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Sample records for abdominal pain diarrhea

  1. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  2. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  3. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... water or other clear fluids. You may have sports drinks in small amounts. People with diabetes must ... pain occur? For example, after meals or during menstruation? What makes the pain worse? For example, eating, ...

  4. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is sudden and sharp You also have pain in your chest, neck or shoulder You're vomiting blood or have blood in your stool Your abdomen is stiff, hard and tender to touch You can't move your bowels, especially if you're also vomiting

  5. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  6. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  7. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  8. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established. PMID:25616589

  9. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  10. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  11. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  12. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  13. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  14. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominalPa in inCh ildre n What is functional abdominal pain, and why does it happen? Most otherwise-healthy ... stomachaches for two months or more have functional abdominal pain. The term “functional” refers to the fact that ...

  15. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  16. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  17. Abdominal pain with a twist

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Malrotation in children is due to either an incomplete or non-rotation of the foetal mid-gut during perinatal development. Presentation is usually in the first few weeks of life, often with life-threatening volvulus and ischaemia. However, it can be a rare cause of abdominal pain in older children and young adults. We present such a case, as a reminder to emergency physicians that malrotation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent or chronic abdominal pain not only in children but also in adolescents. PMID:21635723

  18. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  19. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... this kind of pain when they have a stomach virus, indigestion, gas, or when they become constipated. ...

  20. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... IBS. The most common symptoms of IBS are abdominal pain or discomfort, often reported as cramping, along with ... fructose. Symptoms of hereditary fructose intolerance may include abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. This disorder can also damage ...

  1. [Abdominal pain, constipation and anemia].

    PubMed

    Barresi, Fabio; Kunz Caflish, Isabel; Bayly-Schinzel, Leena; Dressel, Holger

    2016-03-30

    We present the case of a 42-year old man who went to the emergency department because of spasmodic abdominal pain. The abdomen was soft. A gastroscopy and a colonoscopy were without pathological findings. The laboratory analyses indicated anemia. The differential blood count showed basophilic granules in the red blood cells. The blood lead level was elevated. A lead poisoning was diagnosed. The cause was the oral intake of an ayurvedic medication which the patient had received in Bangladesh to treat his vitiligo. PMID:27005735

  2. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    PubMed

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  3. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  4. Maintenance of pain in children with functional abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdomina...

  5. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood. PMID:26046716

  6. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern. PMID:24845149

  7. [Pediatric Abdominal Pain – Harmless or Harmful?].

    PubMed

    Furlano, Raoul Ivano

    2016-04-27

    Abdominal pain is a very common pediatric complaint. In the majority of cases there is no life-threatening pathology behind this symptom, but a functional disease. However, all-day activities of children and adolescents are often limited, frequent absences from school, and general physician/ pediatrician office visits with often unnecessary diagnostic and therapies are registered. Once an organic etiology of the abdominal pain is excluded by a thoroughly medical history taking and physical examination, the first steps for a successful alleviation of the pain is the reassurance of the patients and their family that there is no life-threatening pathology. There is evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy may be useful in improving pain and disability outcome in the short term. There is no evidence for pharmacological, dietetic, or complementary intervention in the treatment of chronic functional abdominal pain. PMID:27120211

  8. Diphyllobothrium latum infection in a child with recurrent abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in humans is not common in Republic of Korea. We report a case of fish tapeworm infection in a 10-year-old boy after ingestion of raw perch about 8 months ago. The patient complained of recurrent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A tapeworm, 85 cm in length, without scolex and neck, was spontaneously discharged in the feces of the patient. The patient was treated with 15-mg/kg single dose praziquantel, and follow-up stool examination was negative after one month. There was no evidence of relapse during the next six months. PMID:26692882

  9. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. PMID:27133249

  10. Abdominal Pain, Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... conter antacid on a regular basis. See your doctor if an antacid doesn't help or if the pain comes back quickly. No **11. Are you a woman who has a constant pain in the lower abdomen along with a vaginal discharge? Yes ... See your doctor. No 12. Do you have a mild pain, ...

  11. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    PubMed

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p < 0,02) and in children 90 versus 62 % (p < 0,001)) and is in polyintolerances most frequently correlated to histamine intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients = 83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders. PMID:23224632

  12. Childhood functional abdominal pain: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Vlieger, Arine; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition. PMID:25666642

  13. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  14. Imaging the pregnant patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Graham W; Davis, Melissa A; Semelka, Richard C; Fielding, Julia R

    2012-10-01

    Imaging of pregnant patients with non-obstetric abdominal pain is reviewed, with an accompanying pictorial essay of cases with concentration on magnetic resonance imaging. Non-obstetric causes of abdominal pain during pregnancy are similar to those of non-pregnant patients. The most common causes are appendicitis and cholecystitis. Other causes are myriad and include biliary, gastrointestinal, infectious, inflammatory, and malignant etiologies, among others. The approach to imaging in pregnant patient is unique, as it is imperative to minimize potentially harmful radiation exposures to the fetus. Ultrasound and MRI are the primary modalities for evaluation of the pregnant patient with abdominal pain. The use of intravenous contrast is discouraged, except in highly-selected patients where there is no other way to obtain vital diagnostic information. CT is still used as the mainstay of evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma and is commonly used for diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, stone disease, and work-up of malignancy during pregnancy. A discussion of test selection and underlying rationale is presented. PMID:22160283

  15. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  16. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  17. [Case report: strongyloidiosis with chronic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Dündar, Devrim

    2008-01-01

    The case was presented here in order to point out that an immunocompetent child might have Strongyloidiosis infection that might be misdiagnosed. A 9 year old male patient who had chronic abdominal pain with a feeling of weakness was treated several times for urinary tract infection. He had never been tested for the presence of parasites. After the patient's complaints occurred again, he presented at our hospital. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were observed in his feces by microscopy. Albendazol (400 mg/day for three days) was prescribed. After 10 days, the feces of the patient was reexamined and no Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected. For this reason, it is important to investigate the possibility of intestinal parasitic infections in children with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:18645954

  18. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    PubMed

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours

  19. [Meloxicam-induced colitis revealed by acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Seddik, H; Rabhi, M

    2013-03-01

    Whether intestinal toxicity of preferential or selective COX-2 inhibitors is reduced compared with that of standard NSAIDs is controversial. A 26-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea a few days after beginning meloxicam treatment. Endoscopic examination of the colon showed erythematous and ulcerative lesions involving 15 cm of the left colon. No aetiology has been found for colitis. Diarrhea disappeared 1 week after meloxicam was stopped. Total colonoscopy 3 months and 2 years later was normal. The role of meloxicam in the etiology of colitis was considered plausible. This report and a few other cases in the literature suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug inhibitor toxicity should be investigated in case of unexplained acute colitis. PMID:23537413

  20. Eosinophilic jejunitis presenting as intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

    2014-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

  1. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It ...

  2. Carbohydrate digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase deficient and recurrent abdominal pain children assesed by 13C- starch breath test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starches contribute about half of the food energy needs to the weaned child's diet. Malabsorption of sucrose is associated with abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea. A genetic disorder called Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID) is suspected when these symptoms follow sugar ingestion and...

  3. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Janet A.; Scott, Katherine D.; Edwards, John F.

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis. PMID:26740703

  4. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüseyınoğlu, Ürfettin; Çıçek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  5. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be treated differently than you would treat diarrhea in adults. Talk with your health care provider if your ... cause diarrhea , including: Some antibiotics Chemotherapy drugs for cancer Laxatives containing magnesium Diarrhea may also be caused by medical disorders, such ...

  6. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1

  7. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edith Y; Mathy, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat. PMID:24715978

  8. Abdominal Lymphatic Malformation Presenting as Acute Abdominal Pain: A Common Pediatric Complaint, but an Unusual Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Christopher I; Farrell, Caitlin A; Nelson, Kyle A; Levy, Jason A

    2016-05-01

    We present the clinical and radiological findings involving a mesenteric lymphatic malformation causing volvulus in a toddler presenting with acute abdominal pain, as well as its treatment options. PMID:27139293

  9. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  10. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain medicines, food intolerances and diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine or colon. In many cases, ... child has diarrhea, do not hesitate to call the doctor for advice. Diarrhea can be dangerous in ...

  11. [Abdominal migraine as a cause of chronic recurrent abdominal pain in a 9-years-old girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Jarosław; Piasecki, Leszek; Kasner, Jacek; Karczewska, Krystyna

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal migraine is a rarely recognized functional intestinal disorder, manifesting as recurrent paroxysmal abdominal pain of neurogenic origin. The authors describe the 9-years old girl referred to the hospital because of chronic paroxysmal abdominal pain. She did not improve after medication used commonly in functional abdominal disorders (drotaverine, mebeverine, trimebutine). On the ground of various investigations organic causes of abdominal pain were excluded. Carefully completed anamnesis, as well as precise description of the clinical picture of abdominal pain attacks, has lead to the diagnosis of abdominal migraine. According to advice of neurologist the treatment with amitriptyline was introduced. Thereafter a significant improvement was observed. Abdominal migraine has to be taken in to account when diagnosing chronic abdominal pain in children. PMID:16245431

  12. A 44-year-old man with abdominal pain, lung nodules, and hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Mariam; Kamangar, Nader

    2015-05-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of sudden-onset abdominal pain. The pain was characterized as severe, diffuse, sharp, and nonradiating. Associated symptoms included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and subjective fevers. He was originally from El Salvador, but had not traveled in > 10 years. Review of systems was positive for 2 weeks of dry cough with associated mild, bilateral, pleuritic chest pain and subjective weight loss. His medical history was notable for gout and end-stage renal disease secondary to chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use, for which he attended hemodialysis sessions three times weekly. Surgical history consisted of a currently nonfunctioning left upper extremity fistula, a longstanding right internal jugular PermCath IV access for chronic hemodialysis that had been removed 2 weeks prior to presentation, and a left brachiocephalic fistula. He did not smoke, consume alcohol, or have a history of illicit drug use. PMID:25940261

  13. Support Vector Machine Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Nalin, Kajsa; Hansson, Lars-Erik; Malmgren, Helge

    This study explores the feasibility of a decision-support system for patients seeking care for acute abdominal pain, and, specifically the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. We used a linear support vector machine (SVM) to separate diverticulitis from all other reported cases of abdominal pain and from the important differential diagnosis non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP). On a database containing 3337 patients, the SVM obtained results comparable to those of the doctors in separating diverticulitis or NSAP from the remaining diseases. The distinction between diverticulitis and NSAP was, however, substantially improved by the SVM. For this patient group, the doctors achieved a sensitivity of 0.714 and a specificity of 0.963. When adjusted to the physicians' results, the SVM sensitivity/specificity was higher at 0.714/0.985 and 0.786/0.963 respectively. Age was found as the most important discriminative variable, closely followed by C-reactive protein level and lower left side pain.

  14. My patient has abdominal and flank pain: Identifying renal causes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher; MacDonald, Scott; Henneberry, Ryan; Atkinson, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    Acute flank and abdominal pain are common presenting complaints in the emergency department. With increasing access to point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS), emergency physicians have an added tool to help identify renal problems as a cause of a patient's pain. PoCUS for hydronephrosis has a sensitivity of 72-83.3% and a varying specificity, similar to radiology-performed ultrasonography. In addition to assessment for hydronephrosis, PoCUS can help emergency physicians to exclude other serious causes of flank and abdominal pain such as the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, or free fluid in the intraperitoneal space, which could represent hemorrhage. Use of PoCUS for the assessment of flank pain has resulted in more rapid diagnosis, decreased use of computed tomography, and shorter emergency department length of stay. PMID:27433264

  15. Dietary issues in recurrent abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many children and adults suffer from belly pain that comes and goes. This article reviews the scientific evidence that in some people, the type of diet they eat can cause pain. In some children, not having enough fiber in the diet can cause belly pain. Adding specific types of fiber can improve the ...

  16. Ascariasis as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Gerly Edson; Teves, Pedro Montes; Monge, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in developing countries. It may cause chronic abdominal pain, tenderness and bloating. Our aim is to report a case of acute episodic abdominal pain and pancreatitis associated with ascariasis. We report a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute abdominal pain, having had several previous similar events before one of them was diagnosed as acute idiopathic pancreatitis. On admission, her physical exam was normal. Laboratory results showed hemoglobin 12.2 g/dL, white blood cell count 11 900 cells/mm(3), eosinophils 420 cells/mm(3), serum amylase 84 IU/mL, lipase 22 IU/mL and normal liver function tests. Abdominal ultrasound and a plain abdominal X-ray were also normal. An upper endoscopy showed round white worms in the duodenum and the stomach, some of them with bile in their intestines. The intestinal parasites were diagnosed as Ascaris lumbricoides, and the patient was started on albendazole, with full recovery within a week. We believe that ascariasis should be considered in patients with recurrent abdominal pain and idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:20447214

  17. A man from South Asia presenting with abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Shiratori, Beata; Usami, Osamu; Hattori, Toshio; Ashino, Yugo

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is challenging due to the non-specific clinical presentation and frequent failure to detect the pathogen. A young Bangladeshi man presented to the Emergency Outpatient department with constipation and burning abdominal pain that was localised primarily in the epigastrium. Although the infectious agent was not detected, findings of histological examination were helpful in guiding the treatment strategy. As a good clinical practice, it is important to consider abdominal TB as a possible diagnosis in such cases, particularly when a patient has previously been residing in a high TB burden country. Thus, appropriate diagnosis and early antituberculous therapy are essential for achieving a positive outcome. PMID:24554676

  18. An unusual cause of postpartum abdominal pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Gregory J; Fagen, Kimberly; Shepherd, Matthew; Boswell, Gilbert

    2009-08-01

    Abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in the Emergency Department. It extends to all populations regardless of age, sex, or socioeconomic status. After gathering a history and examining the patient, most Emergency Physicians form a differential diagnosis and initiate an appropriate work-up. However, in the postpartum woman, additional causes must be considered and treated accordingly, knowing that there are consequences for both mother and child. We present a case of a postpartum woman presenting with right-sided abdominal pain, the cause of which, although atypical, has potential for significant morbidity and mortality if it goes undiscovered. PMID:18572346

  19. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol. PMID:22551758

  20. Slipping Rib Syndrome as Persistent Abdominal and Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Vergaray, Juan Javier; de la Gala García, Francisco; Obaya Rebollar, Juan Carlos; Bové Alvarez, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Slipping rib syndrome is an overlooked cause of persistent abdominal or chest pain. The etiology of this syndrome is not well understood, but the characteristic pain is from hypermobility of the false ribs. Although it is a diagnosis of exclusion, misdiagnosis may lead to an excessive workup. A simple clinical examination via the hooking maneuver is the most significant feature of its diagnosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with slipping rib syndrome. PMID:26528703

  1. EGD IN CHILDREN WITH ABDOMINAL PAIN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to examine the diagnostic yield (endoscopic and histologic) of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for the evaluation of abdominal pain of unclear etiology in children. We also examined the effect of EGD on change in treatment, quality of life, change in abd...

  2. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…

  3. Recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recurrent abdominal pain continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team, and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions, and consider...

  4. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in evaluating acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barbee, C L; Gilsdorf, R B

    1975-06-01

    A study was performed to determine the value of peritoneal lavage in the acute abdomen not related to trauma. Lavage was performed in 33 patients in the evaluation of abdominal pain of sufficient degree to warrant consideration for surgical intervention. Peritoneal lavage was truly positive or truly negative in 64% of the cases. It showed false negative results in 28% and false positive results in 8%. The lavage was most accurate in the evaluation of appendicitis, colonic disease, and intra abdominal bleeding. It was highly inaccurate in the evaluation of cholecystitis and peptic ulcer disease. It was concluded that the peritoneal lavage can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with abdominal pain and should be considered in difficult diagnostic problems but not routinely employed. PMID:1138636

  5. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... to replace lost fluids Do not offer plain water to infants — it doesn't contain enough sodium and other minerals. Avoid apple juice and other sweet drinks because they may make diarrhea worse. Seek Medical ...

  6. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as fruit juices, sports drinks, caffeine-free soft drinks, and broths. Children with diarrhea should be given ... from street vendors Travelers can drink bottled water, soft drinks, and hot drinks such as coffee or tea. ...

  7. Abdominal pain of spinal origin. Value of intercostal block.

    PubMed

    Ashby, E C

    1977-05-01

    A prospective study was made of 73 patients presenting in one year with abdominal pain provisionally diagnosed as of spinal origin. The criteria for audit of diagnosis and treatment are defined. The diagnosis was confirmed in 53 patients, 49 of whom had been treated with a lignocaine intercostal block in the relevant segment. Thirty-three of these (67.3%) had both complete and prolonged relief. It is suggested that the block causes interruption of a vicious circle of pain and muscle spasm in a 'spinal reflex pain syndrome'. PMID:860866

  8. Practical management of functional abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Brown, L K; Beattie, R M; Tighe, M P

    2016-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is common in childhood, but is not often caused by disease. It is often the impact of the pain rather than the pain itself that results in referral to the clinician. In this review, we will summarise the currently available evidence and discuss the functional dimensions of the presentation, within the framework of commonly expressed parental questions. Using the Rome III criteria, we discuss how to classify the functional symptoms, investigate appropriately, provide reassurance regarding parental worries of chronic disease. We outline how to explain the functional symptoms to parents and an individualised strategy to help restore function. PMID:26699533

  9. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  10. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  11. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: An Adolescent Female Student with Severe Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain is a common chief complaint encountered by school nurses. This article explains the etiology of abdominal pain in children and adolescents, describes the office assessment, and delineates life-threatening conditions associated with severe abdominal pain that may prompt the school nurse to transfer the student to a local emergency department. PMID:27470683

  12. A typology of pain coping strategies in pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lynn S; Baber, Kari Freeman; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A

    2008-07-15

    This study aimed to identify clinically meaningful profiles of pain coping strategies used by youth with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Participants (n=699) were pediatric patients (ages 8-18 years) and their parents. Patients completed the Pain Response Inventory (PRI) and measures of somatic and depressive symptoms, disability, pain severity and pain efficacy, and perceived competence. Parents rated their children's pain severity and coping efficacy. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the 13 PRI subscales identified pain coping profiles in Sample 1 (n=311) that replicated in Sample 2 (n=388). Evidence was found of external validity and distinctiveness of the profiles. The findings support a typology of pain coping that reflects the quality of patients' pain mastery efforts and interpersonal relationships associated with pain coping. Results are discussed in relation to developmental processes, attachment styles, and treatment implications. PMID:17928144

  13. Long-term prognosis in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M F; Mortensen, O

    1975-02-01

    The present study is a follow-up of 34 cases admitted to a paediatric department with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in 1942 and 1943. 45 persons without a history of RAP were selected at random and included as controls. Using a questionnaire, there was a higher incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms among persons with a history of RAP during childhood than among controls (P less than 0.05). 18 of the original 34 cases who still had symptoms were re-examined; 11 had a clinical picture consistent with a diagnosis of irritable colon, 5 had a picture compatible with both irritable colon and peptic ulcer/gastritis, and 2 had duodenal ulcer. Abdominal pains occurred no more frequently among children of parents who had had RAP during childhood than among children of parents without such a history. However, there was a higher incidence of abdominal pain among children of parents who were complaining of abdominal discomfort at the time of the investigation than among children whose parents were without such symptoms (P less than 0.005). PMID:1130815

  14. Diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in older patients.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Corey; Clark, Dwayne C

    2006-11-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in older patients. Presentation may differ from that of the younger patient and is often complicated by coexistent disease, delays in presentation, and physical and social barriers. The physical examination can be misleadingly benign, even with catastrophic conditions such as abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture and mesenteric ischemia. Changes that occur in the biliary system because of aging make older patients vulnerable to acute cholecystitis, the most common indication for surgery in this population. In older patients with appendicitis, the initial diagnosis is correct only one half of the time, and there are increased rates of perforation and mortality when compared with younger patients. Medication use, gallstones, and alcohol use increase the risk of pancreatitis, and advanced age is an indicator of poor prognosis for this disease. Diverticulitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in the older patient; in appropriately selected patients, it may be treated on an outpatient basis with oral antibiotics. Small and large bowel obstructions, usually caused by adhesive disease or malignancy, are more common in the aged and often require surgery. Morbidity and mortality among older patients presenting with acute abdominal pain are high, and these patients often require hospitalization with prompt surgical consultation. PMID:17111893

  15. Characteristics of pain and stooling in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To collect symptom data longitudinally from children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and control (asymptomatic) children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children with RAP (n = 77) and controls (n = 33) 7 to 10 years of age completed daily diaries for 2 weeks tracking pain frequency and severi...

  16. Abdominal pain and two x-rays: spot the difference.

    PubMed

    Rajković, Z; Papeš, D; Altarac, S; Arslani, N

    2012-03-01

    We present two patients with air found in the right upper quadrant on standard abdominal x-ray. One was diagnosed with pneumobilia and underwent elective surgery for a bilioenteric fistula. The other was diagnosed with portal vein gas and underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy at which a superior mesenteric artery embolism was found. The differential diagnostic criteria for pneumobilia and portal vein gas are described. If portal venous gas is found on x-ray in patients with abdominal pain, it is recommended that management is aggressive, meaning an emergency exploratory laparotomy, because mortality in such cases is approximately 75%. PMID:22391372

  17. Prevalence of abdominal migraine and recurrent abdominal pain in a Japanese clinic.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was evaluated in patients who visited Hikita Pediatric Clinic between May 2010 and April 2015. Patient data were collected prospectively using a questionnaire. Out of a total of 3611 cases, observed prevalence was 2.44% for repeated abdominal pain over a period of ≥3 months, 1.47% for RAP, and 0.19% for AM. Duration of abdominal pain was longer for AM than for non-AM RAP. Certain clinical features were significantly different between AM and non-AM RAP. No correlations were found among age at onset, frequency of attack, and duration of attack for various types of RAP. It was difficult to determine useful diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between AM and non-AM RAP. They did not appear to be separate disease entities but, instead, lie on a disease spectrum. The present prevalence of AM (0.19%) was lower than that in many previous studies from countries other than Japan. PMID:27460403

  18. Cognitive Mediators of Treatment Outcomes in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Labus, Jennifer; Walker, Lynn S.; Murphy, Tasha B.; Van Tilburg, Miranda; Feld, Lauren D.; Christie, Dennis L.; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive-behavioral interventions improve outcomes for many pediatric health conditions, but little is known about which mechanisms mediate these outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify whether changes in targeted process variables from baseline to one week post-treatment mediate improvement in outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for idiopathic childhood abdominal pain. Methods Two-hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a 3-session social learning and cognitive-behavioral treatment (SLCBT) (N=100), or a 3-session educational intervention controlling for time and attention (N=100). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-ups. The intervention focused on altering parental responses to pain and on increasing adaptive cognitions and coping strategies related to pain in both parents and children. Results Multiple mediation analyses were applied to examine the extent to which the effects of the SLCBT condition on child GI symptom severity and pain as reported by children and their parents were mediated by changes in targeted cognitive process variables and parents’ solicitous responses to their child’s pain symptoms. Reductions in parents’ perceived threat regarding their child’s pain mediated reductions in both parent- and child-reported GI symptom severity and pain. Reductions in children’s catastrophic cognitions mediated reductions in child-reported GI symptom severity but no other outcomes. Reductions in parental solicitousness did not mediate outcomes. Discussion Results suggest that reductions in reports of children’s pain and GI symptoms following a social learning and cognitive-behavioral intervention were mediated at least in part by decreasing maladaptive parent and child cognitions. PMID:24469611

  19. Entrapped ovarian cyst. An unusual case of persistent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Hederström, E; Forsberg, L

    1990-05-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in the left fossa often mimicking attacks of subileus is described in a woman aged 48 with extensive adhesions caused by multiple surgical procedures. Repeated examinations with conventional abdominal radiography and barium meals were negative with regard to mechanical intestinal obstruction. A cystic lesion varying in size from 2 to 8 cm in diameter was seen adjacent to the left ovary on repeat US examinations and also on CT. Pain episodes were sometimes correlated to increasing size of the lesion which was finally thought to be either a peritoneal inclusion cyst (fluid trapped between pelvic adhesions) or, as was finally confirmed at surgery, a true ovarian cyst (corpus luteum cyst) similarly trapped. PMID:2201330

  20. Misdiagnosis of Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  1. Acute Abdominal Pain in the Bariatric Surgery Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle D; Takenaka, Katrin Y; Luber, Samuel D

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is present in epidemic proportions in the United States, and bariatric surgery has become more common. Thus, emergency physicians will undoubtedly encounter many patients who have undergone one of these procedures. Knowledge of the anatomic changes specific to these procedures aids the clinician in understanding potential complications and devising an organized differential diagnosis. This article reviews common bariatric surgery procedures, their complications, and the approach to acute abdominal pain in these patients. PMID:27133251

  2. Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis: an atypical abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Ghislain, L; Heylen, A; Alexis, F; Tintillier, M

    2015-02-01

    Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis is a rare infection mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and is traditionally associated with risk factors (sports, female incontinence surgery). Typical features of pubic symphysis infection include abdominal, pelvic, or groin pain that increases upon standing and walking, causing limping to occur. Acute onset of fever is often associated. It is important to distinguish septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis from its aseptic homologue, improperly called 'osteitis pubis' in English literature. This general term is mostly used to designate a mechanical pubic pain and has several aetiological meanings (joint stress, postoperative pain, rheumatic diseases). However, some authors consider the infection of the pubic symphysis as a variant of osteitis pubis, placing the two diseases in the continuum of the same entity. This confusion in pubic pathology related to its rarity and its atypical presentation, may in some cases lead to diagnostic and therapeutic delay. In this article, we would like to make practitioners aware of this uncommon and often ignored anatomical site, so that it can recover its place in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. PMID:25227947

  3. The Brain-Gut Axis in Abdominal Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Tillisch, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The importance of bidirectional brain-gut interactions in gastrointestinal (GI) illness is increasingly recognized, most prominently in the area of functional GI syndromes such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and functional chest pain. The brain receives a constant stream of interoceptive input from the GI tract, integrates this information with other interoceptive information from the body and with contextual information from the environment, and sends an integrated response back to various target cells within the GI tract. This system is optimized to assure homeostasis of the GI tract during physiological perturbations and to adapt GI function to the overall state of the organism. In health, the great majority of interoceptive information reaching the brain is not consciously perceived but serves primarily as input to autonomic reflex pathways. In patients with functional abdominal pain syndromes, conscious perception of interoceptive information from the GI tract, or recall of interoceptive memories of such input, can occur in the form of constant or recurrent discomfort or pain. This is often associated with alterations in autonomic nervous system output and with emotional changes. A model is proposed that incorporates reported peripheral and central abnormalities in patients with IBS, extrapolates similar alterations in brain-gut interactions to patients with other chronic abdominal pain syndromes, and provides novel treatment targets. PMID:21090962

  4. [Management of adult abdominal pain in the Emergency Room].

    PubMed

    Chiche, L; Roupie, E; Delassus, P

    2006-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a commonplace reason for surgical consultation in the emergency department and is the the most common symptom which the digestive surgeon on-call must evaluate. He must understand the pathophysiologic basis of visceral pain and referred pain in order to appreciate its diverse manifestations. Abdominal pain can stem from many causes intestinal and non-intestinal, medical and surgical. Evaluation and management in the emergency department must be rapid and pragmatic; clinical history and physical examination should define the gravity of the case, direct the first diagnostic procedures and complementary examinations, and guide the therapeutic direction. Ultrasonography is a quick and effective diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of biliary, urologic, and gynecologic pathologies; it can be useful for other digestive problems as well. The new generation spiral CT scanner gives excellent definition of digestive and vascular pathologies. The initial evaluation and management of the acute abdomen may determine the prognosis of the patient; it should lead to prompt symptomatic relief and to a well-directed treatment appropriate to the diagnosis. PMID:16609646

  5. Diarrhea in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Wenzl, Heimo H

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea is a common clinical feature of inflammatory bowel diseases and may be accompanied by abdominal pain, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The pathophysiology of diarrhea in these diseases is complex, but defective absorption of salt and water by the inflamed bowel is the most important mechanism involved. In addition to inflammation secondary to the disease, diarrhea may arise from a variety of other conditions. It is important to differentiate the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the diarrhea in the individual patient to provide the appropriate therapy. This article reviews microscopic colitis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease, focusing on diarrhea. PMID:22917170

  6. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. PAIN (Performing Athletes with Abdominal or Inguinal Neuromuscular Pain Study Group).

    PubMed

    Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical. PMID:10653536

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Abdominal and Pelvic Pain in the Pregnant Patient.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Akshay D; Nicola, Refky; Bennett, Genevieve L; Bordia, Ritu; Moshiri, Mariam; Katz, Douglas S; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    The utility of MR imaging in evaluating abdominal and pelvic pain in the pregnant patient is discussed. Details regarding the indications, technical aspects, and imaging findings of various common abdominal and pelvic abnormalities in pregnancy are reviewed. PMID:27150326

  8. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  9. Efficacy of hepatobiliary imaging in acute abdominal pain: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.E.; Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Thrall, J.H.; Resinger, W.W.; Calderon, H.C.; Mirkes, S.H.; Shah, P.K.

    1980-10-01

    To assess prospectively the usefulness of hepatobiliary imaging in acute abdominal pain (72 hr or less), 36 patients were scintigraphed. Before the procedure, the referring physician completed Part I of a questionnaire indicating his differential diagnosis, diagnostic confidence (expressed as a percentage), and therapeutic plan. Immediately after the test, the same physician with knowledge of the results, completed Part II of the questionnaire indicating again his differential diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and therapeutic plan. The impact of the imaging on the physician's diagnostic confidence was expressed as a log-likelihood-ratio (LLR).

