even small rises in serum creatinine are associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of AKI after elective AAA surgery using novel markers. The study group consisted of 22 patients with AAA. We measured urinary liver- (u-L-FABP) and heart-type fatty acid-binding proteins (u-H-FABP) before, during and within 3 days after surgery. We found an abrupt and significant elevation of both urine FABPs normalized to urinary creatinine; u-L-FABP reached its peak value 2 hours after aortic clamp release {137.79 (38.57-451.79) vs. 9.94 (6.82-12.42) ng/mg baseline value, p<0.05; values are medians (lower-upper quartile)}. The peak value of u-H-FABP was reported 72 hours after aortic clamp release {16.462 (4.182-37.595) vs. 0.141 (0.014-0.927) ng/mg baseline value, p<0.05}. The serum creatinine level did not changed significantly during the investigation period. The significant rise of both u-L-FABP and u-H-FABP after AAA surgery indicates renal proximal and distal tubule injury in this population. Our results suggest that, after AAA surgery, the distal tubules could be more affected than the proximal ones. u-FABPs could serve as sensitive biomarkers of kidney tubular injury and may allow to detect the very early phases of AKI.

  17. Abdominal organ motion during inhalation and exhalation breath-holds: pancreatic motion at different lung volumes compared.

    PubMed

    Lens, Eelco; Gurney-Champion, Oliver J; Tekelenburg, Daniël R; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Parkes, Michael J; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Nederveen, Aart J; van der Horst, Astrid; Bel, Arjan

    2016-11-01

    Contrary to what is commonly assumed, organs continue to move during breath-holding. We investigated the influence of lung volume on motion magnitude during breath-holding and changes in velocity over the duration of breath-holding. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 60-second inhalation breath-holds in room-air, with lung volumes of ∼100% and ∼70% of the inspiratory capacity, and exhalation breath-holds, with lung volumes of ∼30% and ∼0% of the inspiratory capacity. During breath-holding, we obtained dynamic single-slice magnetic-resonance images with a time-resolution of 0.6s. We used 2-dimensional image correlation to obtain the diaphragmatic and pancreatic velocity and displacement during breath-holding. Organ velocity was largest in the inferior-superior direction and was greatest during the first 10s of breath-holding, with diaphragm velocities of 0.41mm/s, 0.29mm/s, 0.16mm/s and 0.15mm/s during BH 100% , BH 70% , BH 30% and BH 0% , respectively. Organ motion magnitudes were larger during inhalation breath-holds (diaphragm moved 9.8 and 9.0mm during BH 100% and BH 70% , respectively) than during exhalation breath-holds (5.6 and 4.3mm during BH 30% and BH 0% , respectively). Using exhalation breath-holds rather than inhalation breath-holds and delaying irradiation until after the first 10s of breath-holding may be advantageous for irradiation of abdominal tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Computed Tomography in Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Karki, O B

    2015-01-01

    Blunt injury trauma is regularly encountered in the emergency department. Diagnostic tools that help in optimum management of blunt abdominal trauma include; Focussed Assessment Sonography for Trauma scan, Diagnostic peritoneal lavage and Computed Tomography scan. The aim of this study is to determine the validity of CT scan as an accurate diagnostic tool and its role in management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. A prospective analysis of 80 patients of blunt abdomen trauma who were admitted in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal within a span of 15 months was done. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcomes were studied. Organ injuries were graded using the Organ Injury Scale guidelines. Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-40 years with an M: F ratio of 2.3:1. Road traffic accident (47.5%) was the most common mechanism of injury. Spleen (27.5%) was the commonest organ injured. CT scan was superior to FAST scan and had sensitivity of 97.3% specificity 75% positive predictive value 98.6%. FAST scan had sensitivity of 78.9%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 96% with p- value of 0.0034. 81% of patients were conservatively managed. In conjunction with close clinical monitoring, CT scan is reliable in the evaluation and management of blunt abdominal trauma patients. Our study also shows CT as a superior diagnostic modality compared to FAST scan.

  19. SU-D-207A-06: Pediatric Abdominal Organ Motion Quantified Via a Novel 4D MRI Method

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, J; Krasin, MJ; Lucas, JT

    Purpose: To develop a 4D MRI method for assessing respiration-induced abdominal organ motion in children receiving radiation therapy. Methods: A 4D MRI using internal image-based respiratory surrogate has been developed and implemented on a clinical scanner (1.5T Siemens Avanto). Ten patients (younger group: N=6, 2–5 years, anesthetized; older group: N=4, 11–15 years) with neuroblastoma, Wilm’s tumor rhabdomyosarcoma, or desmoplastic small round cell tumor received free breathing 4D MRI scans for treatment planning. Coronal image slices of the entire abdomen were retrospectively constructed in 10 respiratory phases. A B-spline deformable registration (Metz et al. 2011) was performed on 4D datasets tomore » automatically derive motion trajectories of selected anatomical landmarks, including the dome and the center of the liver, and the superior edges of kidneys and spleen. The extents of the motion in three dimensions (anteroposterior, AP; mediolateral, ML; superoinferior, SI) and the correlations between organ motion trajectories were quantified. Results: The 4D MRI scans were successfully performed in <20 minutes for all patients without the use of any external device. Organ motion extents were larger in adolescents (kidneys: 3–13 mm SI, liver and spleen: 6–18 mm SI) than in younger children (kidneys:<3mm in all directions; liver and spleen: 1–8 mm SI, 1–5 mm ML and AP). The magnitude of respiratory motion in some adolescents may warrant special motion management. Motion trajectories were not synchronized across selected anatomical landmarks, particularly in the ML and AP directions, indicating inter- and intra-organ variations of the respiratory-induced motion. Conclusion: The developed 4D MRI acquisition and motion analysis methods provide a non-ionizing, non-invasive approach to automatically measure the organ motion trajectory in the pediatric abdomen. It is useful for defining ITV and PRV, monitoring changes in target motion patterns during

  20. Characterization and comparison of injuries caused by spontaneous versus organized dogfighting.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; Touroo, Rachel M; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Reisman, Robert W; Intarapanich, Pichai P; McCobb, Emily C

    2017-12-15

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare injuries found in dogs involved in spontaneously occurring dogfights with those of dogs used in illegal organized dogfighting. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 36 medium-sized dogs evaluated following spontaneous fights with a dog of the same sex and similar weight (medium dog-medium dog [MDMD] fights), 160 small dogs examined following spontaneous fights with a larger dog (big dog-little dog [BDLD] fights), and 62 dogs evaluated after being seized in connection with dogfighting law enforcement raids. PROCEDURES Demographic characteristics and injuries were recorded from medical records. Prevalence of soft tissue injuries in predetermined body surface zones, as well as dental or skeletal injuries, was determined for dogs grouped by involvement in BDLD, MDMD, and organized dogfights. The extent of injuries in each location was scored and compared among groups by 1-factor ANOVA. Patterns of injuries commonly incurred by each group were determined by use of prevalence data. RESULTS Mean extent of injury scores differed significantly among groups for all body surface zones except the eye and periorbital region. Mean scores for dental injuries and rib fractures also differed significantly among groups. Organized fighting dogs more commonly had multiple injuries, particularly of the thoracic limbs, dorsal and lateral aspects of the head and muzzle or oral mucosa, dorsal and lateral aspects of the neck, and ventral neck and thoracic region. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study to compare injuries incurred during spontaneous and organized dogfighting. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury will help clinicians identify dogs injured by organized dogfighting and aid in the prosecution of this crime.

  1. Regional perfusion by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation of abdominal organs from donors after circulatory death: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shapey, Iestyn M; Muiesan, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Organs from donors after circulatory death (DCDs) are particularly susceptible to the effects of warm ischemia injury. Regional perfusion (RP) by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being advocated as a useful remedy to the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury, and it has been reported to enable the transplantation of organs from donors previously deemed unsuitable. The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched, and articles published between 1997 and 2013 were obtained. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two hundred ten articles were identified, and 11 were eligible for inclusion. Four hundred eighty-two kidneys and 79 livers were transplanted from regional perfusion-supported donor after circulatory death (RP-DCD) sources. One-year graft survival was lower with uncontrolled RP-DCD liver transplantation, whereas 1-year patient survival was similar. Primary nonfunction and ischemic cholangiopathy were significantly more frequent with RP-DCDs versus donors after brain death (DBDs), but there was no difference in postoperative mortality between the 2 groups. The 1-year patient and graft survival rates for RP-DCD kidney transplantation were better than the rates with standard DCDs and were comparable to, if not better than, the rates with DBDs. At experienced centers, delayed graft function (DGF) for kidney transplantation from RP-DCDs was much less frequent in comparison with all other donor types. In conclusion, RP aids the recovery of DCD organs from ischemic injury and enables transplantation with acceptable survival. RP may help to increase the donor pool, but its benefits must still be balanced with the recognition of significantly higher rates of complications in liver transplantation. In kidney transplantation, significant reductions in DGF can be obtained with RP, and there are potentially important implications for long

  2. Preoperative hydration with 0.9% normal saline to prevent acute kidney injury after major elective open abdominal surgery: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana B; Candela-Toha, Angel M; Zamora, Javier; Vera, Jorge; Muriel, Alfonso; Del Rey, Jose M; Liaño, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is the second leading cause of hospital-acquired AKI. Although many preventive strategies have been tested, none of them has been totally effective. We investigated whether preoperative intravenous hydration with 0.9% normal saline could prevent postoperative AKI. Randomised controlled trial. University Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Spain, from June 2006 to February 2011. Total 328 inpatients scheduled for major elective open abdominal surgery. 0.9% normal saline at a dose of 1.5 ml kg h for 12 h before surgery. The primary outcome was the overall postoperative AKI incidence during the first week after surgery defined by risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) and AKI network (AKIN) creatinine criteria. Secondary endpoints were the need for ICU admission, renal replacement therapy during the study period and adverse events and hospital mortality during hospital admission. There was no difference in the incidence of AKI between groups: 4.7% in the normal saline group versus 5.0% in the control group and 11.4% in the 0.9% normal saline group versus 7.9% in the control group as assessed by the RIFLE and AKIN creatinine criteria, respectively. Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence interval) were -0.3% (-5.3 to 4.7%) for RIFLE and 3.5% (-10.2 to 3.6%) for AKIN. ICU admission after surgery was required in 44.5% of all participants. Only 2 (0.7%) patients required renal replacement therapy during the first week after surgery. The analysis of adverse events did not show statistically significant differences between the groups except for pain. In our population, 8 (2.4%) patients died during their hospital admission. Intravenous hydration with 0.9% normal saline before major open abdominal surgery was not effective in preventing postoperative AKI. No safety concerns were identified during the trial. Clinical trials.gov: NCT00953940 and EUDRA CT: 2005-004755-35.

  3. Sizes of abdominal organs in adults with severe short stature due to severe, untreated, congenital GH deficiency caused by a homozygous mutation in the GHRH receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carla R. P.; Salvatori, Roberto; Nóbrega, Luciana M. A.; Carvalho, Erick O. M.; Menezes, Menilson; Farias, Catarine T.; Britto, Allan V. O.; Pereira, Rossana M. C.; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the sizes of intra-abdominal organs of adult subjects with untreated severe congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to lack of functional GHRH receptor (GHRH-R), and to verify whether there is proportionality between size of organ and adult stature and body surface area (BSA). Subjects and methods By using ultrasound, we studied the sizes (absolute and corrected by height, weight and BSA) of the intra-abdominal organs of 18 adult subjects with IGHD (eight females, IGHD group) who have never received GH replacement therapy. They were all homozygous for the same null mutation (IVS1 + 1G → A) in the GHRH receptor gene (GHRH-R). They were compared with normal controls from the same region. Results After correction for BSA, subjects lacking a functional GHRH-R have normal prostate and ovaries size, small spleen and uterus, and large liver, pancreas and kidney. Conclusions Size of individual abdominal organs is influenced in different ways by severe and congenital lack of GH due to a GHRH-R mutation. PMID:18034778

  4. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants1

    PubMed Central

    Slegtenhorst, Bendix R; Dor, Frank JMF; Elkhal, Abdala; Rodriguez, Hector; Yang, Xiaoyong; Edtinger, Karoline; Quante, Markus; Chong, Anita S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    Donor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immunogenicity are interrelated and impacted by physiological and pathological aging processes. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are needed to develop age-specific interventional strategies with regards to organ preservation, immunosuppression, and allocation. In this overview, we summarize current knowledge of injury and repair mechanisms and the effects of aging relevant to transplantation. PMID:24646769

  5. Traumatic injury to the portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, K L; Espada, R; Beall, A R

    1975-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the upper abdominal vasculature pose difficult management problems related to both exposure and associated injuries. Among those injuries that are more difficult to manage are those involving the portal vein. While occurring rarely, portal vein injuries require specific therapeutic considerations. Between January, 1968, and July, 1974, over 2000 patients were treated operatively for abdominal trauma at the Ben Taub General Hospital. Among these patients, 22 had injury to the portal vein. Seventeen portal vein injuries were secondary to gunshot wounds, 3 to stab wounds, and 2 to blunt trauma. Associated injuries to the inferior vena cava, pancreas, liver and bile ducts were common. Three patients had associated abdominal aortic injuries, two with acute aorto-caval fistulae. Nine patients died from from failure to control hemorrhage. Eleven were long-term survivors, including two who required pancreataico-duodenectomy as well as portal venorrhaphy. Late complications were rare. The operative approach to patients with traumatic injuries to multiple organs in the upper abdomen, including the portal vein, requires aggressive management and predetermined sequential methods of repair. In spite of innumerable associated injuries, portal vein injuries can be successfully managed in a significant number of patients using generally available surgical techniques and several adjunctive maneuvers. PMID:1130870

  6. A case of organic brain syndrome following head injury successfully treated with carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Bouvy, P F; van de Wetering, B J; Meerwaldt, J D; Bruijn, J B

    1988-03-01

    A case of organic brain syndrome occurring in relation to psychological stress 2 years after a severe head injury is described. Treatment with haloperidol resulted only in slight improvement. A dramatic improvement was achieved with carbamazepine.

  7. Is there evidence for more than two diffusion components in abdominal organs? - A magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wurnig, Moritz C; Germann, Manon; Boss, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The most commonly applied model for the description of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data in perfused organs is bicompartmental intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) analysis. In this study, we assessed the ground truth of underlying diffusion components in healthy abdominal organs using an extensive DWI protocol and subsequent computation of apparent diffusion coefficient 'spectra', similar to the computation of previously described T 2 relaxation spectra. Diffusion datasets of eight healthy subjects were acquired in a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner using 68 different b values during free breathing (equidistantly placed in the range 0-1005 s/mm 2 ). Signal intensity curves as a function of the b value were analyzed in liver, spleen and kidneys using non-negative least-squares fitting to a distribution of decaying exponential functions with minimum amplitude energy regularization. In all assessed organs, the typical slow- and fast-diffusing components of the IVIM model were detected [liver: true diffusion D = (1.26 ± 0.01) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, pseudodiffusion D* = (270 ± 44) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney cortex: D = (2.26 ± 0.07) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, D* = (264 ± 78) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney medulla: D = (1.57 ± 0.28) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, D* = (168 ± 18) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; spleen: D = (0.91 ± 0.01) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, D* = (69.8 ± 0.50) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s]. However, in the liver and kidney, a third component between D and D* was found [liver: D' = (43.8 ± 5.9) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney cortex: D' = (23.8 ± 11.5) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; kidney medulla: D' = (5.23 ± 0.93) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s], whereas no third component was detected in the spleen. Fitting with a diffusion kurtosis model did not lead to a better fit of the resulting curves to the acquired data compared with apparent diffusion coefficient spectrum analysis. For a most accurate description of diffusion properties in the liver and the kidneys, a more sophisticated model seems to be required including three diffusion

  8. Abdominal Manual Therapy Repairs Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Increases Colonic c-Kit Expression When Treating Bowel Dysfunction after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyi; Zhu, Zhaojin; Xie, Bin; Yu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal manual therapy (AMT) on bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI), investigating interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and related c-kit expression. Methods Model rats were divided as SCI and SCI with drug treatment (intragastric mosapride), low-intensity (SCI + LMT; 50 g, 50 times/min), and high-intensity AMT (SCI + HMT; 100 g, 150 times/min). After 14 days of treatment, weight, improved Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score, and intestinal movement were evaluated. Morphological structure of spinal cord and colon tissues were examined. Immunostaining, RT-PCR, and western blot were used to assess c-kit expression. Results In SCI rats, AMT could not restore BBB, but it significantly increased weight, shortened time to defecation, increased feces amounts, and improved fecal pellet traits and colon histology. AMT improved the number, distribution, and ultrastructure of colonic ICCs, increasing colonic c-kit mRNA and protein levels. Compared with the SCI + Drug and SCI + LMT groups, the SCI + HMT group showed better therapeutic effect in improving intestinal transmission function and promoting c-kit expression. Conclusions AMT is an effective therapy for recovery of intestinal transmission function. It could repair ICCs and increase c-kit expression in colon tissues after SCI, in a frequency-dependent and pressure-dependent manner. PMID:29349063

  9. Occupational injury and work organization among immigrant Latino residential construction workers.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Marín, Antonio; Summers, Phillip; Lang, Wei; Mills, Thomas; Evia, Carlos; Rushing, Julia; Donadio, Katherine; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Rates of occupational injury among immigrant workers are widely believed to be underestimated. The goal of this study was to enhance understanding of the burden of occupational injury and the work organization factors underlying injury among immigrant Latino residential construction workers. Prospective data were obtained from a community-based sample of Latino residential construction workers (N = 107) over a 3-month period. Twenty-eight participants were injured, resulting in an injury incidence rate of 55.0/100 FTE (95% CI = 41.4-71.6) during the 3-month observation period. The injury rate involving days away from work during the observation period was 3.9/100 FTE (CI = 0.2-7.2). Injuries were elevated among roofers relative to framers and general construction workers. Roofers had elevated exposure to a variety of deleterious work organization factors. Although imprecise given the small sample, our results suggest a threefold to fourfold underestimate of the injury burden to immigrant Latino construction workers. Work organization may contribute to elevated rates of non-fatal occupational injury, particularly among roofers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diagnostic imaging of blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Brunese, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and blunt trauma accounts for 80-90 % of abdominal injuries. The mechanism of trauma is quite similar to that of the adults, but there are important physiologic differences between children and adults in this field, such as the smaller blood vessels and the high vasoconstrictive response, leading to the spreading of a non-operative management. The early imaging of children undergoing a low-energy trauma can be performed by CEUS, a valuable diagnostic tool to demonstrate solid organ injuries with almost the same sensitivity of CT scans; nevertheless, as for as urinary tract injuries, MDCT remains still the technique of choice, because of its high sensitivity and accuracy, helping to discriminate between an intra-peritoneal form a retroperitoneal urinary leakage, requiring two different managements. The liver is the most common organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma followed by the spleen. Renal, pancreatic, and bowel injuries are quite rare. In this review we present various imaging findings of blunt abdominal trauma in children.

  11. When Should Abdominal Computed Tomography Be Considered in Patients with Lower Rib Fractures?

    PubMed

    Jeroukhimov, Igor; Hershkovitz, Yehuda; Wiser, Itay; Kessel, Boris; Ayyad, Mohammed; Gatot, Inbar; Shapira, Zahar; Jeoravlev, Svetlana; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Lower rib fractures are considered as a marker of intra-abdominal organ injury. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is the "gold standard" examination for patients with lower rib fractures. However, the reported incidence of concomitant intra-abdominal injuries (IAI) is 20%-40%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of intra-abdominal organ injuries in blunt trauma patients with lower rib fractures. Medical charts and radiology reports of patients with lower rib (from the 8th to 12th rib) fractures admitted to our center during a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with intra-abdominal injury (IAI) diagnosed either by CT or on urgent laparotomy, and Group II included those with normal abdominal CT scans. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory tests, radiology results including number and location of fractured ribs, and incidence of IAI. Overall 318 patients were included in the study. Fifty-seven patients (17.9%) had 71 IAIs compared with 265 (82.1%) patients with no IAI. Logistic regression identified age younger than 55 years (relative risk [RR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.8; p = 0.001), bilateral rib fractures (RR = 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-13.5; p = 0.03) and decreased levels of hematocrit (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8; p = 0.016) as independent risk factors for the presence of IAI. Abdominal CT should be considered in blunt trauma patients with lower rib fractures who are younger than 55 years of age and have bilateral rib fractures and decreased levels of hematocrit on admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Participation in organized sports is positively associated with employment in adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Doherty, Ashley L; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between participation in organized sports programs and employment in adults with chronic spinal cord injury. This is a cross-sectional study of 149 adults with chronic spinal cord injury. Motor level and completeness of injury were confirmed by physical examination. Information related to demographics, employment, level of education, body mass index, duration of injury, participation in individually planned exercise, and participation in organized sports was obtained using a standardized questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with employment. In univariate analyses, employment was associated with younger age (P = 0.001) and a higher level of education (P = 0.01), whereas obesity decreased the likelihood of employment (P = 0.04). Participation in organized sports approached significance (P = 0.06). In the multivariable analysis and after adjusting for age, education, and body mass index, participation in organized sports was significantly associated with employment (odds ratio, 2.4; P = 0.04). Sex, duration of injury, wheelchair use, and participation in individually planned exercise were not significantly associated with employment (P = 0.16-0.94). In the adults with chronic spinal cord injury, participation in organized sports was positively associated with employment. Further studies are necessary to determine the causative nature of this association and how various factors related to sports participation may contribute.

  13. Perceptions of occupational injury and illness costs by size of organization.

    PubMed

    Haslam, C; Haefeli, K; Haslam, R

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how organizations perceive and monitor occupational injury and illness costs. To explore perceptions of injury and illness costs, the extent to which organizations monitor their impact, attitudes towards this practice and views on using cost information in health and safety campaigns. Interviews were conducted with 212 representatives from 49 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and 80 large organizations from a range of industry sectors. Health and safety investments were driven by a range of factors, of which cost reduction was only one. Human costs were also considered important. Injuries were perceived to represent a substantial business cost by 10% of respondents from SMEs and 56% of those from large organizations. Most were uncertain about the financial impact of work-related illness. No organizations had attempted to monitor occupational illness costs. Injury costs had been assessed within 3 SMEs and 30 large organizations. Only 12% of SME representatives recognized the benefits of costing health and safety failures and around half were unreceptive to the use of cost information in health and safety promotions. Two-thirds of those from large organizations recognized some benefit in measuring costs, and over three-quarters welcomed the provision of industry-specific information. Provision of information that focuses solely on the economic implications of occupational injury and illness may be of limited value and agencies involved in the promotion of health and safety should incorporate a range of information, taking into account the needs and concerns of different sectors.

  14. Organized sports participation and the association with injury in paediatric patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    McGee, S; Raffini, L; Witmer, C

    2015-07-01

    With the wide availability of factor and the routine use of prophylaxis boys with haemophilia are now able to participate in regular physical activity, including organized sports. Current guidelines vary regarding specific recommendations for sports participation and concerns remain regarding safety. To determine if participation in organized sports is associated with an increased risk for injury in paediatric subjects with haemophilia. Retrospective single-centre cohort study from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010 in male subjects ages 10-18 years with a factor VIII (FVIII) or FIX level <40%. The number of injuries per subject and participation in organized sports was recorded. 48 male subjects with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 10-18.8) were included; 64.6% (31/48) FVIII deficiency, 54.2% (26/48) severe haemophilia, 18.8% (9/48) moderate and 27.1% (13/48) mild. The majority [62.5% (30/48)] of subjects participated in at least one season of organized sport. There were 77 injuries in 36/48 (75%) subjects. The mean number of injuries per subject was 1.6 ± 1.5. There was no statistical difference in the mean number of injuries (P = 0.44) or target joint formation (P = 0.52) between the subjects who participated in organized sports compared to those who did not. In this study, participation in organized sports by boys with haemophilia, ages 10-18 years, is common and not associated with an increased number of injuries or the development of a target joint. As injuries occurred equally in both groups, concerted efforts should be directed at reducing injuries in all patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The rare sugar D-allose has a reducing effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury on the rat abdominal skin island flap model.

    PubMed

    Muneuchi, Gan; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2013-08-01

    Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, has received attention from many researchers because of its availability for mass production and its various physiological functions. Among these, an antioxidative effect has been strongly suggested. In this study, we investigated whether this effect is also applicable to the field of skin surgery. In ischemia-reperfusion injury model using the rat abdominal skin island flap (male Wistar rats, n = 110), D-allose was injected intravenously 15 min before 8-h ischemia. The survival area (%) was measured by digital photographic assessment 1 wk after surgery, and multiple comparisons (Fisher's protected least significant difference) were carried out. Histopathological examination (neutrophilic infiltration into dermis in hematoxylin and eosin stain) and immunostaining (of ectodermal dysplasia-1 (ED1)-positive cells/flap) were assessed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the skin flap (sampling at the time of 8 h after reperfusion) was measured spectrophotometrically, and Student t-test was performed. D-allose extended the survival of the remaining flaps, and a dose greater than 30 mg (0.1 mg/g) was necessary to be effective. The flap survival rates in the 30, 60, and 150 mg groups were significantly higher than that in the control (saline) group: 75.87 ± 5.90, 79.27 ± 7.81, and 77.87 ± 6.20 versus 50.53 ± 9.66, respectively (P < 0.05). ED1-positive cells/flap in 60 mg of D-allose and control (saline) were 78 ± 25.7 versus 124 ± 15.8, respectively (P = 0.08). The MPO activity in the D-allose 60 mg group was 0.40 ± 0.04, and that in the control (saline) was 0.72 ± 0.12. D-allose significantly reduced the skin tissue MPO activity (P < 0.05) compared with that in the control (saline) group. We proved that D-allose has a reducing effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury on the skin island flap model, and the mechanism is related to inhibiting the activity of neutrophils in the skin tissues. Compared with chemo

  17. Usability of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule in chronic traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tarvonen-Schröder, Sinikka; Tenovuo, Olli; Kaljonen, Anne; Laimi, Katri

    2018-06-15

    To investigate functioning measured with the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and to compare patients' experiences with assessments made by their significant others and by consultant neurologists. A total of 112 consecutive patients with traumatic brain injury (29 mild, 43 moderate, 40 severe) and their significant others completed a 12-item WHODAS 2.0 survey. A neurologist assessed functioning with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health minimal generic set. The total patient and proxy WHODAS 2.0 sum score was rated as severe, and impairments in household tasks, learning, community life, emotional functions, concentrating, dealing with strangers, maintaining friendships, and working ability as around moderate in all 3 severity groups. In standing, walking, washing, and dressing oneself the reported impairments increased from mild in mild traumatic brain injury to moderate in severe traumatic brain injury. A neurologist rated the overall functioning, working ability, and motor activities most impaired in severe traumatic brain injury, while there were no between-group differences in energy and drive functions and emotional functions. Patients with chronic traumatic brain injury perceive a diversity of significant difficulties in activities and participation irrespective of the severity of the injury. We recommend assessing disability in traumatic brain injury with the short and understandable WHODAS 2.0 scale, when planning client-oriented services.