  10. Adrenal myelolipoma with abdominal pain: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Sengupta, Sanjay; Biswas, Pranab Kumar; Sinha, Mamta G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors. Most of the cases are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. We are reporting a case of myelolipoma involving right adrenal cortex of a 40-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain. A short review of etiology, clinical features, and differential diagnoses of this neoplasm are also discussed. Radiologic features are often helpful in diagnosis but histology must be done to exclude other fat-containing lesions. Although uncommon, myelolipomas should be considered in differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions. PMID:21584171

  11. My patient has got abdominal pain: identifying biliary problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Mark; Loubani, Osama; Bowra, Justin; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Right upper quadrant and epigastric abdominal pain are common presenting complaints in the emergency department. With increasing access to point-of-care ultrasound, emergency physicians now have an added tool to help identify biliary problems as a cause of a patient’s right upper quadrant pain. Point-of-care ultrasound has a sensitivity of 89.8% (95% CI 86.4–92.5%) and specificity of 88.0% (83.7–91.4%) for cholelithiasis, very similar to radiology-performed ultrasonography. In addition to assessment for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, point-of-care ultrasound can help emergency physicians to determine whether the biliary system is the source of infection in patients with suspected sepsis. Use of point-of-care ultrasound for the assessment of the biliary system has resulted in more rapid diagnosis, decreasing costs, and shorter emergency department length of stay.

  12. Clinical Case of the Month: A 48-Year-Old Man With Fever and Abdominal Pain of One Day Duration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mary; Tadin, David; Conrad, Erich J; Lopez, Fred A

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man residing in a mental health department inpatient program with a history of schizoaffective disorder presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of fever and intense abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated he initially fell in the shower and afterwards experienced back pain. He was transferred to an acute care unit within the facility for further evaluation. The facility physician noted that the patient had a mild temperature elevation and abdominal rigidity on exam. At that time, he was given two doses of benztropine intramuscularly, and transferred to our hospital for further evaluation. The patient exhibited fever, diffuse abdominal pain and a nonproductive cough, but denied chills, dysuria, urinary frequency, hematuria, weakness, diarrhea, melena or hematochezia. He did have a one-week history of constipation for which he was given sodium phosphate enemas, magnesium citrate and docusate sodium, eventually resulting in a bowel movement. He also complained of new onset dysphagia. There were no recent changes to his medications, which included clonazepam, divalproex sodium extended release, olanzapine and risperidone. He denied use of tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs. PMID:27159603

  13. Acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnancy: ESUR recommendations.

    PubMed

    Masselli, Gabriele; Derchi, Lorenzo; McHugo, Josephine; Rockall, Andrea; Vock, Peter; Weston, Michael; Spencer, John

    2013-12-01

    Acute abdominal pain in pregnancy presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Standard imaging techniques need to be adapted to reduce harm to the fetus from X-rays due to their teratogenic and carcinogenic potential. Ultrasound remains the primary imaging investigation of the pregnant abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of gynaecological and obstetric problems during pregnancy and in the setting of acute abdomen during pregnancy. MRI overcomes some of the limitations of ultrasound, mainly the size of the gravid uterus. MRI poses theoretical risks to the fetus and care must be taken to minimise these with the avoidance of contrast agents. This article reviews the evolving imaging and clinical literature on appropriate investigation of acute abdominal and pelvic pain during established intrauterine pregnancy, addressing its common causes. Guidelines based on the current literature and on the accumulated clinico-radiological experience of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) working group are proposed for imaging these suspected conditions. PMID:23990045

  14. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain secondary to median arcuate ligament syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Ivy N; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain is a common entity in young athletes. An uncommon aetiology of this type of pain is median arcuate ligament syndrome. This article details an 18-year-old field hockey player who presented with a 1-year history of exercise-related transient abdominal pain. Despite a trial of preventative strategies, the patient's pain persisted, prompting surgical intervention. Following a laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release, the patient's symptoms resolved. Therefore, when exercise-related transient abdominal pain persists despite precautionary measures, median arcuate ligament syndrome should be considered. PMID:26542078

  15. A Case of Right Upper Abdominal Pain Misdiagnosed on Computerized Tomography

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, Seema; JHA, Ashesh Kumar; SHARMA, Naveen; MISHRA, Tushar Subhadarshan

    2014-01-01

    Right upper abdominal pain is a common symptom in patients presenting to surgery emergency. Most of these cases can be diagnosed accurately on clinical evaluation or imaging. We report an unusual case of right upper abdominal pain, which could not be diagnosed correctly pre-operatively despite using various imaging modalities. PMID:25977626

  16. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  17. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH. PMID:25796467

  18. Abdominal pain as initial presentation of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eisa, Naseem; Alhafez, Bishr; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Alraies, M Chadi

    2014-01-01

    Isolated spleen metastasis (ISM) in general is very rare with a reported incidence of 2.3–7.1% for all solid cancers. Lung cancers rarely metastasise to the spleen. It is very atypical for ISM to be the initial presentation of lung cancer as well. In our case, a 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-week history of left-sided abdominal fullness and dull pain. Workup was remarkable for splenic mass that turns out to be adenocarcinoma with unknown primary tumour. Biopsy of the mass with immunohistochemistry and whole body position emission tomography scan was able to identify lung cancer as the primary tumour. The patient underwent splenectomy, wedge resection of the lung mass along with short-course of chemotherapy. She never had any recurrences since then. PMID:24835801

  19. Treatment of an elderly patient with acute abdominal pain with traditional Korean medicine.

    PubMed

    Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-10-01

    Abdominal pain in elderly patients leads to challenge due to diagnostic difficulty and high incidence of complications. This case report presents an elderly patient with acute and severe abdominal pain, who did not respond to Western treatments. The patient was diagnosed to have abdominal pain by Yang deficiency of spleen (脾陽虛). Acupuncture (mainly at LI4 and LR3), indirect moxibustion (CV4 and CV8), and a herbal drug [DaehwangBuja-Tang (大黃附子湯)] were given to the patient; the abdominal pain and related symptoms disappeared completely within 3 days. This study proved the potential use of traditional Korean medicine for treating abdominal pain in elderly patients. PMID:25441951

  20. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in pediatric functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Claudio; Comito, Donatella; Famiani, Annalisa; Calamarà, Sabrina; Loddo, Italia

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) diet supplement in pediatric chronic abdominal pain (CAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind pilot study was performed in sixty children (8-16 years) with functional bowel disorders, such as CAP or IBS, diagnosed according to Rome III criteria. All patients underwent ultrasound, blood and stool examinations to rule out any organic disease. Patients were allocated to receive PHGG at dosage of 5 g/d (n = 30) or placebo (fruit-juice n = 30) for 4 wk. The evaluation of the efficacy of fiber supplement included IBS symptom severity score (Birmingham IBS Questionnaire), severity of abdominal pain (Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score) and bowel habit (Bristol Stool Scale). Symptom scores were completed at 2, 4, and 8 wk. The change from baseline in the symptom severity scale at the end of treatment and at 4 wk follow-up after treatment was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate compliance to supplementation with the PHGG in the pediatric population. Differences within groups during the treatment period and follow-up were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: The results of the study were assessed considering some variables, such as frequency and intensity of symptoms with modifications of the bowel habit. Both groups were balanced for baseline characteristics and all patients completed the study. Group A (PHGG group) presented a higher level of efficacy compared to group B (control group), (43% vs 5%, P = 0.025) in reducing clinical symptoms with modification of Birmingham IBS score (median 0 ± 1 vs 4 ± 1, P = 0.025), in intensity of CAP assessed with the Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score and in normalization of bowel habit evaluated with the Bristol Stool Scale (40% vs 13.3%, P = 0.025). In IBS subgroups, statistical analysis shown a tendency toward normalization of bowel movements, but there was no difference in the prevalence of

  1. Imperforate Hymen - a rare cause of acute abdominal pain and tenesmus: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mwenda, Aruyaru Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Imperforate hymen is a rare condition that presents with amenorrhea, cyclical abdominal pains and urine retention among pubertal girls. A 14 year old girl with imperforate hymen underwent hymenotomy for hematocolpometra, having presented with abdominal pains and tenesmus. PMID:24009804

  2. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their child’s pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children’s level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the child’s coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521

  3. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  4. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  5. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain PMID:22461879

  6. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome based on abdominal pain/discomfort severity and bowel pattern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has traditionally been classified by stooling pattern (e.g., diarrhea-predominant). However, other patterns of symptoms have long been recognized, e.g., pain severity. Our objective was to examine the utility of subtyping women with IBS based on pain/discomfort severit...

  7. Multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged <18 years with acute abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded. A total of 156 patients with acute abdominal pain (85 males and 71 females, age 1-17 years; mean age 10.9 ± 4.6 years) who underwent abdominal MDCT in the pediatric ED during this 3-year period were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen patients with suspected appendicitis underwent abdominal MDCT. Sixty four (54.2%) of them had appendicitis, which was proven by histopathology. The sensitivity of abdominal MDCT for appendicitis was found to be 98.5% and the specificity was 84.9%. In this study, the other two common causes of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies were gastrointestinal tract (GI) infections and ovarian cysts. The most common etiology of abdominal pain in children that requires imaging with abdominal MDCT is appendicitis. MDCT has become a preferred and invaluable imaging modality in evaluating uncertain cases of pediatric acute abdominal pain in ED, in particular for suspected appendicitis, neoplasms, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. PMID:27154197

  8. 38-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain, but no fever

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Kentaro; Toma, Tomoko; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with 2 days history of left-flank pain. She had similar episodes of abdominal pain as well as chest pain several times, but symptoms disappeared spontaneously. Each time she developed pain, there was no fever. After ruling out common causes of recurrent abdominal pain, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) was considered as a potential diagnosis. Genetic tests revealed multiple heterozygote mutations, which may be associated with FMF. Patients with Mediterranean fever mutations may present with atypical presentations without fever, like in this case. Astute clinical suspicion is required to make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:22505824

  9. Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2007-02-01

    We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling. PMID:17405745

  10. Functional abdominal pain in childhood: background studies and recent research trends.

    PubMed

    Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors' research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors' group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research. PMID:23248815

  11. Characteristics of upper abdominal pain in those with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Riley, Thomas R; Koch, Kenneth

    2003-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis has many causes. Symptoms include upper abdominal pain. To allow for a better understanding of this pain we compare HCV patients with other liver diseases and normal controls on their reporting of pain over one month and describe associations. A cross-sectional, case control study was performed. Three groups are studied: (1) normal individuals (NC) (N = 64), (2) patients with chronic liver diseases other than HCV (LD) (N = 53), and (3) HCV infection (N = 64). A dyspepsia questionnaire was utilized, which inquired about a one-month symptom presence of upper abdominal pain and associated symptoms. There was a one-month period prevalence of upper abdominal pain of 45.3% in the HCV group vs 32% in the LD and 20.3% in the NC groups (P = 0.01). The LD (22.6%) and HCV (26.6%) groups had markedly more pain that was worsened by eating compared with NC (1.6%) (P = .003). On univariate analysis, when comparing those with upper abdominal pain to those without, there was a lower age (41.3 vs 44.5), a higher BMI (30.3 vs 26), and more symptoms of fatigue, bloating, and pain worsened by eating and early satiety. On multivariate analysis, age < 50 (OR 5.1; CI 1.5-17), BMI > 30 (OR 4.1; CI 1.5-10.9), nausea (OR 4.1; CI 1.6-10.4), and pain with eating (OR 30: CI 6.7-133) predicted upper abdominal pain. In conclusion, upper abdominal pain is more commonly reported over one month in those with chronic liver diseases. That the abdominal pain worsened after meals in liver patients but not in the normal subjects was a surprise. Possible explanations for this finding are offered. PMID:14627332

  12. Intractable Abdominal Pain in a Patient With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Kyung; Song, Dae Heon; Kim, Young Moon; Kim, Hong Geum; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience several types of chronic pains. Abdominal pain in patients with SCI has gained limited attention and little is yet known about its characteristics and mechanisms. It often has been regarded as visceral pain associated with constipation and distention. Neuropathic pains localized in the abdomen have rarely been reported. We experience a case of intractable abdominal pain in a patient with SCI, neither of visceral pathology nor of musculoskeletal origin. The nature of pain fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pains. The pain was therefore regarded as neuropathic and managed accordingly. The first- and second-line oral drugs available were being performed, unfortunately, adequate pain control was not achieved. We tried an intrathecal lidocaine injection as another treatment option, and the injection had considerable effects. PMID:24236262

  13. Evaluation and management of acute abdominal pain in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Christopher R; McNamara, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the emergency department patient with acute abdominal pain is sometimes difficult. Various factors can obscure the presentation, delaying or preventing the correct diagnosis, with subsequent adverse patient outcomes. Clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those life-threatening conditions that require timely intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. This article will review general information on abdominal pain and discuss the clinical approach by review of the history and the physical examination. Additionally, this article will discuss the approach to unstable patients with abdominal pain. PMID:23055768

  14. [Treatment of pain in advanced-stage intra-abdominal neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Polati, E; Finco, G; Rigo, V; Gottin, L; Pinaroli, A M; Iacono, C; Mangiante, G; Serio, G; Ischia, S

    1993-01-01

    Different types of pain are present in far advanced intra-abdominal cancer, sometimes in the same site too. An accurate semeiological analysis of pain is important because different types of pain often differently respond to the available therapeutical tools. In this paper the results and the complications of the most important methods of pain management in far advanced intra-abdominal cancer are examined. Analysis of the data reveals that the association of more methods, pharmacological and non, should be a rule rather than the exception. PMID:7923502

  15. Celiac plexus neurolysis for the treatment of upper abdominal cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Neto, Eloy Rusafa; da Nóbrega, José Cláudio Marinho; dos Ângelos, Jairo Silva; Martin, Miguel San; de Monaco, Bernardo Assumpção; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni

    2013-01-01

    Optimal treatment of oncologic pain is a challenge to all professionals who deal with cancer and its complications. The management of upper abdominal pain is usually difficult and it is often refractory to conservative therapies. In this context, celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) appears to be an important and indispensable tool because it alleviates pain, gives comfort to patients and is a safe procedure. In this study, the importance of CPN is reviewed by a retrospective study of 74 patients with pain due to upper abdominal cancer. Almost all cases evaluated (94.6%) had an excellent result after CPN and the majority of side effects were transitory. PMID:23983470

  16. Epidemiology of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korterink, Judith J.; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2) containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3) of children aged 4-18 years (4) suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood. Results A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3), of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9). The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8%) and Asia (16.5%) compared to Europe (10.5%). And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4). Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5) and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events. Conclusion Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence. PMID:25992621

  17. Sonography of Abdominal Pain in Children: Appendicitis and Its Common Mimics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Corwin, Michael T; Davoodian, Andrew; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is very common in the pediatric population (<18 years of age). Sonography is a safe modality that can often differentiate the frequently encountered causes of abdominal pain in children. This pictorial essay will discuss the sonographic findings of acute appendicitis, including the imaging appearance of a perforated appendicitis. It will also present the sonographic features of the relatively common mimics of appendicitis, such as mesenteric adenitis/gastroenteritis, intussusception, Meckel diverticulum, and ovarian torsion. PMID:26892821

  18. A case report from Nepalese community pharmacy on levofloxacin induced severe abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvan, K.C.; ALrasheedy, Alian A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old female patient developed severe abdominal pain shortly after taking levofloxacin, 1000 mg for acute bacterial sinusitis. The pain started after taking the first dose of levofloxacin and became worse after the second dose. The patient was unable to do daily physical activities. The pain resolved upon discontinuation of levofloxacin and symptomatic therapy. Other factors that may cause abdominal pain were ruled out. This case is of interest as it documents severe abdominal pain due to levofloxacin requiring discontinuation of therapy and describes its appropriate management. In addition, it highlights the vital role that community pharmacists could play in managing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and preventing potential Drug Related Problems (DRPs). PMID:23960849

  19. Multidetector CT in emergency radiology: acute and generalized non-traumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Paolantonio, Pasquale; Rengo, Marco; Ferrari, Riccardo; Laghi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is an imaging technique that provides otherwise unobtainable information in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A correct working diagnosis depends essentially on understanding the individual patient's clinical data and laboratory findings. In haemodynamically stable patients with acute severe and generalized abdominal pain, MDCT is now the preferred imaging test and gives invaluable diagnostic information, also in unstable patients after stabilization. In this descriptive review, we focus our attention on acute, severe and generalized or undifferentiated non-traumatic abdominal pain. The main differential diagnoses are acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, ruptured abdominal aneurysm and acute mesenteric ischaemia. We will provide radiologist readers with a technical guide to optimize MDCT imaging protocols and list the major CT signs essential to reach a correct diagnosis and guide the best treatment. PMID:26689097

  20. Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...

  1. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  2. Treatment of Abdominal Segmental Hernia, Constipation, and Pain Following Herpes Zoster with Paravertebral Block.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saeyoung; Jeon, Younghoon

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) most commonly occurs in elderly patients and involves sensory neurons resulting in pain and sensory changes. Clinically significant motor deficits and visceral neuropathies are thought to be relatively rare. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal segmental hernia, constipation, and pain following HZ in the left T9-10 dermatome. Sixteen days before presentation, he had developed a painful herpetic rash in the left upper abdominal quadrant. Approximately 10 days after the onset of the rash, constipation occurred and was managed with daily oral medication with bisacodyl 5 mg. In addition, 14 days after the onset of HZ, the patient noticed a protrusion of the left upper abdominal wall. Abdominal x-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen, and electrolyte analysis showed no abnormalities. General physical examination revealed a reducible bulge in his left upper quadrant and superficial abdominal reflexes were diminished in the affected region. Electromyographic testing revealed denervational changes limited to the left thoracic paraspinal muscles and supraumbilical muscles, corresponding to the affected dermatomes. He was prescribed with 500 mg of famciclovir 3 times a day for 7 days, and pregabalin 75 mg twice a day and acetaminophen 650 mg 3 times a day for 14 days. However, his pain was rated at an intensity of 5 on the numerical analogue scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). A paravertebral block was performed at T9-10 with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine 3 mL and triamcinolone 40 mg. One day after the procedure, the abdominal pain disappeared. In addition, 5 days after the intervention, the abdominal protrusion and constipation were resolved. He currently remains symptom free at a 6 month follow-up. PMID:26431148

  3. A rare case of leaking abdominal aneurysm presenting as isolated right testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Sufi, P A

    2007-03-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated right testicular pain. We describe a patient who did present with isolated acute right testicular pain as the sentinel feature of a leaking AAA. In the patient group with right testicular pain, consideration of a leaking AAA should be added to the differential diagnosis. An adverse outcome can be avoided by timely diagnosis and intervention. PMID:17391586

  4. Chronic Pancreatitis Pain Pattern and Severity are Independent of Abdominal Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, C. Mel; Yadav, Dhiraj; Tian, Ye; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Sandhu, Bimaljit S.; Lewis, Michele D.; Al-Kaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory A.; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Guda, Nalini; Conwell, Darwin L.; Banks, Peter A.; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Brand, Randall E; Slivka, Adam; Sherman, Stuart; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, David C.; Anderson, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by inflammation, atrophy, fibrosis with progressive ductal changes, and functional changes that include variable exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and multiple patterns of pain. We investigated whether abdominal imaging features accurately predict patterns of pain. Methods We collected data from participants in North American Pancreatitis Study 2 Continuation and Validation, a prospective multicenter study of patients with chronic pancreatitis performed at 13 expert centers in the United States from July 2008 through March 2012. Chronic pancreatitis was defined based on detection of characteristic changes by cross-sectional abdominal imaging, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, or histology analyses. Patients were asked by a physician or trained clinical research coordinator if they had any abdominal pain in the year before enrollment; those that responded “yes” were asked to select from a list of 5 pain patterns. Using these patterns, we classified patients’ pain based on timing and severity. Abnormal pancreatitis-associated features on abdominal imaging were recorded using standardized case report forms. Results Data were collected from 518 patients (mean age, 52±14.6 years; 55% male; and 87.6% white). The most common physician-identified etiologies were alcohol (45.8%) and idiopathic (24.3%); 15.6% of patients reported no abdominal pain in the year before enrollment. The most common individual pain pattern was described as constant mild pain with episodes of severe pain, reported in 45% of patients. The most common imaging findings included pancreatic ductal dilatation (68%), atrophy (57%), and calcifications (55%). Imaging findings were categorized as obstructive for 20% and inflammatory for 25% of cases. The distribution of individual imaging findings was similar among patients with different patterns of pain. The distribution of pain patterns did not

  5. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Lakshay; Jegaraj, Moses A. K.; Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Yadav, Bijesh; Abilash, Kundavaram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED) and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6%) were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%). Majority of the patients (76.9%) presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36%) followed by colicky type (22.3%). The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%). Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%), urinary tract infection (12.5%), acute pancreatitis (11%), acute appendicitis (10.6%) and acute gastritis (8%). More than half (51.9%) discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:26288785

  6. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. PMID:26169928

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in pregnancy presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and radiologists alike. The differential diagnosis includes obstetric and nonobstetric conditions unique to pregnancy, in addition to causes of acute abdominal and pelvic pain unrelated to the pregnancy. The clinical presentation and course of disease may be altered in pregnancy, and several pathologies are exacerbated by pregnancy. Discriminating clinical features in the diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic pain are often confounded by expected anatomic and physiologic changes in pregnancy. Moreover, while diagnostic pathways may be altered in pregnancy, the necessity for a timely and accurate diagnosis must be underscored, as delay in treatment may result in an undesirable increase in morbidity and/or mortality for both the patient and fetus. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) through faster acquisition and motion-insensitive techniques, coupled with increased awareness and education regarding the value of MRI in diagnosing a wide range of pathology, have established MRI as a valuable strategy in the investigation of acute abdominal and pelvic pain in the pregnant patient. This review presents a practical approach to common obstetric and nonobstetric causes of acute abdominal and pelvic pain during pregnancy, as well as safety considerations for performing MRI in this patient population. PMID:25099561

  8. Belly dancer's myoclonus and chronic abdominal pain: pain-related dysinhibition of a spinal cord central pattern generator?

    PubMed

    Tamburin, Stefano; Idone, Domenico; Zanette, Giampietro

    2007-07-01

    We report on a patient with segmental rhythmic myoclonus resembling belly dance. This patient developed the myoclonus in temporal and anatomical association with chronic abdominal pain. No structural or metabolic abnormalities were found. EMG recordings suggested the presence of a spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG). We hypothesize that pain-related spinal plasticity might have contributed to the hyperactivity of a spinal CPG, thus leading to the myoclonic jerks in our patient. PMID:17049297

  9. Influence of Hamstring and Abdominal Muscle Activation on a Positive Ober's Test in People with Lumbopelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, H. Rich; DeBord, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of hamstring and abdominal activation on pain levels as measured by the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS) and hip range of motion as measured by Ober's Test in people with lumbopelvic pain. Methods: Thirteen participants with lumbopelvic pain and positive Ober's Tests completed an exercise developed by the Postural Restoration Institute™ to recruit hamstrings and abdominal muscles. Results: There was a significant increase in passive hip-adduction angles (p<0.01) and decrease in pain (p<0.01) immediately after the intervention. Conclusion: Specific exercises that activate hamstrings and abdominal muscles appear to immediately improve Ober's Test measurements and reduce pain as measured by the NPS in people with lumbo-pelvic pain. Hamstring/abdominal activation, rather than iliotibial band stretching, may be an effective intervention for addressing lumbopelvic pain and a positive Ober's Test. PMID:24381375

  10. Thoracic Disk Herniation, a not Infrequent Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lara, F.J. Pérez; Berges, A. Ferrer; Quesada, J. Quintero; Ramiro, J.A. Moreno; Toledo, R. Bustamante; Muñoz, H. Oliva

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the proportion of patients presenting with nonvisceral chronic abdominal pain who have thoracic disk herniation as a possible cause. We designed a descriptive transversal study of patients attending our offices between February 2009 and October 2010, with a complaint of chronic abdominal pain of suspected abdominal wall source (positive Carnett sign). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the spinal column was performed on all patients. When the NMR showed thoracic disk herniation the patients were treated according to their etiology. We also evaluated the symptoms in patients with thoracic disk herniation and their response to the applied treatment. Twenty-seven patients with chronic abdominal pain were evaluated. The NMR results in 18 of these 27 patients (66.66%) showed evidence of disk herniation. We report on the results of these 18 patients, emphasizing that the symptoms are florid and varied. Many patients had been previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Thoracic disk herniation may account for chronic abdominal pain in many patients who remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, this possibility needs to be taken into account to achieve a correct diagnosis and a suitable mode of treatment. PMID:23101998

  11. Abdominal pain related to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy syndrome may benefit from splanchnic nerve blockade.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Nalan; Sahin, Altan; Canbay, Ozgür; Uzümcügil, Filiz; Aypar, Ulkü

    2006-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with abdominal pain related to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) may benefit from splanchnic nerve blockade. MNGIE, varying in age of onset and rate of progression, is caused by loss of function mutation in thymidine phosphorylase gene. Gastrointestinal dysmotility, pseudo-obstruction and demyelinating sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (stocking-glove sensory loss, absent tendon reflexes, distal limb weakness, and wasting) are the most prominent manifestations. Patients usually die in early adulthood (mean 37.6 years; range 26-58 years). We report a case of an 18-year-old patient with MNGIE. Our patient's abdominal pain was relieved after splanchnic nerve blockade. PMID:16972839

  12. Measuring episodic abdominal pain and disability in suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Durkalski, Valerie; Stewart, Walter; MacDougall, Paulette; Mauldin, Patrick; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Brawman-Minzter, Olga; Cotton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reliability of an instrument that measures disability arising from episodic abdominal pain in patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD). METHODS: Although several treatments have been utilized to reduce pain and associated disability, measurement tools have not been developed to reliably track outcomes. Two pilot studies were conducted to assess test-retest reliability of a newly developed instrument, the recurrent abdominal pain intensity and disability (RAPID) instrument. The RAPID score is a 90-d summation of days where productivity for various daily activities is reduced as a result of abdominal pain episodes, and is modeled after the migraine disability assessment instrument used to measure headache-related disability. RAPID was administered by telephone on 2 consecutive occasions in 2 consenting populations with suspected SOD: a pre-sphincterotomy population (Pilot I, n = 55) and a post-sphincterotomy population (Pilot II, n = 70). RESULTS: The average RAPID scores for Pilots I and II were: 82 d (median: 81.5 d, SD: 64 d) and 48 d (median: 0 d, SD: 91 d), respectively. The concordance between the 2 assessments for both populations was very good: 0.81 for the pre-sphincterotomy population and 0.95 for the post-sphincterotomy population. CONCLUSION: The described pilot studies suggest that RAPID is a reliable instrument for measuring disability resulting from abdominal pain in suspected SOD patients. PMID:20845508

  13. Evaluating the Patient with Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Avegno, Jennifer; Carlisle, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain is among the most common complaints in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI causes for pain. Evaluation of patients requires a combination of history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and diagnostic imaging. This article details the anatomy and physiology of the right upper abdomen and approach to the history and physical examination of the most common diseases encountered in the emergency department. "Can't miss," non-GI diagnoses are discussed. Best practices of laboratory and imaging, and treatment of most common diagnoses of RUQ pain are reviewed. PMID:27133241

  14. Pathology Image of the Month: Abdominal Pain and Peripheral Eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, Reggie; Alquist, Caroline Raasch; Farris, K Barton; McGoey, Robin

    2015-01-01

    A 69 year-old man presented to his primary care physician with abdominal discomfort. Medical history was notable for diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with recent (one week prior) steroid use and hypertension. Surgical history was significant for a remote sigmoid hemicolectomy for diverticulitis with a synthetic mesh abdominal repair. He was admitted to the hospital for suspected gastroparesis. An upper GI series showed a distended stomach with delayed gastric motility. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and a duodenal biopsy was taken. He remained afebrile but had an elevated white blood cell count of 19.1 x 103/mcL (4.5 - 11.0 x 103/mcL) with 28.8 percent eosinophils on differential. Microscopic images of the duodenal biopsy are shown below. PMID:27159605

  15. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  16. Imaging patterns with 99mTc-PIPIDA in evaluating abdominal pain

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.F.; Gordon, L.; Selby, J.B. Sr.

    1983-11-01

    A random retrospective review of hepatobiliary scans on 86 adult patients with abdominal pain revealed four distinct imaging patterns: normal, cystic duct obstruction, obstructive, and sick liver pattern. A normal pattern was found to exclude acute cholecystitis and was the pattern most frequently observed.

  17. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation at Jiaji points reduce abdominal pain after colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Wu, Weilan; Yao, Yusheng; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at Jiaji acupuncture points has therapeutic potential for relieving viscera pain and opioid-related side effects. This prospective, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of TEAS on abdominal pain after colonoscopy. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II underwent selective colonoscopy were randomly assigned into two groups for either TEAS or sham pretreatment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of abdominal pain after colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes included the incidence of abdominal distension, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of PACU stay, and patient’s satisfaction and acceptance. Results: Among the 229 patients analyzed, fewer occurrence of post-procedural abdominal pain (11.4% vs 25.2%, P = 0.007) and distension (1.8% vs 7.8%, P = 0.032) were observed in TEAS group, when compared with the sham group. The duration of PACU stay was significant shortened in TEAS group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients’ satisfaction score to medical service was higher (P < 0.001), and their acceptance to colonoscopy was improved (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Pretreatment with TEAS can reduce post-procedural discomfort, provide more efficient medical resources utilization, and improved patient’s satisfaction and colonoscopy acceptance. PMID:26131193

  18. Protein S deficiency present in a pregnant woman with dyspnea, abdominal pains, restlessness, agitation and hypofibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Umazume, Takeshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takahiro; Akaishi, Rina; Koyama, Takahiro; Minakami, Hisanori

    2015-04-01

    Hypofibrinogenemia is rare in pulmonary thromboembolism. A pregnant woman with dyspnea, abdominal pain, restlessness, agitation and protein S deficiency exhibited normal blood oxygenation and high D-dimer (370 μg/mL) and undetectable fibrinogen levels in the blood. The pathogenesis responsible for present findings may have some features similar to amniotic fluid embolism. PMID:25914811

  19. Assessment and Treatment of Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Guidelines for the School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Colleen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that somatic complaints without clear organic origin are also primary indicators for both anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence. Review of literature provides school psychologists with basic information regarding prevalence, assessment, and treatment of one of most common types of somatic complaints: recurrent abdominal pain.…

  20. Efficacy of a Brief Relaxation Training Intervention for Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Katrina M.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a brief intervention for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) via a multiple baseline across subjects design. The intervention consisted of a single 1-hour session including psychoeducation and coaching of breathing retraining; the length, duration, and content of the intervention were…

  1. [When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward?].