  18. Functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  19. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  20. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using Multi-Modality Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Ashley R; Gayzik, F Scott; Moreno, Daniel P; Martin, R Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D

    The purpose of this study was to use data from a multi-modality image set of males and females representing the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) percentile (n=6) to examine abdominal organ location, morphology, and rib coverage variations between supine and seated postures. Medical images were acquired from volunteers in three image modalities including Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and upright MRI (uMRI). A manual and semi-automated segmentation method was used to acquire data and a registration technique was employed to conduct a comparative analysis between abdominal organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in both postures. Location of abdominal organs, defined by center of gravity movement, varied between postures and was found to be significant (p=0.002 to p=0.04) in multiple directions for each organ. In addition, morphology changes, including compression and expansion, were seen in each organ as a result of postural changes. Rib coverage, defined as the projected area of the ribs onto the abdominal organs, was measured in frontal, lateral, and posterior projections, and also varied between postures. A significant change in rib coverage between postures was measured for the spleen and right kidney (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The results indicate that posture affects the location, morphology and rib coverage area of abdominal organs and these implications should be noted in computational modeling efforts focused on a seated posture.

  1. THE ROLE OF SELF-INJURY IN THE ORGANIZATION OF BEHAVIOUR

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Curt A.; Kemp, Aaron S.; Mabini, Christopher; Pincus, David; Magnusson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-injuring acts are among the most dramatic behaviours exhibited by human beings. There is no known single cause and there is no universally agreed upon treatment. Sophisticated sequential and temporal analysis of behaviour has provided alternative descriptions of self-injury that provide new insights into its initiation and maintenance. Method Forty hours of observations for each of 32 participants were collected in a contiguous two-week period. Twenty categories of behavioural and environmental events were recorded electronically that captured the precise time each observation occurred. Temporal behavioural/environmental patterns associated with self-injurious events were revealed with a method (t-patterns; THEME) for detecting non-linear, real-time patterns. Results Results indicated that acts of self-injury contributed both to more patterns and to more complex patterns. Moreover, self-injury left its imprint on the organization of behaviour even when counts of self-injury were expelled from the continuous record. Conclusions Behaviour of participants was organized in a more diverse array of patterns with SIB was present. Self-injuring acts may function as singular points, increasing coherence within self-organizing patterns of behaviour. PMID:22452417

  2. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  3. Inhibition of endogenous hydrogen sulfide formation reduces the organ injury caused by endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Marika; Anuar, Farhana B M; Murch, Oliver; Bhatia, Madhav; Moore, Philip K; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a naturally occurring gaseous transmitter, which may play important roles in normal physiology and disease. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the organ injury caused by severe endotoxemia in the rat. Male Wistar rats were subjected to acute endotoxemia (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 6 mg kg−1 intravenously (i.v.) for 6 h) and treated with vehicle (saline, 1 ml kg−1 i.v.) or DL-propargylglycine (PAG, 10–100 mg kg−1 i.v.), an inhibitor of the H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). PAG was administered either 30 min prior to or 60 min after the induction of endotoxemia. Endotoxemia resulted in circulatory failure (hypotension and tachycardia) and an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (markers for hepatic injury), lipase (indicator of pancreatic injury) and creatine kinase (indicator of neuromuscular injury). In the liver, endotoxemia induced a significant increase in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and in the expression and activity of the H2S-synthesizing enzymes CSE and cystathionine-β-synthase. Administration of PAG either prior to or after the injection of LPS dose-dependently reduced the hepatocellular, pancreatic and neuromuscular injury caused by endotoxemia, but not the circulatory failure. Pretreatment of rats with PAG abolished the LPS-induced increase in the MPO activity and in the formation of H2S and in the liver. These findings support the view that an enhanced formation of H2S contributes to the pathophysiology of the organ injury in endotoxemia. We propose that inhibition of H2S synthesis may be a useful therapeutic strategy against the organ injury associated with sepsis and shock. PMID:16100527

  4. The Changing Pattern and Implications of Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) After Blunt Injury With Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Minei, Joseph P.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Sperry, Jason; Moore, Ernest E.; West, Michael A.; Harbrecht, Brian G.; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Maier, Ronald V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the incidence of post-injury multiple organ failure (MOF) and its relationship to nosocomial infection and mortality in trauma centers employing evidence-based standard operating procedures (SOPs). Design Prospective cohort study wherein SOPs were developed and implemented to optimize post-injury care. Setting Seven U.S. Level I trauma centers. Patients Severely injured patients (> 16 years old) with a blunt mechanism, systolic hypotension (< 90 mmHg) and/or base deficit (> 6 meq/L), need for blood transfusion within the first 12 hrs, and an abbreviated injury score (AIS) ≥ two excluding brain injury were eligible for inclusion. Measurements and Main Results 1,002 patients were enrolled and 916 met inclusion criteria. Daily markers of organ dysfunction were prospectively recorded for all patients while receiving intensive care. Overall, 29% of patients developed MOF. Development of MOF was early (median time of two days), short - lived, and predicted an increased incidence of NI, whereas, persistence of MOF predicted mortality. However, surprisingly, NI did not increase subsequent MOF and there was no evidence of a “second-hit” induced late onset MOF. Conclusions MOF remains common after severe injury. Contrary to current paradigms, the onset is only early, and not bimodal, nor is it associated with a “second-hit” induced late onset. MOF is associated with subsequent NI and increased mortality. SOP-driven interventions may be associated with a decrease in late MOF and morbidity. PMID:22020243

  5. The association between operative repair of bladder injury and improved survival: results from the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Deibert, Christopher M; Spencer, Benjamin A

    2011-07-01

    The bladder is the most commonly injured genitourinary organ from blunt pelvic trauma. In this study we describe traumatic bladder injuries in the United States, their management and association with mortality. We queried the 2002 to 2006 National Trauma Data Bank for all subjects with bladder injury. Demographics, mechanism of injury, coexisting injuries, type of bladder injury, and operative interventions for bladder and other abdominal trauma are described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between bladder injury and in-hospital mortality. Of 8,565 subjects with bladder trauma 46% had pelvic fracture and 15% had 2 or more intra-abdominal injuries. Of these subjects 54% underwent bladder surgery, including 76% with intraperitoneal injury and 51% with surgical repair of other abdominal organs. On multivariate analysis operative bladder repair reduced the likelihood of in-hospital mortality by 59%. Greater likelihood of death was seen in African-American and Native American patients, and those with pelvic injuries, triage to higher acuity care, penetrating trauma and multiple abdominal injuries. We demonstrated that surgical repair provides a significant survival advantage for subjects with bladder trauma. With 76% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries being repaired, there appears to be underuse of a lifesaving procedure. Additional studies to refine indications for bladder repair are warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolated free intra-abdominal fluid on CT in blunt trauma: The continued diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Victor Y; Jeetoo, Damon; Naidoo, Leah C; Oosthuizen, George V; Clarke, Damian L

    2015-01-01

    The clinical significance of isolated free fluid (FF) without solid organ injury on computed to- mography (CT) continues to pose significant dilemma in the management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). We reviewed the incidence of FF and the clinical outcome amongst patients with blunt abdominal trauma in a metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. We performed a retrospective study of 121 consecutive CT scans over a period of 12 months to determine the incidence of isolated FF and the clinical outcome of patients managed in a large metropolitan trauma service. Of the 121 CTs, FF was identified in 36 patients (30%). Seven patients (6%) had isolated FF. Of the 29 patients who had free fluid and associated organ injuries, 33 organ injuries were identified. 86% (25/ 29) of all 29 patients had a single organ injury and 14% had multiple organ injuries. There were 26 solid organ injuries and 7 hollow organ injuries. The 33 organs injured were: spleen, 12; liver, 8; kidney, 5; pancreas, 2; small bowel, 4; duodenum, 1. Six (21%) patients required operative management for small bowel perforations in 4 cases and pancreatic tail injury in 2 cases. All 7 patients with isolated FF were initially observed, and 3 (43%) were eventually subjected to operative intervention. They were found to have an intra-peritoneal bladder rupture in 1 case, a non-expanding zone 3 haematoma in 1 case, and a negative laparotomy in 1 case. Four (57%) patients were successfully managed without surgical interventions. Isolated FF is uncommon and the clinical significance remains unclear. Provided that reli- able serial physical examination can be performed by experienced surgeons, an initial non-operative approach should be considered.

  7. Development, Prevention, and Treatment of Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury: The Role of Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Barve, Shirish; Chen, Shao-Yu; Kirpich, Irina; Watson, Walter H.; McClain, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and nutrition have the potential to interact at multiple levels. For example, heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with normal nutrition, resulting in overall malnutrition or in deficiencies of important micronutrients, such as zinc, by reducing their absorption or increasing their loss. Interactions between alcohol consumption and nutrition also can affect epigenetic regulation of gene expression by influencing multiple regulatory mechanisms, including methylation and acetylation of histone proteins and DNA. These effects may contribute to alcohol-related organ or tissue injury. The impact of alcohol–nutrition interactions has been assessed for several organs and tissues, including the intestine, where heavy alcohol use can increase intestinal permeability, and the liver, where the degree of malnutrition can be associated with the severity of liver injury and liver disease. Alcohol–nutrition interactions also play a role in alcohol-related lung injury, brain injury, and immune dysfunction. Therefore, treatment involving nutrient supplementation (e.g., with zinc or S-adenosylmethionine) may help prevent or attenuate some types of alcohol-induced organ damage. PMID:28988580

  8. Hollow-organ perforation following thoracolumbar spinal injuries of fall from height

    PubMed Central

    Yudoyono, Farid; Dahlan, Rully Hanafi; Tjahjono, Firman Priguna; Imron, Akhmad; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spinal trauma is the cause of high mortality and morbidity, the fall from height as mechanism that can cause a wide variety of lesions, associated both with the direct impact on the ground and with the deceleration. In such fall cases greater heights and higher mortality are involved. Presentation of case We report the successful management of life-threatening hollow-organ perforation following thoracolumbar spinal injury. Discussion Perforation of the hollow-organ in the setting of thoracolumbar trauma may delay the diagnosis and can have devastating consequences. Conclusions This case supports the recommendation for neurosurgeon in the setting of thoracolumbar injury that perforation of the hollow-organ can have devastating consequences. It is vital to achieve an early diagnosis to improve survival rate. PMID:25967553

  9. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    PubMed

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy.

  10. The use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of blunt and penetrating abdominal injuries: 10-year experience at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy J; Garwe, Tabitha; Raines, Alexander R; Thurman, Joseph B; Carter, Sandra; Bender, Jeffrey S; Albrecht, Roxie M

    2013-03-01

    Diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) has decreased the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients suffering from penetrating injuries. We evaluated whether DL similarly lowers the rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients with blunt injuries. All patients undergoing DL over a 10-year period (ie, 2001-2010) in a single level 1 trauma center were classified by the mechanism of injury. Demographic and perioperative data were compared using the Student t and Fisher exact tests. There were 131 patients included, 22 of whom sustained blunt injuries. Patients suffering from blunt injuries were more severely injured (Injury Severity Score 18.0 vs 7.3, P = .0001). The most common indication for DL after blunt injury was a computed tomographic scan concerning for bowel injury (59.1%). The rate of nontherapeutic laparotomy for patients sustaining penetrating vs blunt injury was 1.8% and nil, respectively. DL, when coupled with computed tomographic findings, is an effective tool for the initial management of patients with blunt injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Orexigenic Hormone Ghrelin Attenuates Local and Remote Organ Injury after Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rongqian; Dong, Weifeng; Ji, Youxin; Zhou, Mian; Marini, Corrado P.; Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.; Wang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious condition in intensive care patients. Activation of immune cells adjacent to the huge endothelial cell surface area of the intestinal microvasculature produces initially local and then systemic inflammatory responses. Stimulation of the vagus nerve can rapidly attenuate systemic inflammatory responses through inhibiting the activation of macrophages and endothelial cells. Ghrelin, a novel orexigenic hormone, is produced predominately in the gastrointestinal system. Ghrelin receptors are expressed at a high density in the dorsal vagal complex of the brain stem. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by the novel gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin, after gut I/R. Methods and Findings Gut ischemia was induced by placing a microvascular clip across the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min in male adult rats. Our results showed that ghrelin levels were significantly reduced after gut I/R and that ghrelin administration inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine release, reduced neutrophil infiltration, ameliorated intestinal barrier dysfunction, attenuated organ injury, and improved survival after gut I/R. Administration of a specific ghrelin receptor antagonist worsened gut I/R-induced organ injury and mortality. To determine whether ghrelin's beneficial effects after gut I/R require the intact vagus nerve, vagotomy was performed in sham and gut I/R animals immediately prior to the induction of gut ischemia. Our result showed that vagotomy completely eliminated ghrelin's beneficial effect after gut I/R. To further confirm that ghrelin's beneficial effects after gut I/R are mediated through the central nervous system, intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin was performed at the beginning of reperfusion after 90-min gut ischemia. Our result showed that intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin also protected the rats from gut I/R injury. Conclusions

  12. Scanning and War: Utility of FAST and CT in the Assessment of Battlefield Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Iain M; Naumann, David N; Marsden, Max E R; Ballard, Mark; Bowley, Douglas M

    2015-08-01

    To determine utilization and accuracy of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and computed tomography (CT) in a mature military trauma system to inform service provision for future conflicts. FAST and CT scans undertaken by attending radiologists contribute to surgical decision making for battlefield casualties at the Joint Force, Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility at Camp Bastion (R3), Afghanistan. Registry data for abdominally injured casualties treated at R3 from July to November 2012 were matched to radiological and surgical records to determine diagnostic accuracy for FAST and CT and their influence on casualty management. A total of 468 casualties met inclusion criteria, of whom 85.0% underwent FAST and 86.1% abdominal CT; 159 (34.0%) had abdominal injuries. For detection of intra-abdominal injury, FAST sensitivity (Sn) was 0.56, specificity (Sp) 0.98, positive predictive value (PPV) 0.87, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.90, and accuracy (Acc) 0.89. For CT, Sn was 0.99, Sp 0.99, PPV 0.96, NPV 1.00, and Acc 0.99. Forty-six solid organ injuries were identified in 38 patients by CT; 17 were managed nonoperatively. A further 61 patients avoided laparotomy after CT confirmed extra-abdominal wounds only. The negative laparotomy rate was 3.9%. FAST and CT contribute to triage, guide surgical management, and reduce nontherapeutic laparotomy. When imaging is available, these data challenge current doctrine about inadvisability of nonoperative management of abdominal injury after combat trauma.

  13. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neuropsychological evaluation of a case of organic personality disorder due to penetrating brain injury].

    PubMed

    Sanz de la Torre, J C; Pérez-Ríos, M

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, an organic personality disorder case by penetrating brain injury, predominantly localized in the right frontal lobe, is presented. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging (CT scan studies) were performed. We assessed the main cognitive aspect: orientation, attention, memory, intelligence, language, visual-spatial functioning, motor functioning, executive functioning and personality. The results obtained, point out disorders in the patient's behavior and in the executive functions. Likewise, other cognitive functions as: attention, memory, language and visual-spatial functioning, show specific deficits.

  15. Protective effect of astaxanthin against multiple organ injury in a rat model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liping; Gao, Min; Xiao, Zhiming; Zhang, Juan; Li, Xiangmin; Wang, Aimin

    2015-05-15

    Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, holds exceptional promise as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agent. No evidence has been published whether it has protective effects on sepsis. The study aimed to investigate the potential effects of astaxanthin on sepsis and multiple organ dysfunctions. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals subjected to CLP and sham-operated control rats were given vehicle or astaxanthin 100 mg/kg/d by oral gavage for 7 d before the operation. The rats were killed at the indicated time points, and the specimen was collected. Cytokines and multiorgan injury-associated enzymatic and oxidative stress indicators were investigated. Multiorgan tissues were assessed histologically, the peritoneal bacterial load and the 72-h survival was observed too. Sepsis resulted in a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels showing systemic inflammatory response; it also caused a remarkable decrease in the superoxide dismutase activity and a significant increase in the malondialdehyde content showing oxidative damage; sepsis caused a great increase in organ injury-associated indicators, including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB isotype, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, which was confirmed by histologic examination. And there was a dramatical increase of colony-forming units in the peritoneal cavity in septic rats. Astaxanthin reversed these inflammatory and oxidant response, alleviated the organ injury, reduced the peritoneal bacterial load, and improved the survival of septic rats induced by CLP. Astaxanthin exerts impressively protective effects on CLP-induced multiple organ injury. It might be used as a potential treatment for clinical sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sulfur Mustard (SM) Lesions in Organ-Cultured Human Skin: Markers of Injury and Inflammatory Mediators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-16

    18. SUB3ECT TERMS (oont’d) epidermal injury organ culture •ranuaear vacuoles C-leucine incorpora’tion by full-thickness human akin explants hi stamine ...mast- cell degranulation prostaglandin E2 lysobomal enzymes: acid phosphatase, B-glucuronidase, 0-galactcsidase, lysozyme and lactic dehydrogenase...that histamline (from local mast cells ), and PA and POgk (probably from mast cells and epidermal cells ) are s3e of the early mediators of the inflmma

  17. Complement Depletion Protects Lupus-prone Mice from Ischemia-reperfusion-initiated Organ Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-25

    injury, we sought to evaluate whether complement inhibition mitigates organ damage. We found that complement deple- tion with cobra venom factor... venom factor and C5a receptor antagonist were able to protect mice from local tissue damage, treatment with C5a receptor antagonist was not able to...Complement depletion or blockage of the complement pathway using molecules such as cobra venom factor (CVF) (24, 33) and C5a receptor antagonists (C5aRA

  18. Contemporary Role of Embolization of Solid Organ and Pelvic Injuries in Polytrauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ptohis, Nikolaos D.; Charalampopoulos, Georgios; Abou Ali, Adham N.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.; Mousogianni, Iliana; Filippiadis, Dimitrios; Karydas, George; Gravanis, Miltiadis; Pagoni, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    Abdominopelvic trauma (APT) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the 15- to 44-year-old age group in the Western World. It can be life-threatening as abdominopelvic organs, specifically those in the retroperitoneal space, can bleed profusely. APT is divided into blunt and penetrating types. While surgery is notably considered as a definitive solution for bleeding control, it is not always the optimum treatment for the stabilization of a polytrauma patient. Over the past decades, there has been a shift toward more sophisticated strategies, such as non-operative management of abdominopelvic vascular trauma for haemodynamically stable patients. Angiographic embolization for bleeding control following blunt and/or penetrating intra- and retroperitoneal injuries has proven to be safe and effective. Embolization can achieve hemostasis and salvage organs without the morbidity of surgery, and the development and refinement of embolization techniques has widened the indications for non-operative treatment in solid organ injury. Moreover, advances in computed tomography provided more efficient scanning times with improved image quality. While surgery is still usually recommended for patients with penetrating injuries, non-operative management can be effectively used as well as an alternative treatment. We review indications, technical considerations, efficacy, and complication rates of angiographic embolization in APT. PMID:28824919

  19. Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dirk; Bauwens, Kai; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Güthoff, Claas

    2013-07-31

    Ultrasonography is regarded as the tool of choice for early diagnostic investigations in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. Although its sensitivity is too low for definite exclusion of abdominal organ injury, proponents of ultrasound argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of computed tomography scans and cut costs. To assess the effects of trauma algorithms that include ultrasound examinations in patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), publishers' databases, controlled trials registers and the Internet. Bibliographies of identified articles and conference abstracts were searched for further elligible studies. Trial authors were contacted for further information and individual patient data. The searches were updated in February 2013. randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials (qRCTs). patients with blunt torso, abdominal or multiple trauma undergoing diagnostic investigations for abdominal organ injury. diagnostic algorithms comprising emergency ultrasonography (US). diagnostic algorithms without ultrasound examinations (for example, primary computed tomography [CT] or diagnostic peritoneal lavage [DPL]). mortality, use of CT and DPL, cost-effectiveness, laparotomy and negative laparotomy rates, delayed diagnoses, and quality of life. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Where possible, data were pooled and relative risks (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were calculated by fixed- or random-effects modelling, as appropriate. We identified four studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, trials were of moderate methodological quality. Few trial authors responded to

  20. Seatbelt sign in a case of blunt abdominal trauma; what lies beneath it?

    PubMed

    Vailas, Michail G; Moris, Demetrios; Orfanos, Stamatios; Vergadis, Chrysovalantis; Papalampros, Alexandros

    2015-10-30

    The reported incidence of hollow viscus injuries (HVI) in blunt trauma patients is approximately 1%. The most common site of injury to the intestine in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is the small bowel followed by colon, with mesenteric injuries occurring three times more commonly than bowel injuries. Isolated colon injury is a rarely encountered condition. Clinical assessment alone in patients with suspected intestinal or mesenteric injury after blunt trauma is associated with unacceptable diagnostic delays. This is a case of a 31-year-old man, admitted to the emergency department after being the restrained driver, involved in a car accident. After initial resuscitation, focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination (FAST) was performed revealing a subhepatic mass, suspicious for intraperitoneal hematoma. A computed tomography scan (CT) that followed showed a hematoma of the mesocolon of the ascending colon with active extravasation of intravenous contrast material. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, hemoperitomeum was evacuated, and a subserosal hematoma of the cecum and ascending colon with areas of totally disrupted serosal wall was found. Hematoma of the adjacent mesocolon expanding to the root of mesenteric vessels was also noted. A right hemicolectomy along with primary ileocolonic anastomosis was performed. Patient's recovery progressed uneventfully. Identifying an isolated traumatic injury to the bowel or mesentery after BAT can be a clinical challenge because of its subtle and nonspecific clinical findings; meeting that challenge may eventually lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment with subsequent increase in associated morbidity and mortality. Isolated colon injury is a rare finding after blunt trauma and usually accompanied by other intra-abdominal organ injuries. Abdominal 'seatbelt' sign, ecchymosis of the abdominal wall, increasing abdominal pain and distension are all associated with HVI. However, the accuracy of these findings

  1. Abdominal war wounds--experiences from Red Cross field hospitals.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Ari K

    2005-01-01

    The traditional approach to abdominal war wounds consists of triage, eche-loned care, and mandatory laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries, and it remains valid in modern conventional wars with well-organized evacuation and surgical services. Expectant management of abdominal casualties can be considered under difficult circumstances with a high influx of patients exhausting the available resources. This can occur in regional conflicts associated with mass movements of people and with collapsed infrastructure. While always combined with adequate fluid resuscitation, antibiotic treatment, and other supportive care, the expectant approach in patients with penetrating abdominal injuries could be indicated for asymptomatic patients with multiple fragment wounds or for patients presenting several days post-injury in good condition. The focus of surgical resources and competence should be on the majority of patients with intestinal perforation only, who need surgery to save life--but not necessarily on an urgent basis--and who have a good chance of survival. The limited availability of blood products to correct blood loss and coagulation factor deficiencies, and the lack of sophisticated monitoring of hemodynamic variables that call into question the value of a damage-control approach for the most severely injured. Even if the bleeding could be temporarily controlled, the subsequent need for adequate resuscitation before returning the patient to the operating room could be difficult to achieve and would result in incompletely resuscitated patients being reoperated while acidotic, coagulopathic, and even hypothermic. Perhaps, in mass casualty situations these patients should be recognized during triage or at least early during operation, and aggressive surgery should be replaced with adequate expectant management with sedation and analgesics.