    PubMed

    de Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Sarasin, François

    2010-08-25

    When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward? The following goals must be achieved upon managing patients with acute abdominal pain: 1) identify vital emergency situations; 2) detect surgical conditions that require emergency referral without further diagnostic procedures; 3) in "non surgical acute abdomen patients" perform appropriate diagnostic procedures, or in selected cases delay tests and reevaluate the patient after an observation period, after which a referral decision is made. Clues from the history and physical examination are critical to perform this evaluation. A good knowledge of the most frequent acute abdominal conditions, and identifying potential severity criteria allow an appropriate management and decision about emergency referral. PMID:20873434

  2. Covert toxocariasis--a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, D; Laing, R B; Currie, P F

    1992-01-01

    Toxocariasis, usually caused by Toxocara canis, is a zoonosis acquired by ingestion of worms which inhabit the gut of young canines. Domestic pets, such as dogs, become infected from soil in public parks and playgrounds which are often heavily contaminated. Although toxocariasis is often regarded as having two principal, though uncommon, manifestations--visceral larva migrans (VLM) and ocular toxocariasis (OT)--recent studies have suggested otherwise. A third, more common, condition, termed 'covert toxocariasis', describes patients in whom positive toxocara serology is associated with a number of systemic and localised symptoms and signs (notably abdominal pain) but not VLM or OT. A quarter of patients with covert toxocariasis have no eosinophilia and, although symptoms regress after treatment, they may persist for months or years. We report a 13-year-old girl with recurrent abdominal pain who, despite positive toxocara serology, was extensively investigated for other abdominal pathology. PMID:1290741

  3. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to mesenteric panniculitis treated successfully with endoscopic ultrasonography-guided celiac plexus block: A case report.

    PubMed

    Alhazzani, Waleed; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Greenwald, Eric; Radhi, Jasim; Tse, Frances

    2015-05-16

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a chronic illness that is characterized by fibrosing inflammation of the mesenteries that can lead to intractable abdominal pain. Pain control is a crucial component of the management plan. Most patients will improve with oral corticosteroids treatment, however, some patients will require a trial of other immunosuppressive agents, and a minority of patients will continue to have refractory disease. Endoscopic ultrasound guided celiac plexus block is used frequently to control abdominal pain in patients with pancreatic pathology. To our knowledge there are no case reports describing its use in mesenteric panniculitis patients with refractory abdominal pain. PMID:25992196

  4. Recurrent abdominal pain post appendectomy--a rare case.

    PubMed

    Cama, Jitoko K

    2010-09-01

    Right iliac fossa pain in young adults who have previously had an appendicectomy represents a diagnostic challenge. In such cases it is important to review the histology of the appendix and the previous operation notes. The appendix stump, if left long following an appendectomy, can result in chronic appendicitis of the stump, or it can rarely develop into a mucocele. This case report describes a patient with an appendix stump mucocele who presented with chronic pain under the right iliac fossa incision and was successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. PMID:21714341

  5. Phytotherapy of chronic abdominal pain following pancreatic carcinoma surgery: a single case observation

    PubMed Central

    Wiebelitz, Karl Rüdiger; Beer, André-Michael

    2012-01-01

    A patient with pancreatic carcinoma diagnosed in 2005 suffered from chronic abdominal pain 6 years later that did not respond to conventional pain treatment according to guidelines. Furthermore, several complementary medical approaches remained ineffective. In the long run, only an Iberis amara drug combination relieved pain sufficiently. The drug is registered in Germany for the indications irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. The multi-target approach of this combination drug may account for the effectiveness under these fundamentally different pathophysiological conditions. No serious undesired effects have been described in the use of this drug for other indications and none were observed in this case. PMID:23097614

  6. Emergency Department Diagnosis of Dietl Crisis in a 7-Year-Old Girl With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Burhop, James; Clingenpeel, Joel M; Poirier, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Children with Dietl crisis often experience a delay in diagnosis, with the clinical entity being underdiagnosed. Pain is caused by compression of an aberrant artery crossing dilated kidney. Pain is often worsened after the consumption of liquids and resolves after fluid reabsorption. There are no clear criteria for evaluating ureter obstruction in childhood abdominal pain in the emergency department setting; however, it has been suggested that ultrasound may aid in the diagnosis. As renal parenchyma is typically preserved, and there is a paucity of associated urological complaints, once properly diagnosed, most patients are well served by a pyeloplasty. PMID:25626638

  7. Chronic postsurgical pain and neuropathic symptoms after abdominal hysterectomy: A silent epidemic.

    PubMed

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Palabyk, Onur; Tuna, Ayça Taş; Kaya, Burak; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Akdemir, Nermin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is an important clinic problem. It is assessed that prevalence of chronic pain extends to 30% but it is contended that there are various risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain after hysterectomy, risk factors of chronicity, neuropathic features of pain, and sensorial alterations at surgery area.Between years 2012 and 2015, 16 to 65 ages old patients that electively undergone total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and passed minimum 3 months after surgery were included to study. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Douleur Neuropathique 4-questionnaire (DN-4) surveys were used to evaluate pain symptoms, algometry device was used for evaluating abdominal pressure threshold and Von Frey Filament was used for sensorial alterations.Ninety-three of 165 eligible patients were included to study. As the groups were compared by demographic data, no difference was obtained (P > 0.05). There was no difference between groups regarding patient and surgery attributes (P > 0.05). Most frequently performed incision type was Pfannenstiel. Neuropathic symptoms were observed in 90 patients (96.8%). Sensorial alterations as hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia were detected around abdominal scar in 18 patients (19.4%) with pinprick test.Neuropathic symptoms should not be ignored in studies evaluating CPSP and a standard methodology should be designed for studies in this topic. PMID:27537570

  8. Extra scrotal spermatocele causing lower abdominal pain: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Denis J; Fobia, John B

    2011-03-01

    Lower quadrant abdominal pain is a common complaint evaluated in emergency departments (EDs). The number of differential diagnoses is lowered when the pain in a male patient is associated with a palpable tender mass. These diagnoses include inguinal hernia, inflamed inguinal lymph node, rectus sheath hematoma, cryptorchidism, mass derived from the spermatic cord, and polyorchidism. We report a case of extra scrotal spermatocele causing lower quadrant abdominal pain that was misdiagnosed as an inguinal hernia on several ED visits. Lower quadrant mass and pain caused by a spermatocele are unusual conditions. Upon the patient's third (ED) visit, the painful mass remained located in his right lower quadrant. The lower quadrant mass was movable on palpation and with pressure could be delivered into the superior aspect of the scrotum. The patient had an abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scan and lower quadrant ultrasound. The imaging studies revealed the mass to be a cystic structure. Surgical excision confirmed that the mass was a spermatocele. Differential diagnoses, diagnostic approaches, and treatment are discussed. PMID:20674226

  9. First Clinical Judgment by Primary Care Physicians Distinguishes Well Between Nonorganic and Organic Causes of Abdominal or Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Benedict; Bucheli, Bruno; Stotz, Martin; Battegay, Edouard; Gyr, Niklaus

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of a preliminary diagnosis based solely on patient history and physical examination in medical outpatients with abdominal or chest pain. DESIGN Prospective observational study. setting General medical outpatient clinic in a university teaching hospital. participants One hundred ninety new, consecutive patients with a mean age of 44 years (SD = 14 years, range 30–58 years) with a main complaint of abdominal or chest pain. measurements and main results The preliminary diagnosis, established on the basis of patient history and physical examination, was compared with a final diagnosis, obtained after workup at completion of the chart. A nonorganic cause was established in 66 (59%) of 112 patients with abdominal pain and in 65 (83%) of 78 with chest pain. The preliminary diagnosis of “nonorganic” versus “organic” causes was correct in 79% of patients with abdominal pain and in 88% of patients with chest pain. An “undoubted” preliminary diagnosis predicted a correct assessment in all patients with abdominal pain and in all but one patient with chest pain. Overall, only 4 patients (3%) were initially incorrectly diagnosed as having a nonorganic cause of pain rather than an organic cause. In addition, final nonorganic diagnosis (n = 131) was compared with long-term follow-up by obtaining information from patients and, if necessary, from treating physicians. Follow-up information, obtained for 71% of these patients after a mean of 29 months (range 18–56 months) identified three other patients that had been misdiagnosed as having abdominal pain of nonorganic causes. Compared with follow-up, the diagnostic accuracy for nonorganic abdominal and chest pain at chart completion was 93% and 98%, respectively. conclusions A preliminary diagnosis of nonorganic versus organic abdominal or chest pain based on patient history and physical examination proved remarkably reliable. Accuracy was almost complete in patients with an

  10. Present state and future challenges in pediatric abdominal pain therapeutics research: Looking beyond the forest

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Craig A; Schurman, Jennifer V; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, it is nearly impossible to treat pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with pain in an evidence based fashion. This is due to the overall lack of controlled studies and, even more importantly, the complexity of the contributors to disease phenotype which are not controlled or accounted for in most therapeutic trials. In this manuscript, we review the challenges of defining entry criteria, controlling for the large number of biopsychosocial factors which may effect outcomes, and understanding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors when designing therapeutic trials for abdominal pain in children. We also review the current state of pediatric abdominal pain therapeutics and discuss trial design considerations as we move forward. PMID:26558142

  11. An 86-year-old man with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Paul M E L; Posthouwer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    An 86-year-old man presented with severe pain in the upper abdomen along with fever. On physical examination, we found an arterial blood pressure of 84/43 mm Hg, a heart rate of 80 bpm and a temperature of 38.3°C. The abdomen was painful and peristalsis was absent. Empiric antibiotic therapy for sepsis was started with amoxicillin/clavulanate and gentamicin. CT scan of the abdomen revealed an emphysematous cholecystitis. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystostomy was applied. Bile cultures revealed Clostridium perfringens. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a life-threatening form of acute cholecystitis that occurs as a consequence of ischaemic injury to the gallbladder, followed by translocation of gas-forming bacteria (ie, C. perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococci). The mortality associated with emphysematous cholecystitis is higher than in non-emphysematous cholecystitis (15% vs 4%). Therefore, early diagnosis with radiological imaging is of vital importance. PMID:26869625

  12. Paraspinal and Extensive Epidural Abscess: The Great Masqueraders of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Andrew; Aung, Thu Thu; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Paraspinal and epidural abscesses are rare conditions often diagnosed later in the disease process that can have significant morbidity and mortality. Predisposing risk factors include diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug abuse, and previous history of spinal surgery or injection. They can threaten the spinal cord by compressive effect, leading to sensory motor deficits and ultimately paralysis and death. Diagnosis may be a challenge due to the delayed presentation of nonspecific back pain or radicular pain such as chest pain or abdominal pain. We present a rare case on a patient with periumbilical pain, constipation, and urinary retention who was ultimately diagnosed with a paraspinal abscess extending into the epidural space from T1 to S2. He underwent decompressive laminectomy with incision and drainage of the abscesses. The patient made an excellent recovery postoperatively, and repeat magnetic resonance imaging at six weeks showed resolution of the abscess. PMID:26770847

  13. Acute Abdominal Pain after Intercourse: Adrenal Hemorrhage as the First Sign of Metastatic Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adrenal glands are a common site of cancer metastases, they are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on CT scan or autopsy. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage associated with metastatic lung cancer is an exceedingly rare phenomenon, and diagnosis can be difficult due to its nonspecific symptoms and ability to mimic other intra-abdominal pathologies. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with a history of right upper lobectomy seven months earlier for stage IB non-small cell lung cancer who presented with acute abdominal pain after intercourse. CT scan revealed a new right adrenal mass with surrounding hemorrhage, and subsequent FDG-PET scan confirmed new metabolic adrenal metastases. The patient's presentation of abdominal pain and adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sexual intercourse suggests that exertion, straining, or increased intra-abdominal pressure might be risk factors for precipitation of hemorrhage in patients with adrenal metastases. Management includes pain control and supportive treatment in mild cases, with arterial embolization or adrenalectomy being reserved for cases of severe hemorrhage. PMID:25126096

  14. Small bowel obstruction and abdominal pain after robotic versus open radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Karl-Johan; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Loeb, Stacy; Axelson, Anna Bill; Stattin, Pär; Nordin, Pär

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether intraperitoneal robot-assisted surgery leads to small bowel obstruction (SBO), possibly caused by the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and methods In total, 7256 men treated by intraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and 9787 men treated by retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) in 2005-2012 were identified in the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the risk of readmission for SBO, SBO-related surgery and admissions due to abdominal pain up to 5 years postoperatively. Results During the first postoperative year, the risk of readmission for SBO was higher after RARP than after RRP [hazard ratio (HR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-3.25] but after 5 years there was no significant difference (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.86-1.91), and there was no difference in the risk of SBO surgery during any period. The risk of admission for abdominal pain was significantly increased after RARP during the first year (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33) but not after 5 years (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92-1.63). Conclusion Intraperitoneal RARP had an increased risk of SBO and abdominal pain in the short term during the first year, but not in the long term, compared to RRP. PMID:26936203

  15. Jejunal choristoma: a very rare cause of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Olajide, T A; Agodirin, S O; Ojewola, R W; Akanbi, O O; Solaja, T O; Odesanya, Johnson Oluremi; Ariyibi, O O

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC) causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine) revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children. PMID:24511408

  16. Abdominal musculature abnormalities as a cause of groin pain in athletes. Inguinal hernias and pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D C; Meyers, W C; Moylan, J A; Lohnes, J; Bassett, F H; Garrett, W E

    1991-01-01

    There has been increasing interest within the European sports medicine community regarding the etiology and treatment of groin pain in the athlete. Groin pain is most commonly caused by musculotendinous strains of the adductors and other muscles crossing the hip joint, but may also be related to abdominal wall abnormalities. Cases may be termed "pubalgia" if physical examination does not reveal inguinal hernia and there is an absence of other etiology for groin pain. We present nine cases of patients who underwent herniorrhaphies for groin pain. Two patients had groin pain without evidence of a hernia preoperatively (pubalgia). In the remaining seven patients we determined the presence of a hernia by physical examination. At operation, eight patients were found to have inguinal hernias. One patient had no hernia but had partial avulsion of the internal oblique fibers from their insertion at the public tubercle. The average interval from operation to return to full activity was 11 weeks. All patients returned to full activity within 3 months of surgery. One patient had persistent symptoms of mild incisional tenderness, but otherwise there were no recurrences, complications, or persistence of symptoms. Abnormalities of the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernias and microscopic tears or avulsions of the internal oblique muscle, can be an overlooked source of groin pain in the athlete. Operative treatment of this condition with herniorrhaphy can return the athlete to his sport within 3 months. PMID:1831010

  17. Hyoscine butylbromide: a review of its use in the treatment of abdominal cramping and pain.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, Guido N

    2007-01-01

    Abdominal cramping and pain is a frequent problem in the adult population of Western countries, with an estimated prevalence of < or =30%. Hyoscine butylbromide (scopolamine butylbromide) [Buscopan/Buscapina] is an antispasmodic drug indicated for the treatment of abdominal pain associated with cramps induced by gastrointestinal (GI) spasms. It was first registered in Germany in 1951 and marketed in 1952, and has since become available worldwide both as a prescription drug and as an over-the-counter medicine in many countries. This article reviews the pharmacology and pharmacokinetic profile of hyoscine butylbromide, and summarises efficacy and safety data from clinical trials of this drug for abdominal cramping and pain. Pharmacological studies have revealed that hyoscine butylbromide is an anticholinergic drug with high affinity for muscarinic receptors located on the smooth-muscle cells of the GI tract. Its anticholinergic action exerts a smooth-muscle relaxing/spasmolytic effect. Blockade of the muscarinic receptors in the GI tract is the basis for its use in the treatment of abdominal pain secondary to cramping. Hyoscine butylbromide also binds to nicotinic receptors, which induces a ganglion-blocking effect. Several pharmacokinetic studies in humans have consistently demonstrated the low systemic availability of hyoscine butylbromide after oral administration, with plasma concentrations of the drug generally being below the limit of quantitation. The bioavailability of hyoscine butylbromide, estimated from renal excretion, was generally <1%. However, because of its high tissue affinity for muscarinic receptors, hyoscine butylbromide remains available at the site of action in the intestine and exerts a local spasmolytic effect.Ten placebo-controlled studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral or rectal hyoscine butylbromide. Hyoscine butylbromide was considered beneficial in all of these trials, which supports its use in the treatment of abdominal

  18. [The 452th case: rash, hypotension, abdominal pain and headache].

    PubMed

    Bian, S N; Yang, H H; Wang, Q; Xu, D; Zhao, Y

    2016-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized with multiple organ involvements. Acute acalculous cholecystitis(AAC) is an extremely rare manifestation of digestive system involvement in SLE. We reported a case of 32-year-old woman who complained skin rashes for two weeks and stomachache and oliguria for one day. She had rashes at onset, and developed fever, stomachache, hypotension and headache. Physical examination at admission indicated blood pressure 76/47 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), heart rate 107 beats/min, warm acra. Murphy's sign was positive. Ultrasound suggested the enlarged gallbladder with surrounding hypoecho band yet no biliary calculi were found. A diagnosis of SLE was made, characteristic with distributive shock at the onset and AAC, complicated with neuropsychiatric lupus and lupus nephritis. She had an acute and severe course of disease, which had been relieved after treatment of high dose glucocorticoid and immunosuppressants. This case arouses clinicians to pay more attention to AAC as a rare form of disease flare in SLE. Early diagnosis of AAC is crucial to a favorable prognosis and in avoid of abdominal surgery. PMID:27586989

  19. Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain – A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Mahesh; Balasubramaniam, Rajan; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Yadavalli, Shanthala; Ahetasham, Mohammed; Devarapalli, Sravya

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected mandating a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This article also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis. PMID:27014500

  20. A 15-year-old girl with fever and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Molly; Patel DeZure, Chandani; Cordova, Jonathan; Lo, Andrea; Azzam, Ruba

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 15-year-old girl with fever, right lower quadrant pain, and hip pain. Her history was notable for a recent laparoscopic appendectomy that was complicated by the development of intraabdominal abscesses. She reported normal bowel movements and good appetite on a regular diet, although she did endorse a recent 5-kg weight loss. Further investigation and examination revealed a diagnosis of Crohn's disease with recurrent psoas muscle abscess as the etiology of her pain and fevers. Psoas abscess is a rare complication of Crohn's disease, and vague presenting symptoms may complicate its diagnosis. This case demonstrates the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when treating a child presenting with abdominal pain and fever. PMID:25806729

  1. Functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are both associated with recurrent abdominal pain and are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Based on the biopsychosocial model of functional disease, the Rome III criteria have helped frame FAP and IBS in terms of being a positive diagnosis and not a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of pathologic mechanisms likely involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article discusses the epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical approach and therapeutic options for the management of FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:21731470

  2. Nontraumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy: imaging considerations for a multiorgan system problem.

    PubMed

    Mkpolulu, Chiedozie A; Ghobrial, Peter M; Catanzano, Tara M

    2012-02-01

    Nontraumatic abdominal pain in the pregnant patient can present a clinician with a variety of diagnostic possibilities. The overlap between signs and symptoms expected in normal pregnancy and these many pathologic possibilities does little to help focus the clinician's diagnostic efforts. Fear of ionizing radiation's effects on the fetus has driven efforts to refine medical imaging algorithms in such a way as to attempt to eliminate its use at all cost. In today's world, we are nearly there. In this review the differential diagnosis of nontraumatic abdominal pain in the pregnant patient will be explored. Of note is the recurring theme that much of what can be done today with regard to diagnostic imaging, both in general and with regard to this specific subset of patients, centers on the use of the non-ionizing modalities of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22264900

  3. Duodenal duplication manifested by abdominal pain and bowl obstruction in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Fan, Ying; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Song, Yanglin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal duplication (DD) is a rare congenital anomaly reported mainly in infancy and childhood, but seldom in adolescent and adults. Symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or dyspepsia may present depending on the location and type of the lesion. DD can result in several complications, including pancreatitis, bowl obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and jaundice. Surgery is still the optimal method for treatment, although endoscopic fenestration has been described recently. Here, we report a case of a DD on the second portion of the duodenum in a 17-year-old adolescent complaining of transient epigastric pain and vomiting after meal. We suspected the diagnosis of DD by abdominal computerized tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography. We treated her by subtotal excision and internal derivation. Eventually, we confirmed our diagnosis with histopathological result. PMID:26885132

  4. Duodenal duplication manifested by abdominal pain and bowl obstruction in an adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Fan, Ying; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Song, Yanglin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal duplication (DD) is a rare congenital anomaly reported mainly in infancy and childhood, but seldom in adolescent and adults. Symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or dyspepsia may present depending on the location and type of the lesion. DD can result in several complications, including pancreatitis, bowl obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and jaundice. Surgery is still the optimal method for treatment, although endoscopic fenestration has been described recently. Here, we report a case of a DD on the second portion of the duodenum in a 17-year-old adolescent complaining of transient epigastric pain and vomiting after meal. We suspected the diagnosis of DD by abdominal computerized tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography. We treated her by subtotal excision and internal derivation. Eventually, we confirmed our diagnosis with histopathological result. PMID:26885132

  5. Acute Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Host as a Reason for Upper Right Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kai Oliver; Angst, Eliane; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich; Gingert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infections are widely distributed with a seroprevalence of up to 100%. The majority of the cases take a silent course or deal with unspecific clinical symptoms. Complications in immunocompetent patients are rare but may affect the liver and lead up to an acute organ failure. In this case report, we describe a 35-year-old immunocompetent female with an acute cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute hepatitis with ongoing upper right abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. Upper right abdominal pain is a common symptom with a wide range of differential diagnoses. If common reasons can be excluded, we want to sensitize for cytomegalovirus infection as a minor differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27403100

  6. Spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: a rare cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Sivarajah, Surendra; Fiscus, Valena; York, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, flank pain with nausea and no history of preceding trauma. The patient had finished a course of azithromycin and oral methylprednisolone 1 day prior to presentation. Abdominal and pelvic CT scan identified changes suggestive of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The patient did not show signs of acute adrenal insufficiency but was started on steroid replacement therapy because of concerns about possible disease progression. All recognised causes of adrenal haemorrhage were excluded suggesting this was a case of spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, a rarely reported phenomenon in the literature. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement following 6 days in hospital, taking oral steroid replacement. PMID:27166002

  7. An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Pain: Three Lead Pellets within the Appendix Vermiformis

    PubMed Central

    Muderris, Vecdi; Yagmurkaya, Orhan; Yalkin, Omer; Celebi, Fehmi

    2015-01-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies usually pass out in the feces uneventfully. Complications such as intestinal perforation and bleeding usually occur with sharp, thin, stiff, long, and pointed objects. This case describes the management of three lead pellets within the appendix vermiformis. A 45-year-old male visited our clinic complaining of a 4-month history of abdominal pain. The patient inquiry revealed that he had eaten hunted rabbit meat on numerous occasions and had unintentionally ingested three lead pellets. Plain abdominal films and a barium enema showed foreign bodies in the right lower abdominal quadrant. Since the lead pellets were thought to have migrated extraluminally, they were removed through laparotomy under fluoroscopic guidance. An appendectomy was performed. Pathologically, three lead pellets were embedded in the appendix, which showed signs of intramucosal inflammation. Foreign bodies causing appendicitis are rare. However, if stiff or pointed objects enter the appendicular lumen, there is a high risk of appendicitis, perforation, or abdominal pain. An appendectomy was required to remove the ingested lead pellets in the appendix. PMID:26106500

  8. Lead Poisoning From a Ceramic Jug Presenting as Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahmod; Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Groshaus, Horacio; Rioux, Kevin; Yarema, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning may present with non-specific symptoms that may result in unnecessary investigations. We report a case of acute lead poisoning in a previously healthy 28-year-old man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice, constipation, and weight loss. An extensive diagnostic work-up was completed with inconclusive results. A detailed history revealed an unusual source of lead exposure. Chelation therapy resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:26958573

  9. Lead Poisoning From a Ceramic Jug Presenting as Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Groshaus, Horacio; Rioux, Kevin; Yarema, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning may present with non-specific symptoms that may result in unnecessary investigations. We report a case of acute lead poisoning in a previously healthy 28-year-old man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice, constipation, and weight loss. An extensive diagnostic work-up was completed with inconclusive results. A detailed history revealed an unusual source of lead exposure. Chelation therapy resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:26958573

  10. Acute Abdominal Pain Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in a 24-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Ponten, Joep B.; Zijta, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst is a rare cause for abdominal pain. This umbrella term includes cystic entities which reside in the mesentery. We present a case of an infected false mesenteric cyst in a 24-year-old female patient without prior surgery or known trauma. Mainstay of treatment involves surgical resection, although less invasive treatments have been described. Prognosis depends on the origin of the cyst. PMID:27190668

  11. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. PMID:25917334

  12. Can lab data be used to reduce abdominal computed tomography (CT) usage in young adults presenting to the emergency department with nontraumatic abdominal pain?

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Meir H; Mahadevia, Soham; Stein, Evan G; Freeman, Katherine; Rozenblit, Alla M

    2010-09-01

    We sought to determine whether laboratory parameters could be found, predictive of a negative abdominal CT scan in young adults with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Following institutional review board approval, we evaluated CT reports of 522 patients, aged 21-35 years old, who presented to the Emergency Department with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Bivariate analyses relating ten laboratory parameters to whether the CT detected a cause for abdominal pain were conducted. A multivariate logistic regression model was then derived, with all variables in the final model significant at p < 0.05. Variables were dichotomized to yield odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 522 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 45% had a cause for pain demonstrated by CT. Predictors of a negative CT in men were normal hematocrit and negative urine blood (p = 0.045, p = 0.016, respectively), and in women normal hematocrit, granulocyte percent, and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.023, p = 0.039, p < 0.0001, respectively). When standard normal values were used to calculate descriptive statistics, only granulocyte percent in women had a significant confidence interval (odds ratio 2.5, confidence interval 1.6-4.0). Among the 208 women with normal granulocyte percent, the final clinical diagnosis was appendicitis, cholecystitis, and diverticulitis, in three, three, and two cases, respectively (4% combined). In summary, no laboratory test was sufficient to offer reassurance that a CT is not necessary in a young adult patient with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Alternative strategies should be considered to decrease the use of CT, and its associated radiation exposure, in young adults with nontraumatic abdominal pain. PMID:20306104

  13. Altered rectal sensory response induced by balloon distention in patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed to test the hypothesis that FAPS would show altered visceral sensation compared to healthy controls or IBS. The present study determined the rectal perceptual threshold, intensity of sensation using visual analogue scale (VAS), and rectal compliance in response to rectal balloon distention by a barostat in FAPS, IBS, and healthy controls. Methods First, the ramp distention of 40 ml/min was induced and the thresholds of discomfort, pain, and maximum tolerance (mmHg) were measured. Next, three phasic distentions (60-sec duration separated by 30-sec intervals) of 10, 15 and 20 mmHg were randomly loaded. The subjects were asked to mark the VAS in reference to subjective intensity of sensation immediately after each distention. A pressure-volume relationship was determined by plotting corresponding pressures and volumes during ramp distention, and the compliance was calculated over the linear part of the curve by calculating from the slope of the curve using simple regression. Results Rectal thresholds were significantly reduced in IBS but not in FAPS. The VAS ratings of intensity induced by phasic distention (around the discomfort threshold of the controls) were increased in IBS but significantly decreased in FAPS. Rectal compliance was reduced in IBS but not in FAPS. Conclusion An inconsistency of visceral sensitivity between lower and higher pressure distention might be a key feature for understanding the pathogenesis of FAPS. PMID:19925683

  14. [Acute abdominal pain in the emergency department - a clinical algorithm for adult patients].