  2. Characteristics and Management of Blunt Renal Injury in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yuichi; Tyroch, Alan H.; Emami, Nader; McLean, Susan F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Renal trauma in the pediatric population is predominately due to blunt mechanism of injury. Our purpose was to determine the associated injuries, features, incidence, management, and outcomes of kidney injuries resulting from blunt trauma in the pediatric population in a single level I trauma center. Methods: This was a retrospective chart and trauma registry review of all pediatric blunt renal injuries at a regional level I trauma center that provides care to injured adults and children. The inclusion dates were January 2001–June 2014. Results: Of 5790 pediatric blunt trauma admissions, 68 children sustained renal trauma (incidence: 1.2%). Only two had nephrectomies (2.9%). Five renal angiograms were performed, only one required angioembolization. Macroscopic hematuria rate was significantly higher in the high-grade injury group (47% vs. 16%; P = 0.031). Over half of the patients had other intra-abdominal injuries. The liver and spleen were the most frequently injured abdominal organs. Conclusion: Blunt renal trauma is uncommon in children and is typically of low American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury grade. It is commonly associated with other intra-abdominal injuries, especially the liver and the spleen. The nephrectomy rate in pediatric trauma is lower compared to adult trauma. Most pediatric blunt renal injury can be managed conservatively by adult trauma surgeons. PMID:28855777

  3. The effect of prior upper abdominal surgery on outcomes after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: An analysis of the database of the organ procurement transplant network.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jack P; Berger, Nicholas G; Yin, Ziyan; Liu, Ying; Tsai, Susan; Christians, Kathleen K; Clarke, Callisia N; Mogal, Harveshp; Gamblin, T Clark

    2018-05-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the preferred treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in select patients. Many patients listed for OLT have a history of prior upper abdominal surgery (UAS). Repeat abdominal surgery increases operative complexity and may cause a greater incidence of complication. This study sought to compare outcomes after liver transplantation for patients with and without prior UAS. Adult HCC patients undergoing OLT were identified using the database from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (1987-2015). Patients were separated by presence of prior UAS into 2 propensity-matched cohorts. Overall survival (OS) and graft survival (GS) were analyzed by log-rank test and graphed using Kaplan-Meier method. Recipient and donor demographic and clinical characteristics were also studied using Cox regression models. A total of 15,043 patients were identified, of whom 6,205 had prior UAS (41.2%). After 1:1 propensity score matching, cohorts (UAS versus no UAS) contained 4,669 patients. UAS patients experienced shorter GS (122 months vs 129 months; P < .001) and shorter OS (130 months vs 141 months; P < .001). Median duration of stay for both cohorts was 8 days. Multivariate Cox regression models revealed that prior UAS was associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for GS (HR 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.22; P < .001) and OS (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P < .001). Prior UAS is an independent negative predictor of GS and OS after OLT for HCC. OLT performed in patients with UAS remains a well-tolerated and effective treatment for select HCC patients but may alter expected outcomes and influence follow-up protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  5. SU-E-J-77: Dose Tracking On An MR-Linac for Online QA and Plan Adaptation in Abdominal Organs

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S; Kontaxis, C

    2015-06-15

    Recent developments made MRI-guided radiotherapy feasible. Simultaneously performed imaging during dose delivery reveals the influence of changes in anatomy not yet known at the planning stage. When targeting highly motile abdominal organs, respiratory gating is commonly employed in MRI and investigated in external beam radiotherapy to mitigate malicious motion effects. The purpose of the presented work is to investigate anatomy-adaptive dose reconstruction in the treatment of abdominalorgans using concurrent (duplex) gating of an integrated MRlinac modality.Using navigators, 3D-MR images were sampled during exhale phase, requiring 3s per axial volume (360×260×100mm{sup 3}, waterselective T1w-FFE). Deformation vector fields (DVF) were calculated formore » all imaging dynamics with respect to initial anatomy, yielding an estimation of anatomy changes over the time of a fraction. A pseudo-CT was generated from the outline of a reference MR image, assuming a water-filled body. Consecutively, a treatment was planned on a fictional kidney lesion and optimized simulating a 6MV linac in a 1.5T magnetic field. After delivery, using the DVF, the pseudo-CT was deformed and dose accumulated for every individual gating interval yielding the true accumulated dose on the dynamic anatomy during beam-on.Dose-volume parameters on the PTV show only moderate changes when incorporating motion, i.e. ΔD{sub 99} (GTV)=0.3Gy with D{sub 99} (GTV)=20Gy constraints. However, local differences in the PTV region showed underdosages as high as 2.7Gy and overdosages up to 1.4Gy as compared to the optimized dose on static anatomy.A dose reconstruction toolchain was successfully implemented and proved its potential in the duplex gated treatment of abdominal organs by means of an MR-linac modality. While primary dose constraints were not violated on the fictional test data, large deviations could be found locally, which are left unaccounted for in conventional treatments. Dose-tracking of both

  6. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed. PMID:26161238

  7. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β attenuates organ injury and dysfunction associated with liver ischemia-reperfusion and thermal injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joao; Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Barateiro, Andreia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Pinto, Rui; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Sepodes, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine kinase discovered decades ago to have an important role in glycogen metabolism. Today, we know that this kinase is involved in the regulation of many cell functions, including insulin signaling, specification of cell fate during embryonic development, and the control of cell division and apoptosis. Insulin and TDZD-8 (4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione) are inhibitors of GSK-3β that have been shown to possess organ-protective effects in inflammatory-mediated organ injury models. We aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effect of GSK-3β inhibition on rat models of liver ischemia-reperfusion and thermal injury. In the liver ischemia-reperfusion model, TDZD-8 and insulin were administered at 5 mg/kg (i.v.) and 1.4 IU/kg (i.v.), respectively, 30 min before induction of ischemia and led to the significant reduction of the serum concentration of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Beneficial effects were found to be independent from blood glucose levels. In the thermal injury model, TDZD-8 was administered at 5 mg/kg (i.v.) 5 min before induction of injury and significantly reduced multiple organ dysfunction markers (liver, neuromuscular, and lung). In the lung, TDZD-8 reduced the histological signs of tissue injury, inflammatory markers (cytokines), and neutrophil chemotaxis/infiltration; reduced GSK-3β, nuclear factor-κB, and Akt activation; reduced caspase-3 and metalloproteinase-9 activation. Our study provides a new insight on the beneficial effects of GSK-3β inhibition on systemic inflammation and further elucidates the mechanism and pathway crosstalks by which TDZD-8 reduces the multiple organ injury elicited by thermal injury.

  8. Physical exercise induces specific adaptations resulting in reduced organ injury and mortality during severe polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sossdorf, Maik; Fischer, Jacqueline; Meyer, Stefan; Dahlke, Katja; Wissuwa, Bianka; Seidel, Carolin; Schrepper, Andrea; Bockmeyer, Clemens L; Lupp, Amelie; Neugebauer, Sophie; Schmerler, Diana; Rödel, Jürgen; Claus, Ralf A; Otto, Gordon P

    2013-10-01

    High physical activity levels are associated with wide-ranging health benefits, disease prevention, and longevity. In the present study, we examined the impact of regular physical exercise on the severity of organ injury and survival probability, as well as characteristics of the systemic immune and metabolic response during severe polymicrobial sepsis. Animal study. University laboratory. Male C57BL/6N mice. Mice were trained for 6 weeks by treadmill and voluntary wheel running or housed normally. Polymicrobial sepsis in mice was induced by injection of fecal slurry. Subsequently, mice were randomized into the following groups: healthy controls, 6 hours postsepsis, and 24 hours postsepsis. Blood and organ samples were collected and investigated by measuring clinical chemistry variables, cytokines, plasma metabolites, and bacterial clearance. Organ morphology and damage were characterized by histological staining. Physical exercise improved survival and the ability of bacterial clearance in blood and organs. The release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, was diminished in trained compared to untrained mice during sepsis. The sepsis-associated acute kidney tubular damage was less pronounced in pretrained animals. By metabolic profiling and regression analysis, we detected lysophosphatidylcholine 14:0, tryptophan, as well as pimelylcarnitine linked with levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin representing acute tubular injury (corrected R=0.910; p<0.001). We identified plasma lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, lysophosphatidylcholine 17:0, and lysophosphatidylcholine 18:0 as significant metabolites discriminating between trained and untrained mice during sepsis. Regular physical exercise reduces sepsis-associated acute kidney injury and death. As a specific mechanism of exercise-induced adaptation, we identified various lysophosphatidylcholines that might function as surrogate for improved outcome in sepsis.

  9. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Superoxide Production in Activated Neutrophils and Attenuates Trauma-Hemorrhage Shock-Induced Organ Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shen, Hsin-I; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Hsin-I; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma–hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma–hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma–hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma–hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats. PMID:25360589

  10. RECOMBINANT FACTOR XIII DIMINISHES MULTIPLE ORGAN DYSFUNCTION IN RATS CAUSED BY GUT ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Zaets, Sergey B.; Xu, Da-Zhong; Lu, Qi; Feketova, Eleonora; Berezina, Tamara L.; Gruda, Maryann; Malinina, Inga V.; Deitch, Edwin A.; Olsen, Eva H. N.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma factor XIII (FXIII) is responsible for stabilization of fibrin clot at the final stage of blood coagulation. Because FXIII has also been shown to modulate inflammation and endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that FXIII diminishes multiple organ dysfunction caused by gut I/R injury. A model of superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) was used to induce gut I/R injury. Rats were subjected to 45-min SMAO or sham SMAO and treated with recombinant human FXIII A2 subunit (rFXIII) or placebo at the beginning of the reperfusion period. Lung permeability, lung and gut myeloperoxidase activity, gut histology, neutrophil respiratory burst, and microvascular blood flow in the liver and muscles were measured after a 3-h reperfusion period. The effect of activated rFXIII on transendothelial resistance of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was tested in vitro. Superior mesenteric artery occlusion–induced lung permeability as well as lung and gut myeloperoxidase activity was significantly lower in rFXIII-treated versus untreated animals. Similarly, rFXIII-treated rats had lower neutrophil respiratory burst activity and ileal mucosal injury. Rats treated with rFXIII also had higher liver microvascular blood flow compared with the placebo group. Superior mesenteric artery occlusion did not cause FXIII consumption during the study period. In vitro, activated rFXIII caused a dose-dependent increase in human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer resistance to thrombin-induced injury. Thus, administration of rFXIII diminishes SMAO-induced multiple organ dysfunction in rats, presumably by preservation of endothelial barrier function and the limitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation. PMID:18948851

  11. Nonoperative management of splenic injury in combat: 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Thomas A; Wallum, Timothy E; Becker, Tyson E; Aden, James K; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Blackbourne, Lorne H; White, Christopher E

    2015-03-01

    Selective nonoperative management of combat-related blunt splenic injury (BSI) is controversial. We evaluated the impact of the November 2008 blunt abdominal trauma clinical practice guideline that permitted selective nonoperative management of some patients with radiological suggestion of hemoperitoneum on implementation of nonoperative management (NOM) of splenic injury in austere environments. Retrospective evaluation of patients with splenic injuries from November 2002 through January 2012 in Iraq and Afghanistan was performed. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes identified patients as laparotomy with splenectomy, or NOM. Delayed operative management had no operative intervention at earlier North American Treaty Organization (NATO) medical treatment facilities (MTFs), and had a definitive intervention at a latter NATO MTFs. Intra-abdominal complications and overall mortality were juxtaposed. A total of 433 patients had splenic injuries from 2002 to 2012. Initial NOM of BSI from 2002 to 2008 compared to 2009-2012 was 44.1% and 47.2%, respectively (p=0.75). Delayed operative management and NOM completion had intra-abdominal complication and mortality rates of 38.1% and 9.1% (p<0.01), and 6.3% and 8.1% (p=0.77). Despite high-energy explosive injuries, NATO Role II MTFs radiological constraints and limited medical resources, hemodynamically normal patients with BSI and low abdominal abbreviated injury scores underwent NOM in austere environments. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Crocin attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative stress and organ injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long; Dong, Xiujuan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidant crocin in alleviating hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced organ damages. HS rats were treated with crocin during resuscitation. Mortality at 12h and 24h post resuscitation was documented. HS and resuscitation induced organ injuries, as characterized by elevated wet/dry ratio, quantitative assessment ratio, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, whereas rats received crocin treatment demonstrated improvements in all the above characteristics. This protective effect coincided with reduced malondialdehyde and increased glutathione in both serum and lung tissues, indicating attenuated oxidative stress in crocin-treated rats. Myeloperoxide levels in lung, kidney and liver were also reduced. Crocin can potentially be used to protect organs from HS-induced damages during resuscitation due to its anti-oxidative role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Duodenal Injury: Analysis of Common Misconceptions in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Lewis M.; McCoy, Martha; Richardson, J. David; Polk, Hiram C.

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-five consecutive patients who sustained injuries to the duodenum were admitted to our hospital over a nine-year period. Nineteen blunt injuries and 56 penetrating injuries were encountered. Blunt injuries were usually the result of motor vehicle accidents and steering wheel impact was frequently implicated. Penetrating injuries most commonly followed gunshot wounds, particularly those where the bullet tract travelled transversely across the peritoneal cavity. Seventy-nine per cent of the patients had two or more associated intra-abdominal organ injuries with other intestinal injuries, biliary tract injuries, and pancreatic injuries predominating. Forty-seven per cent of the patients were admitted in shock. Following blunt injury, diagnostic delay was encountered in two patients. Adjuncts to diagnosis such as abdominal roentgenograms, serum amylase levels, and contrast gastroduodenography, were not helpful. Peritoneal lavage, however, was valuable in patients with equivocal physical findings. Intraoperative diagnosis was also challenging. Complete mobilization of the structures surrounding the duodenum to provide exposure of the entire duodenum was necessary. Six injuries that initially appeared trivial would have been missed had this procedure not been followed. Suture closure was the most common reparative technique used. Tube decompression of the duodenum was a valuable addition. No suture line dehiscences were encountered in ten patients so treated. Overall mortality in patients surviving more than 24 hours was 12%. PMID:7387230

  14. Cell-based Therapy for Acute Organ Injury: Preclinical Evidence and On-going Clinical Trials Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monsel, Antoine; Zhu, Ying-gang; Gennai, Stephane; Hao, Qi; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    Critically ill patients often suffer from multiple organ failures involving lung, kidney, liver or brain. Genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches highlight common injury mechanisms leading to acute organ failure. This underlines the need to focus on therapeutic strategies affecting multiple injury pathways. The use of adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) may represent a promising new therapeutic approach as increasing evidence shows that MSC can exert protective effects following injury through the release of pro-mitotic, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory soluble factors. Furthermore, they can mitigate metabolomic and oxidative stress imbalance. In this work, we review the biological capabilities of MSC and the results of clinical trials using MSC as therapy in acute organ injuries. Although preliminary results are encouraging, more studies concerning safety and efficacy of MSC therapy are needed to determine their optimal clinical use. PMID:25211170

  15. Administration of nicotinamide riboside prevents oxidative stress and organ injury in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guangliang; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Lulu; Ni, Rui; Wang, Grace; Fan, Guo-Chang; Lu, Zhongqiu; Peng, Tianqing

    2018-08-01

    Sepsis-caused multiple organ failure remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), which is important in regulating oxidative stress. This study investigated whether administration of NR prevented oxidative stress and organ injury in sepsis. Mouse sepsis models were induced by injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or feces-injection-in-peritoneum. NR was given before sepsis onset. Cultured macrophages and endothelial cells were incubated with various agents. Administration of NR elevated the NAD + levels, and elicited a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and caspase-3 activity in lung and heart tissues, which correlated with attenuation of pulmonary microvascular permeability and myocardial dysfunction, leading to less mortality in sepsis models. These protective effects of NR were associated with decreased levels of plasma high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in septic mice. Consistently, pre-treatment of macrophages with NR increased NAD + content and reduced HMGB1 release upon LPS stimulation. NR also prevented reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis in endothelial cells induced by a conditioned-medium collected from LPS-treated macrophages. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by EX527 offset the negative effects of NR on HMGB1 release in macrophages, and ROS and apoptosis in endothelial cells. Administration of NR prevents lung and heart injury, and improves the survival in sepsis, likely by inhibiting HMGB1 release and oxidative stress via the NAD + /SIRT1 signaling. Given NR has been used as a health supplement, it may be a useful agent to prevent organ injury in sepsis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation and Management of Blunt Solid Organ Trauma.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan G; Shah, Jay; Robinson, Craig; Dariushnia, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death in patients under the age of 45 and generally associated with a high kinetic energy event such as a motor vehicle accident or fall from extreme elevations. Blunt trauma can affect every organ system and major vascular structure with potentially devastating effect. When we consider abdominal solid organ injury from blunt trauma, we usually think of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. However, all of the abdominal organs, including the pancreas and adrenal glands, may be involved. Blunt hepatic trauma is more commonly associated with venous bleeding rather than arterial injury. Stable venous injury is often managed conservatively; when the patient is hemodynamically unstable from venous hepatic injury, operative management should be first-line therapy. When the injury is arterial, endovascular therapy should be initiated. Blunt trauma to the spleen is the most common cause of traumatic injury to the spleen. Management is controversial. In our institution unstable patients are taken to the operating room, and stable patients with Grades IV-V injuries and patients with active arterial injury are taken for endovascular treatment. Renal injuries are less common, and evidence of arterial injury such as active extravasation or pseudoaneurysm is warranted before endovascular therapy. Pancreatic trauma is uncommon and usually secondary to steering wheel/handlebar mechanism injuries. Adrenal injuries are rare in the absence of megatrauma or underlying adrenal abnormality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A model of multiple organ injury induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in aged rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-sheng; Wang, Shou-fu; Qin, Jin-li; Zhang, Hui-jian; Li, Su-yun; Yu, Hai-bin; Wang, Feng; Liu, Si-hua; Li, Ya

    2009-04-01

    To reproduce a model of bacterial multiple organ injury (MOI) in aged rats. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used. The young rats were divided into young control group (YCG, n=10) and young model group (YMG, n=15), and the elderly, aged control group (ACG, n=10) and aged model group (AMG, n=25). The model of rats with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia was produced by tracheal instillation of the bacteria, and injury to various organs was observed and evaluated with changes in biochemical parameters, pathological pictures and mortality. Between YMG and AMG, the mortality rates were 33.33% (5/15) and 60.00% (15/25), respectively, at 24 hours after instillation of the bacteria. Compared with YCG and ACG, the neutrophil percentage and white blood cell (WBC) counts in peripheral blood increased significantly in YMG and AMG groups (all P<0.01), the rates of dysfunction of the lungs, the heart and the liver, were 60%-100%. The respiratory dysfunction was evidenced by an increase in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2), P<0.01), and a decrease in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2), P<0.05 or P<0.01). Myocardial dysfunction was shown by a the sharp increase in creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and that of the liver by changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The pathological changes under light and electronic microscopy were obvious, and the main feature was infiltration of the inflammatory cells. Compared with YMG, PaO(2) in AMG dropped significantly, PaCO(2) increased, CK, CK-MB, LDH, ALT and AST also increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The scores of pathological injury in the lungs, the heart and the small intestine in the AMG were obviously higher than that in YMG group (all P<0.05), and the same was trend in the liver and the kidney. The model of bacterial MOI in aged rats is reproduced successfully, and it mimics

  18. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    chickens divergently selected for a large difference in growth rate and abdominal fatness clearly demonstrate that abdominal fat is a very dynamic metabolic and endocrine organ in the chicken. The HG chickens overexpress many transcription factors and their direct target genes, which should enhance in situ lipogenesis and ultimately adiposity. Our observation of enhanced expression of hemostasis and endocrine-signaling genes in diminished abdominal fat of LG cockerels provides insight into genetic mechanisms involved in divergence of abdominal fatness and somatic growth in avian and perhaps mammalian species, including humans.

  19. [Pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease; gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position].

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Maeoka, Yukinori; Kawahara, Hitoshi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-11-01

    We report 10 cases of pulmonary atelectasis diagnosed by chest computed tomography in patients with neurological or muscular disease. Atelectasis was frequently seen in hypotonic patients who could not roll over on their own. The atelectases located mostly in the dorsal bronchopulmonary segments, adjacent to the heart or diaphragm. Atelectasis diminished in two patients after they became able to roll themselves over. Gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position can cause pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease who can not roll over by their own power. To confirm that the prone position reduces compression of the lungs, chest computed tomography was performed in both the supine and the prone position in three patients. Sagittal images with three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstruction revealed significant sternad displacements of the heart and caudal displacements of the dorsal portion of the diaphragm on prone position compared with supine position. The prone position, motor exercises for rolling over, and biphasic cuirass ventilation are effective in reducing gravity-related lung compression. Some patients with intellectual disabilities were also able to cooperate in chest physiotherapy. Chest physiotherapy is useful in preventing atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease.

  20. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Effectiveness and Safety of Tigecycline Compared with Other Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials in Abdominal Solid Organ Transplant Recipients with Polymicrobial Intraabdominal Infections.

    PubMed

    Liebenstein, Tyler; Schulz, Lucas T; Viesselmann, Chris; Bingen, Emma; Musuuza, Jackson; Safdar, Nasia; Rose, Warren E

    2017-02-01

    Because patients with abdominal solid organ transplants (SOTs) are at increased risk of polymicrobial intraabdominal infections (IAIs) following transplantation, the objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and adverse event profile of tigecycline with those of other broad-spectrum therapies for polymicrobial IAIs in this population. Retrospective cohort study. Large academic medical center with multiple outpatient clinics. A total of 81 adult SOT recipients were included who were treated for confirmed or suspected polymicrobial IAIs from 2007-2012. Of these patients, 27 received tigecycline and 54 received comparator therapy with a broad-spectrum β-lactam (e.g., piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, or meropenem) with or without glycopeptide or lipopeptide gram-positive therapy (vancomycin or daptomycin) (comparator group). Patients in the comparator group were matched to tigecycline-treated patients based on transplant type (kidney, combined kidney-pancreas, combined kidney-liver, or solitary pancreas) in a 1:2 ratio (tigecycline-to-other broad-spectrum antibiotics). Data on patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical variables were collected and compared by using bivariate analyses. Clinical outcomes-clinical cure, improvement or failure, and disease recurrence-as well as death within 1 year were analyzed by bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Clinical cure was lower in the tigecycline group versus the comparator group (40.7% vs 72.2%, p=0.008), but cure combined with improvement was similar between the two groups (85.2% vs 88.9%, p=0.724). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that treatment with comparator antibiotics increased the odds of cure (odds ratio [OR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-12.27) and reduced the odds of treatment failure (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.07-4.55) and death within 1 year (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.22-2.86); however, patients receiving comparator antibiotics were more likely to have disease recurrence

  2. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal solid organ and major vessel: comparison of enhancement effect between Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Sone, Teruki; Yamamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Kakuba, Koki; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Takenori

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the differences in enhancement of the abdominal solid organ and the major vessel on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) obtained with gadolinium ethoxybenzyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA: EOB) and gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in the same patients. A total of 13 healthy volunteers underwent repeat assessments of abdominal MR examinations with DCE-MRI using either Gd-DTPA at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight or EOB at a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg body weight. DCE images were obtained at precontrast injection and in the arterial phase (AP: 25 seconds), portal phase (PP: 70 seconds), and equilibrium phase (EP: 3 minutes). The signal intensities (SIs) of liver at AP, PP, and EP; the SIs of spleen, renal cortex, renal medulla, pancreas, adrenal gland, aorta at AP; and the SIs of portal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) at PP were defined using region-of-interest measurements, and were used for calculation of signal intensity ratio (SIR). The mean SIRs of liver (0.195+/-0.140), spleen (1.35+/-0.353), renal cortex (1.58+/-0.517), renal medulla (0.548+/-0.259), pancreas (0.540+/-0.183), adrenal gland (1.04+/-0.405), and aorta (2.44+/-0.648) at AP as well as the mean SIRs of portal vein (1.85+/-0.477) and IVC (1.16+/-0.187) at PP in the EOB images were significantly lower than those (0.337+/-0.200, 1.99+/-0.443, 2.01+/-0.474, 0.742+/-0.336, 0.771+/-0.227, 1.26+/-0.442, 3.22+/-1.20, 2.73+/-0.429, and 1.68+/-0.366, respectively) in the Gd-DTPA images (P<0.05 each). There was no significant difference in mean SIR of liver at PP between EOB (0.529+/-0.124) and Gd-DTPA (0.564+/-0.139). Conversely, the mean SIR of liver at EP was significantly higher with EOB (0.576+/-0.167) than with Gd-DTPA (0.396+/-0.093) (P<0.001). Lower arterial vascular and parenchymal enhancement with Gd-EOB, as compared with Gd-DTPA, may require reassessment of its dose, despite the higher late venous phase liver parenchymal

  3. Using association rules to measure Subjective Organization after Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Parente, Frederick; Finley, John-Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Subjective Organization (SO) refers to the human tendency to impose organization on our environment. Persons with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) often lose the ability to organize however, there are no performance based measures of organization that can be used to document this disability. The authors propose a method of association rule analysis (AR) that can be used as a clinical tool for assessing a patient's ability to organize. Twenty three patients with ABI recalled a list of twelve unrelated nouns over twelve study and test trials. Several measures of AR computed on these data were correlated with various measures of short-term, long-term, and delayed recall of the words. All of the AR measures correlated significantly with the short-term and long-term memory measures. The confidence measure was the best predictor of memory and the number of association rules generated was the best predictor of learning. The confidence measure can be used as a clinical tool to assess SO with individual ABI survivors.