    PubMed

    Trentzsch, H; Werner, J; Jauch, K-W

    2011-04-01

    Acute abdominal pain represents the cardinal symptom behind a vast number of possible under-lying causes including several ones that re-quire surgical treatment. It is the most common sur-gical emergency, the most common cause for a surgical consultation in the emergency department and the most common cause for non-trauma related hospital admissions. The golden mis-sion statement is to rapidly identify whether the underlying cause requires an urgent or even immediate surgical intervention. However, behind the same cardinal symptom one may encounter harmless or non-urgent problems. By employing diagnostic means cost effectively and with the aim to avoid unnecessary exposure of the patient to X-rays in mind, the challenge remains to identify patients with an indication for emergency surgery from those who suffer from a less serious condition and thus can be treated conservatively and without any pressure of time. Dealing with such a highly complex decision-making process calls for a clinical algorithm. Many publications are available that have scrutinised the different aspects of the initial assessment and the emergency management of acute abdominal pain. How-ever, the large body of evidence seems to miss articles that describe a formally correct priority- and problem-based approach. Clinical algorithms apply to complex disease states such as acute abdominal pain and translate them into one clearly laid out, logically coordinated and systematic overall process. Our intention is to devel-op such an algorithm to approach acute abdominal pain from the surgeon's point of view. Based on daily practice and with reference to available literature, it is the aim of this study to define a work flow that simply summarises all steps in-volved and defines the required decision process in order to form the intellectual basis for an evidence-based clinical algorithm. The result is illustrated as a first draft of such an evidence-based algorithm to allow emergency evaluation of

  15. Abdominal pain in an adult with Type 2 diabetes: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Panagoulias, George; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ladas, Spiros S

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) may be a manifestation of diseases involving many intra-abdominal organs. Beside diseases affecting subjects without diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients may have CAP due to diabetes-related complications like neuritis, motor diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and autonomic dysfunction. Atherosclerosis is 2–4 times more common in patients with diabetes and affects mainly carotid, coronary, iliac and lower limb arteries as well as aorta. Another less common complication is chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI, intestinal angina), caused by atherosclerotic obstruction of the celiac artery and its branches and results in episodic or constant intestinal hypoperfusion. Case presentation We present a case of a diabetic patient with CMI in whom the diagnosis was delayed by almost 5 years. The dominant symptoms were crampy abdominal postprandial pain, anorexia, changes in bowel habits and cachexia. Conventional angiography revealed significant stenosis of the celiac artery and complete obstruction of the inferior mesenteric artery. Noteworthy, no significant stenoses in carotids or limbs' arteries were found. Revascularization resulted in clinical improvement 1 week post-intervention. Conclusion CAP in patients with diabetes may be due to CMI. The typical presentation is crampy postprandial abdominal pain in a heavy smoker male patient with long-standing diabetes, accompanied by anorexia, changes in bowel habits and mild to moderate weight loss. At least two of the three main splanchnic arteries must be significantly occluded in order CMI to be symptomatic. The diagnostic procedure of choice is conventional angiography and revascularization of the occluded arteries is the radical treatment. PMID:18798976

  16. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A.; Kpolugbo, James U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission

  17. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain: Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Ozdemir, Ayse Zehra; Ozturk, Bahadir; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Tosun, Migraci

    2014-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare müllerian duct anomaly with uterus didelphys, unilateral obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Patients with this syndrome generally present after menarche with pelvic pain and mass and, rarely, primary infertility in later years. Strong suspicion and knowledge of this syndrome are mandatory for an accurate diagnosis. A 14-year-old female patient presented with acute retention of urine and abdominopelvic pain. Her condition was diagnosed with the use ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging as a case of HWW syndrome. She was treated with vaginal hemiseptal resection. The HWW syndrome should be considered among the differential diagnoses in girls with renal anomalies presenting with pelvic mass, symptoms of acute abdominal pain, and acute urinary retention. PMID:24378860

  18. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  19. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  20. Attentional bias to pain and social threat in pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain and pain-free youth before and after performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Joy E; Lipani, Tricia A; Baber, Kari F; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A; Walker, Lynn S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor--failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients' attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients' somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth's somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli. PMID:21420789

  1. A two-year old boy with recurrent bouts of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Blom, H; Bochner, A; Vervloessem, D; Desimpelaere, J; Devière, J; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2010-01-01

    In a small number of patients with pancreas divisum (with stenotic minor papilla) a relative obstruction to pancreatic exocrine secretory flow results in pancreatitis. We report a 2-year-old boy presenting with recurrent bouts of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made based on blood biochemistry results. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed several abdominal pseudocysts, peritoneal exsudate and confirmed pancreatitis but initially failed to reveal the aetiology. Ascites and cysts contained pancreatic enzymes. After weeks of combined conservative and surgical treatment, a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography with secretin, showed a pancreas divisum with a cyst between the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung. Based on these findings, two endoscopic papillotomies (minor and major papilla) were performed. Three years follow-up was uneventful. In a child with recurrent pancreatitis or pancreatitis with chronic recurrent abdominal pain it is crucial to search aggressively for congenital abnormalities, including pancreas divisum. Secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography or diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable diagnostic tool for visualizing pancreatic duct anatomy. PMID:21299165

  2. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus reuteri for Chronic Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Kambiz; Vahedi, Zahra; Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Noemi Diaz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is one of the most common diseases, and large percentages of children suffer from it. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in treatment of children with functional abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 4 to 16 years with chronic functional abdominal pain (based on Rome III criteria) were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving probiotic and the other placebo. Results: Forty children received probiotic and forty others placebo. There were no significant differences in age, weight, sex, location of pain, associated symptoms, frequency and intensity of pain between the groups. The severity and frequency of abdominal pain in the first month compared to baseline was significantly less and at the end of the second month, there was no significant difference between both groups compared to the end of the first month. Conclusions: This study showed that the severity of pain was significantly reduced in both groups. There was no significant difference in pain scores between them. The effect of probiotic and placebo can probably be attributed to psychological effect of the drugs. PMID:26635937

  3. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about when and where they should receive healthcare. Unfortunately, most people lack the medical knowledge needed to make these decisions safely. FreeMD.com is powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of ...

  4. Health Outcomes in US Children with Abdominal Pain at Major Emergency Departments Associated with Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Methods Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children’s hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Results Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 – 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 – 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Conclusions Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery. PMID:26267816

  5. Predictors of pain response in patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided neurolysis for abdominal pain caused by pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minaga, Kosuke; Kitano, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Miyata, Takeshi; Imai, Hajime; Yamao, Kentaro; Kamata, Ken; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Naoshi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedures such as EUS-guided celiac ganglia neurolysis (EUS-CGN) and EUS-guided broad plexus neurolysis (EUS-BPN) were developed to treat abdominal cancer-associated pain; however, these procedures are not always effective. The aim of this study was to explore predictors of pain response in EUS-guided neurolysis for pancreatic cancer-associated pain. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 112 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-BPN in our institution. EUS-CGN was added in cases of visible celiac ganglia. The neurolytic-spread area was divided into six sections and evaluated by post-procedural computed tomography scanning. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), and a decrease in VAS scores by ⩾3 points after neurolysis was considered a good pain response. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore predictors of pain response at 1 and 4 weeks, and complications. Results: A good pain response was obtained in 77.7% and 67.9% of patients at 1 and 4 weeks, respectively. In the multivariable analysis of these patients, the combination method (EUS-BPN plus CGN) was a significant positive predictive factor at 1 week (odds ratio = 3.69, p = 0.017) and 4 weeks (odds ratio = 6.37, p = 0.043). The numbers of neurolytic/contrast spread areas (mean ± SD) were 4.98 ± 1.08 and 4.15 ± 1.12 in patients treated with the combination method and single method, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant predictor of complications. Conclusions: EUS-BPN in combination with EUS-CGN was a predictor of a good pain response in EUS-guided neurolysis for pancreatic cancer-related pain. The larger number of neurolytic/contrast spread areas may lead to better outcomes in patients receiving combination treatment. PMID:27366217

  6. 73-year-old woman with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.R.

    1987-03-20

    A 73-year-old woman presented with a six-day history of abdominal pain that had started in the epigastrium, but recently had become more intense in the right lower quadrant. Peptic ulcer had been diagnosed three years prior to presentation and had been managed medically. On physical examination, epigastric tenderness as well as guarding and rebound tenderness in the right lower quandrant were present. Mild leukocytosis was reported. Computed tomography demonstrated a 5-cm retrocecal mass with low attenuation (fluid content) surrounded by an irregularly thickened uncalcified wall. Multiple areas of tissue debris were seen extending into the mass, but no true separation was present.

  7. Recurrent abdominal and cervical pains. An unusual clinical presentation of acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Lahat, E; Azizi, E; Eshel, G; Mundel, G

    1986-03-01

    Most cases of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) present with arthritis, carditis or choreiform movements. However, a variety of clinical manifestations which are not included in the modified Jones criteria can be the presenting symptoms of the disease. We describe a case of a 10-year-old boy with ARF who presented with recurrent episodes of abdominal and cervical pain who later developed an active carditis which established the diagnosis of ARF. A high degree of suspicion and an awareness of the less common manifestations of ARF are necessary to make an early diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment in certain cases of ARF. PMID:3583777

  8. New Insights in Abdominal Pain in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH): A MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    De Cobelli, Francesco; Pezzetti, Giulio; Margari, Sergio; Esposito, Antonio; Giganti, Francesco; Agostini, Giulia; Del Maschio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal pain in PNH has never been investigated by in-vivo imaging studies. With MRI, we aimed to assess mesenteric vessels flow and small bowel wall perfusion to investigate the ischemic origin of abdominal pain. Materials and Methods Six PNH patients with (AP) and six without (NOP) abdominal pain underwent MRI. In a blinded fashion, mean flow (MF, quantity of blood moving through a vessel within a second, in mL·s-1) and stroke volume (SV, volume of blood pumped out at each heart contraction, in mL) of Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) and Artery (SMA), areas under the curve at 60 (AUC60) and 90 seconds (AUC90) and Ktrans were assessed by two operators. Results Mean total perfusion and flow parameters were lower in AP than in NOP group. AUC60: 84.81 ± 11.75 vs. 131.73 ± 18.89 (P < 0.001); AUC90: 102.33 ± 14.16 vs. 152.58 ± 22.70 (P < 0.001); Ktrans: 0.0346 min-1 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0521 ± 0.0015 (P = 0.093 duodenum, 0.009 jejunum/ileum). SMV: MF 4.67 ml/s ± 0.85 vs. 8.32 ± 2.14 (P = 0.002); SV 3.85 ml ± 0.76 vs. 6.55 ± 1.57 (P = 0.02). SMA: MF 6.95 ± 2.61 vs. 11.2 ± 2.32 (P = 0.07); SV 6.52 ± 2.19 vs. 8.78 ± 1.63 (P = 0.07). We found a significant correlation between MF and SV of SMV and AUC60 (MF:ρ = 0.88, P < 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.644, P = 0.024), AUC90 (MF: ρ = 0.874, P < 0.001; SV:ρ = 0.774, P = 0.003) and Ktrans (MF:ρ = 0.734, P = 0.007; SV:ρ = 0.581, P = 0.047). Conclusions Perfusion and flow MRI findings suggest that the impairment of small bowel blood supply is significantly associated with abdominal pain in PNH. PMID:25897796

  9. Abdominal Implantation of Testicles in the Management of Intractable Testicular Pain in Fournier Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cyrus C.; Shahrour, Khaled; Collier, Ronald D.; Welch, Marlene; Chang, Shiliang; Williams, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Fournier gangrene (FG) is a necrotizing soft tissue infection involving the superficial and fascial planes of the perineum. In many cases of FG, debridement of the scrotum is necessary, leaving definitive management of the exposed testicles a significant surgical challenge. Frequent incidental trauma to the testicles can cause severe pain, especially in laborers. Practical surgical solutions are few and not well detailed. Various options exist, including creating a neoscrotum with adjacent thigh tissue, split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs), or even creating a subcutaneous thigh pocket. We describe a case of abdominal implantation of bilateral testicles for persistent testicular pain in a case where STSGs did not provide adequate protection, adjacent thigh skin was not available for creation of a neoscrotum, and significant cord contracture occurred. We detail the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly described techniques, including this approach, and how in select individuals this may be a suitable alternative. PMID:24229025

  10. Exercise related transient abdominal pain: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) is more commonly known to athletes as a runner’s stitch. Many athletes also report shoulder tip pain (STP) associated with the ETAP. Although widely known, ETAP remains under analyzed and under reported in the medical literature. Often thought of as benign and self-limiting, ETAP has been shown to be very detrimental to the performance of many athletes from novice to elite. This case report of an elite triathlete with ETAP and subsequent review of literature, outlines the various theories about the etiology of ETAP, the epidemiology associated with it, some differentials to consider, and how chiropractic care may benefit those suffering from ETAP. PMID:20037690

  11. Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome in Morbidly Obese Patients Following Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. Results: The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after

  12. Two similar cases of elderly women with moderate abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum of unknown origin: a surgeon's successful conservative management.

    PubMed

    Vinzens, Fabrizio; Zumstein, Valentin; Bieg, Christian; Ackermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum in radiological examination usually require emergency explorative laparoscopy or laparotomy. Pneumoperitoneum mostly associates with gastrointestinal perforation. There are very few cases where surgery can be avoided. We present 2 cases of pneumoperitoneum with unknown origin and successful conservative treatment. Both patients were elderly women presenting to our emergency unit, with moderate abdominal pain. There was neither medical intervention nor trauma in their medical history. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness, but no clinical sign of peritonitis. Cardiopulmonary examination remained unremarkable. Blood studies showed only slight abnormalities, in particular, inflammation parameters were not significantly increased. Finally, obtained CTs showed free abdominal gas of unknown origin in both cases. We performed conservative management with nil per os, nasogastric tube, total parenteral nutrition and prophylactic antibiotics. After 2 weeks, both were discharged home. PMID:27229749

  13. Tongue piercing and chronic abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting--two cases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung Kyu; Chung, Danielle; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of unclear etiology are frustrating to patients and physicians alike. The integrative medicine procedures of acupuncture and neural therapy may provide treatment options. Tongue piercing, which is prevalent in 5.6% of the adolescent population, may be a contributing factor in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To demonstrate the usefulness of an integrative medicine treatment approach in two cases of patients with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of unclear etiology who had failed standard medical management. (2) To identify scars from tongue piercings as a possible contributing factor in chronic upper GI symptoms of unclear etiology. Two retrospective case studies are presented of young adult females who were seen in a private multi-physician integrative medicine practice in the US. The patients were treated with neural therapy and acupuncture. The desired outcome was the cessation or reduction of the frequency of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Both patients had resolution of their symptoms. From this study, we have concluded the following: (1) Tongue scars from tongue rings may be causes of chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms. (2) Neural therapy and acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of chronic upper GI symptoms related to tongue scars. PMID:25457444

  14. Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1-expressing sensory fibres in irritable bowel syndrome and their correlation with abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, A; Yiangou, Y; Facer, P; Walters, J R F; Anand, P; Ghosh, S

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1) may play an important role in visceral pain and hypersensitivity states. In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal pain is a common and distressing symptom where the pathophysiology is still not clearly defined. TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibres were investigated in colonic biopsies from patients with IBS, and this was related to abdominal pain. Methods: Rectosigmoid biopsies were collected from 23 IBS patients fulfilling Rome II criteria, and from 22 controls. Abdominal pain scores were recorded using a validated questionnaire. TRPV1-, substance P- and neuronal marker protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-expressing nerve fibres, mast cells (c-kit) and lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4) were quantified, following immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies. The biopsy findings were related to the abdominal pain scores. Results: A significant 3.5-fold increase in median numbers of TRPV1-immunoreactive fibres was found in biopsies from IBS patients compared with controls (p<0.0001). Substance P-immunoreactive fibres (p = 0.01), total nerve fibres (PGP9.5) (p = 0.002), mast cells (c-kit) (p = 0.02) and lymphocytes (CD3) (p = 0.03) were also significantly increased in the IBS group. In multivariate regression analysis, only TRPV1-immuno-reactive fibres (p = 0.005) and mast cells (p = 0.008) were significantly related to the abdominal pain score. Conclusions: Increased TRPV1 nerve fibres are observed in IBS, together with a low-grade inflammatory response. The increased TRPV1 nerve fibres may contribute to visceral hypersensitivity and pain in IBS, and provide a novel therapeutic target. PMID:18252749

  15. Sixteen-year-old Female With Acute Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara

    2015-12-01

    A 16-y-old girl presented with abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant, ranging in intensity from 2 to 10 on a visual analog scale (VAS) that prevented her from attending school. The pain was not associated with reflux, a fever, or blood in her stools. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) had been previously diagnosed, but treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was not successful. The patient's medical history was significant for allergies to fruit; trees, including birch; weeds; and pollen. She had also suffered an anaphylactic reaction to a raw apple. The treatment approach commonly used for EE is suppression of inflammation with steroid therapy with short-term removal of offending foods. However, an attempt to reduce allergic bias and inflammation and treat intestinal permeability is not a part of the standard approach and may explain the high rate of relapse with the condition. Treatment included an elimination diet paired with a supplement regimen designed to reduce inflammation, support healing of the gut and reduce type 2 helper T (Th2) bias of her allergic response. As a result of treatment, the patient's severe pain episodes abated and she was thereafter able to resume attendance at school. PMID:26807068

  16. Mebeverine for Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6–18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ≥2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or “no pain.” Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  17. Mebeverine for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6-18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ≥ 2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or "no pain." Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  18. Severe Abdominal Pain Caused by Lead Toxicity without Response to Oral Chelators: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vossoughinia, Hassan; Pourakbar, Ali; Esfandiari, Samaneh; Sharifianrazavi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman was referred to the Emergency Surgery Department with severe abdominal pain, icterus, and anemia. The patient’s clinical and paraclinical findings in addition to her occupational and social history, convinced us to assay blood lead level (BLL), which was 41/5 μg/dL. Therefore toxicology consult was performed to treat lead toxicity. Recheck of the BLL showed the level as 53/7 μg/dL. So oral chelator with succimer was started. Despite consumption of oral chelator, there was no response and the pain continued. Because our repeated evaluations were negative, we decided to re-treat lead poisoning by intravenous and intramuscular chelators. Dimercaprol (BAL) + calcium EDTA was started, and after 5 days, the pain relieved dramatically and the patient was discharged. We recommend more liberal lead poisoning therapy in symptomatic patients, and also suggest parenteral chelator therapy, which is more potent, instead of oral chelators in patients with severe symptoms. PMID:26933485

  19. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for th...

  20. Differences in regional homogeneity between patients with Crohn's disease with and without abdominal pain revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chun-Hui; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hui-Rong; Wu, Lu-Yi; Jin, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Si-Yao; Shi, Yin; Zhang, Jian-Ye; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Li-Li; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Ji-Meng; Calhoun, Vince D; Tian, Jie; Wu, Huan-Gan

    2016-05-01

    Abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system may be related to abdominal pain in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in resting-state brain activity in patients with CD in remission and its relationship with the presence of abdominal pain. Twenty-five patients with CD and with abdominal pain, 25 patients with CD and without abdominal pain, and 32 healthy subjects were scanned using a 3.0-T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess resting-state brain activity. Daily pain scores were collected 1 week before functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that patients with abdominal pain exhibited lower ReHo values in the insula, middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and supplementary motor area and higher ReHo values in the temporal pole. In contrast, patients without abdominal pain exhibited lower ReHo values in the hippocampal/parahippocampal cortex and higher ReHo values in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (all P < 0.05, corrected). The ReHo values of the insula and MCC were significantly negatively correlated with daily pain scores for patients with abdominal pain (r = -0.53, P = 0.008 and r = -0.61, P = 0.002, respectively). These findings suggest that resting-state brain activities are different between remissive patients with CD with and without abdominal pain and that abnormal activities in insula and MCC are closely related to the severity of abdominal pain. PMID:26761381

  1. Management of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. Symptom-based Rome III criteria for FAP and IBS have been validated and help the clinician in making a positive diagnosis. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Over the years, a wide range of therapies have been proposed and studied. The lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors probably involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS, and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of pharmacologic, dietary and psychosocial interventions for FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:20528117

  2. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Presenting as Abdominal Pain with a Pulsatile Mass.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Arash; Afsharfard, Abolfazl; Atqiaee, Khashayar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor that mostly involves adults aged 50 to 70. The most common anatomic location is the lower extremities. MFH of the retroperitoneum usually manifests late in its course and may be initially mistaken with other more common diagnosis. Here, the authors describe a 60-year-old man that was brought to the emergency department with a chief complaint of periumbilical abdominal pain. Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with a symptomatic aortic aneurysm, but a mass was encountered during surgery. In such circumstances the diagnosis of malignant sarcoma must be kept in mind and attempts at full resection with tumor-free margins are necessary. PMID:27563479

  3. [Lead poisoning. A surprising cause of constipation, abdominal pain and anemia].

    PubMed

    Hoffmanová, Iva; Kačírková, Petra; Kučerová, Irena; Ševčík, Rudolf; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on patient that has been presented with sudden onset of constipation, abdominal pain and normocytic anemia. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy ruled out an organic diseases. In peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates mears, coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte (and erythroblasts) point out a possibility of heavy metal poisoning. The level of plumbemia exceeded 8.4 times the maximal permitted value for common (non-professional) population. A source of poisoning was indentified from a glaze on a ceramic jug, from which the patient had drank tea with lemon for three months. A lead concentration in the tea extract was 227 mg/kg. In developed countries, lead poisoning is a rare diagnosis. As the symptoms are nonspecific, missed diagnoses could occur, especially in sporadic, non-occupational exposure. However, a microscopic evaluation of the peripheral bloods mear with finding of predominantly coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte mayle ad to suspicion of lead poisoning. PMID:27172444

  4. MEDUSA: a fuzzy expert system for medical diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Fathi-Torbaghan, M; Meyer, D

    1994-12-01

    Even today, the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain represents a serious clinical problem. The medical knowledge in this field is characterized by uncertainty, imprecision and vagueness. This situation lends itself especially to be solved by the application of fuzzy logic. A fuzzy logic-based expert system for diagnostic decision support is presented (MEDUSA). The representation and application of uncertain and imprecise knowledge is realized by fuzzy sets and fuzzy relations. The hybrid concept of the system enables the integration of rule-based, heuristic and case-based reasoning on the basis of imprecise information. The central idea of the integration is to use case-based reasoning for the management of special cases, and rule-based reasoning for the representation of normal cases. The heuristic principle is ideally suited for making uncertain, hypothetical inferences on the basis of fuzzy data and fuzzy relations. PMID:7869951

  5. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Presenting as Abdominal Pain with a Pulsatile Mass

    PubMed Central

    Afsharfard, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare tumor that mostly involves adults aged 50 to 70. The most common anatomic location is the lower extremities. MFH of the retroperitoneum usually manifests late in its course and may be initially mistaken with other more common diagnosis. Here, the authors describe a 60-year-old man that was brought to the emergency department with a chief complaint of periumbilical abdominal pain. Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with a symptomatic aortic aneurysm, but a mass was encountered during surgery. In such circumstances the diagnosis of malignant sarcoma must be kept in mind and attempts at full resection with tumor-free margins are necessary. PMID:27563479

  6. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P < 0.05). Among patients who ingested ≤560 mL (n = 17) or >560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  7. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  8. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  9. A giant adrenal lipoma presenting in a woman with chronic mild postprandial abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Adrenal lipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as myelolipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging, or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding, or systemic symptoms of infection. We report a giant adrenal lipoma (to the best of our knowledge, the second largest in the literature) clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain. Case presentation A 54-year-old Caucasian woman presented several times over a period of 10 years to various emergency departments complaining of long-term mild postprandial abdominal pain. Although clinical examinations were unrevealing, an abdominal computed tomography scan performed at her most recent presentation led to the identification of a large lipoma of the left adrenal gland, which occupied most of the retroperitoneal space. Myelolipoma was ruled out due to the absence of megakaryocytes, immature leukocytes, or erythrocytes. Liposarcoma was ruled out due to the absence of lipoblasts. The size of the lipoma (16 × 14 × 7 cm) is, to the best of our knowledge, the second largest reported to date. After surgical resection, our patient was relieved of her symptoms and remains healthy six years postoperatively. Conclusion Physicians should be aware that differential diagnosis of mild chronic abdominal pain in patients presenting in emergency rooms may include large adrenal lipomas. When initial diagnostic investigation is not revealing, out-patient specialist evaluation should be planned to enable appropriate further investigations. PMID:21466677

  10. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…

  11. A rare but potentially lethal case of tuberculous aortic aneurysm presenting with repeated attacks of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Min; Chang, Yun-Te; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou; Wann, Shue-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous aortic aneurysm is an extremely rare disease with a high mortality rate. The clinical features of this condition are highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic with or without constitutional symptoms, abdominal pain to frank rupture, bleeding and shock. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man with a large tuberculous mycotic aneurysm in the abdominal aorta with an initial presentation of repeated attacks of abdominal pain lasting for several months. Due to the vague nature of the initial symptoms, tuberculous aortic aneurysms may take several months to diagnose. This case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion and providing timely surgery for this rare but potentially lethal disease. PMID:25948366

  12. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timo D.; Mtui, Dorah J.; Balemba, Onesmo B.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This review provides an inventory of numerous plant species used as traditional remedies for pain and diarrhea in Africa. Africa can emulate advances in traditional Chinese medicine through research, commercialization, teaching traditional medicine in medical schools, and incorporating botanical products in treating veterinary and human patients. Prioritized research of plant species with proven folklore in treating pain and diarrhea using high throughput screening to identify and test bioactive compounds to verify their effectiveness, mechanisms of action and safety and translational research are needed to facilitate these advances and the integration of traditional African botanical preparations for treating pain and gastrointestinal disorders into western medicine. Abstract There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including combining current and novel western drugs with acupuncture and botanical therapies or their derivatives. There is an extensive history and use of plants in African traditional medicine. In this review, we have highlighted botanical remedies used for treatment of pain, diarrheas and inflammation in traditional veterinary and human health care in Africa. These preparations are promising sources of new compounds comprised of flavonoids, bioflavanones, xanthones, terpenoids, sterols and glycosides as well as compound formulas and supplements for future use in multimodal treatment approaches to chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. The advancement of plant therapies and their derivative compounds will require the identification and validation of compounds having specific anti-nociceptive neuromodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, there is

  13. Comparison between Transdermal Buprenorphine and Transdermal Fentanyl for Postoperative Pain Relief after Major Abdominal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Zia; Gautam, Shefali; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid is generally regarded as an important part of multimodal, perioperative analgesia, especially for moderate to severe pain. Amongst the various modes of delivery transdermal route has several potential benefits over oral and parentral administration. These include noninvasive dosing, better absorption and lack of first-pass metabolism. A transdermal drug delivery system provides steady and continuous drug delivery resulting in steady plasma concentration. Bolus dosing of systemic analgesic results in supra and sub therapeutic plasma resulting in toxic and sub analgesic plasma drug concentration. It also improves patient compliance. Materials and Methods Sixty patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under GA were randomly divided in two groups (n=30). Group A received buprenorphine 10 mcg/h TDS and group B received 25 mcg/h fentanyl TDS, 6 hours prior to surgery. Patients were followed for three days for postoperative pain relief and adverse effects. Results Baseline and demographic variables are comparable in both groups. The mean level of VAS was significantly lower in group B as compared to group A at Day 1, 2 and 3. The mean level of sedation score was significantly lower in Group B than Group A. Haemodynamic variables in both groups (SBP, DBP and HR), shows comparable values in both groups and no significant difference was observed. Five out of 30 (16.7%) patients in group A required single dose of rescue analgesic while 0 out of 30 patients (0.00%) in group B required rescue analgesic. This difference in rescue analgesic requirement in not quiet statistically significant (p-value 0.0522). Twenty percent patient in fentanyl group and 16.7% patients in buprenorphine group experienced some adverse effects. Nausea and vomiting were main side effects of the drugs. The incidence of nausea and vomiting were 6.7% and 10% in buprenorphine and fentanyl group respectively. Conclusion Fentanyl and buprenorphine TDS were effective and safe in

  14. [Use of new elastomeric pumps and PCA in postoperative pain control in thoraco-abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Testa, G; Borzomati, V; Costantini, D; De Chiara, A; Picarazzi, A; Capelli, O

    1996-01-01

    36 patients submitted to interventions for thoraco-abdominal surgery has been submitted to antalgic post-operatory therapy with elastomeric pump at a continuous intravenous infusion and patient controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients have been randomized in three groups. The patients of the 1 degree group received 30 minutes before of the end of the surgical intervention 30 mg of Ketorolac. At the end of the anesthesia came started an infusion of 150 mg of Ketorolac (5 vials) in 60 ml of isotonic chlorinated solution at the rate of 0.5 ml/h. The pump had besides the capability of disperse a maximum of 4 bolus/ h, everyone of 0.5 ml, on demand of the patient. The 2 degrees group received a solution containing 60 ml of Morphine in 60 ml of isotonic chlorinated solution with the same formality of administration. The 3 degrees group (placebo) received 60 ml of isotonic chlorinated solution in pumps from infusion and Ketorolac intramuscular on demand. To the times T0 (awakening), T1 (3 h), T2 (6h), T3 (12 h), T4 (24 h), T5 (30 h, was collected algometrical consequences according to VAS (Visual Analogous Scale of Sc modification of the PA increase, FC, FR, SatO2.. The obtained results have highlighted like in the 1 degree group, to the 1 degree algometric consequence (T0), there is a good sedative effect on the pain (intensity of the middle low pain 3.70 +/- 1.64); this antalgic effect has also continued in the other consequences effected in the post-operatory. In the 2 degree group to the awakening (T0), the pain was middle-tall (5.50 +/- 2.32) and an expressive reduction appeared at the time T2 (3.60 +/- 1.35 P < 0.005). In the 3 degrees group have not recorded a diminution of the pain if not after 24 hours from the end of the intervention deposit the intramuscular antalgic therapy. In conclusion, the system infusion + PCA represents an indubitable advantage in comparison with the traditional antalgic therapy as for concern the entity of the reduction of the pain as

  15. The Treatment of Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children: A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Family Intervention and Standard Pediatric Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Conducted controlled clinical trial involving 44 children with recurrent abdominal pain randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral family intervention (CBFI) or standard pediatric care (SPC). Both treatments resulted in significant improvements on measures of pain intensity and pain behavior. CBFI group had higher rate of complete elimination of…

  16. Caesarean Section: Could Different Transverse Abdominal Incision Techniques Influence Postpartum Pain and Subsequent Quality of Life? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Quaranta, Michela; Cosmi, Erich; D’Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The choice of the type of abdominal incision performed in caesarean delivery is made chiefly on the basis of the individual surgeon’s experience and preference. A general consensus on the most appropriate surgical technique has not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to compare the two most commonly used transverse abdominal incisions for caesarean delivery, the Pfannenstiel incision and the modified Joel-Cohen incision, in terms of acute and chronic post-surgical pain and their subsequent influence in terms of quality of life. Electronic database searches formed the basis of the literature search and the following databases were searched in the time frame between January 1997 and December 2013: MEDLINE, EMBASE Sciencedirect and the Cochrane Library. Key search terms included: “acute pain”, “chronic pain”, “Pfannenstiel incision”, “Misgav-Ladach”, “Joel Cohen incision”, in combination with “Caesarean Section”, “abdominal incision”, “numbness”, “neuropathic pain” and “nerve entrapment”. Data on 4771 patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) was collected with regards to the relation between surgical techniques and postoperative outcomes defined as acute or chronic pain and future pregnancy desire. The Misgav-Ladach incision was associated with a significant advantage in terms of reduction of post-surgical acute and chronic pain. It was indicated as the optimal technique in view of its characteristic of reducing lower pelvic discomfort and pain, thus improving quality of life and future fertility desire. Further studies which are not subject to important bias like pre-existing chronic pain, non-standardized analgesia administration, variable length of skin incision and previous abdominal surgery are required. PMID:25646621

  17. [Retroperitoneal liposarcoma as etiology of abdominal pain. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce, Yisvanth; Castellanos-Alejandre, Raúl; Guerrero-Romero, J Francisco; Estrada-León, Felipe; Torres-Lobatón, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are very uncommon types of tumors, with their embryological origin in the mesoderm and in nerve structures of the neuroectodermic layer. They represent only 1.5% of cases in the National Registry of Malignant Tumors in Mexico. They can be encountered anywhere connective soft tissue is found. Because of their specialized localization, retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas have a propensity to remain asymptomatic for long periods of time and reach a large size before being diagnosed. The only accepted treatment is wide surgical excision with clear margins, without a clear benefit for adjuvant treatment. The very uncommon nature of these tumors and their varied histopathology, site and behavior classify them as a difficult entity in terms of treatment. We present here the case of a 66-year-old female with a left-side retroperitoneal tumor, complaining only of vague abdominal pain as the presenting symptom. A CT-guided needle biopsy reported a sarcoma and the patient was subjected to laparatomy with complete resection of the tumor (30 x 13 x 10 cm). Histopathological report demonstrated a low-grade retroperitoneal sarcoma and free macroscopic and microscopic borders, without obvious invasion except for left kidney and ureter. The patient refused adjuvant treatment, and she is disease-free 7 years after treatment. Retroperitoneal sarcomas can cause pain and reach very large sizes. The best treatment available is wide surgical resection with clear margins. The most important prognostic factors are free margins, type of resection, age of patient and tumor histology. PMID:18492425

  18. Frequent abdominal pain in childhood and youth: a systematic review of psychophysiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Müller, Judith; Enck, Paul; Weimer, Katja; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Frequent abdominal pain (AP) in children and adolescents is often designated as functional gastrointestinal disorder. In contrast to research on psychological and social influences on the experience of AP in this population, psychophysiological features such as function of the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, or the endocrine system have rarely been studied. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search for peer-reviewed journal articles referring to children with AP between 4 and 18 years. Studies on experimental baseline characteristics or reactivity of psychophysiological outcome parameters (autonomous nervous system, central nervous system, and endocrine parameters) were included. Key Results. Twelve of 18 included studies found psychophysiological differences between children with AP and healthy ones. These studies indicate a possible autonomic dysregulation and hypersensitivity of the central nervous system in children with AP following stimulation with stress or other intense stimuli. Mainly conflicting results were found regarding baseline comparisons of autonomic and endocrine parameters. Conclusions and Inferences. Frequent AP in children may be associated with an altered psychophysiological reaction on intense stimuli. It has to be considered that the current literature on psychophysiological characteristics of childhood AP is small and heterogeneous. In particular, multiparameter studies using validated experimental paradigms are lacking. PMID:24744777

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome: From Clinical Findings to Basic Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is one of the less common functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conventional therapy has unsatisfactory response to it so people turn to Chinese medicine for help. Currently, we reviewed the whole picture of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) clinical and basic application in the treatment of FAPS, especially the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, the single herb, and Chinese medicine formulae, thus to provide a solid base to further develop evidence-based study for this common gastrointestinal complaint in the future. We developed the search strategy and set the inclusion and exclusion criteria for article search. From the included articles, we totally retrieved 586 records according to our searching criteria, of which 16 were duplicate records and 291 were excluded for reasons of irrelevance. The full text of 279 articles was retrieved for detailed assessment, of which 123 were excluded for various reasons. The number one used single herb is Radix Ginseng. The most common syndrome was liver qi depression. The most frequently used classic formula was Si-Mo-Tang. This reflected the true situation of clinical practice of Chinese medicine practitioners and could be further systematically synthesized as key points of the therapeutic research for FAPS. PMID:27366194

  20. Selenoether oxytocin analogues have analgesic properties in a mouse model of chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Aline Dantas; Mobli, Mehdi; Castro, Joel; Harrington, Andrea M; Vetter, Irina; Dekan, Zoltan; Muttenthaler, Markus; Wan, JingJing; Lewis, Richard J; King, Glenn F; Brierley, Stuart M; Alewood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Poor oral availability and susceptibility to reduction and protease degradation is a major hurdle in peptide drug development. However, drugable receptors in the gut present an attractive niche for peptide therapeutics. Here we demonstrate, in a mouse model of chronic abdominal pain, that oxytocin receptors are significantly upregulated in nociceptors innervating the colon. Correspondingly, we develop chemical strategies to engineer non-reducible and therefore more stable oxytocin analogues. Chemoselective selenide macrocyclization yields stabilized analogues equipotent to native oxytocin. Ultra-high-field nuclear magnetic resonance structural analysis of native oxytocin and the seleno-oxytocin derivatives reveals that oxytocin has a pre-organized structure in solution, in marked contrast to earlier X-ray crystallography studies. Finally, we show that these seleno-oxytocin analogues potently inhibit colonic nociceptors both in vitro and in vivo in mice with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Our findings have potentially important implications for clinical use of oxytocin analogues and disulphide-rich peptides in general. PMID:24476666

  1. Seasonal variations of acute appendicitis and nonspecific abdominal pain in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Ilves, Imre; Fagerström, Anne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Juvonen, Petri; Miettinen, Pekka; Paajanen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether seasonal changes had an effect on the incidence of acute appendicitis (AA) or nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP). METHODS: We carried out a national register study of all patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of AA and acute NSAP in Finland. Data were analyzed for the whole country and correlated to seasonal and weather parameters (temperature, humidity). Moreover, additional sub-analyses were performed for five geographically different area of Finland. RESULTS: The observation period spanned 21 years, with 186558 appendectomies, of which 137528 (74%) cases were reported as AA. The incidence of AA declined for 32% over the study period. The average incidence of the NSAP was 34/10000 per year. The mean annual temperature, but not relative humidity, showed clear geographical variations. The incidence of AA decreased significantly during the cold months of the year. No correlation was detected between temperature and incidence of NSAP. Humidity had a statistically significant impact on NSAP. CONCLUSION: The incidence of acute appendicitis is declining in Finland. We detected a clear seasonality in the incidence of AA and NSAP. PMID:24833844

  2. Spontaneous superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection: an unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Watring, Nicole J; Smith, Corbett M; Stokes, Gordon K; Counselman, Francis L

    2010-11-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with a 4-day history of severe, sharp left upper quadrant abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. She had been seen 3 days prior at another Emergency Department, and had a negative work-up including a normal non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis for possible kidney stone. Vital signs were: temperature 36.3°C (97.3°F), pulse 100 beats/min, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, and blood pressure 141/80 mm Hg. Physical examination was remarkable for marked tenderness in the left upper and middle quadrants and voluntary guarding. Bowel sounds were normal. Although laboratory studies were normal, a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis with intravenous contrast suggested a superior mesenteric artery dissection. This was confirmed with arteriography. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of superior mesenteric artery dissection are reviewed. PMID:18180132

  3. Restoration of vagal tone: a possible mechanism for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Sowder, Erik; Gevirtz, Richard; Shapiro, Warren; Ebert, Crystal

    2010-09-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) causes disruption of daily activities/missed school days, over utilization of healthcare, unnecessary surgeries, and anxiety in 10-15% of children. Its etiology is not clearly understood, however the success of several clinical protocols suggests that autonomic dysregulation is a factor. In this study autonomic activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), was compared between children with FAP and a comparison group. Twenty children with FAP and 10 children without FAP between the ages of 5 and 17 years old were compared on autonomic regulation using an ambulatory system at baseline and 8 weeks later. Children with FAP participated in 6 sessions of HRV biofeedback aimed at normalizing autonomic balance. At baseline, children with FAP appear to have more autonomic dysregulation than children without FAP. After completing HRV biofeedback, the FAP group was able to significantly reduce their symptoms in relation to significantly increasing their autonomic balance. In a sample of children with FAP, it appears that HRV biofeedback treatment improved their symptoms and that a change in vagal tone was a potential mediator for this improvement. The present study appears to point to excessive vagal withdrawal as an underlying mechanism of FAP. PMID:20229150

  4. [INTESTINAL NON-ROTATION AS CAUSE OF RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN:REPORT OF A CASE AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed

    García Barrionuevo, Alcides; Castro De La Mata Guerra, Rodrigo; García; Rodríguez Castro, Manuel; Ganoza Arenas, Carmela

    2000-01-01

    A 32 years old male patient with recurrent abdominal pain was admitted to the hospital with the clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. An emergency laparotomy was performed and the diagnosis of intestinal non-rotation and cecum volvulus was done. Right hemicolectomy and terminoterminal ileocolic anastomosis was performed. Pathology showed ischemia and necrosis in the resected segment. Clinical presentation, diagnosis methods and therapeutic options of intestinal malrotation and non-rotation are discussed. PMID:12140578

  5. Cases in Space Medicine: Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain in a Female Crewmember on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Scheuring, Richard; Jones, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a medical emergency aboard the International Space Station is reviewed. The case involves a female crewmember who is experiencing acute abdominal pain. The interplay of the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) and the NASA Flight Surgeon is given. Possible diagnoses, and advised medical actions are reviewed. Along the case study questions are posed to the reader, and at the end answers are given.

  6. Changes in muscle strength and pain in response to surgical repair of posterior abdominal wall disruption followed by rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, A; Herrington, L; Blower, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posterior abdominal wall deficiency (PAWD) is a tear in the external oblique aponeurosis or the conjoint tendon causing a posterior wall defect at the medial end of the inguinal canal. It is often known as sportsman's hernia and is believed to be caused by repetitive stress. Objective: To assess lower limb and abdominal muscle strength of patients with PAWD before intervention compared with matched controls; to evaluate any changes following surgical repair and rehabilitation. Methods: Sixteen subjects were assessed using a questionnaire, isokinetic testing of the lower limb strength, and pressure biofeedback testing of the abdominals. After surgery and a six week rehabilitation programme, the subjects were re-evaluated. A control group were assessed using the same procedure. Results: Quadriceps and hamstrings strength was not affected by this condition. A deficit hip muscle strength was found on the affected limb before surgery, which was significant for the hip flexors (p = 0.05). Before surgery, 87% of the patients compared with 20% of the controls failed the abdominal obliques test. Both the injured and non-injured sides had improved significantly in strength after surgery and rehabilitation. The strength of the abdominal obliques showed the most significant improvement over the course of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions: Lower limb muscle strength may have been reduced as the result of disuse atrophy or pain inhibition. Abdominal oblique strength was deficient in the injured patients and this compromises rotational control of the pelvis. More sensitive investigations (such as electromyography) are needed to assess the link between abdominal oblique function and groin injury. PMID:12547744

  7. Epiploic Appendagitis: A Rare Cause of Acute Abdominal Pain in Children. Report of a Case and Review of the Pediatric Literature.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Paul; Sawaya, David E; Miller, Kristen H; Nowicki, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    A 9-year-old boy presented with acute onset of abdominal pain and vomiting. History, physical examination, and initial laboratory testing failed to provide a diagnosis. A computed tomography scan revealed the rare finding of epiploic appendagitis. We review the literature of this rare, but increasingly recognized, condition that mimics appendicitis and needs to be considered in the child with acute abdominal pain. PMID:26427946

  8. Rapid 13C Urea Breath Test to Identify Helicobacter pylori Infection in Emergency Department Patients with Upper Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Andrew C.; Pierce, Rebecca; Cummings, Derek A.T.; Pines, Jesse M.; May, Larissa; Smith, Meaghan A.; Marcotte, Joseph; McCarthy, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In emergency department (ED) patients with upper abdominal pain, management includes ruling out serious diseases and providing symptomatic relief. One of the major causes of upper abdominal pain is an ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which can be treated and cured with antibiotics. We sought to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in symptomatic patients using a convenience sample at a single urban academic ED and demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based testing. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with a chief complaint of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen for 1 year from February 2011 until February 2012 at a single academic urban ED. Enrolled subjects were tested for H. pylori using a rapid point of care 13C Urea Breath Test (UBT) [Exalenz Bioscience]. We compared patient characteristics between those who tested positive versus negative for the disease. Results: A total of 205 patients with upper abdominal pain were tested over 12 months, and 24% (95% confidence interval: 19% to 30%) tested positive for H. pylori. Black subjects were more likely to test positive than white subjects (28% v. 6%, P < 0.001). Other factors, such as age and sex, were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In our ED, H. pylori infection was present in 1 in 4 patients with epigastric pain, and testing with a UBT was feasible. Further study is needed to determine the risk factors associated with infection, the prevalence of H. pylori in other EDs, the effect of the test on ED length of stay and the costeffectiveness of an ED-based test-and-treat strategy. PMID:23687549

  9. Microscopic colitis: a new cause of chronic diarrhea in children?

    PubMed

    Mashako, M N; Sonsino, E; Navarro, J; Mougenot, J F; Gargouri, A; Boige, N; Cezard, J P

    1990-01-01

    From a retrospective study on children who underwent colonoscopy or rectosigmoidoscopy with multiple level biopsies, we selected five patients whose rectocolonic endoscopic aspect was normal and contrasting with the presence of a microscopic colitis on biopsies. These five children had chronic diarrhea (mean duration of 14 months), associated with vomiting (three cases), abdominal pain (two cases), anorexia (two cases), abdominal distension (two cases), and weight loss (four cases). Symptomatic treatment was used in all children: loperamide (one case), trimebutine (three cases), and aluminium and magnesium silicate (two cases). One child received sulfasalazine for 2 months. After 1 year, all patients had normal stools. Rectosigmoidoscopy was performed in four patients and was normal. Biopsies obtained in three cases were normal in two cases and showed a persistent microscopic colitis in one case. Microscopic colitis may be a distinct cause of chronic diarrhea in children. PMID:2324876

  10. A Rare Cause of Postoperative Abdominal Pain in a Spinal Fusion Patient.

    PubMed

    Horn, Pamela L; Beeb, Allan C; King, Denis R

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 12-year-old girl who underwent an uncomplicated posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation for scoliosis and who later developed nausea, emesis, and abdominal pain. We discuss the epidemiology, prevalence, anatomic findings, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and clinical management, including nonsurgical and surgical therapies, of superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS), a rare condition. Over a 2-week period, the patient developed an uncommon type of bowel obstruction likely related to her initial thin body habitus, correction of her deformity, and weight loss after surgery. The patient returned to the operating room for placement of a Stamm gastrostomy feeding tube with insertion of a transgastric-jejunal (G-J) feeding tube. The patient had the G-J feeding tube in place for approximately 6 weeks to augment her enteral nutrition. As she gained weight, her duodenal emptying improved, and she gradually transitioned to normal oral intake. She has done well since the G-J feeding tube was removed. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a relatively common procedure, and SMAS is a rare condition. However, in the case of an asthenic adolescent with postoperative weight loss, intestinal obstruction can develop. When planning operative spinal correction in scoliosis patients who have a low body mass index at the time of surgery and who have increased thoracic stiffness, be alert for signs and symptoms of SMAS. This rare complication can develop, and timely diagnosis and medical management will decrease morbidity and shorten the length of time needed for nutritional rehabilitation. PMID:26372764

  11. Groin pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg: This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  12. Mild, moderate, and severe pain in patients recovering from major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Zalon, Margarete L

    2014-06-01

    Pain interferes with various activities, such as coughing, deep breathing, and ambulation, designed to promote recovery and prevent complications after surgery. Determining appropriate cutpoints for mild, moderate, and severe pain is important, because specific interventions may be based on this classification. The purpose of this research was to determine optimal cutpoints for postoperative patients based on their worst and average pain during hospitalization and after discharge to home, and whether the optimal cutpoints distinguished patients with mild, moderate, or severe pain regarding patient outcomes. This secondary analysis consisted of 192 postoperative patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to stratify the sample into mild, moderate, and severe pain groups using eight cutpoint models for worst and average pain in the last 24 hours. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether patients experiencing mild, moderate, or severe pain were different in outcome. Optimal cutpoints were similar to those previously reported, with the boundary between mild and moderate pain ranging from 3 to 4 and the boundary between moderate and severe pain ranging from 5 to 7. Worst pain cutpoints were most useful in distinguishing patients regarding fatigue, depression, pain's interference with function, and morphine equivalent administered in the previous 24 hours. A substantial proportion of patients experienced moderate to severe pain. The results suggest a narrow boundary between mild and severe pain that interferes with function. The findings indicate that clinicians should seek to aggressively manage postoperative pain ratings greater than 3. PMID:24882032

  13. Spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst into the peritoneum causing only mild abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Kemal

    2007-02-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in certain areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. Spontaneous rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneum is a rare condition, which is accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality generally. We present herein a case with a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hidatid disease into the peritoneum without any serious symptoms. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room with a mild abdominal pain lasting for a day. Physical examination revealed only mild abdominal tenderness. There was no history of trauma or complaints related to hydatid diseases. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid and a cystic lesion with irregular borders in the liver. He was operated on. Postoperative albendazol therapy was given for 2 mo. No recurrence or secondary hydatidosis was seen on CT investigation in the 3rd, 6th and 12th mo following surgery. PMID:17278209

  14. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up. PMID:25766437

  15. [A case of Hamman's syndrome associated with acute-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Hiromi; Sakaguchi, Kosaku; Muro, Shinichiro; Sasaki, Kyo; Kobayashi, Sayo; Fujisawa, Tomoo; Nawa, Toru; Ueki, Toru; Yabushita, Kazuhisa; Shimoe, Toshinari

    2015-05-01

    A 21-year-old female presented at an emergency department with abdominal pain and nausea. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen revealed a small amount of mediastinal emphysema in the precardiac area, but the underlying cause could not be identified. On admission, her plasma glucose was 371 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 14.0%, and blood pH was 6.91. These findings supported a diagnosis of Hamman's syndrome associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. Her diabetic ketoacidosis was managed with insulin and fluid therapy, and the mediastinal emphysema disappeared spontaneously by the time of discharge. Presence of free air of the chest and abdominal cavity must warrant a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation; however, when the free air is accompanied by diabetic ketoacidosis, it is not necessary to perform urgent endoscopy. PMID:25947021

  16. Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Unal; Aydin, Suleyman; Sarac, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kalayci, Mehmet; Artas, Gokhan; Yardim, Meltem; Kazez, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Moreover, immunoreactivity to IRI was investigated in appendix tissues and blood cells. Samples were collected on admission (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3) postoperatively from patients with suspected AA and from patients with AP corresponding to T1–T3, whereas control subject blood was once corresponding to T1. IRI was measured in serum, saliva, and urine by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas in appendix tissue and blood cells, IRI was detected by immunohistohcemistry. Appendix tissue and blood cells (except for erythrocytes) are new sources of IRI. Basal saliva, urine, and serum levels were higher in children with AA compared with postoperative levels (T2) that start to decline after surgery. This is in line with the finding that IRI levels are higher in children with AA when compared with those with AP or control subject levels, most likely due to a large infiltration of neutrophil cells in AA that release its IRI into body fluids. Measurement of IRI in children with AA parallels the increase or decrease in the neutrophil count. This new finding shows that the measurement of IRI and neutrophil count can together improve the diagnosis of AA, and it can distinguish it from AP. IRI can be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of AA and offers an additional parameter to

  17. Acute intermittent porphyria leading to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): a rare cause of abdominal pain and seizures.

    PubMed

    Dagens, Andrew; Gilhooley, Michael James

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited deficiency in the haem biosynthesis pathway. AIP is rare, affecting around 1 in 75 000 people. Acute attacks are characterised by abdominal pain associated with autonomic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. AIP is rarely associated with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES is a clinicoradiological condition caused by the failure of the posterior circulation to autoregulate, resulting in cerebral oedema, headaches, nausea and seizures. This association is important because drugs used in the management of seizures may worsen an attack of AIP. This article describes a case of AIP and PRES in a young woman. PMID:27277587

  18. The effect of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne T; O'Connor, Priscilla C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare reports of pain and levels of state anxiety in 2 groups of women after abdominal hysterectomy. A quasi-experimental design was used in which the experimental group (n = 10) received traditional nursing care plus three 30-minute sessions of Reiki, while the control group (n = 12) received traditional nursing care. The results indicated that the experimental group reported less pain and requested fewer analgesics than the control group. Also, the experimental group reported less state anxiety than the control group on discharge at 72 hours postoperation. The authors recommend replication of this study with a similar population, such as women who require nonemergency cesarian section deliveries. PMID:17099413

  19. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  20. A 54-Year-Old Man Presenting With an Abnormal Abdominal CT Scan 8 Months After Double Lung Transplant.

    PubMed

    Mistrot, Daniel P; Gemma, Vincent A; Gagliano, Ronald A; Omar, Ashraf; Panchabhai, Tanmay S

    2016-05-01

    A 54-year-old man who had undergone bilateral sequential lung transplant for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was admitted to the hospital for further evaluation of an abnormal abdominal CT scan. Three months previously a gastrojejunostomy tube had been placed after he was found to have evidence of silent aspiration with oral intake. At a recent clinic visit, he denied abdominal pain or problems with the feeding tube. He described frequent diarrhea since placement of the feeding tube. PMID:27157231

  1. A case of familial Mediterranean fever who complained of periodic fever and abdominal pain diagnosed by MEFV gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Chie; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Kisida, Dai; Kakudou, Mariko; Yazaki, Masahide; Nakamura, Akinori; Azuma, Kouta; Tsuboi, Kazuyuki; Abe, Takeo; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Furukawa, Tetsuya; Maruoka, Momo; Tamura, Masao; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Saito, Atsushi; Nishioka, Aki; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Kitano, Masayasu; Tsunoda, Shinichiro; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Sano, Hajime

    2016-01-01

      Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease caused by Mediterranean FeVergene (MEFV) mutations on Chromosome 16, and characterized by periodic fever of and serositis. FMF is the result of gain-of-function mutations in pyrin that lead to interleukin-1β activation. FMF can be classified as "typical" and "atypical" types based on clinical finding and genetic screening. Although MEFV genotyping has enabled FMF to be confirmed in some cases, the diagnosis remains predominantly clinical since genotyping has shown that the disease is characterized by variable manifestations in Japanese. In 1976, the first report performed on the case of Japanese FMF with periodic fever of and serositis. Since 2002, genetic analyses are performed on Japanese FMF patients by K. Shiozaki et al. and N. Tomiyama et al. In our case, she was a 25-year-old Japanese woman with at periodic fever and abdominal pain. MEFV gene analysis demonstrated a heterozygous mutation of variant M694I, leading to a diagnosis of FMF. After the increase dose (up to 3 mg/day) of colchicine, periodic fever and abdominal pain disappeared. It is the important candidate of FMF for differential diagnosis with unexplained periodic fever and serositis, such as our case. PMID:27181238

  2. Diarrhea (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveler's diarrhea. They occur from eating food or drinking water contaminated with organisms like bacteria and parasites. Medications can also cause diarrhea, especially antibiotics, laxatives containing magnesium, and chemotherapy for cancer treatment.

  3. Control of acute pain after major abdominal surgery in 585 patients given tramadol and ketorolac by intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    Pieri, M; Meacci, L; Santini, L; Santini, G; Dollorenzo, R; Sansevero, A

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of postoperative pain relief using tramadol and ketorolac in continuous intravenous infusion. The 585 patients included in the study underwent major surgery according to a protocol involving the parenteral administration of 100 mg tramadol approximately 40 min before the end of surgery. This was followed by the continuous intravenous infusion of 600 mg tramadol and 180 mg ketorolac diluted with physiological solution to a total volume of 96 ml. Delivery was carried out using an elastomeric pump or a syringe pump and administered over a 48-hour period at a constant rate of 2 ml/h. Any further doses consisted of 100 mg tramadol up to a maximum of 300 mg over a 24-h period. Pain was assessed on a verbal numeric scale (VNS). For each patient the intensity of pain was assessed both at rest and on movement (coughing, deep breathing, movement of lower limbs). At the scheduled times (T0-T72, every 6 h), the following parameters were evaluated: hemodynamic stability; respiratory function; the appearance of any side effects; the level of sedation; and the need for any further doses of analgesic. The analysis of the data obtained showed the good quality of postoperative pain relief achieved: pain intensity at rest was, on average, always below VNS level 3, while during movement it always had an average VNS level of 3-4. The only side effects found with any frequency were nausea (22.6%) and vomiting (8.5%); hemodynamic and respiratory parameters remained stable. The method adopted was of limited cost and was well accepted by both patients and staff. On the basis of the data obtained, it is possible to affirm that the post-operative pain protocol proposed is effective, safe, without significant side effects, and of limited cost. Therefore, it is the first choice protocol for our operating unit after major abdominal surgery. PMID:12224377

  4. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  5. Abdominal pain and swelling as an initial presentation of spinal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Elgendy, Akram Y; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Elgendy, Islam Y

    2014-01-01

    Spinal tuberculosis (Pott's disease) is one of the common extra-pulmonary presentations of tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis commonly presents with back pain, fever and night sweats. In this report, we present a case of spinal tuberculosis complicated by bilateral large psoas abscesses. The patient presented with bilateral flank pain and swellings rather than the classic presentation of back pain. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of physicians to this uncommon presentation of spinal tuberculosis, as an early recognition of such condition may expedite diagnosis and treatment, thereby preventing future complications of the disease. PMID:24554681

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  7. Parasitic Infection of the Gallbladder: Cystoisospora belli Infection as a Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain and Acalculous Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Matthew G; Lee, Johnathan Y

    2016-06-01

    Herein we describe two cases of Cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in patients with chronic abdominal pain and review the published literature to date. C. belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that typically infects the small bowel of immunocompromised hosts. Little is known of the significance of C. belli infection of the gallbladder at this point as only four cases have been reported as yet, only one of which occurred in an immunocompetent patient. It is often treatable with antibiotics, and the patient's immune status, including HIV testing, should be investigated. Neither of the patients at our institution was found to be immunocompromised, and HIV-1/2 antibody testing was non-reactive in both. PMID:27526491

  8. Haemoptysis and left upper quadrant abdominal pain: an unusual presentation of partial thoracic migration of an adjustable gastric band's tube

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, César; Milheiro, António; Manso, António Canaveira; Castro Sousa, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric banding is considered the safest bariatric procedure, holding satisfactory long-term weight loss results, low rates of early complications and negligible mortality. Long-term follow-up are showing a high prevalence of late complications. We describe the case of a 40-year-old female patient, with a medical history of laparoscopic gastric banding, admitted in the emergency department complaining of haemoptysis, left upper quadrant abdominal pain and a slight tachycardia. After an exhaustive clinical evaluation with laboratorial and radiological assessments, diagnosis of partial thoracic migration of the band's tube was established. Despite the unusual clinical setting, this case emphasises the necessity of awareness for the potential long-term complications of gastric banding either from primary or secondary care providers. PMID:23420734

  9. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Vânia F.; Amorim, Juleimar S. C.; Pereira, Aline M.; Ferreira, Paulo H.; Pereira, Leani S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) and urinary incontinence (UI) are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. Objective: To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Method: Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 72±5.2 years) who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression models for the TrA, IO, and EO muscle thickness levels explained 2.0% (R2=0.02; F=0.47; p=0.628), 10.6% (R2=0.106; F=3.03; p=0.057), and 10.1% (R2=0.101; F=2.70; p=0.077) of the variability, respectively. None of the regression models developed for the abdominal muscles exhibited statistical significance. A significant and negative association (p=0.018; β=-0.0343) was observed only between UI and IO recruitment. Conclusion: These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly. PMID:25714438

  10. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  11. Young children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) followed in pediatric gastroenterology (PED-GI) vs primary pediatric care (PED): Differences in outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that children with recurrent abdominal pain without alarm signs be managed in pediatric rather than specialty care. However, many of these children are seen in tertiary care. In a longitudinal examination of physical and psychological symptoms, we hypothes...