  4. Endotoxemia induces lung-brain coupling and multi-organ injury following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Mai, Nguyen; Prifti, Landa; Rininger, Aric; Bazarian, Hannah; Halterman, Marc W

    2017-11-01

    Post-ischemic neurodegeneration remains the principal cause of mortality following cardiac resuscitation. Recent studies have implicated gastrointestinal ischemia in the sepsis-like response associated with the post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). However, the extent to which the resulting low-grade endotoxemia present in up to 86% of resuscitated patients affects cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been investigated. Here we report that a single injection of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (50μg/kg, IP) delivered after global cerebral ischemia (GCI) induces blood-brain barrier permeability, microglial activation, cortical injury, and functional decline in vivo, compared to ischemia alone. And while GCI was sufficient to induce neutrophil (PMN) activation and recruitment to the post-ischemic CNS, minimal endotoxemia exhibited synergistic effects on markers of systemic inflammation including PMN priming, lung damage, and PMN burden within the lung and other non-ischemic organs including the kidney and liver. Our findings predict that acute interventions geared towards blocking the effects of serologically occult endotoxemia in survivors of cardiac arrest will limit delayed neurodegeneration, multi-organ dysfunction and potentially other features of PCAS. This work also introduces lung-brain coupling as a novel therapeutic target with broad effects on innate immune priming and post-ischemic neurodegeneration following cardiac arrest and related cerebrovascular conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutism and amnesia following high-voltage electrical injury: psychogenic symptomatology triggered by organic dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nishant K; Russmann, Heike; Granziera, Cristina; Maeder, Philippe; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Mutism and dense retrograde amnesia are found both in organic and dissociative contexts. Moreover, dissociative symptoms may be modulated by right prefrontal activity. A single case, M.R., developed left hemiparesis, mutism and retrograde amnesia after a high-voltage electric shock without evidence of lasting brain lesions. M.R. suddenly recovered from his mutism following a mild brain trauma 2 years later. M.R.'s neuropsychological pattern and anatomoclinical correlations were studied through (i) language and memory assessment to characterize his deficits, (ii) functional neuroimaging during a standard language paradigm, and (iii) assessment of frontal and left insular connectivity through diffusion tractography imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation. A control evaluation was repeated after recovery. M.R. recovered from the left hemiparesis within 90 days of the accident, which indicated a transient right brain impairment. One year later, neurobehavioral, language and memory evaluations strongly suggested a dissociative component in the mutism and retrograde amnesia. Investigations (including MRI, fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging, EEG and r-TMS) were normal. Twenty-seven months after the electrical injury, M.R. had a very mild head injury which was followed by a rapid recovery of speech. However, the retrograde amnesia persisted. This case indicates an interaction of both organic and dissociative mechanisms in order to explain the patient's symptoms. The study also illustrates dissociation in the time course of the two different dissociative symptoms in the same patient. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The clinical effectiveness of permissive hypotension in blunt abdominal trauma with hemorrhagic shock but without head or spine injuries or burns: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alsawadi, Abdulrahman

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma is a major cause of death and disability. The current trend in trauma management is the rapid administration of fluid as per the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines, although there is no evidence to support this and even some to suggest it might be harmful. Some guidelines, protocols, and recommendations have been established for the use of permissive hypotension although there is reluctance concerning its application in blunt injuries. Objectives The aim of this review is to determine whether there is evidence of the use of permissive hypotension in the management of hemorrhagic shock in blunt trauma patients. This review also aims to search for any reason for the reluctance to apply permissive hypotension in blunt injuries. Methods This systematic review has followed the steps recommended in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. It is also being reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement and checklist. Database searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases and the Cochrane Library were made for eligible studies as well as journal searches. Inclusion criteria included systematic reviews that have similar primary questions to this review and randomized controlled trials where patients with blunt torso injuries and hemorrhagic shock were not excluded. Rapid or early fluid administration was compared with controlled or delayed fluid resuscitation and a significant outcome was obtained. Results No systematic reviews attempting to answer similar questions were found. Two randomized controlled trials with mixed types of injuries in the included patients found no significant difference between the groups used in each study. Data concerning the question of this review was sought after these papers were appraised. Conclusion The limited available data are not conclusive. However, the supportive theoretical concept and laboratory

  7. Multidetector CT of Surgically Proven Blunt Bowel and Mesenteric Injury.

    PubMed

    Bates, David D B; Wasserman, Michael; Malek, Anita; Gorantla, Varun; Anderson, Stephan W; Soto, Jorge A; LeBedis, Christina A

    2017-01-01

    Blunt traumatic injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Unintentional injury represents the leading cause of death in the United States for all persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. In the setting of blunt abdominal trauma, the reported rate of occurrence of bowel and mesenteric injuries ranges from 1% to 5%. Despite the relatively low rate of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury in patients with abdominal and pelvic trauma, delays in diagnosis are associated with increased rates of sepsis, a prolonged course in the intensive care unit, and increased mortality. During the past 2 decades, as multidetector computed tomography (CT) has emerged as an essential tool in emergency radiology, several direct and indirect imaging features have been identified that are associated with blunt bowel and mesenteric injury. The imaging findings in cases of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury can be subtle and may be seen in the setting of multiple complex injuries, such as multiple solid-organ injuries and spinal fractures. Familiarity with the various imaging features of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury, as well as an understanding of their clinical importance with regard to the care of the patient, is essential to making a timely diagnosis. Once radiologists are familiar with the spectrum of findings of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury, they will be able to make timely diagnoses that will lead to improved patient outcomes. © RSNA, 2017.

  8. Management of combined pancreatoduodenal injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Martin, T D; Cruse, P A; Graham, J M; Burch, J M; Mattox, K L; Bitondo, C G; Jordan, G L

    1987-01-01

    From 1969 to 1985, 129 patients with combined pancreatoduodenal injuries were treated at one urban trauma center. A total of 104 patients (80.6%) had penetrating wounds, and multiple visceral and vascular injuries were usually associated with the pancreatoduodenal injury. Primary repair or resection of one or both organs coupled with pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy (68 patients) and drainage was used in 79 patients (61.2%) in the entire study and in 59% (36 of 61) of all patients treated since 1976. Simple primary repair of one or both organs and drainage was performed in 31 patients (24%), whereas the remaining 19 patients (14.8%) had pancreatoduodenectomies (13 patients) or no repair before exsanguination (six patients). Major pancreatoduodenal complications occurring in the 108 patients surviving more than 48 hours included pancreatic fistulas (25.9%), intra-abdominal abscess formation (16.6%), and duodenal fistulas (6.5%). The overall mortality rate for the study was 29.5% (38 of 129). The acute mortality rate with these injuries will remain high secondary to injuries to associated organs and vascular structures. The morbidity and late mortality rates related to the moderate to severe pancreatoduodenal injury itself can be decreased by the addition of pyloric exclusion and gastrojejunostomy to the primary repairs. PMID:3592810

  9. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    PubMed

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  10. Intraperitoneal Administration of Silymarin Protects End Organs from Multivisceral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Koçarslan, Aydemir; Koçarslan, Sezen; Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Gunay, Şamil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Taşkın, Abdullah; Üstunel, Murat; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether intraperitoneal silymarin administration has favorable effects on the heart, lungs, kidney, and liver and on oxidative stress in a rat model of supraceliac aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups: sham, control, and silymarin. The control and silymarin groups underwent supraceliac aortic occlusion for 45 min, followed by a 60 min period of reperfusion under terminal anesthesia. In the silymarin group, silymarin was administered intraperitoneally during ischemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Rats were euthanized using terminal anesthesia, and blood was collected from the inferior vena cava for total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status, and oxidative stress index measurement. Lungs, heart, liver and kidney tissues were histologically examined. Results Ischemia/reperfusion injury significantly increased histopathological damage as well as the total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels in the blood samples. The silymarin group incurred significantly lesser damage to the lungs, liver and kidneys than the control group, while no differences were observed in the myocardium. Furthermore, the silymarin group had significantly lower total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels than the control group. Conclusion Intraperitoneal administration of silymarin reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver, kidney, and lungs from acute supraceliac abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat model. PMID:28076620

  11. Intraperitoneal Administration of Silymarin Protects End Organs from Multivisceral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Koçarslan, Aydemir; Koçarslan, Sezen; Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Gunay, Şamil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Taşkın, Abdullah; Üstunel, Murat; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether intraperitoneal silymarin administration has favorable effects on the heart, lungs, kidney, and liver and on oxidative stress in a rat model of supraceliac aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups: sham, control, and silymarin. The control and silymarin groups underwent supraceliac aortic occlusion for 45 min, followed by a 60 min period of reperfusion under terminal anesthesia. In the silymarin group, silymarin was administered intraperitoneally during ischemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Rats were euthanized using terminal anesthesia, and blood was collected from the inferior vena cava for total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status, and oxidative stress index measurement. Lungs, heart, liver and kidney tissues were histologically examined. Ischemia/reperfusion injury significantly increased histopathological damage as well as the total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels in the blood samples. The silymarin group incurred significantly lesser damage to the lungs, liver and kidneys than the control group, while no differences were observed in the myocardium. Furthermore, the silymarin group had significantly lower total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels than the control group. Intraperitoneal administration of silymarin reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver, kidney, and lungs from acute supraceliac abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat model.

  12. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  13. Does CT evidence of a flat inferior vena cava indicate hypovolemia in blunt trauma patients with solid organ injuries?

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ying; Lin, Hung-Jung; Lu, Yu-Hui; Foo, Ning-Ping; Guo, How-Ran; Chen, Kuo-Tai

    2011-06-01

    Nonoperative management for selective patients with solid organ injuries from blunt trauma has gained wide acceptance. However, for trauma surgeons, it is often difficult to estimate a patient's circulatory volume. Some authors have proposed that the presence of a collapsed inferior vena cava (IVC) on computed tomography (CT) scan correlates with inadequate circulatory volume. Our aim was to verify whether CT evidence of a flat IVC (FI) is an indicator of hypovolemia in blunt trauma patients with solid organ injuries. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all blunt trauma patients with solid organ injuries admitted to our Medical Center from July 2003 to September 2006. Of the 226 patients reviewed, 29 had CT evidence of FI. We compared Injury Severity Scores, hemodynamic parameters, fluid and blood transfusion requirements, mortality rate, and hospital course between patients with (FI group) and without FI (non-FI [NFI] group). The FI group had higher rates of intensive care unit admission and mortality, in addition to longer intensive care unit stays, when compared with the NFI group. In addition, the patients in the FI group needed larger amounts of fluid and blood transfusions and presented lower hemoglobin levels during the first week of admission; furthermore, the majority deteriorated to a state of shock in the emergency department. CT evidence of FI is a good indicator of hypovolemia and an accurate predictor for prognosis in trauma patients with blunt solid organ injuries.

  14. Gastrointestinal perforations in children: a continuing challenge to nonoperative treatment of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Ulman, I; Avanoğlu, A; Ozcan, C; Demircan, M; Ozok, G; Erdener, A

    1996-07-01

    The present trend towards conservative management of hemodynamically stable pediatric trauma patients may be increasing the risk of delay in the diagnosis of traumatic hollow viscus perforations (HVP). The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a delay in the diagnosis of HVP because of expectant management. A survey of factors leading to diagnostic delay was also made and the value of current diagnostic tools were reevaluated. In 1,283 trauma admissions between 1980-1994, 34 patients were operated for HVP caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Sites of perforation were; stomach (four), duodenum (five), jejunum (12), ileum (nine), and jejunum/ileum (four). Signs of peritoneal irritation were positive in 32 of 34 patients. There was free air in only six of 24 abdominal roentgenograms. Free peritoneal fluid without solid organ injury was detected in only four out of 13 patients with ultrasound. Peritoneal lavage was diagnostic in eight of nine patients. Time from admission to operating room averaged 24 +/- 4.1 (mean +/- standard deviation) hours. Eleven patients died after the operation mostly because of accompanying head injury. Only two of the deaths were the result of sepsis originating from the perforated bowel. There is an apparent delay in the diagnosis of traumatic HVP in this series. Signs of peritoneal irritation are the most consistent findings of HVP after blunt abdominal trauma in children. Persistence of abdominal signs indicates peritoneal lavage, which has a high diagnostic sensitivity for HVP compared to other diagnostic modalities.

  15. Blue Light Enhances Bacterial Clearance and Reduces Organ Injury During Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Anthony J; Zhang, Xianghong; Griepentrog, John E; Yuan, Du; Collage, Richard D; Waltz, Paul K; Angus, Derek C; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Rosengart, Matthew R

    2018-05-04

    The physiology of nearly all mammalian organisms are entrained by light and exhibit circadian rhythm. The data derived from animal studies show that light influences immunity, and these neurophysiologic pathways are maximally entrained by the blue spectrum. Here, we hypothesize that bright blue light reduces acute kidney injury by comparison with either bright red or standard, white fluorescent light in mice subjected to sepsis. To further translational relevance, we performed a pilot clinical trial of blue light therapy in human subjects with appendicitis. Laboratory animal research, pilot human feasibility trial. University basic science laboratory and tertiary care hospital. Male C57BL/6J mice, adult (> 17 yr) patients with acute appendicitis. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture and were randomly assigned to a 24-hour photoperiod of bright blue, bright red, or ambient white fluorescent light. Subjects with appendicitis were randomized to receive postoperatively standard care or standard care plus high-illuminance blue light. Exposure to bright blue light enhanced bacterial clearance from the peritoneum, reduced bacteremia and systemic inflammation, and attenuated the degree of acute kidney injury. The mechanism involved an elevation in cholinergic tone that augmented tissue expression of the nuclear orphan receptor REV-ERBα and occurred independent of alterations in melatonin or corticosterone concentrations. Clinically, exposure to blue light after appendectomy was feasible and reduced serum interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations. Modifying the spectrum of light may offer therapeutic utility in sepsis.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis . Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the ... covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) ...

  17. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  18. [Surgical therapeutic strategy in vital risk polytrauma with multiple organ injuries, case report].

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Iulia; Stefan, S; Isloi, Anca; Coca, I C; Baroi, Genoveva; Radu, L; Lăpuşneanu, A; Tamaş, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    The medical interest for trauma pathology is incresing, due to the gravity of the given injuries. The surgical therapeutic strategy used is directly related to the localization and to the type of the trauma. The supplementary lesions and their vital risk also matter. The multidisciplinary team approach is the key to resolve this type of lesions with a good outcome. We recently observed an increasing tendency toward the rise of number and variety of patients with trauma, due to the great diversity of the etiopathogenic agents. The most important factor, during the assessment of a politraumatised patient is to diagnose correctly the functional deficits of vital organs and establish the vital prognosis. It is necessary to adopt the best and fast therapeutic strategy in order to obtain rapid life-saving decisions.

  19. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  20. Abdominal tumours in children: 3-D visualisation and surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Günther, P; Schenk, J P; Wunsch, R; Tröger, J; Waag, K L

    2004-10-01

    Solid abdominal tumours are of special importance in the field of paediatric surgery. Because of the dangers of cumulative irradiation and improved delineation of soft parts MRI is usually employed in children for diagnostic assessment. Compiling the radiologic information for surgical planning is often difficult by conventional methods. Newly improved and efficient 3-D volume rendering software is now available for visual reconstruction of tumour anatomy utilising segmentation and other special techniques. Because the intraoperative complication rate is close to 20 % as described in the literature, optimal preoperative visualisation and planning would seem imperative. All children with solid abdominal tumours at Heidelberg University in the year 2002 were included in this study. MR examinations were performed with a 0.5 Tesla magnet using a standard protocol. All MR data were processed with VG Studio Max 1.1, converting the two-dimensional data into three-dimensional data. This report presents 15 cases using this special technique: 7 with abdominal neuroblastoma, 6 with nephroblastoma, 1 ganglioneuroma, and 1 ovarian teratoma. Our experience shows that a better understanding of the surgical anatomy, particularly regarding the surrounding organs and vasculature, can be helpful in decreasing the incidence of inadvertent intraoperative injuries to these structures.

  1. Outcome of Blunt Abdominal Traumas with Stable Hemodynamic and Positive FAST Findings.

    PubMed

    Behboodi, Firooz; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Masjedi, Navid; Shojaie, Reza; Sadri, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a highly effective first screening tool for initial classification of abdominal trauma patients. The present study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and positive FAST findings. The present prospective cross-sectional study was done on patients over 7 years old with normal abdominal examination, positive FAST findings, and available abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan findings. The frequency of need for laparotomy as well as its probable risk factors were calculated. 180 patients were enrolled (mean age: 28.0 ± 11.5 years; 76.7% male). FAST findings were confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan in only 124 (68.9%) cases. Finally, 12 (6.6%) patients needed laparotomy. Mean age of those in need of laparotomy was significantly higher than others (36.75 ± 11.37 versus 27.34 ± 11.37, p = 0.006). Higher grading of spleen (p = 0.001) and hepatic (p = 0.038) ruptures increased the probability of need for laparotomy. 68.9% of the positive FAST findings in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and stable hemodynamics was confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan and only 6.6% needed laparotomy. Simultaneous presence of free fluid and air in the abdominal area, old age, and higher grading o solid organ injuries were factors that had a significant correlation with need for laparotomy.

  2. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance–associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

  3. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  4. A Comparison of Red Cell Rejuvenation versus Mechanical Washing for the Prevention of Transfusion-associated Organ Injury in Swine.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Marcin J; Qureshi, Saqib; Sullo, Nikol; Dott, William; Cardigan, Rebecca; Wiltshire, Michael; Nath, Mintu; Patel, Nishith N; Kumar, Tracy; Goodall, Alison H; Murphy, Gavin J

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of two interventions that modify the red cell storage lesion on kidney and lung injury in experimental models of transfusion. White-landrace pigs (n = 32) were allocated to receive sham transfusion (crystalloid), 14-day stored allogeneic red cells, 14-day red cells washed using the red cells washing/salvage system (CATS; Fresenius, Germany), or 14-day red cells rejuvenated using the inosine solution (Rejuvesol solution; Zimmer Biomet, USA) and washed using the CATS device. Functional, biochemical, and histologic markers of organ injury were assessed for up to 24 h posttransfusion. Transfusion of 14 day red cells resulted in lung injury (lung injury score vs. sham, mean difference -0.3 (95% CI, -0.6 to -0.1; P = 0.02), pulmonary endothelial dysfunction, and tissue leukocyte sequestration. Mechanical washing reduced red cell-derived microvesicles but increased cell-free hemoglobin in 14-day red cell units. Transfusion of washed red cells reduced leukocyte sequestration but did not reduce the lung injury score (mean difference -0.2; 95% CI, -0.5 to 0.1; P = 0.19) relative to 14-day cells. Transfusion of washed red cells also increased endothelial activation and kidney injury. Rejuvenation restored adenosine triphosphate to that of fresh red cells and reduced microvesicle concentrations without increasing cell-free hemoglobin release. Transfusion of rejuvenated red cells reduced plasma cell-free hemoglobin, leukocyte sequestration, and endothelial dysfunction in recipients and reduced lung and kidney injury relative to 14-day or washed 14-day cells. Reversal of the red cell storage lesion by rejuvenation reduces transfusion-associated organ injury in swine.

  5. Biomechanics of liver injury by steering wheel loading.

    PubMed

    Lau, I V; Horsch, J D; Viano, D C; Andrzejak, D V

    1987-03-01

    Abdominal injury induced by steering wheel contact at a velocity of 32 km/hr was investigated using anesthetized swine as the surrogate on a Hyge sled. The lower rim of the wheel was positioned 5 cm below the xyphoid. By varying wheel stiffness, wheel orientation, and column angle, resultant abdominal injury ranged from fatal or critical to minor or none. Wheel stiffness was found to be the primary determinant of abdominal injury severity. The mechanism of abdominal injury was identified to be the rim impacting the abdomen and exceeding a combined velocity and compression sensitive tolerance limit. Abdominal injury occurred within the initial 15 ms of wheel contact before whole body movement of the surrogate of column compression, which were initiated by hub contact with the thorax. The severity of abdominal injury correlated with the peak viscous response which can be represented by the product of the instantaneous velocity of abdominal deformation and abdominal compression. It did not correlate with spinal acceleration.

  6. Diagnosis and deployment of a self-expanding foam for abdominal exsanguination: Translational questions for human use.

    PubMed

    Rago, Adam P; Marini, John; Duggan, Michael J; Beagle, John; Runyan, Gem; Sharma, Upma; Peev, Miroslav; King, David R

    2015-03-01

    We have previously described the hemostatic efficacy of a self-expanding polyurethane foam in lethal venous and arterial hemorrhage models. A number of critical translational questions remain, including prehospital diagnosis of hemorrhage, use with diaphragmatic injury, effects on spontaneous respiration, the role of omentum, and presence of a laparotomy on foam properties. In Experiment 1, diagnostic blood aspiration was attempted through a Veress needle before foam deployment during exsanguination (n = 53). In Experiment 2: a lethal hepatoportal injury/diaphragmatic laceration was created followed by foam (n = 6) or resuscitation (n = 10). In Experiment 3, the foam was deployed in naïve, spontaneously breathing animals (n = 7), and respiration was monitored. In Experiments 4 and 5, the foam was deployed above (n = 6) and below the omentum (n = 6) and in naïve animals (n = 6). Intra-abdominal pressure and organ contact were assessed. In Experiment 1, blood was successfully aspirated from a Veress needle in 70% of lethal iliac artery injuries and 100% of lethal hepatoportal injuries. In Experiment 2, in the presence of a diaphragm injury, between 0 cc and 110 cc of foam was found within the pleural space. Foam treatment resulted in a survival benefit relative to the control group at 1 hour (p = 0.03). In Experiment 3, hypercarbia was observed: mean (SD) Pco2 was 48 (9.4) mm Hg at baseline and 65 (14) mm Hg at 60 minutes. In Experiment 4, abdominal omentum seemed to influence organ contact and transport in two foam deployments. In Experiment 5, there was no difference in intra-abdominal pressure following foam deployment in the absence of a midline laparotomy. In a series of large animal studies, we addressed key translational issues surrounding safe use of foam treatment. These additional data, from diagnosis to deployment, will guide human experiences with foam treatment for massive abdominal exsanguination where no other treatments are available.

  7. Fast simultaneous assessment of renal and liver function using polymethine dyes in animal models of chronic and acute organ injury.

    PubMed

    Press, A T; Butans, M J; Haider, T P; Weber, C; Neugebauer, S; Kiehntopf, M; Schubert, U S; Clemens, M G; Bauer, M; Kortgen, A

    2017-11-13

    Simultaneous assessment of excretory liver and kidney function is still an unmet need in experimental stress models as well as in critical care. The aim of the study was to characterize two polymethine-dyes potentially suitable for this purpose in vivo. Plasma disappearance rate and elimination measurements of simultaneously injected fluorescent dyes DY-780 (hepato-biliary elimination) and DY-654(renal elimination) were conducted using catheter techniques and intravital microscopy in animals subjected to different organ injuries, i.e. polymicrobial sepsis by peritoneal contamination and infection, ischemia-reperfusion-injury and glycerol-induced acute kidney-injury. DY-780 and DY-654 showed organ specific and determined elimination routes in both healthy and diseased animals. They can be measured simultaneously using near-infrared imaging and spectrophotometry. Plasma-disappearance rates of DY-780 and DY-654 are superior to conventional biomarkers in indicating hepatic or kidney dysfunction in different animal models. Greatest impact on liver function was found in animals with polymicrobial sepsis whereas glomerular damage due to glycerol-induced kidney-injury had strongest impact on DY-654 elimination. We therefore conclude that hepatic elimination and renal filtration can be assessed in rodents measuring plasma-disappearance rates of both dyes. Further, assessment of organ dysfunction by polymethine dyes correlates with, but outperforms conventional biomarkers regarding sensitivity and the option of spatial resolution if biophotonic strategies are applied. Polymethine-dye clearance thereby allows sensitive point-of-care assessment of both organ functions simultaneously.

  8. Management of complex abdominal wall defects associated with penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Arul, G Suren; Sonka, B J; Lundy, J B; Rickard, R F; Jeffery, S L A

    2015-03-01

    The paradigm of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) has radically improved the management of abdominal trauma, but less well described are the options for managing the abdominal wall itself in an austere environment. This article describes a series of patients with complex abdominal wall problems managed at the UK-led Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Contemporaneous review of a series of patients with complex abdominal wall injuries who presented to the Role 3 MTF between July and November 2012. Five patients with penetrating abdominal trauma associated with significant damage to the abdominal wall were included. All patients were managed using DCS principles, leaving the abdominal wall open at the end of the first procedure. Subsequent management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses. The principles of management identified included minimising tissue loss on initial laparotomy by joining adjacent wounds and marginal debridement of dead tissue; contraction of the abdominal wall was minimised by using topical negative pressure dressing and dermal-holding sutures. Definitive closure was timed to allow oedema to settle and sepsis to be controlled. Closure techniques include delayed primary closure with traction sutures, components separation, and mesh closure with skin grafting. A daily multidisciplinary team discussion was invaluable for optimal decision making regarding the most appropriate means of abdominal closure. Dermal-holding sutures were particularly useful in preventing myostatic contraction of the abdominal wall. A simple flow chart was developed to aid decision making in these patients. This flow chart may prove especially useful in a resource-limited environment in which returning months or years later for closure of a large ventral hernia may not be possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  9. NOX2 protects against progressive lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Laura C; Goss, Kelli L; Newell, Elizabeth A; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Hook, Jessica S; Moreland, Jessica G

    2014-07-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common clinical condition in patients in intensive care units that can lead to complications, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality rate, and it is unclear why some patients resolve SIRS, whereas others develop MODS. Although oxidant stress has been implicated in the development of MODS, several recent studies have demonstrated a requirement for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived oxidants in limiting inflammation. We recently demonstrated that NOX2 protects against lung injury and mortality in a murine model of SIRS. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX2-derived oxidants in the progression from SIRS to MODS. Using a murine model of sterile systemic inflammation, we observed significantly greater illness and subacute mortality in gp91(phox-/y) (NOX2-deficient) mice compared with wild-type mice. Cellular analysis revealed continued neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum and lungs of the NOX2-deficient mice and altered activation states of both neutrophils and macrophages. Histological examination showed multiple organ pathology indicative of MODS in the NOX2-deficient mice, and several inflammatory cytokines were elevated in lungs of the NOX2-deficient mice. Overall, these data suggest that NOX2 function protects against the development of MODS and is required for normal resolution of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Traumatic injuries of the diaphragm: overview of imaging findings and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Mark M; Raptis, Demetrios A; Mellnick, Vincent M; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Raptis, Constantine A

    2017-04-01

    Injuries to the diaphragm muscle occur in penetrating and severe blunt trauma and can lead to delayed hernia formation. Computed tomography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of these injuries, which may be subtle at presentation. Imaging findings differ between blunt and penetrating trauma. Key features in blunt trauma include diaphragm fragment distraction and organ herniation because of increased intra-abdominal pressure. In penetrating trauma, herniation is uncommon, and the trajectory of the object is critical in making the diagnosis of diaphragm injury in these patients. Radiologists must keep a high index of suspicion for injury to the diaphragm in cases of trauma to the chest or abdomen.