  12. Discriminative Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scales in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Paul M.; Schoff, Kristin M.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Abelkop, A. Shayne

    2003-01-01

    Examined discriminative validity of the Parent Rating Scale (PRS) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992, Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services). Two groups were compared: a cohort with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) (n = 49) and children from the BASC-PRS standardization sample (n = 49) matched on…

  13. Postsurgical pain outcome of vertical and transverse abdominal incision: Design of a randomized controlled equivalence trial [ISRCTN60734227

    PubMed Central

    Reidel, Margot A; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Seiler, Christoph M; Knauer, Christine; Motsch, Johann; Victor, Norbert; Büchler, Markus W

    2003-01-01

    Background There are two ways to open the abdominal cavity in elective general surgery: vertically or transversely. Various clinical studies and a meta-analysis have postulated that the transverse approach is superior to other approaches as regards complications. However, in a recent survey it was shown that 90 % of all abdominal incisions in visceral surgery are still vertical incisions. This discrepancy between existing recommendations of clinical trials and clinical practice could be explained by the lack of acceptance of these results due to a number of deficits in the study design and analysis, subsequent low internal validity, and therefore limited external generalisability. The objective of this study is to address the issue from the patient's perspective. Methods This is an intraoperatively randomized controlled observer and patient-blinded two-group parallel equivalence trial. The study setting is the Department of General-, Visceral-, Trauma Surgery and Outpatient Clinic of the University of Heidelberg, Medical School. A total of 172 patients of both genders, aged over 18 years who are scheduled for an elective abdominal operation and are eligible for either a transverse or vertical incision. To show equivalence of the two approaches or the superiority of one of them from the perspective of the patient, a primary endpoint is defined: the pain experienced by the patient (VAS 0–100) on day two after surgery and the amount of analgesic required (piritramide [mg/h]). A confidence interval approach will be used for analysis. A global α-Level of 0.05 and a power of 0.8 is guaranteed, resulting in a size of 86 patients for each group. Secondary endpoints are: time interval to open and close the abdomen, early-onset complications (frequency of burst abdomen, postoperative pulmonary complications, and wound infection) and late complications (frequency of incisional hernias). Different outcome variables will be ranked by patients and surgeons to assess the

  14. Does mechanical massage of the abdominal wall after colectomy reduce postoperative pain and shorten the duration of ileus? Results of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Le Blanc-Louvry, Isabelle; Costaglioli, Bruno; Boulon, Catherine; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Ducrotte, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mechanical abdominal massage on postoperative pain and ileus after colectomy. We hypothesized that parietal abdominal stimulation could counteract induced pain and postoperative ileus, through common spinal-sensitive pathways, with nociceptive visceral messages. After preoperative randomization, 25 patients (age 52 +/- 5 years) underwent active mechanical massage by intermittent negative pressure on the abdominal wall resulting in aspiration (Cellu M50 device, LPG, Valence, France), and 25 patients (age 60 +/- 6 years) did not receive active mechanical massage (placebo group). Massage sessions began the first day after colectomy and were performed daily until the seventh postoperative day. In the active-massage group, amplitude and frequency were used, which have been shown to be effective in reducing muscular pain, whereas in the placebo group, ineffective parameters were used. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores, doses of analgesics (propacetamol), and delay between surgery and the time to first passage of flatus were assessed. Types and dosages of the anesthetic drugs and the duration of the surgical procedure did not differ between groups. From the second and third postoperative days, respectively, VAS pain scores (P < 0.001) and doses of analgesics (P < 0.05) were significantly lower in patients receiving active massage compared to the placebo group. Time to first passage of flatus was also significantly shorter in the active-massage group (1.8 +/- 0.3 days vs. 3.6 +/- 0.4 days, P < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. These results suggest that mechanical massage of the abdominal wall may decrease postoperative pain and ileus after colectomy. PMID:11986017

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  16. Crystal-Associated Colitis with Ulceration Leading to Hematochezia and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Meeta; Reiprich, Aaron; Khov, Nancy; Yang, Zhaohai; Mathew, Abraham; Levenick, John

    2016-01-01

    Lower GI bleeding is a common cause for hospitalization in adults. Medication-associated mucosal injury is an important clinical entity that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman with a 3-month history of intermittent abdominal cramping and rectal bleeding. Her medical history was extensive and included end-stage renal disease and a remote history of endometrial carcinoma that was treated with radiation. Initial workup was concerning for ischemic and radiation colitis, however, histology was most consistent with acute inflammation and ulceration associated with crystal fragments. Sevelamer and cholestyramine are commonly used ion-exchange resins that have been associated with mucosal damage. Both medications were discontinued and her symptoms resolved. Our case highlights an underrecognized but important cause of hematochezia. PMID:27482192

  17. [Traveler's diarrhea in Turkey. Prospective randomized therapeutic comparison of charcoal versus tannin albuminate/ethacridine lactate].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J; Raedsch, R; Kruis, W

    1992-12-15

    In most cases traveler's diarrhea is a self-limiting disease not requiring professional assistance. As data on self-treatment are very limited, a prospective randomized trial was performed in 620 German tourists spending a two week-holiday in Turkey. 31.6% of these travelers developed diarrhea and 186 were assigned to two treatment groups, receiving either medical coal or a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridinlactate (TA/EL). In the TA/EL group stool frequencies significantly earlier returned to normal and complaints of moderate to severe abdominal pain were recorded less frequently (50 vs. 82.2%) than in patients receiving charcoal preparations. Both medications were well tolerated and TA/EL appeared more efficient for self medication of uncomplicated traveler's diarrhea. PMID:1287425

  18. Rifaximin for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kane, John S; Ford, Alexander C

    2016-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habit. The pathophysiology is unclear, but may include altered gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal central pain processing, chronic low-grade intestinal inflammation, or disturbances in the gut microbiome. These etiological mechanisms, alongside environmental factors such as stress and anxiety, vary between individuals and represent potential targets for treatment. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed oral antibiotic proposed to act on the gut microenvironment, used in the treatment of travelers' diarrhea and hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical trials suggest the drug can reduce global IBS symptoms and improve bloating, abdominal pain, and stool consistency in some patients with non-constipated IBS, leading to Food and Drug Administration approval in the United States. This article considers the pharmacology of rifaximin, the evidence for its use in IBS, and the safety and tolerability of the drug. PMID:26753693

  19. [Paravertebral and intra-abdominal abscess due to oxygen-ozone therapy for lower back pain].

    PubMed

    Menéndez, P; García, A; Peláez, R

    2014-01-01

    Complications secondary to oxygen-ozone therapy are rare, but they have been described in medical literature. There are only two cases of infectious complications after oxygen-ozone therapy. Our aim is to describe a rare case of purulent complication that was secondary to oxygen-ozone therapy for the treatment of lower back pain. We report the clinical improvement with conservative treatment for a local complication after percutaneous oxygen-ozone treatment. According to the clinical improvement of our patient, conservative treatment should be considered before any aggressive surgery. PMID:24071048

  20. Capillariasis: chronic watery diarrhea--not only from microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kusolsuk, Teera; Phumratanaprapin, Weerapong; Paohintung, Kirana; Pubampen, Somchit; Sa-nguankiat, Surapol; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Yoonuan, Tipayarat; Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Komalamisra, Chalit

    2008-11-01

    A 54-year-old male Thai patient from Prachin Buri Province presented with a history of chronic watery diarrhea for many years. He passed stool five to ten times per day with occasionally colicky pain, abdominal distension, nausea and vomiting. He had visited hospitals and private clinics and received treatment but with no improvement. He presented to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand, where on physical examination, he had moderate dehydration, weakness, abdominal distension and a gurgling abdomen. The eggs, larvae and adult worms of Capillaria philippinensis were found on stool examination. The patient was admitted and treated with Mebendazole for 20 days, whereupon his symptoms resolved. Two months previously, he had ingested a raw small fresh-water fish dish called "Phra-Pla Siw/Soi". Small fresh-water fish near the patient's home were collected and examined for Capillaria philippinensis larva. The results were negative for parasitic organisms. PMID:19062687

  1. [Persistent diarrhea

    PubMed

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding. PMID:14676915

  2. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  3. Strongyloidiasis: prevalence, risk factors, clinical and laboratory features among diarrhea patients in Ibadan Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dada-Adegbola, H O; Oluwatoba, O A; Bakare, R A

    2010-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. The infection is usually mild or asymptomatic in normal immunocompetent individuals, but could be very severe or even fatal due to hyper infection in individuals who are immunosuppressed. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors and features of strongyloidiasis among diarrhea patients in Ibadan. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of diarrhea patients from a teaching hospital, three major government hospitals and one mission hospital in Ibadan. Self administered questionnaire, clinical assessment and laboratory investigations were used to confirm health status and presence of S. stercoralis. Diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of stool in saline preparation and formol-ether concentration. One thousand and ninety patients, (562 (51.6%) males and 528 (48.4%) females) consisting 380 (34.9%) children and 710 (65.1%) adults who had diarrhea were studied. The prevalence rate for the parasite among diarrhea patients was 3.0%. While the risk factor for infection remains contact with contaminated soil, malnutrition, steroid therapy, HIV/AIDS, lymphomas, tuberculosis, and chronic renal failure. Others are maleness, institutionalism and alcoholism. Predominant clinical presentations are abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, and bloating and weight loss, Strongyloides stercoralis should be considered in diarrhea patients who are either malnourished or immunosuppressed. PMID:21735994

  4. Celiac Disease Presenting as Profound Diarrhea and Weight Loss – A Celiac Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bul, Vadim; Sleesman, Brett; Boulay, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Celiac crisis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chronic diarrhea • lightheadedness • weakness • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Celiac disease is a hypersensitivity enteropathy that can have various presentations in adults. Rarely, patients can present with severe lab abnormalities, dehydration and weight loss caused by celiac disease – a celiac crisis. Case Report: A 46-year-old male with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus, type 2 (DM2) and recently treated Bell’s Palsy presented to the emergency room complaining of weakness, diarrhea and lightheadedness. On presentation, the patient had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 60 mm Hg and a lactic acidosis with pH of 7.28. Infectious etiologies of diarrhea were ruled out. The patient had an EGD which showed erythema of the duodenal bulb. Serum anti-gliadin and anti-TTG IgA were both elevated suggesting Celiac disease. Biopsies showed histopathology consistent with celiac disease. The patient’s diarrhea resolved after initiation of a gluten free diet. He gained 25 kilograms after discharge and did not require further hospitalizations for diarrhea. Conclusions: Celiac crisis is a very rare presentation of celiac disease in adults but nonetheless should be considered in patients with marked metabolic derangements in the setting of osmotic diarrhea. Treatment consists of a gluten free diet and may require management with steroids and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). PMID:27492679

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Retrocrural versus Transaortic Neurolytic Celiac Plexus Block for Pain Relief in Patients with Upper Abdominal Malignancy: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Saipriya; Agarwal, Anil; Dhiraaj, Sanjay; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep; Madabushi, Rajashree; Shamshery, Chetna; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare retrocrural versus transaortic techniques for neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB) in patients suffering from upper abdominal malignancy. Methods: In this retrospective observational study between October 2013 and April 2015, 64 patients with inoperable upper abdominal malignancy received fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous NCPB in our institute. Their case files were reviewed and the patients were divided into two groups depending on the technique used to perform NCPB: retrocrural (Group R; n = 36) versus transaortic (Group T; n = 28). The primary outcome measure was pain as assessed with a numeric rating scale (NRS) from 0 to 10; the secondary outcome measures were morphine consumption per day (M), quality of life (QOL) as assessed by comparing the percent of positive responses in each group, and complications if any. These were noted and analyzed prior to intervention and then on day 1, weeks 1, 2, 3, and months 1, 2, 3, 6 following NCPB. Results: Patients in Group R had significantly reduced NRS pain scores at week 1, 2, 3, month 1 and 2 as compared to Group T (P < 0.05). Morphine consumption also reduced significantly in Group R at day 1, week 1, 2, and 3 (P < 0.05). QOL was found to be comparable between the groups, and no major complications were noted. Conclusion: Retrocrural NCPB provides superior pain relief along with a reduction in morphine consumption as compared to transaortic NCPB in patients with pain due to upper abdominal malignancy.

  6. Electromechanical delay of abdominal muscles is modified by low back pain prevention exercise.

    PubMed

    Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapala, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the effect of a 4-week-long training program on selected parameters: electromechanical delay (EMD) and amplitude of electromyographic signal (EMG). Fourteen female students of the University School of Physical Education participated in the study. Torques and surface electromyography were evaluated under static conditions. Surface electrodes were glued to both sides of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles. The 4-week-long program was aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and resulted in increased EMD during maximum torque production by flexors of the trunk, increased amplitudes of the signals of the erector spinae ( p = 0.005), and increased EMG amplitude asymmetry of the lower ( p = 0.013) and upper part ( p = 0.006) of the rectus abdominis muscle. In a training program composed of a large number of repetitions of strength exercises, in which the training person uses their own weight as the load (like in exercises such as curl-ups), the process of recruitment of motor units is similar to that found during fatiguing exercises and plyometric training. PMID:25307027

  7. Efficacy of tandospirone in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ling; Chen, Yu-Long; Zhang, Hao; Jia, Bai-Ling; Chu, Yan-Jun; Wang, Jin; Tang, Shi-Xiao; Xia, Guo-Dong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of tandospirone in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) and anxiety in a prospective, randomized, controlled study. METHODS: Two hundred patients with IBS-D and moderate anxiety were randomized to receive pinaverium and tandospirone (arm A) or pinaverium and placebo (arm B). Tandospirone or placebo was given thrice daily at a fixed dose of 10 mg and pinaverium was given thrice daily at a fixed dose of 50 mg. The duration of treatment was 8 wk. Patients were assessed for abdominal pain and diarrhea. Anxiety was evaluated using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). The primary study endpoints were response rates for abdominal pain and diarrhea. The secondary study endpoints were response rates for anxiety. Adverse events were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy of 200 patients (82 patients in arm A and 88 patients in arm B) completed the study. Demographic and baseline characteristics of the 200 participants were comparable in the two arms. At week 8, the overall response rate for abdominal pain and diarrhea was 52.0% for arm A and 37.0% for arm B (P < 0.05). The HAM-A score showed that the response rate was 61.0% for arm A and 21.0% for arm B (P < 0.01). The treatments were well tolerated and no significant adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Tandospirone is effective and can be combined with pinaverium in IBS-D patients with anxiety. PMID:25170231

  8. Diarrhea - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerance (which causes problems after drinking milk and eating other dairy products) Malabsorption syndromes Less common causes of diarrhea include: Carcinoid syndrome Disorders of the nerves that supply the intestines Removal ...

  9. The significance of life-events as contributing factors in childhood recurrent abdominal pain in an urban community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Boey, C C; Goh, K L

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to look at the link between childhood recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and the presence of recent life-events in an urban community in Malaysia. School children aged from 9 to 15 years in the city of Petaling Jaya were randomly selected to fill in a questionnaire and to be interviewed. The prevalence of RAP among 1488 school children studied was 9.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.18-11.25). Higher prevalences of RAP were found in children who had experienced the following life-events in the previous year: loss of a family member through death (P<.001), hospitalisation of a family member (P<.001), the child's own hospitalisation (P=.001), change of address (P<.001), change in occupation of an immediate family member (P<.001), failure in a major school examination (P<.001), bullying at school (P=.001). Following logistic regression analysis, five life-events remain significant: hospitalisation of a family member (P=.038), the child's own hospitalisation (P=.034), change in occupation of an immediate family member (P=.049), examination failure (P=.001) and bullying at school (P=.028). This study strongly suggests that recent stressful life-events are important risk-factors for RAP. PMID:11595243

  10. Beyond abuse: the association among parenting style, abdominal pain, and somatization in IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Gudleski, Gregory D; Blanchard, Edward B

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relative strength of the association between abuse, negative parenting style, and somatization in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Drawing from preclinical stress physiology and abuse research identifying the family social climate as a frequently stronger and independent determinant of long-term health effects than abuse-specific variables, we predicted that negative parenting behaviors would more strongly correlate with somatization than abuse. Subjects were 81 consecutively evaluated patients, who at baseline underwent psychological testing, measuring perceived parental style, abuse history, somatization, and pain. Although abuse correlated with maternal and paternal rejection, abuse was not associated with somatization. Higher levels of rejection and/or hostility among fathers (not mothers) were more strongly correlated with somatization than was abuse. Further, paternal parenting behaviors were more predictive of somatization than abuse, age, and gender. The lack of an association between abuse and somatization is discussed in light of limitations of biopsychosocial IBS models, whose strong focus on "pathological stressors" (e.g., abuse, trauma) as risk factors may overlook the importance of "less extreme" parenting variables in influencing somatic complaints. The relationship between parenting and somatization is discussed in the context of broader behavioral science research linking disruptions in the quality of parenting to dramatic and long-term changes in patterns of stress reactivity and brain abnormalities seen in IBS patients. PMID:14744522

  11. Large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominal pain and severe anemia treated by laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Meigs' syndrome is a rare but well-known syndrome defined as the triad of benign solid ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion. Meigs' syndrome always requires surgical treatment. However, the optimal approach for its management has not been sufficiently investigated. Case presentation We report a patient with a large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominal pain and severe hemolytic anemia that was treated by laparoscopic surgery. This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs’ syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and surgical approach and the adverse impact that Meigs’ syndrome can have on the patient’s condition, especially if it is associated with acute pain and severe anemia. Considering the patient’s serious clinical condition and assuming that she had Meigs' syndrome with a twisted large ovarian mass and possible hemolytic anemia, we first concentrated on effective medical management of our patient and chose the most appropriate surgical treatment after laparoscopic examination. The main aim of our initial approach was preoperative management of the anemia. Blood transfusions and glucocorticoid therapy resulted in stabilization of the hemoglobin level and normalization of the bilirubin levels, which confirmed the appropriateness of this approach. Laparoscopic surgery 4 days after admission enabled definitive diagnosis of the tumor, confirmed torsion and removed the bulky ovarian fibroma, resulting in timely resolution of symptoms, short hospitalization, relatively low morbidity and a rapid return to her social and professional life. Conclusions This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs' syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and

  12. Adhesions to Mesh after Ventral Hernia Mesh Repair Are Detected by MRI but Are Not a Cause of Long Term Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Langbach, Odd; Holmedal, Stein Harald; Grandal, Ole Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to perform MRI in patients after ventral hernia mesh repair, in order to evaluate MRI's ability to detect intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and Methods. Single-center long term follow-up study of 155 patients operated for ventral hernia with laparoscopic (LVHR) or open mesh repair (OVHR), including analyzing medical records, clinical investigation with patient-reported pain (VAS-scale), and MRI. MRI was performed in 124 patients: 114 patients (74%) after follow-up, and 10 patients referred for late complaints after ventral mesh repair. To verify the MRI-diagnosis of adhesions, laparoscopy was performed after MRI in a cohort of 20 patients. Results. MRI detected adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall/mesh in 60% of the patients and mesh shrinkage in 20–50%. Adhesions were demonstrated to all types of meshes after both LVHR and OVHR with a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 78%, and negative predictive value of 67%. Independent predictors for formation of adhesions were mesh area as determined by MRI and Charlson index. The presence of adhesions was not associated with more pain. Conclusion. MRI can detect adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall in a fair reliable way. Adhesions are formed both after open and laparoscopic hernia mesh repair and are not associated with chronic pain. PMID:26819601

  13. Adhesions to Mesh after Ventral Hernia Mesh Repair Are Detected by MRI but Are Not a Cause of Long Term Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Langbach, Odd; Holmedal, Stein Harald; Grandal, Ole Jacob; Røkke, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to perform MRI in patients after ventral hernia mesh repair, in order to evaluate MRI's ability to detect intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and Methods. Single-center long term follow-up study of 155 patients operated for ventral hernia with laparoscopic (LVHR) or open mesh repair (OVHR), including analyzing medical records, clinical investigation with patient-reported pain (VAS-scale), and MRI. MRI was performed in 124 patients: 114 patients (74%) after follow-up, and 10 patients referred for late complaints after ventral mesh repair. To verify the MRI-diagnosis of adhesions, laparoscopy was performed after MRI in a cohort of 20 patients. Results. MRI detected adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall/mesh in 60% of the patients and mesh shrinkage in 20-50%. Adhesions were demonstrated to all types of meshes after both LVHR and OVHR with a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 78%, and negative predictive value of 67%. Independent predictors for formation of adhesions were mesh area as determined by MRI and Charlson index. The presence of adhesions was not associated with more pain. Conclusion. MRI can detect adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall in a fair reliable way. Adhesions are formed both after open and laparoscopic hernia mesh repair and are not associated with chronic pain. PMID:26819601

  14. Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Philippe; Richet, Hervé; Desnues, Christelle; Balique, Fanny; Moal, Valérie; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Berbis, Philippe; Lecoq, Hervé; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Berland, Yvon; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, metagenomic studies have identified viable Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), a plant virus, in the stool of healthy subjects. However, its source and role as pathogen have not been determined. Methods and Findings 21 commercialized food products containing peppers, 357 stool samples from 304 adults and 208 stool samples from 137 children were tested for PMMoV using real-time PCR, sequencing, and electron microscopy. Anti-PMMoV IgM antibody testing was concurrently performed. A case-control study tested the association of biological and clinical symptoms with the presence of PMMoV in the stool. Twelve (57%) food products were positive for PMMoV RNA sequencing. Stool samples from twenty-two (7.2%) adults and one child (0.7%) were positive for PMMoV by real-time PCR. Positive cases were significantly more likely to have been sampled in Dermatology Units (p<10−6), to be seropositive for anti-PMMoV IgM antibodies (p = 0.026) and to be patients who exhibited fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus (p = 0.045, 0.038 and 0.046, respectively). Conclusions Our study identified a local source of PMMoV and linked the presence of PMMoV RNA in stool with a specific immune response and clinical symptoms. Although clinical symptoms may be imputable to another cofactor, including spicy food, our data suggest the possibility of a direct or indirect pathogenic role of plant viruses in humans. PMID:20386604

  15. Effect of head and limb orientation on trunk muscle activation during abdominal hollowing in chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have altered activations patterns of the anterior trunk musculature when performing the abdominal hollowing manœuvre (attempt to pull umbilicus inward and upward towards the spine). There is a subgroup of individuals with CLBP who have high neurocognitive and sensory motor deficits with associated primitive reflexes (PR). The objective of the study was to determine if orienting the head and extremities to positions, which mimic PR patterns would alter anterior trunk musculature activation during the hollowing manoeuvre. Methods This study compared surface electromyography (EMG) of bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal obliques (IO) of 11 individuals with CLBP and evident PR to 9 healthy controls during the hollowing manoeuvre in seven positions of the upper quarter. Results Using magnitude based inferences it was likely (>75%) that controls had a higher ratio of left IO:RA activation with supine (cervical neutral), asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical extension positions. A higher ratio of right IO:RA was detected in the cervical neutral and ATNR left position for the control group. The CLBP group were more likely to show higher activation of the left RA in the cervical neutral, ATNR left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical flexion positions as well as in the cervical neutral and cervical flexion position for the right RA. Conclusions Individuals with CLBP and PR manifested altered activation patterns during the hollowing maneuver compared to healthy controls and that altering cervical and upper extremity position can diminish the group differences. Altered cervical and limb positions can change the activation levels of the IO and EO in both groups. PMID:24558971

  16. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePlus

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  17. Drug-induced diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  18. Drug-induced diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea associated with medications ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  19. An unusual cause of chronic abdominal pain after laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass: Case report of a penetrating fish bone causing adhesions at the biliary-digestive junction resulting in partial obstruction and chronic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, Vincent; Hendrickx, Leo; Valk, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of chronic abdominal pain after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGP) is complex and challenging. Foreign body intestinal perforation including that caused by fish bones has previously been reported in the literature and if clinically unrecognized, can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Fish bone perforation as a cause of chronic abdominal pain after LRYGP has rarely been reported. Summary The unusual case of a 54 year old female presenting with recurrent episodes of postprandial pain 2 years after LRYGP is reported. Previous radiological and endoscopic investigations did not reveal any abnormality and after the most recent clinical presentation, a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A protruding fish bone at the biliary-digestive junction was discovered intra-operatively and successfully extracted. Dense adhesions between the involved intestinal loops were lysed in an attempt to improve intestinal transit and subsequently relieve post-prandial pain. Conclusion This case highlights the possibility of a missed fish bone perforation causing chronic postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort in a patient with a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass anatomy. Foreign body perforation is a rare cause of abdominal pain after gastric bypass that should be considered when evaluating chronic abdominal pain symptoms after LRYGP. PMID:27107305

  20. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  1. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Egyptian children with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, H M; El-Serougi, A O; El Deeb, H K; Hussein, H M; Abou-Seri, H M; Klotz, C; Aebischer, T; El Sayed Khalifa Mohamed, K

    2015-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea worldwide. Genetic studies revealed that at least eight assemblages (A-H) exist. Of these assemblages, A and B are found primarily in human beings and occasionally in animals. The association between clinical symptoms and G. duodenalis assemblages is controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the assemblages of G. duodenalis prevalent among Egyptian children with diarrhea. Therefore, 96 positive stool samples for Giardia by light microscopy were subjected to multilocus genotyping targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Amplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were then purified, sequenced, and aligned with reference strains to determine the assemblages of the Giardia isolates. Out of the 96 microscopically positive stool samples for Giardia, 77 (80 %) were successfully amplified and sequenced at least at one locus. Of these, 21 (27.3 %) were shown to be assemblage A, 54 (70.1 %) assemblage B, while discordant sequence typing results were observed in 2 (2.6 %) samples. AII was the predominant subassemblage of assemblage A, while it was generally difficult to further classify assemblage B. It was concluded that infection with assemblage B was more common than that with assemblage A. No associations between epidemiological information and assemblage were detected, except with age. Although infections with assemblage B were more frequently associated with abdominal pain and acute diarrhea than with assemblage A, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:25939803

  2. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by nontyphoid Salmonella in an immunocompromised patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kayoko; Nonomura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Kaori; Koike, Ryuji; Kubota, Tetsuo; Harigai, Masayoshi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Iwai, Takehisa; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2009-10-01

    Nontyphoid Salmonella strains are important pathogens commonly found worldwide, typically causing gastrointestinal illness. Here, we report a case of a 66-yearold man with an abdominal aortic infected (or so-called mycotic) aneurysm caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). He had multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis: age over 60, a long history of smoking, an 8-year history of diabetes mellitus, and a 10-year history of rheumatoid arthritis treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Although he had presented with no episode of diarrhea or abdominal pain, the abdominal aortic infected aneurysm was diagnosed by blood cultures and was carefully followed up by computed tomography. An abdominal aneurysmectomy and autogenous in situ reconstruction were successfully performed consequently. Alertness to the possibility of endovascular infection is important, even if there are no symptoms except for persistent fever, when treating Salmonella bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient, particularly when there are associated atherosclerotic risk factors. PMID:19856069

  3. Spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatıd cyst into the peritoneum causing only mild abdominal pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in certain areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. Spontaneous rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneum is a rare condition, which is accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality generally. We present herein a case with a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hidatid disease into the peritoneum without any serious symptoms. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room with a mild abdominal pain lasting for a day. Physical examination revealed only mild abdominal tenderness. There was no history of trauma or complaints related to hydatid diseases. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid and a cystic lesion with irregular borders in the liver. He was operated on. Postoperative albendazol therapy was given for 2 mo. No recurrence or secondary hydatidosis was seen on CT investigation in the 3rd, 6th and 12th mo following surgery. PMID:17278209

  4. Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. Once you take care of the problem, pain ... Fortunately, there are many ways to treat pain. Treatment varies depending on the cause of pain. Pain ...

  5. Intravenous acetaminophen is superior to ketamine for postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Hamid Reza; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Visnjevac, Ognjen; Behzadi, Behzad; Ghodraty, Mohammad Reza; Nader, Nader D

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, intravenously (IV) administered acetaminophen has become one of the most common perioperative analgesics. Despite its now-routine use, IV acetaminophen’s analgesic comparative efficacy has never been compared with that of ketamine, a decades-old analgesic familiar to obstetricians, gynecologists, and anesthesiologists alike. This doubleblind clinical trial aimed to evaluate the analgesic effects of ketamine and IV acetaminophen on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods Eighty women aged 25–70 years old and meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly allocated into two groups of 40 to receive either IV acetaminophen or ketamine intraoperatively. Postoperatively, each patient had patient-controlled analgesia. Pain and sedation (Ramsay Sedation Scale) were documented based on the visual analog scale in the recovery room and at 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after the surgery. Hemodynamic changes, adverse medication effects, and the need for breakthrough meperidine were also recorded for both groups. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Visual analog scale scores were significantly lower in the IV acetaminophen group at each time point (P<0.05), and this group required significantly fewer doses of breakthrough analgesics compared with the ketamine group (P=0.039). The two groups had no significant differences in terms of adverse effects. Conclusion Compared with ketamine, IV acetaminophen significantly improved postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:24465135

  6. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases GI Health Centers Colorectal Cancer Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel ... GI Symptoms Gastroparesis See All Topics (A-Z) GI Procedures Colonoscopy Colorectal Cancer Screening See All Procedures ( ...

  7. Abdominal Pain or Cramping

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by hormones that slow your digestion, the pressure of your growing uterus, constipation and ... may be caused by hormones that slow your digestion, the pressure of your growing uterus, constipation and ...

  8. Pelvic ultrasound immediately following MDCT in female patients with abdominal/pelvic pain: is it always necessary?

    PubMed

    Yitta, Silaja; Mausner, Elizabeth V; Kim, Alice; Kim, Danny; Babb, James S; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Genevieve L

    2011-10-01

    To determine the added value of reimaging the female pelvis with ultrasound (US) immediately following multidetector CT (MDCT) in the emergent setting. CT and US exams of 70 patients who underwent MDCT for evaluation of abdominal/pelvic pain followed by pelvic ultrasound within 48 h were retrospectively reviewed by three readers. Initially, only the CT images were reviewed followed by evaluation of CT images in conjunction with US images. Diagnostic confidence was recorded for each reading and an exact Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare the two. Changes in diagnosis based on combined CT and US readings versus CT readings alone were identified. Confidence intervals (95%) were derived for the percentage of times US reimaging can be expected to lead to a change in diagnosis relative to the diagnosis based on CT interpretation alone. Ultrasound changed the diagnosis for the ovaries/adnexa 8.1% of the time (three reader average); the majority being cases of a suspected CT abnormality found to be normal on US. Ultrasound changed the diagnosis for the uterus 11.9% of the time (three reader average); the majority related to the endometrial canal. The 95% confidence intervals for the ovaries/adnexa and uterus were 5-12.5% and 8-17%, respectively. Ten cases of a normal CT were followed by a normal US with 100% agreement across all three readers. Experienced readers correctly diagnosed ruptured ovarian cysts and tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) based on CT alone with 100% agreement. US reimaging after MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis is not helpful: (1) following a normal CT of the pelvic organs or (2) when CT findings are diagnostic and/or characteristic of certain entities such as ruptured cysts and TOA. Reimaging with ultrasound is warranted for (1) less-experienced readers to improve diagnostic confidence or when CT findings are not definitive, (2) further evaluation of suspected endometrial abnormalities. A distinction should be made between the need for

  9. Randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 in irritable bowel syndrome: improvement in abdominal pain and bloating in those with predominant constipation

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Robin; Pélerin, Fanny; Maudet, Corinne; Housez, Béatrice; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Jüsten, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and/or discomfort. Probiotics have been reported to benefit IBS symptoms but the level of benefit remains quite unclear. Objective This study was designed to assess the benefit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-3856 on IBS symptoms. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial has been performed in 379 subjects with diagnosed IBS. Subjects were randomly supplemented with the probiotics (1000 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks. Questionnaires (gastrointestinal symptoms, stools, wellbeing, and quality of life) were completed. Primary endpoint was percentage of responders defined as having a 50% decrease in the weekly average “intestinal pain/discomfort score” for at least 4 out of the last 8 weeks of the study. Results There was no overall benefit of S. cerevisiae I-3856 on IBS symptoms and wellbeing in the study population. Moreover, S. cerevisiae I-3856 was not statistically significant predictor of the responder status of the subjects (p > 0.05). Planned subgroup analyses showed significant effect in the IBS-C subjects: improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly higher in active group, compared to placebo, on abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating throughout the study and at the end of the supplementation. Conclusions In this study, S. cerevisiae I-3856 at the dose of 1000 mg per day does not improve intestinal pain and discomfort in general IBS patients. However, it seems to have an effect in the subgroup with constipation which needs further studies to confirm (NCT01613456 in ClinicalTrials.gov registry). PMID:27403301

  10. High prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in women in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and direct association with abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Pagano; do Nascimento, Anderson Luís; Michelazzo, Daniela; Junior, Fernando Filardi Alves; Rocha, Marcelo Gondim; Rosa-e-Silva, Júlio César; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco José; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain is a disease that directly affects the social and professional lives of women. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of this clinical condition and to identify independent factors associated with it in women living in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: A one-year cross-sectional study was conducted in a population sample of 1,278 women over the age of 14 years. The target population was predominantly composed of women who are treated by the public health system. The questionnaire was administered by interviewers who were not linked to the city health care programs. The prevalence of the morbidity was estimated. First, we identified the significant variables associated with pelvic pain (p<0.10) and then we attributed values of 0 or 1 to the absence or presence of these variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify and estimate the simultaneous impact of the independent variables. The results were expressed by odds ratio and their 95% confidence interval with p<0.05. RESULTS: The disease was found in 11.5% (147/1,278) of the sample. The independent predictors were dyspareunia, previous abdominal surgery, depression, dysmenorrhea, anxiety, current sexual activity, low back pain, constipation, urinary symptoms, and low educational level. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Ribeirão Preto is high and is associated with conditions that can usually be prevented, controlled, or resolved by improvement of public health policies and public education. PMID:21915476

  11. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  12. Disseminated herpes zoster infection initially presenting with abdominal pain in patients with lymphoma undergoing conventional chemotherapy: A report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, Hitomi Sumiyoshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Makita, Shinichi; Kitahara, Hideaki; Fukuhara, Suguru; Munakata, Wataru; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Dai; Tobinai, Kensei

    2016-01-01

    Visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease has a high mortality rate, and occurs in immunocompromised hosts, mostly subsequent to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Only a few cases of this disease that onset during conventional chemotherapy in patients with lymphoma have been reported. The present study reports the cases of 3 patients with disseminated and visceral VZV infection undergoing treatment for follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. All 3 patients presented with initial symptoms of abdominal pain, and 2 patients demonstrated syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and hepatitis. All patients developed widespread cutaneous dissemination, and all had a low cluster of differentiation 4 cell count or lymphocyte count at the time of VZV diagnosis and at least 4 month prior. With intravenous systemic acyclovir therapy (Cases 1 and 3, 1500 mg/day; Case 2, 750 mg/day), the patients achieved complete recovery by day 14 of therapy. Visceral disseminated VZV infection is not limited to patients undergoing stem cell transplantation, and may present with abdominal pain with or without skin eruption. Visceral infection may take a poor clinical course, therefore, in patients with prolonged duration of low lymphocyte count and/or long-term use of steroids, the prophylactic use of acyclovir may be considered. PMID:27446355

  13. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea - babies ... Diarrhea in babies usually does not last long. Most often, it is caused by a virus and ... on its own. Your baby could also have diarrhea with: A change in your baby's diet or ...

  14. Postoperative Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Tramadol and Gabapentin as Premedication

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Mirmansouri, Ali; Fakoor, Fereshteh; Atrkar Roshan, Zahra; Biazar, Gelareh; Zarei, Tayyebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncontrolled postoperative pain, characteristic to abdominal hysterectomy, results in multiple complications. One of the methods for controlling postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia. Gabapentin and tramadol are both used for this purpose. Objectives: This study aims to compare the effects of tramadol and gabapentin, as premedication, in decreasing the pain after hysterectomy. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 eligible elective abdominal hysterectomy patients, divided in three groups of 40, receiving tramadol, gabapentin and placebo, respectively. Two hours before the surgery, the first group was given 300 mg gabapentin, the second one was given 100 mg tramadol, while the other group was given placebo, with 50 ml water. After the surgery, in case of visual analog pain scale (VAS) > 3, up to 3 mg of diclofenac suppository would be used. Pain score, nausea, vomiting, sedation, patient’s satisfaction and the number of meperidine administered during 24 hours (1 - 4 - 8 - 12 - 16 - 20 - 24 hours) were recorded. If patients had VAS > 3, despite using diclofenac, intravenous meperidine (0.25 mg/kg) would be prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, chi-square test, general linear model and repeated measurement. Results: The three groups were similar regarding age and length of surgery (up to 2 hours). The average VAS, in the placebo group, was higher than in the other two groups (P = 0.0001) and the average received doses of meperidine during 24-hour time were considerably higher in placebo group, compared to the other two groups (55.62 mg in placebo, 18.75 mg in gabapentin and 17.5 mg in tramadol groups, P = 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting and sedation, in the tramadol group, were higher than in the other two groups, although they were not significant. Patients’ dissatisfaction, in the placebo group, during initial hours, especially in the fourth hour, was higher (P = 0.0001). In the gabapentin and tramadol groups

  15. Colorectal infarction following resection of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Launer, D P; Miscall, B G; Beil, A R

    1978-01-01

    Infarctions of the colon and rectum (incidences approximately 1 and 0.5 per cent, respectively) are caused by compromised collateral circulation to the colon and rectum, usually as a result of arteriosclerotic disease of the superior and inferior mesenteric arterial systems, as well as the hypogastric arteries. Patients who have colorectal ischemia after operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms have diarrhea (sometimes bloody), abdominal pain, and distention. The diagnosis may be established by sigmoidoscopic examination. Treatment includes surgical removal of the compromised bowel and creation of a temporary or permanent end colostomy. Prevention of this complication is aided by preservation of primary and collateral circulation, avoidance of hypotension, and preoperative bowel preparation. PMID:738176

  16. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Epidural Clonidine vs Bupivacaine for Pain Control During and After Lower Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A.; Guirguis, Maged; DeWood, Mark S.; Zaky, Sherif S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists produce safe and effective analgesia, but most investigations studying the analgesic effect of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists postoperatively included previous or concomitant administration of other analgesics. Because clonidine potentiates the effect of these drugs, its own intrinsic analgesic effect has been difficult to establish. This study was designed to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of epidural clonidine vs bupivacaine for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 40 patients aged 18-50 who were scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group I (n=20) received epidural clonidine; Group II (n=20) received epidural bupivacaine. Intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamics, pain scores, and complications were monitored. Results Mean pain scores were significantly lower in Group I compared to Group II (1.5 ± 0.5 compared to 3.4 ± 1.0, respectively) in the first 12 hours after surgery. Sedation was more prominent in Group I until 9 hours after surgery. Opioid requirements were significantly lower in Group I. Respiratory rate was similar in the 2 groups. Group I had larger decreases from baseline in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure than Group II. Heart rate in Group I was reduced from baseline, while it was increased in Group II. Less postoperative nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, pruritus, and shivering were observed in Group I. Conclusion Compared to bupivacaine, epidural clonidine provided effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in selected patients, resulting in a decreased intravenous pain medication requirement and prolonged duration of analgesia after epidural infusion was discontinued. PMID:26130975

  17. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, M.-C.; Nielsen, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  18. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided abdominal field blocks versus port infiltration in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for post-operative pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ruchi; Joshi, Saurabh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Tiwari, Shashank; Sharma, Nitin; Valecha, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative pain is a major concern for day care surgeries like laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided abdominal field blocks (USAFB) with port site infiltrations for post-operative analgesia in terms of quality of pain relief, opioid consumption and patient satisfaction for day care surgeries Methods: Eighty patients presenting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups either to receive port-site infiltration of local anaesthetic (n = 40, Group A) or USAFB (n = 40, Group B group). Numeric rating scores (NRS) were measured postoperatively to primarily assess the pain severity and opioid requirements. Data were analysed using Chi-Square test/Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Mann–Whitney test/unpaired t-test for quantitative data. Results: The study group (Group B) had significantly reduced NRS and opioid consumption over 24 h. The overall fentanyl consumption in patients receiving port infiltrations was approximately twice (200 ΁ 100 μg) as compared to patients in USAFB group (120 ΁ 74 μg) (P < 0.0001). Maximum fentanyl consumption was 400 μg (Group A) and 262 μg (Group B) over 24 h and the minimum requirement was 50 μg and zero, respectively. Conclusion: Superior post-operative analgesia was observed with USAFB which may help in minimising opioid-related adverse effects and facilitating faster recovery.

  19. Pineal gland calcification, lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta calcifying atherosclerosis correlate in low back pain subjects: A cross-sectional observational CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Sönmez, Iclal; Cakıt, Burcu Duyur; Koşar, Pınar; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to assess the possible impact of pineal gland calcification upon the intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis in subjects with low back pain, and to investigate the course of these processes with aging. The study was carried out on 81 (66 women and 15 men) subjects: younger than 45 years (group X, n=22), 45-65 years of age (group Y, n=45), and older than 65 years (group Z, n=14). In addition to clinical data, computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain as well as X-ray and CT examination of the lumbar spine were recorded in this study. The degree of disc degeneration and calcification rates of aortic wall and pineal gland were independently determined by two radiologists. Both ratio of calcified pineal gland and density of pineal calcification increased progressively with aging. Also, both the degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score increased with advancing age. On CT scan, a positive correlation between degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score was found (r=0.306, p<0.01). Importantly, there was a positive association between calcification of the pineal gland and degenerative disc disease in X-ray or CT study (r=0.378 and r=0.295, p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively), as well as between abdominal aorta atherosclerosis and pineal calcification (r=0.634, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that there is a significant interaction between pineal gland calcification and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and also abdominal aorta atherosclerosis. However, further studies with a larger subject cohorts are needed. PMID:18215511

  20. Effects of 2 Different Doses of Pregabalin on Morphine Consumption and Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Aytaç; Özturk, Erdoğan; Aydoğan, M. Said; Durmuş, Mahmut; Çolak, Cemil; Ersoy, M. Özcan

    2011-01-01

    Background Pregabalin has a similar pharmacologic profile to that of its developmental predecessor gabapentin but has shown greater analgesic activity in rodent models of neuropathic pain. Objective The objective of the study was to compare the effects of 2 different doses of pregabalin and placebo on postoperative pain and morphine consumption. Methods Ninety patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were included in the study and randomly divided into 3 groups in a doubled-blinded manner. They were given 150 mg of pregabalin (group P300, n = 30), 300 mg of pregabalin (group P600, n = 30), or placebo capsules (group C, n = 30) 4 hours before the induction of anesthesia; they received a second dose of the drug 12 hours postoperatively. Morphine consumption, nausea, and vomiting, visual analogue scale-pain intensity (VAS-PI), sedation scores, and dissatisfaction scores were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after operation. Results Morphine consumption at 24 hours was 40.80 (3.42) mg, 33.79 (5.77) mg, and 46.97 (6.67) mg in groups P300, P600, and C, respectively (P < 0.001). VAS-PI scores at movement and at rest in the PACU and at 2, 4, and 6 hours decreased in group P600 (P < 0.01). In the PACU and at 2, 4, and 6 hours, the sedation scores were increased in group P600 compared with the scores in group C (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.01, P = 0.006, respectively). Patient satisfaction was higher in group P600 than in group C for all time points (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness (P = 0.58). Conclusions Pregabalin at a total dose of 600 mg, administered before operation and at 12 hours postoperatively after abdominal hysterectomy, reduced morphine consumption and pain intensity and increased patient satisfaction. No significant differences in side effects were

  1. Vomiting and Hyponatremia Are Risk Factors for Worse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Hospitalized Due to Nonsurgical Abdominal Pain: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goren, Idan; Israel, Ariel; Carmel-Neiderman, Narin N; Kliers, Iris; Gringauz, Irina; Dagan, Amir; Lavi, Bruno; Segal, Omer; Segal, Gad

    2016-04-01

    After initial evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED), many patients complaining of abdominal pain are classified as suffering from nonsurgical abdominal pain (NSAP). Clinical characteristics and risk factors for worse prognosis were not published elsewhere.Characterizing the clinical profile of patients hospitalized due to NSAP and identifying predictor variables for worse clinical outcomes.We made a retrospective cohort analysis of patients hospitalized due to NSAP compared to matched control patients (for age, gender, and Charlson comorbidity index) hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons in a ratio of 1 to 10. We further performed in-group analysis of patients admitted due to NSAP in order to appreciate variables (clinical and laboratory parameters) potentially associated with worse clinical outcomes.Overall 23,584 patients were included, of which 2144 were admitted due to NSAP and 21,440 were matched controls. Patients admitted due to NSAP had overall better clinical outcomes: they had lower rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality (2.8% vs 5.5% and 7.9% vs 10.4% respectively, P < 0.001 for both comparisons). They also had a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (3.9 vs 6.2 days, P < 0.001). Rates of re-hospitalization within 30-days were not significantly different between study groups. Among patients hospitalized due to NSAP, we found that vomiting or hyponatremia at presentation or during hospital stay were associated with worse clinical outcomes.Compared to patients hospitalized due to other, nonsurgical reasons, the overall prognosis of patients admitted due to NSAP is favorable. The combination of NSAP with vomiting and hyponatremia is associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:27057886

  2. Diagnostic value of CT compared to ultrasound in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in children younger than 10 years old.

    PubMed

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Dola, Tamar; Hiller, Nurith

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound compared to CT in evaluating acute abdominal pain of different causes in children 10 years of age and under, hospital records and imaging files of 4052 patients under age of 10 who had imaging for abdominal pain were reviewed. One-hundred-thirty-two patients (3 %), (74 males/58 females) who underwent ultrasound and CT within 24 h were divided by age: group I, ages 0-48 months (25 patients); group II, 49-84 months (53 patients); and group III, 85-120 months (54 patients). Diagnoses at ultrasound, CT, and discharge were compared. Cases of a change in diagnosis following CT and impact of the changed diagnosis on patient management were assessed. Non-diagnostic ultrasound or a diagnostic conundrum was present in a small percentage (3 %) of our patients. In the group of patients imaged with two modalities, CT changed the diagnosis in 73/132 patients (55.3 %). Patient management changed in 63/132 patients (47.7 %). CT changed the diagnosis in 46/64 patients with surgical conditions (71.8 %, p < 0.001). Among patients with surgical conditions, the difference between ultrasonography (US) and CT diagnoses was significant in groups 2 (p = 0.046) and 3 (p =  .001). The impact of the change in diagnosis in surgical patients imaged with two modalities was significant in the group as a whole and in each age group separately. Non-diagnostic or equivocal US in a small percentage of patients is probably sufficient to justify the additional radiation burden. PMID:26453370

  3. Berberine Improves Intestinal Motility and Visceral Pain in the Mouse Models Mimicking Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D) Symptoms in an Opioid-Receptor Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiuhui; Fichna, Jakub; Zheng, Lijun; Wang, Kesheng; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Li, Kun; Song, Aihong; Liu, Zhongchen; Song, Zhenshun; Kreis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Berberine and its derivatives display potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Here we aimed at characterizing the mechanism of action of berberine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and cortical neurons using animal models and in vitro tests. Methods The effect of berberine was characterized in murine models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) symptoms. Then the opioidantagonists were used to identify the receptors involved. Furthermore, the effect of berberineon opioid receptors expression was established in the mouse intestine and rat fetal cortical neurons. Results In mouse models, berberine prolonged GI transit and time to diarrhea in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced visceral pain. In physiological conditions the effects of berberine were mediated by mu- (MOR) and delta- (DOR) opioidreceptors; hypermotility, excessive secretion and nociception were reversed by berberine through MOR and DOR-dependent action. We also found that berberine increased the expression of MOR and DOR in the mouse bowel and rat fetal cortical neurons. Conclusion Berberine significantly improved IBS-D symptoms in animal models, possibly through mu- and delta- opioid receptors. Berberine may become a new drug candidate for the successful treatment of IBS-D in clinical conditions. PMID:26700862

  4. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability is associated with trait anxiety in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FAP and IBS affect 10-15% of school age children and bear many physiological similarities to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (e.g., functional pain, visceral hyperalgesia). Animal models of IBS have suggested a relationship between neonatal stress and increased GI permeability later in life...

  5. Antisecretory and antimotility activity of Aconitum heterophyllum and its significance in treatment of diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Satyendra K.; Jain, Divya; Patel, Dinesh K.; Sahu, Alakh N.; Hemalatha, Siva

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of the plant Aconitum heterophyllum (EAH) are traditionally used for curing hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes, and diarrhea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism involved in the anti-diarrheal activity of roots of A. heterophyllum. Materials and Methods: Ant-diarrheal activity of ethanol extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated using fecal excretion and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, while optimized dose, that is, 100 mg/kg p.o. was further subjected to small intestinal transit, intestinal fluids accumulation, PGE2-induced enteropooling and gastric emptying test. To elucidate the probable mechanism, various biochemical parameters and Na+, K+ concentration in intestinal fluids were also determined. Further, antibacterial activity of extract along with its standardization using aconitine as a marker with the help of HPLC was carried out. Results: The results depicted a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in normal fecal output at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. of extract after 5th and 7th h of treatment. Castor oil-induced diarrhea model demonstrated a ceiling effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. with a protection of 60.185% from diarrhea. EAH at 100 mg/kg p.o. also showed significant activity in small intestinal transit, fluid accumulation, and PGE2-induced enteropooling models, which also restored the altered biochemical parameters and prevented Na+ and K+ loss. The extract with 0.0833% w/w of aconitine depicted a potential antibacterial activity of extract against microbes implicated in diarrhea. Conclusion: The study concluded antisecretory and antimotility effect of A. heterophyllum, which mediates through nitric oxide path way. PMID:24550590

  6. Testicle pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by a hernia or kidney stone. Testicular cancer is almost always painless. But any testicle lump ... Read More Abdominal pain Scrotum Testes Testicle lump Testicular cancer Testicular torsion Update Date 8/31/2015 Updated ...

  7. Pain relief for infants undergoing abdominal surgery: comparison of infusions of i.v. morphine and extradural bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Wolf, A R; Hughes, D

    1993-01-01

    We have undertaken a prospective, randomized double-blind study to compare extradural bupivacaine infusions with i.v. morphine infusions for postoperative analgesia in 32 infants younger than 4 yr undergoing abdominal surgery. "Sham" extradural or i.v. catheters were used to maintain the blinded nature of the study. Both techniques provided adequate analgesia for most of the 36-h postoperative period; differences in the pattern or quality of the analgesia were not detected. Patients in the i.v. morphine group were significantly more sedated; this was accompanied by slower ventilatory frequencies (26.7 (SD 1.8) b.p.m.) compared with the extradural group (33.6 (1.3) b.p.m.). Similarly, oxygen saturation was significantly less (P < 0.01) in patients receiving morphine (medians and quartiles of 94.0 (93-96)% compared with 96.0 (93-96)%). Mean systolic arterial pressure was similar in the two groups and there were no life-threatening complications. The lack of sedation was troublesome in three patients in the extradural group. PMID:8431313

  8. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  9. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  11. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D. PMID:26739521

  12. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea Vomiting blood (sometimes) ... and small intestine heal. These medicines also relieve abdominal pain and diarrhea. Surgery to remove a single gastrinoma ...

  13. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  14. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  15. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  16. Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

  17. Review: Management of postprandial diarrhea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Money, Mary E; Camilleri, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Unexpected, urgent, sometimes painful bowel movements after eating are common complaints among adults. Without a clear etiology, if pain is present and resolves with the movements, this is usually labeled "irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea" based solely on symptoms. If this symptom-based approach is applied exclusively, it may lead physicians not to consider treatable conditions: celiac disease, or maldigestion due to bile acid malabsorption, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, or an a-glucosidase (sucrase, glucoamylase, maltase, or isomaltase) deficiency. These conditions can be misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (or functional diarrhea, if pain is not present). Limited testing is currently available to confirm these conditions (antibody screens for celiac disease; fecal fat as a surrogate marker for pancreatic function). Therefore, empirical treatment with alpha amylase, pancreatic enzymes, or a bile acid-binding agent may simultaneously treat these patients and serve as a surrogate diagnostic test. This review will summarize the current evidence for bile acid malabsorption, and deficiencies of pancreatic enzymes or a-glucosidases as potential causes for postprandial diarrhea, and provide an algorithm for treatment options. PMID:22624684

  18. Successful multiple-step management of intravenous leiomyomatosis diagnosed after episode of acute abdominal pain: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiadis, Christoforos; Petousis, Stamatios; Grigoriou, Marios; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Tzouveleki, Ioanna; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present the case of a 37-year old woman diagnosed with intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) that was managed uneventfully with multiple-step management. Presentation of case A 37-year-old woman was admitted because of acute abdominal pain. Emergency Computed Tomography demonstrated a big pelvic mass 5 × 15 cm of heterogenous composition intaking the contrast agent. Total hysterectomy with salpingoophorectomy was proposed to patient, however, patient expressed her will for fertility preservation and gave consent only for the resection of a single ovary. Laparotomy revealed the presence of myoma, multiple lesions of potential adenomyosis and cordon-shaped formations arising from uterus and extending mainly to left ovary. Final histological diagnosis was intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL). MRI angiography revealed the presence of residual lesions in inferior vena cava. Laparoscopic resection was performed one month after laparotomy and left ovary was resected without complications. Venovenous bypass was finally performed three months later from initial surgery. The process was significantly labored, resulted in the successful resection of intravenous lesions but was complicated intraoperatively by right kidney rupture. After a follow-up of 33 months, case remains uncomplicated without signs or symptoms of potential recurrence. Discussion Intravenous leiomyomatosis represents a rare clinical entity histologically bening but clinically aggressive. No consensus exists regarding the optimal management, especially in cases with initial will for fertility preservation. Conclusion IVL represents a rare clinical entity often presenting difficulties in diagnosis and optimal treatment. Large case-series studies should be encouraged to assess the optimal management. PMID:26282558

  19. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  20. Absence of diarrhea in purge nut ingestion: A case series of eight children.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Kamal Kumar; Chavali, Krishnadutt; Nangalu, Romi; Chavan, Prashant

    2013-07-01

    There are very few case reports in literature of J. curcas poisoning. Previously grown as an ornamental plant; it is presently being cultivated on a large scale for its seed oil, which is used as biodiesel. This has brought this plant in close vicinity to the human population, exposing them to the chance ingestion. We are presenting clinical and biochemical profile of eight children with J. curcas poisoning. The plant is commonly known to be a purgative and gastrointestinal irritant but the most conspicuous feature in our patients was absence of diarrhea. Lethargy, severe abdominal pain, inability to ingest anything, and intense thirst were the most prominent complaints in all children. The symptoms in all the patients were significant enough to merit admission and intravenous fluid therapy. Hematological and biochemical workup revealed neutrophilia and raised serum alkaline phosphatase in all patients while leukocytosis was observed in 5 of them. Electrocardiography was normal in all the patients. PMID:24250148

  1. Absence of diarrhea in purge nut ingestion: A case series of eight children

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Kamal Kumar; Chavali, Krishnadutt; Nangalu, Romi; Chavan, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    There are very few case reports in literature of J. curcas poisoning. Previously grown as an ornamental plant; it is presently being cultivated on a large scale for its seed oil, which is used as biodiesel. This has brought this plant in close vicinity to the human population, exposing them to the chance ingestion. We are presenting clinical and biochemical profile of eight children with J. curcas poisoning. The plant is commonly known to be a purgative and gastrointestinal irritant but the most conspicuous feature in our patients was absence of diarrhea. Lethargy, severe abdominal pain, inability to ingest anything, and intense thirst were the most prominent complaints in all children. The symptoms in all the patients were significant enough to merit admission and intravenous fluid therapy. Hematological and biochemical workup revealed neutrophilia and raised serum alkaline phosphatase in all patients while leukocytosis was observed in 5 of them. Electrocardiography was normal in all the patients. PMID:24250148

  2. When your child has diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea is the passage of loose or watery stools. For some children, diarrhea is mild and will go away within a ... The stomach flu is a common cause of diarrhea. Medical treatments, such as antibiotics and some cancer ...

  3. Diagnostic Dilemma in the Treatment of a Fatal Case of Bloody Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Sidharth; Michie, Sara A; Sylvester, Karl; Cornfield, David

    2016-01-01

    Although diarrhea is the most commonly reported pediatric illness in the United States, mortality is usually a rare and unexpected event. We report the case of a healthy 13-month-old male that succumbed to a diarrheal illness of unclear etiology. Presenting signs included frequent nonbloody stools that progressed to frankly bloody stools over 72 hours. Associated symptoms included fever, tenesmus, relief with stool passage, and significant fatigue. On examination, the patient appeared tired and lay with legs curled toward his chest. The abdominal exam was remarkable for hypoactive bowel sounds, diffuse tenderness to palpation without guarding or rebound pain, and intermittent prolapse of rectal tissue. Abdominal plain films demonstrated a paucity of bowel gas, especially in the rectum; and ultrasound revealed thickening of bowel loops in the left lower quadrant. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed decreased enhancement of the mucosa of the rectosigmoid colon. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiorespiratory arrest occurring 48 hours after admission. Despite a protracted effort at cardiopulmonary resuscitation, perfusing heart rate or rhythm could not be reestablished. Autopsy revealed infarction and necrosis of the rectosigmoid colon with invasive gram-negative bacilli. Here we present his perplexing case, diagnostic evaluations, and suggest a unifying diagnosis. PMID:27069937

  4. Diagnostic Dilemma in the Treatment of a Fatal Case of Bloody Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Sidharth; Michie, Sara A.; Sylvester, Karl; Cornfield, David

    2016-01-01

    Although diarrhea is the most commonly reported pediatric illness in the United States, mortality is usually a rare and unexpected event. We report the case of a healthy 13-month-old male that succumbed to a diarrheal illness of unclear etiology. Presenting signs included frequent nonbloody stools that progressed to frankly bloody stools over 72 hours. Associated symptoms included fever, tenesmus, relief with stool passage, and significant fatigue. On examination, the patient appeared tired and lay with legs curled toward his chest. The abdominal exam was remarkable for hypoactive bowel sounds, diffuse tenderness to palpation without guarding or rebound pain, and intermittent prolapse of rectal tissue. Abdominal plain films demonstrated a paucity of bowel gas, especially in the rectum; and ultrasound revealed thickening of bowel loops in the left lower quadrant. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed decreased enhancement of the mucosa of the rectosigmoid colon. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiorespiratory arrest occurring 48 hours after admission. Despite a protracted effort at cardiopulmonary resuscitation, perfusing heart rate or rhythm could not be reestablished. Autopsy revealed infarction and necrosis of the rectosigmoid colon with invasive gram-negative bacilli. Here we present his perplexing case, diagnostic evaluations, and suggest a unifying diagnosis. PMID:27069937

  5. Refractory diarrhea: A paraneoplastic syndrome of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Wang, Huan-Min

    2015-07-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Diarrheal NB is quite rare and is not easy to diagnose in the early stage. Six cases of diarrheal NB in our hospital treated from 1996 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed, including characteristics such as electrolyte imbalance, pathologic features, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunohistochemical staining results, treatment, and prognosis. All patients were boys with 3-8 loose or watery stools each day and routine fecal tests were normal. Abdominal tumors were identified by B-ultrasound. Drugs were ineffective. Three patients underwent surgery, and the remaining three patients received surgery and chemotherapy. Diarrhea stopped after treatment in five patients. Two patients died due to intractable hypokalemia. The tumor was located in the adrenal gland in four patients, in the upper retroperitoneum in one patient, and in the presacral area in one patient. Pathologic findings were NB and ganglioneuroblastoma. Five patients were at clinical stage I-II, and one was at stage III. Four patients survived (followed-up for 6 mo to 4 years). Immunohistochemical staining for VIP was positive. Refractory diarrhea is a paraneoplastic syndrome of NB and is rare. Patients aged 1-3 years who present with chronic intractable diarrhea should be followed closely. Intractable diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dysplasia are the initial clinical manifestations. Increased VIP is characteristic of this disease. Potassium supplementation plays a vital role in the treatment procedure, especially preoperatively. The prognosis of diarrheal NB is good following appropriate treatment. PMID:26167095

  6. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. ... or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes unless local health authorities have certified the water ...