  11. Independent risk factors of morbidity in penetrating colon injuries.

    PubMed

    Girgin, Sadullah; Gedik, Ercan; Uysal, Ersin; Taçyildiz, Ibrahim Halil

    2009-05-01

    The present study explored the factors effective on colon-related morbidity in patients with penetrating injury of the colon. The medical records of 196 patients were reviewed for variables including age, gender, factor of trauma, time between injury and operation, shock, duration of operation, Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI), Injury Severity Score (ISS), site of colon injury, Colon Injury Score, fecal contamination, number of associated intra- and extraabdominal organ injuries, units of transfused blood within the first 24 hours, and type of surgery. In order to determine the independent risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Gunshot wounds, interval between injury and operation > or =6 hours, shock, duration of the operation > or =6 hours, PATI > or =25, ISS > or =20, Colon Injury Score > or = grade 3, major fecal contamination, number of associated intraabdominal organ injuries >2, number of associated extraabdominal organ injuries >2, multiple blood transfusions, and diversion were significantly associated with morbidity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed diversion and transfusion of > or =4 units in the first 24 hours as independent risk factors affecting colon-related morbidity. Diversion and transfusion of > or =4 units in the first 24 hours were determined to be independent risk factors for colon-related morbidity.

  12. Thromboembolic Prophylaxis with Heparin in Patients with Blunt Solid Organ Injuries Undergoing Non-operative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Khatsilouskaya, Tatsiana; Haltmeier, Tobias; Cathomas, Marionna; Eberle, Barbara; Candinas, Daniel; Schnüriger, Beat

    2017-05-01

    Patients with blunt solid organ injuries (SOI) are at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and VTE prophylaxis is crucial. However, little is known about the safety of early prophylactic administration of heparin in these patients. This is a retrospective study including adult trauma patients with SOI (liver, spleen, kidney) undergoing non-operative management (NOM) from 01/01/2009 to 31/12/2014. Three groups were distinguished: prophylactic heparin (low molecular weight heparin or low-dose unfractionated heparin) ≤72 h after admission ('early heparin group'), >72 h after admission ('late heparin group'), and no heparin ('no heparin group'). Patient and injury characteristics, transfusion requirements, and outcomes (failed NOM, VTE, and mortality) were compared between the three groups. Overall, 179 patients were included; 44.7% in the 'early heparin group,' 34.6% in the 'late heparin group,' and 20.8% in the 'no heparin group.' In the 'late heparin group,' the ISS was significantly higher than in the 'early' and 'no heparin groups' (median 29.0 vs. 17.0 vs. 19.0; p < 0.001). The overall NOM failure rate was 3.9%. Failed NOM was significantly more frequent in the 'no heparin group' compared to the 'early' and 'late heparin groups' (10.8 vs. 3.2 vs. 1.3%; p = 0.043). In the 'early heparin group' 27.5% patients suffered from a high-grade SOI; none of these patients failed NOM. Mortality did not differ significantly. Although not statistically significant, VTE were more frequent in the 'no heparin group' compared to the 'early' and 'late heparin groups' (10.8 vs. 4.8 vs. 1.3%; p = 0.066). In patients with SOI, heparin was administered early in a high percentage of patients and was not associated with an increased NOM failure rate or higher in-hospital mortality.

  13. Improved Peritoneal Cavity and Abdominal Organ Imaging Using a Biphasic Contrast Agent Protocol and Spectral Photon Counting Computed Tomography K-Edge Imaging.

    PubMed

    Si-Mohamed, Salim; Thivolet, Arnaud; Bonnot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bar-Ness, Daniel; Képénékian, Vahan; Cormode, David P; Douek, Philippe; Rousset, Pascal

    2018-05-23

    of better diagnostic quality, with increased sharpness compared with the CT-like images (P < 0.0001). Intraperitoneal diffusion was excellent, with similar peritoneal opacification index on SPCCT images and overlay of contrast material maps (P = 1) without a significant difference between protocol A (37.0 ± 1.7) and protocol B (35.3 ± 1.5) (P = 0.34). Only the contrast material maps demonstrated clear visual separation of the contrast agents, allowing specific quantification of the physiological enhancement in the liver, spleen, and kidney and the urinary clearance in the renal pelvis and bladder. Renal excretion of the contrast agents injected IP was observed and was consistent with blood diffusion. Spectral photon-counting CT can be used to perform a complete peritoneal dual-contrast protocol, enabling a good assessment of the peritoneal cavity and abdominal organs in rats.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  14. Inflammatory response in multiple organs in a mouse model of acute alcohol intoxication and burn injury*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoling; Akhtar, Suhail; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study characterized the inflammatory response following burn injury and determined whether ethanol (EtOH) intoxication at the time of burn injury influences this response. To accomplish this, male mice were gavaged with EtOH (2.9 g/Kg) 4 hours prior to 12–15% total body surface area sham or burn injury. Mice were sacrificed on day one after injury; blood, small intestine, lung and liver were collected to measure IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and MCP-1 levels. In addition, neutrophil infiltration, MPO activity and edema formation were also measured in the small intestine, lung and liver. There was no difference in the inflammatory markers in the small intestine, lung and liver in mice receiving either sham or burn injury alone except IL-6 which was increased in all 4 tissue compartments following burn injury alone. However, as compared to EtOH or burn injury alone, EtOH combined with burn injury resulted in a significant increase in cytokines, neutrophil infiltration, MPO activity and edema in the small intestine, liver and lung tissue. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-6 and MCP-1 was observed in circulation following EtOH and burn injury compared to either EtOH intoxication or burn injury alone, no other cytokines were detected in circulation. These findings suggest that acute EtOH intoxication exacerbates the inflammatory response following burn injury. PMID:21593683

  15. [Injuries to the duodenum and pancreas in 42 operated cases].

    PubMed

    Kiss, L; Remescu, A

    2001-01-01

    42 consecutive patients who sustained injuries to the duodenum or/and pancreas were admitted to our hospital. Over a twenty year period 32 blunt injuries and 10 penetrating injuries were encountered. Penetrating injuries were always suspected and treated by time: following blunt injury diagnostic delay was encountered in 14 patients and insufficient surgical procedure because of intra-operative misinterpretation in 2 patients. Most of the patients had associated intra-abdominal organ injuries. Adjusts to diagnosis such as abdominal roentgenograms, serum amylase levels and gastroduodenography was not helpful. CT scan and ultrasound allowed to confirm the suspected diagnosis in 3 cases only. Intraoperative diagnosis was also challenging. Complete mobilization of the strictures surrounding the duodenum and the pancreas to provide entire exposure was necessary in 12 patients treated first in a peripheral hospital, diagnosis of the injury have been missed at first laparotomy and reoperation was necessary in all of them. Suture closure of the duodenum and drainage of the pancreatic region wee the most common reparative techniques used. More complicated procedures with pancreatic and/or duodenal resection were performed in 12 patients. Overall mortality in patients surviving more than 24 hours was 14%. Suture live dehiscence after delayed operation (4) and 2 deaths due to brain injury.

  16. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling: 50th anniversary review article of the Journal of Trauma.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of a scaling system for specific injuries is to provide a common language to facilitate the clinical decisions and the investigative basis for this decision making. This brief overview describes the evolution of the Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) system developed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. The OIS system is based on the magnitude of anatomic disruption and is graded as 1 (minimal), 2 (mild), 3 (moderate), 4 (severe), 5 (massive), and 6 (lethal). To date, the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma OIS system has been developed for visceral and vascular injuries of the neck, chest, abdomen, and extremities. The fundamental objective of OIS is to provide a common language to describe specific organ injuries. The primary purpose of OIS is to facilitate clinical decision making and the necessary research endeavors to improve this process. A good example of this concept is the tumor, node, metastasis classification for solid organ malignancies: a system used worldwide to guide patient care and clinical investigation.

  17. Musculoskeletal and neurological injuries associated with work organization among immigrant Latino women manual workers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Cartwright, Michael S; Chen, Haiying; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Walker, Francis O; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-04-01

    This analysis examines the associations of work organization attributes among Latino women in manual occupations with musculoskeletal and neurological injuries. Participants included 234 women in western North Carolina. Outcome measures included epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Independent measures included indicators of job demand, job control, and job support, as well as personal characteristics. Latina workers commonly experienced epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and CTS. Awkward posture and decision latitude were associated with epicondylitis. Rotator cuff syndrome was associated with awkward posture and psychological demand. Awkward posture and psychological demand, and decreased skill variety and job control were related to CTS. Work organization factors are potentially important for musculoskeletal and neurological injury among vulnerable workers. Research is required to understand the associations of work and health outcomes of these women. Policy initiatives need to consider how work organization affects health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Abdominal ultrasound and medical education.

    PubMed

    García de Casasola Sánchez, G; Torres Macho, J; Casas Rojo, J M; Cubo Romano, P; Antón Santos, J M; Villena Garrido, V; Diez Lobato, R

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound is a very versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization of multiple internal organs. It is of invaluable help for the physical examination of the patients. To assess if ultrasound can be incorporated into medical education and if the students can perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination without the necessity of a long period of training. Twelve medical students were trained in basic abdominal ultrasound during a 15-h training program including a 5-h theoretical and practical course and supervised practice in 20 selected patients. Subsequently, we conducted an evaluation test that assessed the ability of students to obtain the ultrasound views and to detect various pathologies in five different patients. The students were able to correctly identify the abdominal views more than 90% of the times. This percentage was only lower (80%) in the right subcostal view to locate the gallbladder. The accuracy or global efficiency of the ultrasound for the diagnosis of relevant pathological findings of the patients was greater than 90% (91.1% gallstones, abdominal aortic aneurysm 100%; splenomegaly 98.3%, ascites 100%; dilated inferior vena cava 100%; acute urinary retention 100%). The ultrasound may be a feasible learning tool in medical education. Ultrasound can help students to improve the physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolated rupture of the gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; da Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes; Elias, Naim Carlos; Sica, Gustavo Tricta Augusto; Fávaro, Murillo de Lima; Ribeiro, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is a rare event recognized on evaluation and treatment of other visceral injuries during laparotomy. Isolated gallbladder rupture secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is even more uncommon. The clinical presentation of gallbladder injury is variable, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient who suffered an isolated gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:23843066

  20. Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma in a civilian trauma service.

    PubMed

    Howes, N; Walker, T; Allorto, N L; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2012-03-29

    This report looks at the group of patients who required a laparotomy for blunt torso trauma at a busy metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. Methods. A prospective trauma registry is maintained by the surgical services of the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan complex. This registry is interrogated retrospectively. All patients who required admission for blunt torso trauma over the period September 2006 - September 2007 were included for review. Proformas documenting mechanism of injury, age, vital signs, blood gas, delay in presentation, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit stay and operative details were completed. Results. A total of 926 patients were treated for blunt trauma by the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan services during the period under consideration. A cohort of 65 (8%) required a laparotomy for blunt trauma during this period. There were 17 females in this group. The mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accident (MVA) (27), pedestrian vehicle accident (PVA) (21), assault (5), fall from a height (3), bicycle accident (6), quad bike accident (1) and tractor-related accident (2). The following isolated injuries were discovered at laparotomy: liver (9), spleen (5), diaphragm (1), duodenum (2), small bowel (8), mesentery (8) bladder (10), gallbladder (1), stomach (2), colon/rectum (2) and retrohepatic vena cava (1). The following combined injuries were discovered: liver and diaphragm (2), spleen and pancreas (1), spleen and liver (2), spleen, aorta and diaphragm (1), spleen and bladder (1) and small bowel and bladder (2). Eighteen patients in the series (26%) required relaparotomy. In 10 patients temporary abdominal containment was needed. The mortality rate was 26% (18 patients). There were 6 deaths from massive bleeding, all within 6 hours of operation, and 3 deaths from renal failure; the remaining 9 patients died of multiple organ failure. There were 8 negative laparotomies (7%). In the negative laparotomy group false-positive computed

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced ultrasound in patients with blunt abdominal trauma presenting to the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Hong, Yucai; Liu, Ning; Chen, Yuhao

    2017-06-30

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in evaluating blunt abdominal trauma for patients presenting to the emergency department. Electronic search of Scopus and Pubmed was performed from inception to September 2016. Human studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in identifying abdominal solid organ injuries were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS tool. A total of 10 studies were included in the study and 9 of them were included for meta-analysis. The log(DOR) values ranged from 3.80 (95% CI: 2.81-4.79) to 8.52 (95% CI: 4.58-12.47) in component studies. The combined log(DOR) was 6.56 (95% CI: 5.66-7.45). The Cochran's Q was 11.265 (p = 0.793 with 16 degrees of freedom), and the Higgins' I 2 was 0%. The CEUS had a sensitivity of 0.981 (95% CI: 0.868-0.950) and a false positive rate of 0.018 (95% CI: 0.010-0.032) for identifying parenchymal injuries, with an AUC of 0.984. CEUS performed at emergency department had good diagnostic accuracy in identifying abdominal solid organ injuries. CEUS can be recommended in monitoring solid organ injuries, especially for patients managed with non-operative strategy.

  2. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  3. Early detection of nonneurologic organ failure in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: Multiple organ dysfunction score or sequential organ failure assessment?

    PubMed

    Ramtinfar, Sara; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Chari, Aliakbar Jafari; Reihanian, Zoheir; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Alizadeh, Arsalan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the discriminant function of multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) components in predicting the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality and neurologic outcome. A descriptive-analytic study was conducted at a level I trauma center. Data were collected from patients with severe traumatic brain injury admitted to the neurosurgical ICU. Basic demographic data, SOFA and MOD scores were recorded daily for all patients. Odd's ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the relationship of each component score to mortality, and area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to compare the discriminative ability of two tools with respect to ICU mortality. The most common organ failure observed was respiratory detected by SOFA of 26% and MODS of 13%, and the second common was cardiovascular detected by SOFA of 18% and MODS of 13%. No hepatic or renal failure occurred, and coagulation failure reported as 2.5% by SOFA and MODS. Cardiovascular failure defined by both tools had a correlation to ICU mortality and it was more significant for SOFA (OR = 6.9, CI = 3.6-13.3, P < 0.05 for SOFA; OR = 5, CI = 3-8.3, P < 0.05 for MODS; AUROC = 0.82 for SOFA; AUROC = 0.73 for MODS). The relationship of cardiovascular failure to dichotomized neurologic outcome was not significant statistically. ICU mortality was not associated with respiratory or coagulation failure. Cardiovascular failure defined by either tool significantly related to ICU mortality. Compared to MODS, SOFA-defined cardiovascular failure was a stronger predictor of death. ICU mortality was not affected by respiratory or coagulation failures.

  4. The contribution of laparoscopy in evaluation of penetrating abdominal wounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naveed; Whelan, Jim; Brownlee, John; Chari, Vedantum; Chung, Raphael

    2005-08-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are traditionally explored by laparotomy. We investigated prospectively the role of laparoscopy within a defined protocol for management of penetrating abdominal wounds to determine its safety and advantages over traditional operative management. The study inclusion criteria were: stab and gun shot abdominal wounds, including junction zone injuries; stable vital signs; and absence of contraindications for laparoscopy. Diagnostic end points included detection of peritoneum or diaphragm violation, visceral injuries, and other indications for laparotomy. Systematic examination was undertaken using a multiport technique whenever the peritoneum or diaphragm had been violated. All repairs were done by open operation. A total of 40.6% of patients with penetrating trauma fulfilled study criteria (52 patients). Of these, 33% had no peritoneal penetration; 29% had no visceral injuries despite violation of peritoneum or diaphragm; 38% had visceral injuries, of which 40% (mainly liver and omentum) required no intervention. Twelve patients (23% of total) had open repairs. No missed injuries or death occurred in the study. Overall, 77% of penetrating injuries with stable vital signs avoided exploratory laparotomy. Compared with National Trauma Data Bank information for patients with the same Injury Severity Scores, hospitalization was reduced by more than 55% for the entire series. Laparoscopy for penetrating abdominal injuries in a defined set of conditions was safe and accurate, effectively eliminating nontherapeutic laparotomy and shortening hospitalization.

  5. Assessment and outcome of 496 penetrating gastrointestinal warfare injuries.

    PubMed

    Saghafinia, M; Nafissi, N; Motamedi, M R K; Motamedi, M H K; Hashemzade, M; Hayati, Z; Panahi, F

    2010-03-01

    The abdominal viscera are among the most vulnerable organs of the body to penetrating trauma. Proper management of such trauma in war victims at the first-line hospital where these victims are first seen is of paramount importance. We reviewed medical records of war victims suffering small bowel and colorectal injuries treated at first, second and third-line hospitals during the Iraq-Iran War (1980-88) to assess surgical outcomes. The medical records of 496 Iranian war victims suffering penetrating gastrointestinal (GI) injuries treated at first, second and third-line (tertiary) hospitals, a total of 19 centres, were reviewed. Laparotomy had been performed at the 1st line hospitals for all patients who had an acute abdomen, whose wounds violated the peritoneum or whose abdominal radiographs showed air or shrapnel in the abdominal cavity. Stable patients were transferred from first-line to second-line or from second line to tertiary hospitals postoperatively. The treatments, complications and patient outcomes were documented and analyzed. There were 496 patients; 145, 220 and 131 victims underwent laparotomy for GI injuries at first, second and third-line hospitals respectively. The small intestine and colon respectively were the most prevalent abdominal organs damaged. Those first treated for GI injuries at front-line hospitals (145 victims) had more serious conditions and could not be transferred prior to surgery and presented a higher prevalence of complications and mortality. Overall mortality from GI surgery was 3.6% (18 patients). Eleven patients (7.5%) whose first GI operation was performed at frontline hospitals and 7 patients (3.2%) who underwent their first surgical operation at second-line hospitals died. The most common reason for these deaths was complications relating to the gastrointestinal operation such as anastomotic leak. Six missed injuries were seen at the frontline and one at second line hospitals. There were no deaths at the 3rd line hospitals

  6. No evidence for circulating mesenchymal stem cells in patients with organ injury.

    PubMed

    Hoogduijn, Martin J; Verstegen, Monique M A; Engela, Anja U; Korevaar, Sander S; Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Merino, Ana; Franquesa, Marcella; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; van der Laan, Luc J W

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in the bone marrow, from where they are thought to migrate through the blood stream to the sites of injury. However, virtually all tissues contain resident MSC that may contribute to local regenerative and immunomodulatory processes, thereby hypothetically preempting the need for recruiting MSC through the bloodstream. Although there is some indication for circulating MSC in animal models, there is little solid evidence for the mobilization and migration of MSC in the human circulation. In the present study, we were unable to detect MSC in the blood of healthy individuals. We then searched for MSC in the blood of ten patients with end-stage renal disease, ten patients with end-stage liver disease, and in eight heart transplant patients with biopsy-proven rejection by culturing of mononuclear cells under MSC-supporting culture conditions. In none of these patient categories, MSC were identified in the blood. MSC were, however, found in the blood of a severe trauma patient with multiple fractures, suggesting that disruption of bone marrow leads to the release of MSC into the blood stream. The conclusion of this study is that MSC are not recruited into the circulation in patients with injured solid organs and during aggressive immune responses after transplantation.

  7. Lung Injury Pathways: Adenosine Receptor 2B Signaling Limits Development of Ischemic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Densmore, John C.; Schaid, Terry R.; Jeziorczak, Paul M.; Medhora, Meetha; Audi, Said; Nayak, Shraddha; Auchampach, John; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Geurts, Aron M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study Adenosine signaling was studied in bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) resulting from unilateral lung ischemia. Materials and Methods Ischemia was achieved by either left main pulmonary artery or complete hilar ligation. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats and SS mutant rat strain containing a mutation in the A2B adenosine receptor gene (Adora2b) were studied. Adenosine concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by HPLC. A2A (A2AAR) and A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) mRNA and protein were quantified. Results 24h after unilateral PA ligation, BAL adenosine concentrations from ischemic lungs were increased relative to contralateral lungs in SD rats. A2BAR mRNA and protein concentrations were increased after PA ligation while miR27a, a negatively regulating microRNA, was decreased in ischemic lungs. A2AAR mRNA and protein concentrations remained unchanged following ischemia. A2BAR protein was increased in PA ligated lungs of SS rats after 7d, and 4h after complete hilar ligation in SD rats. SS-Adora2b mutants showed a greater extent of BOOP relative to SS rats, and greater inflammatory changes. Conclusions Increased A2BAR and adenosine following unilateral lung ischemia as well as more BOOP in A2BAR mutant rats implicate a protective role for A2BAR signaling in countering ischemic lung injury. PMID:28266889

  8. Patterns of kidney injury in pediatric nonkidney solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Borges, K; Banh, T; Vasilevska-Ristovska, J; Chanchlani, R; Ng, V L; Dipchand, A I; Solomon, M; Hebert, D; Kim, S J; Astor, B C; Parekh, R S

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its impact on chronic kidney disease (CKD) following pediatric nonkidney solid organ transplantation is unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence of AKI and CKD and examine their relationship among children who received a heart, lung, liver, or multiorgan transplant at the Hospital for Sick Children between 2002 and 2011. AKI was assessed in the first year posttransplant. Among 303 children, perioperative AKI (within the first week) occurred in 67% of children, and AKI after the first week occurred in 36%, with the highest incidence among lung and multiorgan recipients. Twenty-three children (8%) developed CKD after a median follow-up of 3.4 years. Less than 5 children developed end-stage renal disease, all within 65 days posttransplant. Those with 1 AKI episode by 3 months posttransplant had significantly greater risk for developing CKD after adjusting for age, sex, and estimated glomerular filtration rate at transplant (hazard ratio: 2.77, 95% confidence interval, 1.13-6.80, P trend = .008). AKI is common in the first year posttransplant and associated with significantly greater risk of developing CKD. Close monitoring for kidney disease may allow for earlier implementation of kidney-sparing strategies to decrease risk for progression to CKD. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  10. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  11. Functioning and Disability Analysis of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury by Using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chi, Wen-Chou; Escorpizo, Reuben; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Tsai, Jo-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and spinal cord injuries (SCI) patients’ function and disability by using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0); and to clarify the factors that contribute to disability. We analyzed data available between September 2012 and August 2013 from Taiwan’s national disability registry which is based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. Of the 2664 cases selected for the study, 1316 pertained to TBI and 1348 to SCI. A larger percentage of patients with TBI compared with those with SCI exhibited poor cognition, self-care, relationships, life activities, and participation in society (all p < 0.001). Age, sex, injury type, socioeconomic status, place of residence, and severity of impairment were determined as factors that independently contribute to disability (all p < 0.05). The WHODAS 2.0 is a generic assessment instrument which is appropriate for assessing the complex and multifaceted disability associated with TBI and SCI. Further studies are needed to validate the WHODAS 2.0 for TBI and SCI from a multidisciplinary perspective. PMID:25874682

  12. The role of follow-up ultrasound and clinical parameters after abdominal MDCT in patients with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Lucas L; Körner, M; Linsenmaier, U; Wirth, S; Reiser, M F; Meindl, T

    2014-05-01

    Beside its value during the initial trauma work-up (focused assessment with sonography for trauma), ultrasound (US) is recommended for early follow-up examinations of the abdomen in multiple injured patients. However, multidetector CT (MDCT) has proven to reliably diagnose traumatic lesions of abdominal organs, to depict their extent, and to assess their clinical relevance. To evaluate the diagnostic impact of follow-up US studies after MDCT of the abdomen and to identify possible clinical parameters indicating the need of a follow-up US. During a 30-month period, patients with suspected multiple trauma were allocated. Patients with admission to the ICU, an initial abdominal MDCT scan, and an US follow-up examination after 6 and 24 h were included. Two patient cohorts were defined: patients with normal abdominal MDCT (group 1), patients with trauma-related pathologic abdominal MDCT (group 2). In all patients, parameters indicating alteration of vital functions or hemorrhage within the first 24 h were obtained by reviewing the medical charts. Forty-four of 193 patients were included: 24 were categorized in group 1 (mean age, 41.1 years; range, 21-90 years), 20 in group 2 (mean age, 36.6 years; range, 16-71 years). In group 1, US did not provide new information compared to emergency MDCT. In group 2, there were no contradictory 6- and 24-h follow-up US findings. In patients with positive MDCT findings and alterations of clinical parameters, US did not detect progression of a previously diagnosed pathology or any late manifestation of such a lesion. In none of the patients with negative abdominal MDCT and pathological clinical parameters US indicated an abdominal injury. Routine US follow-up does not yield additional information after abdominal trauma. In patients with MDCT-proven organ lesions, follow-up MDCT should be considered if indicated by abnormal clinical and/or laboratory findings.

  13. Pancreatic injury: accidental or nonaccidental.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perales, Orlando

    2008-10-01

    The diagnosis of abuse in a child with occult abdominal injuries is difficult. Not many patients with nonaccidental trauma present with a clear history of the injury. The absence of a reliable history in patients with nonaccidental trauma makes determination of an exact mechanism difficult. In most cases, patients present to the emergency department with inaccurate or misleading histories; some give no history of trauma, which may delay recognition of serious abdominal injuries. In addition, the child may have other injuries, such as neurologic or musculoskeletal, which divert attention from occult abdominal injuries. Pancreatic and duodenal injuries are considered specific for abuse. We report a child with pancreatic injury without an appropriate history of trauma, determined to be caused by nonaccidental trauma.

  14. Splenic abscess after splenic blunt injury angioembolization.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Dario; Galatioto, Christian; Lippolis, Piero Vincenzo; Modesti, Matteo; Gianardi, Desirée; Bertolucci, Andrea; Cucinotta, Monica; Zocco, Giuseppe; Seccia, Massimo

    2014-11-03

    Splenic Angioembolization (SAE), during Nonoperative Management (NOM) of Blunt Splenic Injury (BSI), is an effective therapy for hemodynamically stable patients with grade III, IV, and V OIS splenic injuries. We report a case of a patient with a blunt abdominal trauma due to an accidental fall, who presented splenic abscess a week after SAE and a review of the literature. A 38-year-old male arrived at Emergency after an accidental fall with contusion of the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT scan revealed the fracture of the lower splenic pole with intraparenchymal pseudoaneurysms (OIS spleen injury scale IV). Considering the hemodynamic stability, NOM was undertaken and SAE was performed. After a week, the patient developed a splenic abscess confirmed by Abdominal CT; therefore, splenectomy was performed. There was no evidence of bacterial growing in the perisplenic hematoma cultures but the histological examination showed multiple abscess and hemorrhagic areas in the spleen. Splenic abscess after SAE during NOM of BSI is a rare major complication. The most frequently cultured organisms include Clostridium perfringens, Alpha-Hemoliticus Streptococcus, gram-positive Staphylococcus, gram-negative Salmonella, Candida, and Aspergillus. This case represents our first reported splenic abscess after SAE. SAE is a very useful tool for BSI managing; splenic abscess can occur in a short time, even if it is a rare major complication, so it may be useful to monitor patients undergoing SAE, focusing not only on the hemodynamic parameters but also on the inflammatory and infectious aspects.

  15. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  16. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  17. Clinical and prognostic role of ammonia in advanced decompensated heart failure. The cardio-abdominal syndrome?

    PubMed

    Frea, Simone; Bovolo, Virginia; Pidello, Stefano; Canavosio, Federico G; Botta, Michela; Bergerone, Serena; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-09-15

    Advanced heart failure is associated with end-organ damage. Recent literature suggested an intriguing crosstalk between failing heart, abdomen and kidneys. Venous ammonia, as a by-product of the gut, could be a marker of abdominal injury in heart failure patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic role of ammonia in patients with advanced decompensated heart failure (ADHF). 90 patients admitted with ADHF were prospectively studied. The prognostic role of ammonia at admission was evaluated. Primary end-points were: a composite of cardiac death, urgent heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support at 3 months and need for renal replacement therapies (RRT). In the study cohort (age 59.0 ± 12.0 years, FE 21.6 ± 9.0%, INTERMACS profile 3.7 ± 0.9, creatinine 1.71 ± 0.95 mg/dl) 27 patients (30%) underwent the cardiac composite endpoint, while 9 patients (10%) needed RRT. At ROC curve analysis ammonia ≥ 130 μg/dl (abdominal damage) showed the best diagnostic accuracy. At multivariate analysis abdominal damage predicted the cardiac composite endpoint. Abdominal damage further increased risk among patient with cold profile at admission (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.0, p = 0.046). At multivariate analysis abdominal damage also predicted need for RRT (OR 10.8, 95% CI 1.5-75.8, p = 0.017). The combined use of estimated right atrial pressure and ammonia showed the highest diagnostic accuracy and a very high specificity in prediction of need for RRT. In a selected population admitted for ADHF ammonia, as a marker of abdominal derangement, predicted adverse cardiac events and need for RRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations.

    PubMed

    Spahlinger, D M; Newcomb, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; DeLancey, J O L; Chen, Luyun

    2014-07-01

    To develop and test a method for measuring the relationship between the rise in intra-abdominal pressure and sagittal plane movements of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls during Valsalva in a pilot sample of women with and without prolapse. Mid-sagittal MRI images were obtained during Valsalva while changes in intra-abdominal pressure were measured via a bladder catheter in 5 women with cystocele, 5 women with rectocele, and 5 controls. The regional compliance of the anterior and posterior vagina wall support systems were estimated from the ratio of displacement (mm) of equidistant points along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls to intra-abdominal pressure rise (mmHg). The compliance of both anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems varied along different regions of vaginal wall for all three groups, with the highest compliance found near the vaginal apex and the lowest near the introitus. Women with cystocele had more compliant anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems than women with rectocele. The movement direction differs between cystocele and rectocele. In cystocele, the anterior vaginal wall moves mostly toward the vaginal orifice in the upper vagina, but in a ventral direction in the lower vagina. In rectocele, the direction of the posterior vaginal wall movement is generally toward the vaginal orifice. Movement of the vaginal wall and compliance of its support is quantifiable and was found to vary along the length of the vagina. Compliance was greatest in the upper vagina of all groups. Women with cystocele demonstrated the most compliant vaginal wall support.

  19. Hepatic and splenic blush on computed tomography in children following blunt abdominal trauma: Is intervention necessary?

    PubMed

    Ingram, Martha-Conley E; Siddharthan, Ragavan V; Morris, Andrew D; Hill, Sarah J; Travers, Curtis D; McKracken, Courtney E; Heiss, Kurt F; Raval, Mehul V; Santore, Matthew T

    2016-08-01

    There are no widely accepted guidelines for management of pediatric patients who have evidence of solid organ contrast extravasation ("blush") on computed tomography (CT) scans following blunt abdominal trauma. We report our experience as a Level 1 pediatric trauma center in managing cases with hepatic and splenic blush. All pediatric blunt abdominal trauma cases resulting in liver or splenic injury were queried from 2008 to 2014. Patients were excluded if a CT was unavailable in the medical record. The presence of contrast blush was based on final reports from attending pediatric radiologists. Correlations between incidence of contrast blush and major outcomes of interest were determined using χ and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively, evaluating statistical significance at p < 0.05. Of 318 patients with splenic or liver injury after blunt abdominal trauma, we report on 30 patients (9%) with solid organ blush, resulting in 18 cases of hepatic blush and 16 cases of splenic blush (four patients had extravasation from both organs). Blush was not found to correlate significantly with age, gender, or type of injury (liver vs. splenic) but was found to associate with higher grades of solid organ injury (p = 0.002) and higher ISS overall (p < 0.001). Patients with contrast blush on imaging were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (90% vs. 41%, p < 0.001), receive blood products, (50% vs. 12%, p < 0.001), and be considered for an intervention (p < 0.001). Eighty percent of patients with an isolated contrast blush of the spleen or liver did not require an operation. Only 17% of patients with blush required definitive treatment, such as embolization (n = 1), packing (n = 1), or splenectomy (n = 3). Blush had no significant correlation with overall survival (p = 0.13). The finding of a blush on CT from a splenic or liver injury is associated with higher grade of injury. These patients receive intensive medical

  20. Lung injury pathways: Adenosine receptor 2B signaling limits development of ischemic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Densmore, John C; Schaid, Terry R; Jeziorczak, Paul M; Medhora, Meetha; Audi, Said; Nayak, Shraddha; Auchampach, John; Dwinell, Melinda R; Geurts, Aron M; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2017-02-01

    Purpose/Aim of the Study: Adenosine signaling was studied in bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) resulting from unilateral lung ischemia. Ischemia was achieved by either left main pulmonary artery or complete hilar ligation. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats and SS mutant rat strains containing a mutation in the A 2B adenosine receptor gene (Adora2b) were studied. Adenosine concentrations were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by HPLC. A 2A (A 2A AR) and A 2B adenosine receptor (A 2B AR) mRNA and protein were quantified. Twenty-four hours after unilateral PA ligation, BAL adenosine concentrations from ischemic lungs were increased relative to contralateral lungs in SD rats. A 2B AR mRNA and protein concentrations were increased after PA ligation while miR27a, a negatively regulating microRNA, was decreased in ischemic lungs. A 2A AR mRNA and protein concentrations remained unchanged following ischemia. A 2B AR protein was increased in PA ligated lungs of SS rats after 7 days, and 4 h after complete hilar ligation in SD rats. SS-Adora2b mutants showed a greater extent of BOOP relative to SS rats, and greater inflammatory changes. Increased A 2B AR and adenosine following unilateral lung ischemia as well as more BOOP in A 2B AR mutant rats implicate a protective role for A 2B AR signaling in countering ischemic lung injury.

  1. Cereal crop volatile organic compound induction after mechanical injury, beetle herbivory (Oulema spp.), or fungal infection (Fusarium spp.).

    PubMed

    Piesik, Dariusz; Pańka, Dariusz; Delaney, Kevin J; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Weaver, David K

    2011-06-15

    Herbivory, mechanical injury or pathogen infestation to vegetative tissues can induce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production, which can provide defensive functions to injured and uninjured plants. In our studies with 'McNeal' wheat, 'Otana' oat, and 'Harrington' barley, plants that were mechanically injured, attacked by either of two Oulema spp. (melanopus or cyanella) beetles, or infected by one of the three Fusarium spp. (graminearum, avenaceum, or culmorum), had significant VOC induction compared to undamaged plants. Mechanical injury to the main stem or one leaf caused the induction of one green leaf volatile (GLV) - (Z)-3-hexenol, and three terpenes (β-linalool, β-caryophyllene, and α-pinene) with all three grasses; wheat and barley also showed β-linalool oxide induction. The blend of induced VOCs after Fusarium spp. infestation or Oulema spp. herbivory was dominated by GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 1-hexenyl acetate) and β-linalool and β-caryophyllene; beetle herbivory also induced (E)-β-farnesene. Different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the two Oulema spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each beetle species. Also, different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the three Fusarium spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each fungal pathogen species. Our results are preliminary since we could not simultaneously measure VOC induction from controls with each of the ten different injury treatments for each of the three cereals. However, the comparison of mechanical injury, insect herbivory, and fungal infection has not been previously examined with VOC responses from three different plant species within the same family. Also, our work suggests large qualitative and quantitative overlap of VOC induction from plants of all three cereals having beetle herbivory injury when compared to infection injury

  2. Safety of repair for severe duodenal injuries.

    PubMed

    Velmahos, George C; Constantinou, Constantinos; Kasotakis, George

    2008-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the management of severe duodenal injuries (SDIs), and earlier studies have recommended pyloric exclusion. The objective of this study was to compare primary repair with pyloric exclusion to examine if primary repair can be safely used in SDIs. The medical records of 193 consecutive patients who were admitted between August 1992 and January 2004 with duodenal injuries were reviewed. After excluding early deaths (n = 50), low-grade duodenal injuries (n = 81), and pancreatoduodenectomies for catastrophic trauma (n = 12), a total of 50 patients with SDIs (grade III, IV, or V) were analyzed. Primary repair (PR--simple duodenorrhaphy or resection and primary anastomosis) was performed in 34 (68%) and pyloric exclusion (PE) in 16 (32%). Characteristics and outcomes of these two groups were compared. PE and PR patients were similar for age, injury severity score, abdominal abbreviated injury score, physiologic status on admission, time to operation, and most abdominal organs injured. PE patients had more pancreatic injuries (63% vs. 24%, p < 0.01), a higher frequency of injuries to the first and second part of the duodenum (79% vs. 42%, p = 0.02), and a nonsignificant trend toward more grade IV and V injuries (37% vs. 18%, p = 0.11). There was no difference in morbidity (including complications specific to the duodenal repair), mortality, and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay between the two groups. Pyloric exclusion is not necessary for all patients with SDIs, as previously suggested. Selected SDI patients can be safely managed by simple primary repair.

  3. Psychometric Validation of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0-Twelve-Item Version in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Ruiz, Derek; Mohr, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factorial and concurrent validity and internal consistency reliability of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item version in persons with spinal cord injuries. Method: Two hundred forty-seven adults with spinal cord injuries completed an online survey consisting of the WHODAS…

  4. Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Brian L; Gao, Feng; Narayanan, Jayashree; Bergom, Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E; Orschell, Christie M; Medhora, Meetha

    2016-11-01

    The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients. In the current study, the authors have developed a rat partial-body irradiation (leg-out PBI) model with minimal bone marrow sparing (one leg shielded) that results in acute and late injuries to multiple organs. In this model, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (at ~24 mg m d started orally in the drinking water at 7 d after irradiation and continued to ≥150 d) mitigated late effects in the lungs and kidneys after 12.5-Gy leg-out PBI. Also in this model, a short course of saline hydration and antibiotics mitigated acute radiation syndrome following doses as high as 13 Gy. Combining this supportive care with the lisinopril regimen mitigated overall morbidity for up to 150 d after 13-Gy leg-out PBI. Furthermore, lisinopril was an effective mitigator in the presence of the growth factor G-CSF (100 μg kg d from days 1-14), which is FDA-approved for use in a radionuclear event. In summary, by combining lisinopril (FDA-approved for other indications) with hydration and antibiotics, acute and delayed radiation injuries in multiple organs were mitigated.

  5. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. PMID:24653791

  6. Acute abdomen in children due to extra-abdominal causes.

    PubMed

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Kambouri, Katerina; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Deftereos, Savas; Chatzimichael, Athanasios

    2008-06-01

    Acute abdominal pain in children is a common cause for referral to the emergency room and for subsequent hospitalization to pediatric medical or surgical departments. There are rare occasions when the abdominal pain is derived from extra-abdominal organs or systems. The aim of the present study was to establish the most common extra-abdominal causes of acute abdominal pain. The notes of all children (1 month-14 years of age) examined for acute abdominal pain in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department of Alexandroupolis District University Hospital in January 2001-December 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory findings were recorded, as well as the final diagnosis and outcome. Of a total number of 28 124 children who were brought to the A&E department, in 1731 the main complaint was acute abdominal pain. In 51 children their symptoms had an extra-abdominal cause, the most frequent being pneumonia (n = 15), tonsillitis (n = 10), otitis media (n = 9), and acute leukemia (n = 5). Both abdominal and extra-abdominal causes should be considered by a pediatrician who is confronted with a child with acute abdominal pain.

  7. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  8. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  9. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  10. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  11. Effect of lycopene against cisplatin-induced acute renal injury in rats: organic anion and cation transporters evaluation.

    PubMed

    Erman, Fazilet; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Sahin, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the expression of organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs), and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Twenty-eight 8-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, lycopene-treated (6 mg/kg BW by oral gavage), cisplatin-treated (7 mg/kg BW, IP), and lycopene in combination with cisplatin-treated groups. In the presence of cisplatin, serum urea nitrogen (urea-N) (48.5 vs. 124.3 mg/dl) and creatinine (0.29 vs. 1.37 mg/dl) levels and the kidney efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 levels were significantly increased, whereas OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, and OCT2 levels in kidney were decreased in the treated rats compared with normal control rats. However, administration of lycopene in combination with cisplatin resulted in a reduction in the serum urea-N (124.3 vs. 62.4) and creatinine (1.37 vs. 0.40) levels and the kidney efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 proteins in the kidneys. Administration of lycopene to acute renal injury-induced rats largely upregulated the organic anion transporters (OAT1 and 3) and organic cation transporters (OCT1 and 2) to decrease the side effects of cisplatin. The present study suggests that lycopene synergizes with its nephroprotective effect against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

  12. Virtual modeling of robot-assisted manipulations in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Berelavichus, Stanislav V; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Shirokov, Vadim S; Kubyshkin, Valeriy A; Kriger, Andrey G; Kondratyev, Evgeny V; Zakharova, Olga P

    2012-06-27

    To determine the effectiveness of using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data in preoperative planning of robot-assisted surgery. Fourteen patients indicated for surgery underwent MDCT using 64 and 256-slice MDCT. Before the examination, a specially constructed navigation net was placed on the patient's anterior abdominal wall. Processing of MDCT data was performed on a Brilliance Workspace 4 (Philips). Virtual vectors that imitate robotic and assistant ports were placed on the anterior abdominal wall of the 3D model of the patient, considering the individual anatomy of the patient and the technical capabilities of robotic arms. Sites for location of the ports were directed by projection on the roentgen-positive tags of the navigation net. There were no complications observed during surgery or in the post-operative period. We were able to reduce robotic arm interference during surgery. The surgical area was optimal for robotic and assistant manipulators without any need for reinstallation of the trocars. This method allows modeling of the main steps in robot-assisted intervention, optimizing operation of the manipulator and lowering the risk of injuries to internal organs.

  13. Restrictive versus Liberal Fluid Therapy for Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Myles, Paul S; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Corcoran, Tomas; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip; Story, David; Christophi, Chris; Leslie, Kate; McGuinness, Shay; Parke, Rachael; Serpell, Jonathan; Chan, Matthew T V; Painter, Thomas; McCluskey, Stuart; Minto, Gary; Wallace, Sophie

    2018-05-09

    Background Guidelines to promote the early recovery of patients undergoing major surgery recommend a restrictive intravenous-fluid strategy for abdominal surgery. However, the supporting evidence is limited, and there is concern about impaired organ perfusion. Methods In a pragmatic, international trial, we randomly assigned 3000 patients who had an increased risk of complications while undergoing major abdominal surgery to receive a restrictive or liberal intravenous-fluid regimen during and up to 24 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was disability-free survival at 1 year. Key secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury at 30 days, renal-replacement therapy at 90 days, and a composite of septic complications, surgical-site infection, or death. Results During and up to 24 hours after surgery, 1490 patients in the restrictive fluid group had a median intravenous-fluid intake of 3.7 liters (interquartile range, 2.9 to 4.9), as compared with 6.1 liters (interquartile range, 5.0 to 7.4) in 1493 patients in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of disability-free survival at 1 year was 81.9% in the restrictive fluid group and 82.3% in the liberal fluid group (hazard ratio for death or disability, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.24; P=0.61). The rate of acute kidney injury was 8.6% in the restrictive fluid group and 5.0% in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of septic complications or death was 21.8% in the restrictive fluid group and 19.8% in the liberal fluid group (P=0.19); rates of surgical-site infection (16.5% vs. 13.6%, P=0.02) and renal-replacement therapy (0.9% vs. 0.3%, P=0.048) were higher in the restrictive fluid group, but the between-group difference was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusions Among patients at increased risk for complications during major abdominal surgery, a restrictive fluid regimen was not associated with a higher rate of disability-free survival than a liberal fluid regimen and

  14. Urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in deceased organ donors--kidney injury molecule-1 as an adjunct to predicting outcome.

    PubMed

    Field, Melanie; Dronavalli, Vamsi; Mistry, Punam; Drayson, Mark; Ready, Andrew; Cobbold, Mark; Inston, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Deceased kidney donors are increasingly "marginal," and many have risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) that may impact on subsequent renal transplant outcome. Despite this, determining the presence of AKI at the time of deceased organ donation remains difficult. Urine samples from 182 brainstem dead multi-organ donors (all of whom donated hearts that were transplanted) were analyzed for a Luminex(™) panel of biomarkers linked with AKI. This included KIM-1, NGAL, IFN-γ, TNF-α, cystatin C, Fractalkine and vascular endothelial growth factor. Levels were correlated to early renal transplant outcomes, most specifically delayed graft function. Donor urinary KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in donors whose kidneys displayed aberrant early function (p = 0.011). Fractalkine levels showed a trend toward elevation in such donors but uncorrected this did not attain significance. No correlation occurred with the remaining biomarkers. KIM-1 appears to show promise as a marker for AKI in deceased cardiac organ donors. The availability of a lateral flow device (Renastick(™) ) for KIM-1 that also demonstrates higher urinary KIM-1 levels in donors whose kidneys show aberrant initial function (p = 0.03), makes KIM-1 a potential indicator of AKI that may merit further evaluation for its application at the donor bedside. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  17. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  18. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  19. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  20. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  1. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  2. Management of a severe thoracoabdominal injury from motorized sawing machine in a temporary semi-urban university teaching hospital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fente, B G; Nwagwu, C C; Ogulu, B N; Orukari, G I B; Okere, E O; Miss Ouserigha, O E

    2012-01-01

    Report of our experience and outcome of a case of severe thoracoabdominal injuries by motorized sawing machine (a rare cause) in a Semi-Urban temporary University Teaching Hospital. Literature review on the topic was done using Pubmed. Relevant journals and topics were also reviewed. Textbooks on relevant topics were also searched. A 25 year old male timber-cutter was traumatized by motorized sawing machine injuring the left half of the chest, upper abdomen, the left shoulder and left hand. It is an unusual presentation of penetrating thoracoabdominal injury. There was open pneumotharax, 3th-8th ribs fractures, diaphragmatic laceration, and eviscerations of abdominal contents without affecting other thoraco-abdominal organs. Urgent surgical intervention done was the only option. The challenges posed by severe motorized sawing machine thoraco-abdominal injuries in a Semi-Urban temporary University Teaching Hospital were successfully managed due to rapid pre-hospital transfer and co-ordinated team effort.

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of duodenal injury and fistula].

    PubMed

    Gong, Kunmei; Guo, Shikui; Wang, Kunhua

    2017-03-25

    Duodenal injury is a serious abdominal organ injury. Duodenal fistula is one of the most serious complications in gastrointestinal surgery, which is concerned for its critical status, difficulty in treatment and high mortality. Thoracic and abdominal compound closed injury and a small part of open injury are common causes of duodenal injury. Iatrogenic or traumatic injury, malnutrition, cancer, tuberculosis, Crohn's disease etc. are common causes of duodenal fistula, however, there has been still lacking of ideal diagnosis and treatment by now. The primary treatment strategy of duodenal fistula is to determine the cause of disease and its key point is prevention, including perioperative parenteral and enteral nutrition support, improvement of hypoproteinemia actively, avoidance of stump ischemia by excessive separate duodenum intraoperatively, performance of appropriate duodenum stump suture to ensure the stump blood supply, and avoidance of postoperative input loop obstruction, postoperative stump bleeding or hematoma etc. Once duodenal fistula occurs, a simple and reasonable operation can be selected and performed after fluid prohibition, parenteral and enteral nutrition, acid suppression, enzyme inhibition, anti-infective treatment and maintaining water salt electrolyte and acid-base balance. Double tube method, duodenal decompression and peritoneal drainage can reduce duodenal fistula-related complications, and then reduce the mortality, which can save the lives of patients.

  4. Motor vehicle crash-related injury causation scenarios for spinal injuries in restrained children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Locey, Caitlin M; Scarfone, Steven R; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2014-01-01

    the seat pan. Nearly all injuries in children<12 years occurred by flexion over a restraint, whereas teenage passengers had flexion, direct contact, and other ICS mechanisms. All of the occupants with frontal flexion mechanism had injuries to the lumbar spine, and most (78%) had associated hollow or solid organ abdominal injuries. Restrained children in nonrollover MVCs with spinal injuries in the CIREN database are most frequently in high-speed frontal crashes, of teenage age, and have vertebral fractures. There are age-specific mechanism patterns that should be further explored. Because even moderate spinal trauma can result in measurable morbidity, future efforts should focus on mitigating these injuries.

  5. Improving the Quality of Staff and Participant Interaction in an Acquired Brain Injury Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Weekly observations of direct-care staff in a facility for persons with brain injury yielded less than optimal interactional style with facility residents. Following an observational baseline, staff were asked to self-rate a 15-min video sample of their interaction behavior with participants on their unit. They were then asked to compare their…

  6. Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2008-01-01

    In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C

  7. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  8. The management of complex pancreatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Krige, J E J; Beningfield, S J; Nicol, A J; Navsaria, P

    2005-08-01

    Major injuries of the pancreas are uncommon, but may result in considerable morbidity and mortality because of the magnitude of associated vascular and duodenal injuries or underestimation of the extent of the pancreatic injury. Prognosis is influenced by the cause and complexity of the pancreatic injury, the amount of blood lost, duration of shock, speed of resuscitation and quality and nature of surgical intervention. Early mortality usually results from uncontrolled or massive bleeding due to associated vascular and adjacent organ injuries. Late mortality is a consequence of infection or multiple organ failure. Neglect of major pancreatic duct injury may lead to life-threatening complications including pseudocysts, fistulas, pancreatitis, sepsis and secondary haemorrhage. Careful operative assessment to determine the extent of gland damage and the likelihood of duct injury is usually sufficient to allow planning of further management. This strategy provides a simple approach to the management of pancreatic injuries regardless of the cause. Four situations are defined by the extent and site of injury: (i) minor lacerations, stabs or gunshot wounds of the superior or inferior border of the body or tail of the pancreas (i.e. remote from the main pancreatic duct), without visible duct involvement, are best managed by external drainage; (ii) major lacerations or gunshot or stab wounds in the body or tail with visible duct involvement or transection of more than half the width of the pancreas are treated by distal pancreatectomy; (iii) stab wounds, gunshot wounds and contusions of the head of the pancreas without devitalisation of pancreatic tissue are managed by external drainage, provided that any associated duodenal injury is amenable to simple repair; and (iv) non-reconstructable injuries with disruption of the ampullary-biliary-pancreatic union or major devitalising injuries of the pancreatic head and duodenum in stable patients are best treated by

  9. Non-vascular interventional procedures: effective dose to patient and equivalent dose to abdominal organs by means of DICOM images and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Marchioni, Chiara; Insero, Teresa; Donnarumma, Raffaella; D'Adamo, Alessandro; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Cannavale, Alessandro; Di Castro, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates X-ray exposure in patient undergoing abdominal extra-vascular interventional procedures by means of Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine (DICOM) image headers and Monte Carlo simulation. The main aim was to assess the effective and equivalent doses, under the hypothesis of their correlation with the dose area product (DAP) measured during each examination. This allows to collect dosimetric information about each patient and to evaluate associated risks without resorting to in vivo dosimetry. The dose calculation was performed in 79 procedures through the Monte Carlo simulator PCXMC (A PC-based Monte Carlo program for calculating patient doses in medical X-ray examinations), by using the real geometrical and dosimetric irradiation conditions, automatically extracted from DICOM headers. The DAP measurements were also validated by using thermoluminescent dosemeters on an anthropomorphic phantom. The expected linear correlation between effective doses and DAP was confirmed with an R(2) of 0.974. Moreover, in order to easily calculate patient doses, conversion coefficients that relate equivalent doses to measurable quantities, such as DAP, were obtained. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pentoxifylline fails to improve organ dysfunction and survival when used in the resuscitation of a porcine model of haemorrhage and abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Parker, S J; Brown, D; Kenward, C E; Watkins, P E

    2000-03-01

    Pentoxifylline is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, known to suppress tumour necrosis factor-alpha production and improve cardiopulmonary parameters and survival in animal models of sepsis. Using a porcine model of abdominal trauma resulting from the combined insults of haemorrhage and infection, a randomised placebo-controlled trial was conducted of pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg bolus followed by 20 mg/kg infusion over 1 h) administered in addition to a colloid resuscitation regimen. Female Large White pigs (45-60 kg) were bled 40% of their blood volume and peritonitis was induced using E. coli (O18: K1: H7) in an autoclaved faecal suspension. Animals were resuscitated with either colloid alone (n=5) or colloid plus pentoxifylline (n=5). Pentoxifylline attenuated increases in mean arterial and pulmonary artery pressures and reduced both systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. It worsened the lactic acidosis associated with 'septic shock' and failed to reduce serum TNF-alpha levels. Pentoxifylline, in the high doses used in this study, does not have a role as an adjunct to resuscitation in this clinically relevant model of trauma.

  11. Contemporary Strategies in the Management of Civilian Abdominal Vascular Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karaolanis, Georgios; Moris, Dimitrios; McCoy, C. Cameron; Tsilimigras, Diamantis I.; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Bakoyiannis, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation and management of patients with abdominal vascular trauma or injury requires immediate and effective decision-making in these unfavorable circumstances. The majority of these patients arrive at trauma centers in profound shock, secondary to massive blood loss, which is often unrelenting. Moreover, ischemia, compartment syndrome, thrombosis, and embolization may also be life threatening and require immediate intervention. To minimize the risk of these potentially lethal complications, early understanding of the disease process and emergent therapeutic intervention are necessary. In the literature, the management of acute traumatic vascular injuries is restricted to traditional open surgical techniques. However, in penetrating injuries surgeons often face a potentially contaminated field, which renders the placement of prosthetic grafts inappropriate. Currently, however, there are sparse data on the management of vascular trauma with endovascular techniques. The role of endovascular technique in penetrating abdominal vascular trauma, which is almost always associated with severe active bleeding, is limited. It is worth mentioning that hybrid operating rooms with angiographic radiology capabilities offer more opportunities for the management of this kind of injuries by either temporary control of the devastating bleeding using endovascular balloon tamponade or with embolization and stenting. On the other hand, blunt abdominal injuries are less dangerous and they could be treated at most times by endovascular means. Since surgeons continue to encounter abdominal vascular trauma, open and endovascular techniques will evolve constantly giving us encouraging messages for the near future. PMID:29516005

  12. Trends in nonoperative management of traumatic injuries – A synopsis

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Stanislaw P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonoperative management of both blunt and penetrating injuries can be challenging. During the past three decades, there has been a major shift from operative to increasingly nonoperative management of traumatic injuries. Greater reliance on nonoperative, or “conservative” management of abdominal solid organ injuries is facilitated by the various sophisticated and highly accurate noninvasive imaging modalities at the trauma surgeon’s disposal. This review discusses selected topics in nonoperative management of both blunt and penetrating trauma. Potential complications and pitfalls of nonoperative management are discussed. Adjunctive interventional therapies used in treatment of nonoperative management-related complications are also discussed. Republished with permission from: Stawicki SPA. Trends in nonoperative management of traumatic injuries – A synopsis. OPUS 12 Scientist 2007;1(1):19-35. PMID:28382258

  13. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  14. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Charles W; Pagulayan, Kathleen F; Petrie, Eric C; Mayer, Cynthia L; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A; Shofer, Jane B; Hart, Kim L; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2012-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation.

  15. Modulating the Biologic Activity of Mesenteric Lymph after Traumatic Shock Decreases Systemic Inflammation and End Organ Injury.

    PubMed

    Langness, Simone; Costantini, Todd W; Morishita, Koji; Eliceiri, Brian P; Coimbra, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) causes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML), triggering a systemic inflammatory response and acute lung injury (ALI). Direct and pharmacologic vagal nerve stimulation prevents gut barrier failure and alters the biologic activity of ML after injury. We hypothesize that treatment with a pharmacologic vagal agonist after T/HS would attenuate the biologic activity of ML and prevent ALI. ML was collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats after T/HS, trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS with administration of the pharmacologic vagal agonist CPSI-121. ML samples from each experimental group were injected into naïve mice to assess biologic activity. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in STAT3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3). Lung injury was characterized by histology, permeability and immune cell recruitment. T/HS lymph injected in naïve mice caused a systemic inflammatory response characterized by hypotension and increased circulating monocyte pSTAT3 activity. Injection of T/HS lymph also resulted in ALI, confirmed by histology, lung permeability and increased recruitment of pulmonary macrophages and neutrophils to lung parenchyma. CPSI-121 attenuated T/HS lymph-induced systemic inflammatory response and ALI with stable hemodynamics and similar monocyte pSTAT3 levels, lung histology, lung permeability and lung immune cell recruitment compared to animals injected with lymph from T/SS. Treatment with CPSI-121 after T/HS attenuated the biologic activity of the ML and decreased ALI. Given the superior clinical feasibility of utilizing a pharmacologic approach to vagal nerve stimulation, CPSI-121 is a potential treatment strategy to limit end organ dysfunction after injury.

  16. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. SRT1720, a sirtuin 1 activator, attenuates organ injury and inflammation in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Khader, Adam; Yang, Weng-Lang; Hansen, Laura W; Rajayer, Salil R; Prince, Jose M; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Sepsis affects 800,000 patients in the United States annually with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Recent studies suggest that sepsis-associated metabolic derangements due to hypoxic tissue injury, impaired oxygen utilization, and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to mortality. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a crucial modulator of energy metabolism during starvation states and has anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we hypothesized that SRT1720, a Sirt1 activator, could attenuate the severity of sepsis. Male C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis. SRT1720 (5 or 20 mg/kg BW) or 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle) in 0.2-mL saline was injected intravenously at 5 h after CLP. Control animals were not subjected to any surgery. Blood and liver samples were harvested at 20 h after CLP for analysis. Administration of SRT1720 markedly reduced the serum levels of tissue injury markers (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and renal injury markers (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) in a dose-dependent manner after CLP. Furthermore, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the serum and liver were significantly inhibited by SRT1720 treatment after CLP. SRT1720 treatment resulted in a significantly decreased mRNA expression of inflammasome components (nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3, adapter apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase-recruitment domain, IL-1β, and IL-18) in the liver, compared with the vehicle group. SRT1720 treatment attenuates multiorgan injury in septic mice. SRT1720 treatment also decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reduces inflammasome activation. Thus, pharmacologic stimulation of Sirt1 may present a promising therapeutic strategy for sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zebrafish as model organisms for studying drug-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Dear, James W

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major challenge in clinical medicine and drug development. New models are needed for predicting which potential therapeutic compounds will cause DILI in humans, and new markers and mediators of DILI still need to be identified. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of using zebrafish as a high-throughput in vivo model for studying DILI. Although the zebrafish liver architecture is different from that of the mammalian liver, the main physiological processes remain similar. Zebrafish metabolize drugs using similar pathways to those in humans; they possess a wide range of cytochrome P450 enzymes that enable metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, conjugation, oxidation, demethylation and de-ethylation. Following exposure to a range of hepatotoxic drugs, the zebrafish liver develops histological patterns of injury comparable to those of mammalian liver, and biomarkers for liver injury can be quantified in the zebrafish circulation. The zebrafish immune system is similar to that of mammals, but the zebrafish inflammatory response to DILI is not yet defined. In order to quantify DILI in zebrafish, a wide variety of methods can be used, including visual assessment, quantification of serum enzymes and experimental serum biomarkers and scoring of histopathology. With further development, the zebrafish may be a model that complements rodents and may have value for the discovery of new disease pathways and translational biomarkers. PMID:24773296

  19. Report of a rare case: occult hemothorax due to blunt trauma without obvious injury to other organs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic hemothorax commonly occurs accompanied by organ damage, such as rib fractures, lung injury and diaphragm rupture. Our reported patient was a 61-year-old man who fell down from a stepladder about 1 meter in height, resulting in a heavy blow to the left abdomen. He consulted a clinic because of left chest pain the next day and was transported to the emergency center of our hospital on diagnosis of hemothorax with hemorrhagic shock. On computed tomography scanning with contrast medium, left hemothorax without rib fracture, diaphragm rupture or obvious organ injury was evident. We found only bleeding to the thoracic space from a branch of the left inferior phrenic artery without involvement of the abdomen. The patient underwent percutaneous angiography and embolization for hemostasis, and subsequently thoracotomy in order to check the active bleeding and remove the hematoma to improve respiratory. As thoracotomy findings, we found damage of a branch of the left inferior phrenic artery to the thoracic space without diaphragm rupture, and sutured the lesion. Such active intervention followed by surgical procedures was effective and should be considered for rare occurrences like the present case. We must consider not only traumatic diaphragm rupture, but also vascular damage by pressure trauma as etiological factors for hemothorax. PMID:24176006

  20. Report of a rare case: occult hemothorax due to blunt trauma without obvious injury to other organs.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Fumihiro; Naito, Masahito; Iyoda, Akira; Satoh, Yukitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Traumatic hemothorax commonly occurs accompanied by organ damage, such as rib fractures, lung injury and diaphragm rupture. Our reported patient was a 61-year-old man who fell down from a stepladder about 1 meter in height, resulting in a heavy blow to the left abdomen. He consulted a clinic because of left chest pain the next day and was transported to the emergency center of our hospital on diagnosis of hemothorax with hemorrhagic shock.On computed tomography scanning with contrast medium, left hemothorax without rib fracture, diaphragm rupture or obvious organ injury was evident. We found only bleeding to the thoracic space from a branch of the left inferior phrenic artery without involvement of the abdomen. The patient underwent percutaneous angiography and embolization for hemostasis, and subsequently thoracotomy in order to check the active bleeding and remove the hematoma to improve respiratory. As thoracotomy findings, we found damage of a branch of the left inferior phrenic artery to the thoracic space without diaphragm rupture, and sutured the lesion. Such active intervention followed by surgical procedures was effective and should be considered for rare occurrences like the present case. We must consider not only traumatic diaphragm rupture, but also vascular damage by pressure trauma as etiological factors for hemothorax.

  1. Use of a portable voice organizer to remember therapy goals in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: a within-subjects trial.

    PubMed

    Hart, Tessa; Hawkey, Karen; Whyte, John

    2002-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a portable voice organizer in helping people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to recall therapy goals and plans discussed with their clinical case managers. Prospective within-subjects trial, in which individualized therapy goals were randomly assigned to intervention or no intervention. Comprehensive postacute TBI rehabilitation program. Ten people with moderate to severe TBI enrolled from 3 months to 18 years after injury. Memory for therapy goals. Clinicians generated statements describing six current therapy goals, half of which were randomly assigned to be recorded on a voice organizer during the next case management session. Participants selected three times per day to listen to the recorded goals, prompted by an alarm. One-week recall was tested using both free- and cued-recall formats. Recorded goals were recalled better than unrecorded goals and appeared to be associated with better awareness or follow-through with therapy objectives. Portable electronic devices have the potential to assist with treatment areas beyond tasks involving prospective memory.

  2. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  3. Somatization symptoms in pediatric abdominal pain patients: relation to chronicity of abdominal pain and parent somatization.

    PubMed

    Walker, L S; Garber, J; Greene, J W

    1991-08-01

    Symptoms of somatization were investigated in pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and comparison groups of patients with organic etiology for abdominal pain and well patients. Somatization scores were higher in RAP patients than well patients at the clinic visit, and higher than in either well patients or organic patients at a 3-month followup. Higher somatization scores in mothers and fathers were associated with higher somatization scores in RAP patients, but not in organic or well patients. Contrary to the findings of Ernst, Routh, and Harper (1984), chronicity of abdominal pain in RAP patients was not significantly associated with their level of somatization symptoms. Psychometric information about the Children's Somatization Inventory is presented.

  4. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  5. Missile Diaphragmatic Injuries: Kashmir Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Reyaz A; Akbar, Bhat M; Sharma, ML; Lateef, Wani M; Ahangar, AG; Lone, GN; Dar, A M; Singh, Shyam; Shah, Mubbashir; Hussain, Zahur; Irshad, Ifat; Rasool, Fouzia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Importance of repairing a diaphragmatic tear due to a missile injury cannot be overemphasized. Even a small diaphragmatic rent should be repaired because of morbidity and mortality caused by subsequent herniation and strangulation. Methods: Fifty-three cases with diaphragmatic injuries caused by penetrating missiles were studied from January 1997 to January 2007. All the patients were primarily explored either for thoracic or abdominal penetrating trauma; the diaphragmatic injury was an associated incidental intraoperative finding. Thoracotomy was performed in 18 patients, Laprotomy in 33 patients and in two patients combined thorocoabdominal approach was utilised for managing associated visceral injuries. Results: Overall mortality was 37.7%. Mortality was dependent on associated injuries of thoracic and abdominal viscera. Most patients died due to associated injuries and septicaemia. None of the patients had any sequelae of diaphragmatic repair. Conclusion: Immediate repair of diaphragmatic injury is of paramount importance to prevent subsequent complications of herniation and strangulation. PMID:21475506

  6. [Characteristics and Treatment Strategies for Penetrating Injuries on the Example of Gunshot and Blast Victims without Ballistic Body Armour in Afghanistan (2009 - 2013)].

    PubMed

    Güsgen, Christoph; Willms, Arnulf; Richardsen, Ines; Bieler, Dan; Kollig, Erwin; Schwab, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers. Methods An analysis was performed based on data from patients who were treated in the German Military Hospital Mazar-e Sharif for gunshots or injuries from explosions in the years 2009 to 2013. The data selection was based on patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and/or abdomen. For better comparability with civilian attack scenarios, this study only included civilian patients without ballistic body protection (body armour, protective vests). Results Out of 117 analysed patients, 58 were affected by firearms and 59 by explosive injuries of the thorax or abdomen. 60% of patients had a thoracic injury, 69% had an abdominal injury, and 25.6% had combined thoracic-abdominal injuries. Blast injury patients were significantly more affected by thoracic trauma. As regards abdominal injuries, liver, intestinal, and colonic lesions were leading in number. Patients with blast injuries had significantly more injured organs and a significantly higher ISS averaging 29. 26% of the shot patients and 41% of the blast wounded patients received Damage Control Surgery (DCS). Despite a lower ISS, gunshot victims did not have a lower total number of operations per patient. Overall mortality was 13.7% (10.3% gunshot wounds, 16.7% blast injury). The highest mortality rate (25.7%) was recorded for patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries (vs. 8.3% for thoracic and 8.7% for abdominal injuries). The ISS of deceased patients was

  7. The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of geographic information science to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S. Morad; Fiedler, Robert; Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite important advances in the prevention and treatment of trauma, preventable injuries continue to impact the lives of millions of people. Motor vehicle collisions and violence claim close to 3 million lives each year worldwide. Public health agencies have promoted the need for systematic and ongoing surveillance as a foundation for successful injury control. Surveillance has been used to quantify the incidence of injury for the prioritization of further research, monitor trends over time, identify new injury patterns, and plan and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts. Advances in capability to handle spatial data and substantial increases in computing power have positioned geographic information science (GIS) as a potentially important tool for health surveillance and the spatial organization of health care, and for informing prevention and acute care interventions. Two themes emerge in the trauma literature with respect to GIS theory and techniques: identifying determinants associated with the risk of trauma to guide injury prevention efforts and evaluating the spatial organization and accessibility of acute trauma care systems. We review the current literature on trauma and GIS research and provide examples of the importance of accounting for spatial scale when using spatial analysis for surveillance. The examples illustrate the effect of scale on incident analysis, the geographic variation of major injury across British Columbia's health service delivery areas (HSDAs) and the rates of variation of injury within individual HSDAs. PMID:18841227

  8. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Qazi, Saqib Hamid; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Akhtar, Wassem; Majeed, Amina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1,2000 to December 31,2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonograpy had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be limited to those cases in which focussed

  9. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant.

  11. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  12. The phenoptosis problem: what is causing the death of an organism? Lessons from acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Zorov, D B; Plotnikov, E Y; Jankauskas, S S; Isaev, N K; Silachev, D N; Zorova, L D; Pevzner, I B; Pulkova, N V; Zorov, S D; Morosanova, M A

    2012-07-01

    Programmed execution of various cells and intracellular structures is hypothesized to be not the only example of elimination of biological systems - the general mechanism can also involve programmed execution of organs and organisms. Modern rating of programmed cell death mechanisms includes 13 mechanistic types. As for some types, the mechanism of actuation and manifestation of cell execution has been basically elucidated, while the causes and intermediate steps of the process of fatal failure of organs and organisms remain unknown. The analysis of deaths resulting from a sudden heart arrest or multiple organ failure and other acute and chronic pathologies leads to the conclusion of a special role of mitochondria and oxidative stress activating the immune system. Possible mechanisms of mitochondria-mediated induction of the signaling cascades involved in organ failure and death of the organism are discussed. These mechanisms include generation of reactive oxygen species and damage-associated molecular patterns in mitochondria. Some examples of renal failure-induced deaths are presented with mechanisms and settings determined by some hypothetical super system rather than by the kidneys themselves. This system plays the key role in the process of physiological senescence and termination of an organism. The facts presented suggest that it is the immune system involved in mitochondrial signaling that can act as the system responsible for the organism's death.

  13. Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dirk; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Güthoff, Claas; Mutze, Sven

    2015-09-14

    Ultrasonography (performed by means of a four-quadrant, focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST)) is regarded as a key instrument for the initial assessment of patients with suspected blunt abdominal and thoraco-abdominal trauma in the emergency department setting. FAST has a high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting and excluding visceral injuries. Proponents of FAST argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of unnecessary multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans, and enable quicker triage to surgical and non-surgical care. Given the proven accuracy, increasing availability of, and indication for, MDCT among patients with blunt abdominal and multiple injuries, we aimed to compile the best available evidence of the use of FAST-based assessment compared with other primary trauma assessment protocols. To assess the effects of diagnostic algorithms using ultrasonography including in FAST examinations in the emergency department in relation to the early, late, and overall mortality of patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. The most recent search was run on 30th June 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. Trial authors were contacted for further information and individual patient data. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were patients with blunt torso, abdominal, or multiple trauma undergoing diagnostic investigations for abdominal organ injury. The intervention was diagnostic algorithms comprising emergency ultrasonography (US). The control was diagnostic algorithms without US examinations (for example, primary computed tomography (CT) or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL)). Outcomes were mortality, use of CT or invasive procedures (DPL

  14. Diagnosis and classification of pancreatic and duodenal injuries in emergency radiology.

    PubMed

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian; Körner, Markus

    2008-10-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal injuries after blunt abdominal trauma are rare; however, delays in diagnosis and treatment can significantly increase morbidity and mortality. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) has a major role in early diagnosis of pancreatic and duodenal injuries. Detecting the often subtle signs of injury with whole-body CT can be difficult because this technique usually does not include a dedicated protocol for scanning the pancreas. Specific injury patterns in the pancreas and duodenum often have variable expression at early posttraumatic multidetector CT: They may be hardly visible, or there may be considerable exudate, hematomas, organ ruptures, or active bleeding. An accurate multidetector CT technique allows optimized detection of subtle abnormalities. In duodenal injuries, differentiation between a contusion of the duodenal wall or mural hematoma and a duodenal perforation is vital. In pancreatic injuries, determination of involvement of the pancreatic duct is essential. The latter conditions require immediate surgical intervention. Use of organ injury scales and a surgical classification adapted for multidetector CT enables classification of organ injuries for trauma scoring, treatment planning, and outcome control. In addition, multidetector CT reliably demonstrates potential complications of duodenal and pancreatic injuries, such as posttraumatic pancreatitis, pseudocysts, fistulas, exudates, and abscesses. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  15. Acute Kidney Injury Enhances Outcome Prediction Ability of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission. Results One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4%) patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%). Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032) was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001) for SOFA score ≤10 vs. ≥11 in these ICU patients with AKI. Conclusions For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ≥ “11” on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome. PMID:25279844

  16. End-of-life practices in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain: implications for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gil, B; Coll, E; Pont, T; Lebrón, M; Miñambres, E; Coronil, A; Quindós, B; Herrero, J E; Liébanas, C; Marcelo, B; Sanmartín, A M; Matesanz, R

    2017-04-01

    To describe end-of-life care practices relevant to organ donation in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain. A multicenter prospective study of a retrospective cohort. 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015. Sixty-eight hospitals authorized for organ procurement. Patients dying from devastating brain injury (possible donors). Age: 1 month-85 years. Type of care, donation after brain death, donation after circulatory death, intubation/ventilation, referral to the donor coordinator. A total of 1,970 possible donors were identified, of which half received active treatment in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) until brain death (27%), cardiac arrest (5%) or the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (19%). Of the rest, 10% were admitted to the ICU to facilitate organ donation, while 39% were not admitted to the ICU. Of those patients who evolved to a brain death condition (n=695), most transitioned to actual donation (n=446; 64%). Of those who died following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (n=537), 45 (8%) were converted into actual donation after circulatory death donors. The lack of a dedicated donation after circulatory death program was the main reason for non-donation. Thirty-seven percent of the possible donors were not intubated/ventilated at death, mainly because the professional in charge did not consider donation alter discarding therapeutic intubation. Thirty-six percent of the possible donors were never referred to the donor coordinator. Although deceased donation is optimized in Spain, there are still opportunities for improvement in the identification of possible donors outside the ICU and in the consideration of donation after circulatory death in patients who die following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Newly-developed, forward-viewing echoendoscope: a comparative pilot study to the standard echoendoscope in the imaging of abdominal organs and feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Takuji; Nakai, Yousuke; Lee, John G; Park, Do Hyun; Muthusamy, V Raman; Chang, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    Multiple diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) procedures have been widely performed using a standard oblique-viewing (OV) curvilinear array (CLA) echoendoscope. Recently, a new, forward-viewing (FV) CLA was developed, with the advantages of improved endoscopic viewing and manipulation of devices. However, the FV-CLA echoendoscope has a narrower ultrasound scanning field, and lacks an elevator, which might represent obstacles for clinical use. The aim of this study was to compare the FV-CLA echoendoscope to the OV-CLA echoendoscope for EUS imaging of abdominal organs, and to assess the feasibility of EUS-guided interventions using the FV-CLA echoendoscope. EUS examinations were first performed and recorded using the OV-CLA echoendoscope, followed immediately by the FV-CLA echoendoscope. Video recordings were then assessed by two independent endosonographers in a blinded fashion. The EUS visualization and image quality of specific abdominal organs/structures were scored. Any indicated fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or intervention was performed using the FV-CLA echoendoscope, with the OV-CLA echoendoscope as salvage upon failure. A total of 21 patients were examined in the study. Both echoendoscopes had similar visualization and image quality for all organs/structures, except the common hepatic duct (CHD), which was seen significantly better with the FV-CLA echoendoscope. EUS interventions were conducted in eight patients, including FNA of pancreatic mass (3), pancreatic cyst (3), and cystgastrostomy (2). The FV-CLA echoendoscope was successful in seven patients. One failed FNA of the pancreatic head cyst was salvaged using the OV-CLA echoendoscope. There were no differences between the FV-CLA echoendoscope and the OV-CLA echoendoscope in visualization or image quality on upper EUS, except for the superior image quality of CHD using the FV-CLA echoendoscope. Therefore, the disadvantages of the FV-CLA echoendoscope appear minimal in light of the

  18. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  19. Delayed splenic rupture presenting 70 days following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Resteghini, Nancy; Nielsen, Jonpaul; Hoimes, Matthew L; Karam, Adib R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed splenic rupture following conservative management of splenic injury is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of an adult patient who presented with delayed splenic rupture necessitating splenectomy, 2 months following blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging at the initial presentation demonstrated only minimal splenic contusion and the patient was discharge following 24 hours of observation. © 2014.

  20. Traumatic Rib Injury: Patterns, Imaging Pitfalls, Complications, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Brett S; Gange, Christopher P; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Klionsky, Nina; Hobbs, Susan K; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    The ribs are frequently affected by blunt or penetrating injury to the thorax. In the emergency department setting, it is vital for the interpreting radiologist to not only identify the presence of rib injuries but also alert the clinician about organ-specific injury, specific traumatic patterns, and acute rib trauma complications that require emergent attention. Rib injuries can be separated into specific morphologic fracture patterns that include stress, buckle, nondisplaced, displaced, segmental, and pathologic fractures. Specific attention is also required for flail chest and for fractures due to pediatric nonaccidental trauma. Rib fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, both of which increase as the number of fractured ribs increases. Key complications associated with rib fracture include pain, hemothorax, pneumothorax, extrapleural hematoma, pulmonary contusion, pulmonary laceration, acute vascular injury, and abdominal solid-organ injury. Congenital anomalies, including supernumerary or accessory ribs, vestigial anterior ribs, bifid ribs, and synostoses, are common and should not be confused with traumatic pathologic conditions. Nontraumatic mimics of traumatic rib injury, with or without fracture, include metastatic disease, primary osseous neoplasms (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and osteochondroma), fibrous dysplasia, and Paget disease. Principles of management include supportive and procedural methods of alleviating pain, treating complications, and stabilizing posttraumatic deformity. By recognizing and accurately reporting the imaging findings, the radiologist will add value to the care of patients with thoracic trauma. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2017.

  1. Physical impaction injury effects on bacterial cells during spread plating influenced by cell characteristics of the organisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Mujawar, M M; Sekhar, A C; Upreti, R

    2014-04-01

    To understand the factors that contribute to the variations in colony-forming units (CFU) in different bacteria during spread plating. Employing a mix culture of vegetative cells of ten organisms varying in cell characteristics (Gram reaction, cell shape and cell size), spread plating to the extent of just drying the agar surface (50-60 s) was tested in comparison with the alternate spotting-and-tilt-spreading (SATS) approach where 100 μl inoculum was distributed by mere tilting of plate after spotting as 20-25 microdrops. The former imparted a significant reduction in CFU by 20% over the spreader-independent SATS approach. Extending the testing to single organisms, Gram-negative proteobacteria with relatively larger cells (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas spp.) showed significant CFU reduction with spread plating except for slow-growing Methylobacterium sp., while those with small rods (Xenophilus sp.) and cocci (Acinetobacter sp.) were less affected. Among Gram-positive nonspore formers, Staphylococcus epidermidis showed significant CFU reduction while Staphylococcus haemolyticus and actinobacteria (Microbacterium, Cellulosimicrobium and Brachybacterium spp.) with small rods/cocci were unaffected. Vegetative cells of Bacillus pumilus and B. subtilis were generally unaffected while others with larger rods (B. thuringiensis, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Paenibacillus spp.) were significantly affected. A simulated plating study coupled with live-dead bacterial staining endorsed the chances of cell disruption with spreader impaction in afflicted organisms. Significant reduction in CFU could occur during spread plating due to physical impaction injury to bacterial cells depending on the spreader usage and the variable effects on different organisms are determined by Gram reaction, cell size and cell shape. The inoculum spreader could impart physical disruption of vegetative cells against a hard surface

  2. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious.

  3. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  4. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    PubMed

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  5. Endovascular management of arterial injuries after blunt or iatrogenic renal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Olivier; Gehin, Sophie; Midulla, Marco; Berthod, Pierre-Emmanuel; Galland, Christophe; Briche, Pascale; Duperron, Céline; Majbri, Nabil; Mousson, Christiane; Falvo, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is the third most common abdominal organ to be injured in trauma, following the spleen and liver, respectively. The most commonly used classification scheme is the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification of blunt renal injuries, which grades renal injury according to the size of laceration and its proximity to the renal hilum. Arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm are the most common iatrogenic biopsy-related or surgery-related vascular injuries in native kidneys. The approach to renal artery injuries has changed over time from more aggressive intervention to more conservative observational or endovascular management, including selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and the placement of stents/stent grafts. In this article, we describe the role and technical aspects of endovascular interventions in the management of arterial injuries after blunt or iatrogenic renal trauma. PMID:28932700

  6. [Organ-preserving method in the surgical treatment of the spleen injuries].

    PubMed

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Salikov, A V; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Popov, T V; Urvantseva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have experience in organ-preserving operations for spleen rupture with the splenic artery ligation in 156 casualties. They consider that such operations let to preserve the spleen, to avoid the postoperative rebleeding and ischemia of pancreas tail and body. Also it is accompanied by the low indications of lethality and postoperative complications. The authors consider that this operation is alternative to splenectomy and other techniques of organ-preserving operations in case of spleen trauma.

  7. Neonatal handling alters brain organization but does not influence recovery from perinatal cortical injury.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan

    2005-10-01

    Handling rat pups by removing them from the nest during the preweaning period has been shown to influence brain and behavioral development. The authors hypothesized that handling rats with perinatal (Day 4) medial frontal cortex removals might attenuate behavioral deficits and reverse dendritic atrophy associated with such an injury. On the day after surgery, pups were removed from the nest for 15 min, 3 times per day until weaning. Animals were tested as adults in the Morris water task and on skilled reaching. Handled animals showed no improvement in behavioral performance. The handling procedure led to a decrease in dendritic length in parietal cortex, but spine density was unchanged. No therapeutic advantage was observed following the preweaning handling of brain-injured rats.

  8. Quality of care indicators for the structure and organization of inpatient rehabilitation care of children with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zumsteg, Jennifer M; Ennis, Stephanie K; Jaffe, Kenneth M; Mangione-Smith, Rita; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Rivara, Frederick P

    2012-03-01

    To develop evidence-based and expert-driven quality indicators for measuring variations in the structure and organization of acute inpatient rehabilitation for children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to survey centers across the United States to determine the degree of variation in care. Quality indicators were developed using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi method. Adherence to these indicators was determined from a survey of rehabilitation facilities. Inpatient rehabilitation units in the United States. A sample of rehabilitation programs identified using data from the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation, and the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities yielded 74 inpatient units treating children with TBI. Survey respondents comprised 31 pediatric and 28 all age units. Not applicable. Variations in structure and organization of care among institutions providing acute inpatient rehabilitation for children with TBI. Twelve indicators were developed. Pediatric inpatient rehabilitation units and units with higher volumes of children with TBI were more likely to have: a census of at least 1 child admitted with a TBI for at least 90% of the time; adequate specialized equipment; a classroom; a pediatric subspecialty trained medical director; and more than 75% of therapists with pediatric training. There were clinically and statistically significant variations in the structure and organization of acute pediatric rehabilitation based on the pediatric focus of the unit and volume of children with TBI. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy on the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    García, Alberto Federico; Sánchez, Álvaro Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Álvaro José; Bayona, Juan Gabriel; Naranjo, María Paula; Lago, Sebastián; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2018-07-01

    In critically ill surgical patients undergoing abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), it remains uncertain whether or not intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements should be obtained when NPWT is activated. We aimed to determine agreement between IAP measured with and without NPWT. In this analytic cross-sectional study, critically ill surgical adults (≥18 y) requiring abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure after a damage control laparotomy were selected. Patients with urinary tract injuries or with pelvic packing were excluded. Paired IAP measures were performed in the same patient, with and without NPWT; two different operators performed the measures unaware of the other's result. Bland-Altman methods assessed the agreement between the two measures. Subgroup analyses (trauma and nontrauma) were performed. There were 198 IAP measures (99 pairs) in 38 patients. Mean IAP with and without NPWT were 8.33 (standard deviation 4.01) and 8.65 (standard deviation 4.04), respectively. Mean IAP difference was -0.323 (95% confidence interval -0.748 to 0.101), and reference range for difference was -4.579 to 3.932 (P = 0.864). From 112 IAP measures (56 pairs) in 21 trauma patients, mean IAP difference was -0.268 (95% confidence interval -0.867 to 0.331), and reference range for the difference was -4.740 to 4.204 (P = 0.427). There was no statistically significant disagreement in IAP measures. IAP could be measured with or without NPWT. In critically ill surgical patients with abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure, monitoring and management of IAP either with or without NPWT is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Primary repair vs. colostomy in colon injuries.

    PubMed

    Robles-Castillo, Javier; Murillo-Zolezzi, Adrián; Murakami, Pablo Daniel; Silva-Velasco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Colon trauma is frequent and its prevalence is difficult to establish because of the different factors that intervene in its origin. In Mexico, traumatic colon injuries, albeit stab wounds or gunshot wounds, are on the rise. Our objective was to evaluate the most appropriate management for traumatic colon injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of 178 case files of patients with abdominal trauma and colon lesions during a 5-year period from January 2003 to June 2008 from the General Hospital of Balbuena, Mexico City. The study compared the use of primary closure vs. colostomy, analyzing variables such as sex, age, type of wound, severity of lesion and mortality. There were a total of 178 patients; 156 were male (87.6%) and 22 were female (12.4%). The most affected age group was between 21 and 30 years; 74 patients (41.6%) had stab wounds and 104 patients (58.4%) had gunshot wounds. Management consisted mainly of primary closure in 92 cases (51.7%) vs. colostomy in 86 patients (48.3%). However, 64% of gunshot wounds were treated with colostomy. Reported mortality was 9.55% and this was due to different factors such as multiple organ injury. Treatment of traumatic colon injury should be case specific, taking into account the mechanism of the lesion, its severity and associated injuries.

  13. Prognosis and treatment of pancreaticoduodenal traumatic injuries: which factors are predictors of outcome?

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Nicola; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ciaroni, Valentina; Biscardi, Andrea; Giugni, Aimone; Cancellieri, Francesco; Coniglio, Carlo; Cavallo, Piergiorgio; Giorgini, Eleonora; Baldoni, Franco; Gordini, Giovanni; Tugnoli, Gregorio

    2011-03-01

    Abdominal trauma rarely causes injuries involving the duodenum and pancreas. Associated injuries occur in 46% of all pancreatic injuries. The morbidity and mortality of pancreaticoduodenal injuries remain high. The present study is a retrospective review of our experience from 1989 to 2008 in the surgical treatment of traumatic pancreaticoduodenal injuries. Mortality, morbidity, prognostic factors, and the value of surgical techniques were analyzed. In our level I Trauma Center, between 1989 and 2008, 55 patients had a pancreaticoduodenal injury. In 68.5% of cases pancreatic injuries were found, 20.4% had duodenal injury, and 11.1% suffered combined pancreaticoduodenal injuries; 85.3% of the patients had blunt abdominal trauma, while 14.9% had penetrating injuries. We treated 78.1% of the patients with external drainage and/or simple suture; distal pancreatectomy was performed in 9% of cases and duodenal resection with anastomosis (3.7%) and diversion procedures (3.7%) were performed in an equal number of patients. Age, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade, organ involved, hemodynamic status, intraoperative cardiac arrest, and operative time remained strongly predictive of mortality on multivariate analysis. The AAST grade represented, on multivariate analysis, the only independent prognostic factor predictive of overall morbidity. In the past decade we have used feeding jejunostomy more frequently, with a reduction of mortality and operating time, due also to a better approach from a dedicated trauma team. Optimal management and better outcome of pancreaticoduodenal injuries seem to be associated with shorter operative time, and with simple and fast damage control surgery (DCS), in contrast to definitive surgical procedures.

  14. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents.

  15. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, <5 cm H2O), or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  16. [Clinical Approach to Abdominal Pain as Functional Origin].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2018-02-25

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed. Patients with functional disorders usually complain the vague abdominal pain located in the center and other portions of the abdominal area. Although the most representative disease is irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain syndrome is currently researched as a new disease entity of functional abdominal pain. As various receptors related to functional abdominal pain have been discovered, drugs associated with those receptors are used to treat the disorders, and additional new drugs are vigorously developed. In addition, medical therapy with pharmacological or non-pharmacological psychiatric treatment is effective for treating functional abdominal pain.

  17. Acute and overuse injuries of the abdomen and groin in athletes.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Justin M; Taylor, Jonathan C; Kane, Shawn F

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal and groin injuries are common problems encountered by athletes across a wide variety of sports. They range from benign but annoying, such as exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), to the activity-limiting and possibly career-ending condition of athletic hernia. This article covers ETAP, rectus abdominus injuries, osteitis pubis, athletic hernia, and abdominal/groin hernias to provide an update on the current pathophysiology and treatment of common abdominal and pelvic conditions in the athlete.

  18. Diagnostic Laparoscopy for Trauma: How Not to Miss Injuries.

    PubMed

    Koto, Modise Z; Matsevych, Oleh Y; Aldous, Colleen

    2018-05-01

    Diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) is a well-accepted approach for penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT). However, the steps of procedure and the systematic laparoscopic examination are not clearly defined in the literature. The aim of this study was to clarify the definition of DL in trauma surgery by auditing DL performed for PAT at our institution, and to describe the strategies on how to avoid missed injuries. The data of patients managed with laparoscopy for PAT from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The details of operative technique and strategies on how to avoid missed injuries were discussed. Out of 250 patients managed with laparoscopy for PAT, 113 (45%) patients underwent DL. Stab wounds sustained 94 (83%) patients. The penetration of the peritoneal cavity or retroperitoneum was documented in 67 (59%) of patients. Organ evisceration was present in 21 (19%) patients. Multiple injuries were present in 22% of cases. The chest was the most common associated injury. Two (1.8%) iatrogenic injuries were recorded. The conversion rate was 1.7% (2/115). The mean length of hospital stay was 4 days. There were no missed injuries. In the therapeutic laparoscopy (TL) group, DL was performed as the initial part and identified all injuries. There were no missed injuries in the TL group. The predetermined sequential steps of DL and the standard systematic examination of intraabdominal organs were described. DL is a feasible and safe procedure. It accurately identifies intraabdominal injuries. The selected use of preoperative imaging, adherence to the predetermined steps of procedure and the standard systematic laparoscopic examination will minimize the rate of missed injuries.

  19. Clinical features and outcomes of blunt splenic injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kaiying; Li, Yanan; Wang, Chuan; Xiang, Bo; Chen, Siyuan; Ji, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although the spleen is the most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ after blunt trauma, there are limited data available in China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical features and determine the risk factors for operative management (OM) in children with blunt splenic injury (BSI). A review of the medical records of children diagnosed with BSI between January 2010 and September 2016 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University was performed. A total of 101 patients diagnosed with BSI were recruited, including 76 patients transferred from other hospitals. The male-to-female ratio was 2.06:1, with a mean age of 7.8 years old. The most common injury season was summer and the most common injury mechanism was road traffic accidents. Sixty-eight patients suffered multiple injuries. Thirty-four patients received blood transfusions. Two patients died from multiple organ failure or hemorrhagic shock. Significant differences were observed in the injury season, injury mechanism, injury date, and hemoglobin levels between the isolated injury group and the multiple injuries group. The overall operative rate was 29.7%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age, blood transfusion, and grade of injury were independent risk factors for OM. Our study provided evidence that the management of pediatric BSI was variable. The operative rate in pediatric BSI may be higher in certain patient groups. Although nonoperative management is one of the standard treatment options, our data suggest that OM is an appropriate way to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable. PMID:29390566

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

  1. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  2. [Acute Kidney Injury: the nephrology plus value and competence and a good organization can ameliorate the prognosis].

    PubMed

    Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Guastoni, Carlo Maria; Battistoni, Sara; Patera, Francesco; Quintaliani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) has changed radically in the past 15 years: we have observed an exponential increase of cases with high mortality and residual disability, particularly in those patients who need dialysis treatment. Those who survive AKI have an increased risk of requiring dialysis after hospital discharge over the short term as well as long term. They have an increased risk of deteriorating residual kidney function and cardiovascular events as well as a shorter life expectancy. Given the severe prognosis, difficulties of treatment, high level of resources needed, increased workload and consequently costs, several aspects of AKI have not been sufficiently investigated. Any national register of AKI has not been developed and its absence has an impact on provisional strategies. Specific training should be planned beginning with University, which should include practical training in Intensive Care Units. A definition of the organizational characteristics and requirements for the care of AKI is needed. Treatment of AKI is not based exclusively on dialysis efficiency or technology, but also on professional skills, volume of activity, clinical experience, model of healthcare organizations, continuity of processes and medical activities to guarantee such as a closed-staff system. Progress in knowledge and technology has only partially modified the outcome and prognosis of AKI patients; consequently, new strategies based on increased awareness, on the implementation of professional skills, and on revision, definition and updating of resources for the organization of AKI management are needed and expected over the short term.

  3. Transplantation of Endothelial Cells to Mitigate Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury to Vital Organs.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Shahin; Ginsberg, Michael; Scandura, Joseph; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-08-01

    Current therapeutic approaches for treatment of exposure to radiation involve the use of antioxidants, chelating agents, recombinant growth factors and transplantation of stem cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). However, exposure to high-dose radiation is associated with severe damage to the vasculature of vital organs, often leading to impaired healing, tissue necrosis, thrombosis and defective regeneration caused by aberrant fibrosis. It is very unlikely that infusion of protective chemicals will reverse severe damage to the vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The role of irradiated vasculature in mediating acute and chronic radiation syndromes has not been fully appreciated or well studied. New approaches are necessary to replace and reconstitute ECs in organs that are irreversibly damaged by radiation. We have set forth the novel concept that ECs provide paracrine signals, also known as angiocrine signals, which not only promote healing of irradiated tissue but also direct organ regeneration without provoking fibrosis. We have developed innovative technologies that enable manufacturing and banking of human GMP-grade ECs. These ECs can be transplanted intravenously to home to and engraft to injured tissues where they augment organ repair, while preventing maladaptive fibrosis. In the past, therapeutic transplantation of ECs was not possible due to a shortage of availability of suitable donor cell sources and preclinical models, a lack of understanding of the immune privilege of ECs, and inadequate methodologies for expansion and banking of engraftable ECs. Recent advances made by our group as well as other laboratories have breached the most significant of these obstacles with the development of technologies to manufacture clinical-scale quantities of GMP-grade and human ECs in culture, including genetically diverse reprogrammed human amniotic cells into vascular ECs (rAC-VECs) or human pluripotent stem cells into vascular ECs (iVECs). This

  4. Pediatric restraint use in motor vehicle collisions: reduction of deaths without contribution to injury.

    PubMed

    Tyroch, A H; Kaups, K L; Sue, L P; O'Donnell-Nicol, S

    2000-10-01

    Restraint use for children in automobiles is mandated in every state, but injury patterns are unknown. Although use of pediatric retraints is associated with reducing morbidity and mortality, the injury distribution for specific anatomic sites may be altered in restrained vs unrestrained children. Review of trauma registry data, medical records, and autopsy findings. Urban level I trauma center and tertiary care children's hospital. All children aged 6 years or younger who were in motor vehicle collisions from June 1, 1990, through March 31, 1997. Age, weight, restraint use and type, collision data, Injury Severity Score (ISS), injury type, and outcome. We included 600 children. The restrained group showed a reduction in severe injuries for every anatomic site and had a lower mean ISS, fewer injuries, and more uninjured children. The restrained group also had a reduction in the incidence of hollow- and solid-organ abdominal injuries. Age-appropriate restraint devices decrease mortality and reduce the incidence of significant injury in motor vehicle collisions for all anatomic sites in young children. In contrast to injuries attributed to restraint use in adults, specific restraint-related injury patterns were not seen in children.

  5. Childhood functional abdominal pain: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Vlieger, Arine; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition.

  6. Association between injury pattern of patients with multiple injuries and circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, and polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Hensler, Thorsten; Sauerland, Stefan; Bouillon, Bertil; Raum, Marcus; Rixen, Dieter; Helling, Hanns-J; Andermahr, Jonas; Neugebauer, Edmund A M

    2002-05-01

    Our knowledge about the bidirectional interactions between brain and whole organism after trauma is still limited. It was the purpose of this prospective clinical study to determine the influence of severe head trauma (SHT) as well as trauma in different anatomic injury regions on posttraumatic inflammatory mediator levels from patients with multiple injuries. Thirty-five healthy controls, 33 patients with an isolated SHT, 47 patients with multiple injuries without SHT, and 45 patients with both SHT and multiple injuries were studied. The posttraumatic plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors p55 and p75, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) elastase were monitored using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The influence of head injuries as well as thorax, abdomen, and extremity injuries on the mediator release from patients with multiple injuries was investigated by multivariate linear regression models. The soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55/p75 ratio was significantly elevated within 3 hours of trauma in all three injury groups and returned to reference ratios after 12 hours. The lowest increase was found in patients suffering from an isolated SHT. Lowest mediator levels in this patient population were also found for IL-6, IL-10, and PMN elastase during the first 36 hours after trauma. Additional injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremity modulated mediator levels to a different degree. No specific effect was found for SHT when compared with other injury groups. Thorax injuries caused the quickest rise in mediator levels, whereas abdominal injuries significantly increased PMN elastase levels 12 to 24 hours after trauma. Traumatic injuries cause the liberation of various mediators, without any specific association between anatomic injury pattern and the pattern of mediator release.

  7. Recent trends in the management of combined pancreatoduodenal injuries.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Peter P; Benjamin, Robert; Cockburn, Mark; Amortegui, Jose D; Schulman, Carl I; Soffer, Dror; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Habib, Fahim; Jerokhimov, Igor; Trankel, Susan; Cohn, Stephen M

    2005-10-01

    In an effort to better characterize the natural history of pancreatoduodenal injuries, we present a review of clinical experiences in the treatment of combined traumatic pancreatoduodenal injuries, focusing on patients in extremis. Records of patients with abdominal trauma admitted to a level 1 trauma center from 1997 to 2001 were reviewed. Of 240 patients who sustained a pancreatic or duodenal injury, 33 had combined pancreatoduodenal injuries. Eighty-two per cent of the patients (27/33) in this series had penetrating injuries, 72 per cent (24) sustained gunshot wounds (GSW). Thirty-one patients were male, and the mean age was 33 years (range, 7-74). These patients presented with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 22 +/- 12 and an average Glasgow Coma Score of 14 +/- 2. Overall length of stay was 39 +/- 59 days (range, 0-351 days). These 33 patients underwent a total of 57 laparotomies with an average of 1.7 operations per patient (range, 1 to 5 operations). Eighty-four per cent of the patients had an associated gastrointestinal injury and 45 per cent had a major vascular injury. Thirteen of the 33 (39%) patients presented in extremis, all 13 underwent an abbreviated laparotomy. The complication rate was 36 per cent, including fistula, abscess, pancreatitis, and organ dysfunction. There were 6 hospital deaths for a mortality rate of 18 per cent. Pancreatoduodenal injuries are associated with a variety of other serious injuries, which add to the overall complexity of these patients. Abbreviated laparotomy may be helpful when managing combined pancreatoduodenal injuries in patients who are in extremis.

  8. Determining injuries from posterior and flank stab wounds using computed tomography tractography.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vishal; Reid, Chris M; Fortlage, Dale; Lee, Jeanne; Kobayashi, Leslie; Doucet, Jay; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-04-01

    Unlike anterior stab wounds (SW), in which local exploration may direct management, posterior SW can be challenging to evaluate. Traditional triple contrast computed tomography (CT) imaging is cumbersome and technician-dependent. The present study examines the role of CT tractography as a strategy to manage select patients with back and flank SW. Hemodynamically stable patients with back and flank SW were studied. After resuscitation, Betadine- or Visipaque®-soaked sterile sponges were inserted into each SW for the estimated depth of the wound. Patients underwent abdominal helical CT scanning, including intravenous contrast, as the sole abdominal imaging study. Images were reviewed by an attending radiologist and trauma surgeon. The tractogram was evaluated to determine SW trajectory and injury to intra- or retroperitoneal organs, vascular structures, the diaphragm, and the urinary tract. Complete patient demographics including operative management and injuries were collected. Forty-one patients underwent CT tractography. In 11 patients, tractography detected violation of the intra- or retroperitoneal cavity leading to operative exploration. Injuries detected included: the spleen (two), colon (one), colonic mesentery (one), kidney (kidney), diaphragm (kidney), pneumothorax (seven), hemothorax (two), iliac artery (one), and traumatic abdominal wall hernia (two). In all patients, none had negative CT findings that failed observation. In this series, CT tractography is a safe and effective imaging strategy to evaluate posterior torso SW. It is unknown whether CT tractography is superior to traditional imaging modalities. Other uses for CT tractography may include determining trajectory from missile wounds and tangential penetrating injuries.

  9. Do we really rely on fast for decision-making in the management of blunt abdominal trauma?

    PubMed

    Carter, Jeffrey W; Falco, Mark H; Chopko, Michael S; Flynn, William J; Wiles Iii, Charles E; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2015-05-01

    The Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma examination (FAST) is currently taught and recommended in the ATLS(®), often as an addendum to the primary survey for patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Although it is non-invasive and rapidly performed at bedside, the utility of FAST in blunt abdominal trauma has been questioned. We designed this study to examine our hypothesis that FAST is not an efficacious screening tool for identifying intra-abdominal injuries. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with confirmatory diagnosis of blunt abdominal injuries with CT and/or laparotomy for a period of 1.5 years (from 7/2009 to 11/2010). FAST was performed by ED residents and considered positive when free intra-abdominal fluid was visualized. Abdominal CT, or exploratory laparotomy findings were used as confirmation of intra-abdominal injury. A total of 1671 blunt trauma patients were admitted to and evaluated in the Emergency Department during a 1½ year period and 146 patients were confirmed intra-abdominal injuries by CT and/or laparotomy. Intraoperative findings include injuries to the liver, spleen, kidneys, and bowels. In 114 hemodynamically stable patients, FAST was positive in 25 patients, with a sensitivity of 22%. In 32 hemodynamically unstable patients, FAST was positive in 9 patients, with a sensitivity of 28%. A free peritoneal fluid and splenic injury are associated with a positive FAST on univariate analysis, and are the independent predictors for a positive FAST on multiple logistic regression. FAST has a very low sensitivity in detecting blunt intraabdominal injury. In hemodynamically stable patients, a negative FAST without a CT may result in missed intra-abdominal injuries. In hemodynamically unstable blunt trauma patients, with clear physical findings on examination, the decision for exploratory laparotomy should not be distracted by a negative FAST. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  11. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Spinal-Cord- ...

  13. Clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain and incidental findings of free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Matz, Samantha; Connell, Mary; Sinha, Madhumita; Goettl, Christopher S; Patel, Palak C; Drachman, David

    2013-09-01

    The presence of free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging (sonography or computed tomography [CT]) may indicate an acute inflammatory process in children with abdominal pain in a nontraumatic setting. Although clinical outcomes of pediatric trauma patients with free fluid on diagnostic examinations without evidence of solid-organ injury have been studied, similar studies in the absence of trauma are rare. Our objective was to study clinical outcomes of children with acute abdominal pain of nontraumatic etiology and free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging (abdominal/pelvic sonography, CT, or both). We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of children aged 0 to 18 years presenting to a pediatric emergency department with acute abdominal pain (nontraumatic) between April 2008 and March 2009. Patients with intraperitoneal free fluid on imaging were divided into 2 groups: group I, imaging suggestive of an intra-abdominal surgical condition such as appendicitis; and group