  7. [Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli associated with acute diarrhea in children of Cumaná, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hannaoui, Erika; Villalobos, Luz; Martínez, Rosa; Maldonado, Antonio; Hagel, Isabel; Bastardo, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence of strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) associated to acute diarrhea in children of Cumaná, Venezuela, stool samples were taken from 200 children aged < 5 years with acute diarrheal disease, and from 30 healthy children used as control. Isolation and bacterial identification was performed by conventional biochemical tests and stool cultures. The presence of pathogenic genes of each type of DEC was investigated by the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), determining the genes eae and bfp (EPEC), st and lt (ETEC), ipaH and virF (EIEC) Stx1/Stx2 (STEC), aafII (EAEC) and daaE (ADEC). From 169 E. coli, isolates we determined by PCR 10.65% positive for EPEC (1.18% "typical", 9.47% "atypical"); ETEC (5.91%); EAEC (1.78 %), EIEC (0.59%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the frequency of each "pathotype" in relation to age, but it did occur when related to the sex (p<0.05). The most relevant clinical features were: fever, vomiting and abdominal pain and the greatest percentage of children affected were of the working and marginal classes. These results shown that the strains of DEC are important etiological agents in acute infectious diarrhea in children of Cumaná. PMID:21365876

  8. Norovirus diarrhea in Bangladesh, 2010-2014: prevalence, clinical features, and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Rajibur; Nahar, Shamsun; Hossain, Shakhaowat; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Golam Faruque, Abu Syed; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-10-01

    Norovirus infections in diarrhea patients attending an urban and a rural hospital in Bangladesh were investigated. A total of 953 fecal specimens from both children and adults collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of norovirus using real time PCR. One fourth (25%) of the specimens were positive for norovirus RNA which was identified both in children and adults. Norovirus was associated with short duration of diarrhea, high abdominal pain, and more moderate to severe dehydration when compared with rotavirus infections. Norovirus GII (69%) was the most prevalent genogroup followed by GI (18%), mixed GI/GII/GIV (11%), and GIV (2%). Among GII genogroup, GII.4 (42%) was the most prevalent genotype followed by GII.3 (21%), GII.6 (7%), GII.7 (6%), and GII.21 (6%). GII.4 and GII.3 strains were frequently identified (82% and 75%, respectively) in children <2 years of age and less commonly (16% and 15%) in adults more than 18 years of age. The present study reinforces the importance of norovirus-associated hospitalizations both in children and adults. The dynamic molecular epidemiology of norovirus requires routine strain surveillance to identify changes in prevailing strains. J. Med. Virol. 88:1742-1750, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27003679

  9. Clinical and Microbiological Profile of HIV/AIDS Cases with Diarrhea in North India

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Bhalla, Preena; Ghosh, Roumi; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Dewan, Richa

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) especially in developing countries. The present study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological spectrum in HIV/AIDS cases with diarrhea and to correlate the occurrence of such pathogens with stool characters, HIV seropositivity status, and CD4 counts. Stools from 154 HIV seropositive subjects and 50 HIV negative controls were examined by direct microscopy, fecal cultures, and serological tests (Clostridium difficile Toxin A, Cryptosporidium antigen, and Entamoeba histolytica antigen ELISA). CD4 T cell enumeration was done using FACS count (Becton Dickinson). The study showed a male preponderance (112 males and 42 females). Weakness, abdominal pain, and anorexia were the most common symptoms. Coccidian parasites were the most common cause of diarrhea in HIV seropositive cases. C. parvum was seen in 60.42% while Isospora belli in 9.03%. Amongst the bacterial pathogens C. difficile was detected in 18.06%, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in 11.11%, and Shigella spp. in 2.78%. Pathogen isolation rates were more in HIV seropositive cases and subjects with low CD4 T lymphocyte counts. Regular monitoring of CD4 T lymphocyte counts and screening for enteric pathogens will help improve the quality of life for PLWHA. PMID:23326669

  10. Clinical potential of eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Storr, Martin; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) belongs to the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders and is characterized by abdominal pain in conjunction with diarrhea. The incidence of IBS-D is currently increasing, leading to a heavy economic burden for patients and health care systems worldwide. Recent studies suggest eluxadoline as an attractive new tool for the treatment of patients with IBS-D. Eluxadoline is an orally active μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, with powerful antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. Eluxadoline is believed to act locally in the enteric nervous system, and has no adverse effects in the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanism of action of eluxadoline and the results of the clinical trials in patients with IBS-D. We also discuss possible side effects and analyze the potential of eluxadoline to be used in the treatment of IBS-D. PMID:27257381

  11. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  12. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  13. [Diarrhea in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Truninger, Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    The causes of acute and chronic diarrheal disorders and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are common at all ages. The impact of diarrhea, however, may be more pronounced in the elderly due to various causes, such as age-related structural and functional intestinal changes, concomittant illnesses, consume of preventive and therapeutic drugs, impaired sense of hunger and thirst, compromised nutrition and hydration to withstand the effect of diarrhea, more frequent hospital admissions and courses of antibiotics, and more subtle clinical presentation than in younger patients. These aspects have to be considered when investigating and treating diarrhea of older patients. Diarrhea may have a devastating effect on quality of life in the elderly and above all, fecal incontinence is a common consequence. In elderly institutionalized persons, fecal impaction in the rectum with liquid stool leaking around the hard, dry fecal mass is often associated with fecal incontinence. In this article, general aspects of diarrhea in the elderly, clostridium difficile infection, ischemic colitis, microscopic colitis and incontinence due to fecal impaction are discussed. PMID:25154690

  14. [Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of acute diarrhea in adults at a hospital from Cordoba city].

    PubMed

    Polo Friz, H; Toloza, S; Acosta, H; Toloza, C; Unsain, F; Marconetto, G; Massanet, P; Canova, S; Celli, J; Abdala, O; Gandini, B

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the clinical and epidemiologic presentation features of adult acute diarrhea in a general hospital form Córdoba City. All the patients older than 14 years old who assisted to the Hospital Nacional de Clínicas Central Guard for acute diarrhea, during the periods: A (15-12-89 to 15-03-90), B (15-12-93 to 15-03-94) and C (15-12-94 to 15-03-95), were included. 594 patients were studied: 337 female (56.7%) and 257 male, 143 in the period A, 250 in B and 201 in C. The means +/- SD age was 34.6 +/- 13.3 and stool loose per day at admission 7.3 +/- 4.7. Eighty six percent of patients presented liquid consistent stool, 89.6% abdominal pain, 44.7% vomiting and 18.8% bloody stools. The rate of patients who consulted Central Guard referring acute diarrhea increased from period A (2.4%) to B (3.61%); p = 0.002 and decreased form B to C (2.85%); p = 0.01. The mean (+/- SD) days transcurred from the beginning of diarrhea episode till consultation was 3.5 +/- 2.7; 2.7 +/- 2.3 y 2.9 +/- 3.5 in the periods A, B and C respectively, statistically significant difference between A and B, p < 0.01. Thirty six percent, 21.1% and 23.1% of patients presented mucus with their stools in the periods A, B and C (p = 0.01), and high temperature 61.1%, 48.1% and 48.5% respectively (p = 0.04). Twenty seven percent of stools samples cultures became positive in the periods A, 17.6% in B and 11.5% in C, statistically significant difference between A and C; p = 0.008. The results show that in a general hospital from Córdoba City the adult acute diarrhea is a frequent cause of consult. In the last years there were modifications in its clinical an epidemiologic presentation features. PMID:10436614

  15. Antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vogel, L C

    1995-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common complication of antibiotic therapy and can range from mild soiling of a cast to severe and life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Although clindamycin is the most notorious, almost all antibiotics, particularly penicillins and cephalosporins, may also be responsible (Bartlett, 1992; Kelly, Pothoulakis, & LaMont, 1994). Because of the frequent use of these antibiotics in orthopaedic patients, antibiotic-associated enteric disease is a common problem in this population. About 15% to 25% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea are caused by Clostridium difficile (Bartlett, 1992; George, 1984; Kelly et al., 1994). The majority of patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea have no identifiable etiologic agent. Salmonella, enterotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens (Borriello et al., 1984) and Candida albicans (Danna et al., 1991) have rarely been identified as causative agents. This article describes the role of C. difficile as an enteric pathogen and its spectrum of clinical disease, including diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nosocomial transmission. PMID:7761131

  16. [Drugs and diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Haschke, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Drug induced diarrhea is a frequent adverse event. The pathophysiological mechanisms include intraluminal accumulation of osmotically active substances, increased secretion or impaired resorption of gastrointestinal fluids, stimulation of gastrointestinal motility, or inflammation of gastrointestinal mucosa. For many drugs, however, the causative mechanism is unknown. A careful drug history, including non-prescription drugs and additives that frequently cause diarrhea, is essential for the identification of potential causative substances. The clinical course of drug-induced diarrhea in many cases is mild and self-limited. In severe cases fluid-and electrolyte substitution, symptomatic and in certain cases specific therapy can be necessary. Symptomatic treatment primarily includes opioids and intraluminal adsorbents. In special cases octreotide or scopolamine can be used. PMID:25154693

  17. Moxibustion for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bozong; Zhang, Jianliang; Yang, Zongguo; Lu, Yunfei; Xu, Qingnian; Chen, Xiaorong; Lin, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The complementary and alternative medicines in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) are controversial. Methods. We searched PubMed, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases, CNKI, Wanfang Database, CBM, VIP, and AMED for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moxibustion compared with pharmacological medications in patients with IBS-D. A meta-analysis was performed using both fixed and random-effects models based on heterogeneity across studies. Results. In total, 568 patients in 7 randomized controlled trials were randomly treated with moxibustion and pharmacological medications. The improvement of global IBS-D symptoms and overall scores was significant (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, resp.) in patients treated by moxibustion only compared to pharmacological medications. The specific IBS-D symptoms of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, abnormal stool, and defecation frequency were alleviated in patients treated by moxibustion compared to pharmacological medications, but no significance was found except for abdominal distension and defecation frequency (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, resp.). There were no serious adverse events related to moxibustion. Conclusions. Moxibustion appears to be effective in treating IBS-D compared with pharmacological medications. However, further large, rigorously designed trials are warranted due to insufficient methodological rigor in the included trials. PMID:27293460

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National ... before taking medicine for diarrhea. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea These foods and drinks may help if ...

  19. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  20. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  1. Traveler's diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diarrhea Traveler's Health Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  3. From the nutcracker-phenomenon of the left renal vein to the midline congestion syndrome as a cause of migraine, headache, back and abdominal pain and functional disorders of pelvic organs.

    PubMed

    Scholbach, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    their intramural inflammation, reduction of their mass effects (especially by the replaced spinal fluid inside the spinal canal and the skull), and altogether a reduction of pain and functional derangement in the affected midline organs. The proposed theory might influence the current understanding of such frequent and difficult to treat diseases as chronic back pain, headaches, frequent cystitis, enuresis, abdominal pain, flank pain and might spur new theories of arterial hypertension, placental insufficiency, prostate diseases and myelopathies. PMID:17161550

  4. Management of Food-Related Diarrhea Outbreak in the Emergency Department: Lessons Learned from the German STEC O104:H4 Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Sayk, Friedhelm; Asselborn, Niels Henrik; Eisemann, Nora; Katalinic, Alexander; Metzner, Jörg; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Fellermann, Klaus; Knobloch, Johannes; Nitschke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) management of the German STEC O104:H4 outbreak in 2011 was not limited to patients being truly infected with STEC. In parallel to spread of alarming news in public media, patients suffering from diarrhea due to other reasons fearfully presented, equally. We retrospectively characterized these two cohorts for anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory findings at their first ED contact. From 15th of May to July 2011, 302 adult patients with diarrheal complaint presented at the EDs of two tertiary hospitals in Lubeck, northern Germany. Fecal testing for STEC was obtained in 245 (81%) patients: 105 were STEC-positive and 140 were STEC-negative. Anamnestic characteristics (defecation rate, visible bloody diarrhea, and lower abdominal pain), abdominal tenderness, and some laboratory findings were significantly different between both cohorts but not reliable to exclude STEC. In >90% of STEC-positive patients diarrheal symptoms had started in May, reflecting the retrospective nationwide peak of infections, whereas the majority of STEC-negative patients became symptomatic in June 2011. During the German STEC O104:H4 outbreak a definite distinction at initial ED contact between STEC-positive versus STEC-negative patients by clinical judgment alone was not reliable. Fecal testing in the ED, however, might survey the outbreak of foodborne infections with the utmost precision. PMID:26539499

  5. Management of Food-Related Diarrhea Outbreak in the Emergency Department: Lessons Learned from the German STEC O104:H4 Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Sayk, Friedhelm; Asselborn, Niels Henrik; Eisemann, Nora; Katalinic, Alexander; Metzner, Jörg; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Fellermann, Klaus; Knobloch, Johannes; Nitschke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) management of the German STEC O104:H4 outbreak in 2011 was not limited to patients being truly infected with STEC. In parallel to spread of alarming news in public media, patients suffering from diarrhea due to other reasons fearfully presented, equally. We retrospectively characterized these two cohorts for anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory findings at their first ED contact. From 15th of May to July 2011, 302 adult patients with diarrheal complaint presented at the EDs of two tertiary hospitals in Lubeck, northern Germany. Fecal testing for STEC was obtained in 245 (81%) patients: 105 were STEC-positive and 140 were STEC-negative. Anamnestic characteristics (defecation rate, visible bloody diarrhea, and lower abdominal pain), abdominal tenderness, and some laboratory findings were significantly different between both cohorts but not reliable to exclude STEC. In >90% of STEC-positive patients diarrheal symptoms had started in May, reflecting the retrospective nationwide peak of infections, whereas the majority of STEC-negative patients became symptomatic in June 2011. During the German STEC O104:H4 outbreak a definite distinction at initial ED contact between STEC-positive versus STEC-negative patients by clinical judgment alone was not reliable. Fecal testing in the ED, however, might survey the outbreak of foodborne infections with the utmost precision. PMID:26539499

  6. Colestipol hydrochloride prophylaxis of diarrhea during pelvic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Layser, J.D.

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct.

  7. Multicentric Castleman's Disease in a Child Revealed by Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease is a rare benign and unexplained lymphoproliferative disorder that is extremely uncommon in children. It presents with fever, systemic symptoms, generalized lymphadenopathy, and laboratory markers of inflammation. Its treatment is not standardized and its prognosis is poor. We report a novel case of multicentric Castleman's disease in a 13-year-old girl who had presented with chronic diarrhea as the only initial presenting symptom. The diagnosis of celiac or inflammatory bowel diseases was suspected, but two and a half years later, the diagnosis of multicentric Castleman's disease was brought following the appearance of abdominal mass whose biopsy revealed Castleman's disease in the plasma cell form. The outcome was favorable after treatment by corticosteroid, chemotherapy, and surgery. The occurrence of diarrhea as the initial symptom of multicentric Castleman's disease without lymph node involvement is very rare. This case report underlines the diagnostic difficulties and the long interval between onset and diagnosis when diarrhea occurs first. PMID:25737793

  8. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. PMID:24964430

  9. Do We Really Need Additional Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal Computed Tomography for Differential Diagnosis in Triage of Middle-Aged Subjects With Suspected Biliary Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Kyeom; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jaihwan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enhanced computed tomography (CT) is widely used for evaluating acute biliary pain in the emergency department (ED). However, concern about radiation exposure from CT has also increased. We investigated the usefulness of pre-contrast CT for differential diagnosis in middle-aged subjects with suspected biliary pain. A total of 183 subjects, who visited the ED for suspected biliary pain from January 2011 to December 2012, were included. Retrospectively, pre-contrast phase and multiphase CT findings were reviewed and the detection rate of findings suggesting disease requiring significant treatment by noncontrast CT (NCCT) was compared with cases detected by multiphase CT. Approximately 70% of total subjects had a significant condition, including 1 case of gallbladder cancer and 126 (68.8%) cases requiring intervention (122 biliary stone-related diseases, 3 liver abscesses, and 1 liver hemangioma). The rate of overlooking malignancy without contrast enhancement was calculated to be 0% to 1.5%. Biliary stones and liver space-occupying lesions were found equally on NCCT and multiphase CT. Calculated probable rates of overlooking acute cholecystitis and biliary obstruction were maximally 6.8% and 4.2% respectively. Incidental significant finding unrelated with pain consisted of 1 case of adrenal incidentaloma, which was also observed in NCCT. NCCT might be sufficient to detect life-threatening or significant disease requiring early treatment in young adults with biliary pain. PMID:25700321

  10. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  12. Acute and persistent diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Grimwood, Keith; Forbes, David A

    2009-12-01

    Socially disadvantaged Indigenous infants and children living in western industrialized countries experience high rates of infectious diarrhea, no more so than Aboriginal children from remote and rural regions of Northern Australia. Diarrheal disease, poor nutrition, and intestinal enteropathy reflect household crowding, inadequate water and poor sanitation and hygiene. Acute episodes of watery diarrhea are often best managed by oral glucose-electrolyte solutions with continuation of breastfeeding and early reintroduction of feeding. Selective use of lactose-free milk formula, short-term zinc supplementation and antibiotics may be necessary for ill children with poor nutrition, persistent symptoms, or dysentery. Education, high standards of environmental hygiene, breastfeeding, and immunization with newly licensed rotavirus vaccines are all needed to reduce the unacceptably high burden of diarrheal disease encountered in young children from Indigenous communities. PMID:19962025

  13. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  14. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    Rigidity of the abdomen ... is a sore area inside the belly or abdomen, the pain will get worse when a hand ... Causes can include: Abscess inside the abdomen Appendicitis ... small intestine, large bowel, or gallbladder ( gastrointestinal ...

  15. Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Su, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Zi-Song; Li, Yi-Jie; Yang, Yang; Hou, Li-Wei; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wei, Ru-Han; Yang, Jian-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). Methods. Four English and four Chinese databases were searched through November, 2015. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials were selected. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed by two authors independently. RevMan 5.2.0 software was applied to analyze the data of included trials. Results. A total of 14 trials involving 1551 patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated superior global symptom improvement (RR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.31, 2.00; P < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 3.6), abdominal pain improvement (RR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.61, 2.35; P < 0.00001), diarrhea improvement (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.60, 2.20; P < 0.00001), pain threshold assessment (MD = 54.53; 95% CI 38.76, 70.30; P < 0.00001), and lower IBS Symptom Severity Score (SMD = −1.01; 95% CI −1.72, −0.30; P = 0.005), when compared with placebo, while for defecation threshold assessment, quality of life, and adverse events, no differences were found between treatment groups and controlled groups. Conclusion. This meta-analysis shows that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe treatment for D-IBS. However, due to the small sample size and high heterogeneity, further studies are required. PMID:27547226

  16. Sensation and experience of pain in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Y

    1993-04-01

    The study explored children's self-assessment of the pain experience and to understood the relative factors that influence the words used to represent children's pain. Using an outline of a human figure and a section of the open questionnaire to study, 106 nine- to sixteen-year-old children marked their pain location using colors to represent pain. They rated the intensity and duration of their pain, and described their experience of pain (sensation, causes, and ways to manage pain). The results showed that children clearly described pain, that there were appreciable differences between feelings of headache, leg pain, backache, and shoulder pain with pain intensity and duration of pain; that explained the difference of occurrence of abdominal pain in cross effect between age and sex; that explained the difference of the occurrence of toothache in cross effect among triangle of hospitalized experience, age, and sex; that there was significant relationship between abdominal pain and family structure. For severe abdominal pain or toothache the children could ask doctors for pain relief. For the others, they could take medication or rest for their middle or mild abdominal pain. The ways to manage leg pain were injection and massage. Change of position was applied to relieve backache. From the children's self-reports, we understand that causes of children's pain were derived from bad sleep, food, decayed teeth, exercising, and hitting. Pain avoidance is best achieved by accident prevention, cultivation of good health habits, and integration of daily living skills. PMID:8320754

  17. Acute Diarrhea in Children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Vuletić, Biljana; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child's treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea.The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD. PMID:26946776

  18. [Malabsorption of fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a common cause of unclear abdominal discomfort].

    PubMed

    Goebel-Stengel, M; Mönnikes, H

    2014-06-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated cause of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms like meteorism, flatulence, pain and diarrhea. By means of hydrogen and/or methane breath test after ingestion of the respective carbohydrate it can be identified and diagnosed easily, fast and reliably by successful nutritional therapy. Besides the well known complaints caused by lactose and fructose malabsorption, other fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (akronym: FODMAP) can cause abdominal discomfort and IBS-like symptoms. In addition to lactose (dairy products) and fructose (apples, pears, mango, watermelon), FODMAPs comprise galactans (legumes), fructans (wheat, onions, garlic, artichoke) and the artificial sweeteners sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol (sugar free candy, light products). A general restriction of all FODMAP components can be beneficial in relieving symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints. PMID:24892470

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  20. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  1. Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis.

    PubMed

    Javadrashid, Reza; Paak, Neda; Salehi, Ahad

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic, and abdominal splenosis who presented with attacks of flushing, tachycardia and vague abdominal pain. The patient's past medical history included a splenectomy due to abdominal trauma and years later, a lung lobectomy due to recurrent pneumonia. An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases. Histopathologic examination demonstrated benign lesions of ectopic splenic tissue. PMID:20804314

  2. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient With Cloacal Exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caleb E; Kennedy, Alfred P; Smith, D Preston

    2016-07-01

    We present a rare complication of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a child undergoing complex urologic reconstruction. A 10-year-old female born with the abdominal wall defect cloacal exstrophy who had previously undergone multiple abdominal procedures then developed findings consistent with ACS following a complex Mitrofanoff procedure. Although intravesical pressures were not documented because of the nature of her reconstruction, her ACS-type findings were (1) abdominal pain, (2) melena, (3) pulmonary hypoinflation, (4) renal insufficiency, (5) tachycardia, and (6) segmental ischemic small bowel. Management consisted of abdominal decompression, segmental bowel resections, and wound vacuum-assisted-closure management. Patient was eventually discharged home. PMID:26921644

  3. Weanling diarrhea: a case report.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Molina, S; Bulux, J

    1990-05-01

    This case report describes a 14-month-old Guatemalan boy suffering from diarrhea and malnutrition. He had been healthy and experienced normal growth until weaning, which began at six months of age. Introduction of semisolid foods at this time was accompanied by bouts of diarrhea and a reduced growth rate. After admission to hospital at 14 months of age, he was found to have protein-energy malnutrition of the edematous type (kwashiorkor) and to be infected with Giardia lamblia. Therapy with metronidazole and a high-protein diet resulted in satisfactory weight gain and cessation of the diarrhea. PMID:2370970

  4. Vertebral destruction due to abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Viseu Pinheiro, J.F.; Blanco Blanco, J.F.; Pescador Hernández, D.; García García, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a common cause of medical consultation, and usually supposes a non-malignant prognostic. Presentation of case We report an atypical appearance of low back pain associated to shock and pulsatile abdominal mass that made us diagnose an abdominal aortic aneurysm as reason of vertebral lysis and pain. Discusion Surgical repair of contained AAA should be directed to secondary re-rupture prevention, with an approximate survival near to 100% at selected patients for elective surgery. Consequently, orthopedic surgery for back spine stabilization has to be elective in those cases when vertebral destruction is above 30% and clinic is directly related to spine instability. Conclusion We should consider AAA as other cause of low back pain and routinely examine the abdomen and seek complementary imaging proves when risk factors for AAA are present. PMID:25569196

  5. Acupuncture for Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Golianu, Brenda; Yeh, Ann Ming; Brooks, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a growing problem in children, with prevalence as high as 30.8%. Acupuncture has been found to be useful in many chronic pain conditions, and may be of clinical value in a multidisciplinary treatment program. The basic principles of acupuncture are reviewed, as well as studies exploring basic mechanisms of acupuncture and clinical efficacy. Conditions commonly treated in the pediatric pain clinic, including headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain, as well as perioperative pain studies are reviewed and discussed. Areas in need of further research are identified, and procedural aspects of acupuncture practice and safety studies are reviewed. Acupuncture can be an effective adjuvant in the care of pediatric patients with painful conditions, both in a chronic and an acute setting. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, as well as trials of comparative effectiveness are needed. PMID:27417472

  6. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Bisceglia, N; Totaro, G; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Martini, F; Gallina, S; Bucciarelli, T; Macarini, L

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410

  7. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Murai, Tomohiko; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Kinoshita, Masako

    2014-01-01

    A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG), but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures. Among them is an uncommon

  8. Cross-sectional analysis of the possible relationship between lead exposure in the storage-battery industry and changes in biochemical markers of renal, hematopoietic, and hepatic functioning and the reporting of recent abdominal pain

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    There is extensive literature documenting the physical effects, such as renal impairment and disruption of hematopoiesis, of lead exposure in occupational cohorts. In addition, a small number of case studies have suggested that lead exposure might result in hepatocellular effects. This study was undertaken to determine if these effects still existed for a population of lead storage battery workers exposed to occupational lead exposures which were lower than those experienced by most lead workers prior to 1978. The relationship between the lead exposure indices,zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and a time weighted average blood lead measure (TWA), with twelve biochemical parameters indicative of renal, hematopoietic and hepatic functioning and the reporting of recent abdominal pain was investigated. In addition, the possible modifying effects of alcohol consumption and duration of exposure on the relationship between lead exposure and the biochemical parameters were examined. The subjects for this analysis consisted of 288 lead workers form three lead storage battery plants and a group of 181 workers employed in an industry which did not involve lead exposure. The study was conducted from 1982-83. Comparisons of the lead exposure indices with the dependent variables were made through univariate correlational and hierarchical regression analyses. The lead exposure index, ZPP, was significantly associated wit BUN levels, though less than three percent of the lead and control workers had BUN levels above the normal range, In addition, NPP, was negatively associated with hemoglobin levels at probability levels between 0.052 and 0.055. Furthermore, there were no hemoglobin levels outside of the normal range for any of the sites studied. The other lead exposure index, TWA, was significantly associated with alkaline phosphatase and triglycerides. However, these analyses were not age-adjusted.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of self-reported symptomatic assessment versus per speculum/per vaginal examination for the diagnosis of vaginal/cervical discharge and lower abdominal pain syndromes among female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Baria, H. G.; Parmar, Rohit; Mhaskar, Rahul; Emmanuel, Patricia; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    Background: National AIDS Control Organization guidelines on enhanced syndromic case management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) require per speculum (P/S) and per vaginal (P/V) examinations for diagnosis of STIs. However, it is not known if the addition of P/S and P/V examinations to self-reported symptomatic assessment adds any value for the diagnosis of STI/RTI. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of P/S and P/V examinations compared with self-reported symptomatic assessment in a cohort of female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study from August 2009 to June 2010, among 519 FSWs in Surat city, Gujarat, India. Symptomatic assessment for the presence or absence of vaginal/cervical discharge (VCD) or lower abdominal pain (LAP) was done using a self-administered questionnaire. After completion of the questionnaire, all participants underwent P/S and P/V examinations. Summary diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated. Results: Five hundred and nineteen FSWs between the ages of 18–49 years participated in the study. The median age of participants was 31 years. The prevalence of VCD and LAP syndromes based on vaginal discharge, LAP, or both was 56%, 5,–10%, respectively. The sensitivity of P/S and P/V examinations depending on symptomatic assessment ranged from 47% to 76%. The specificity ranged from 73% to 93%. The positive predictive value ranged from 25% to 83%, and the negative predictive value ranged from 56% to 98%. Conclusion: Symptomatic assessment alone is not adequate for the diagnosis of VCD and LAP syndromes and can lead to a significant number of missed cases (36%). A P/S and P/V examinations is critical for assessment of VCD and LAP syndromes and subsequent treatment. PMID:27190406

  10. Neuropathic pain in hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Liang; Yang, Deng-Ho; Wu, Jeng-Yuau; Kuo, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu

    2013-04-01

    Acute porphyrias are rare diseases with varying incidences worldwide. These diseases are disorders of heme biosynthesis characterized by acute attacks of neurological symptoms. Acute porphyria should be considered in patients with unexplained abdominal pain or neurological damage. Clinical manifestations of acute porphyria are nonspecific and are associated with multiple organ systems. This report examines a rare case of an uncommon type of acute porphyria in a patient with an initial presentation of abdominal pain and progressive polyneuropathy. PMID:24353603

  11. Neuropathic pain in hereditary coproporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guan-Liang; Yang, Deng-Ho; Wu, Jeng-Yuau; Kuo, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu

    2013-01-01

    Acute porphyrias are rare diseases with varying incidences worldwide. These diseases are disorders of heme biosynthesis characterized by acute attacks of neurological symptoms. Acute porphyria should be considered in patients with unexplained abdominal pain or neurological damage. Clinical manifestations of acute porphyria are nonspecific and are associated with multiple organ systems. This report examines a rare case of an uncommon type of acute porphyria in a patient with an initial presentation of abdominal pain and progressive polyneuropathy. PMID:24353603

  12. Systematic pain assessment in horses.

    PubMed

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-03-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation. The available literature on the use of each pain assessment tool in specific equine pain states (laminitis, lameness, acute synovitis, post-castration, acute colic and post-abdominal surgery) is discussed, including any problems with sensitivity, reliability or scale validation as well as translation of results to other clinical pain states. The review considers future development and further refinement of currently available equine pain scoring systems. PMID:26831169

  13. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults. Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Low Back Pain Fact Sheet Back Pain information sheet compiled by ...

  14. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: a clinical pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Scarpignato, C; Rampal, P

    1995-01-01

    Diarrhea represents a major health problem for travelers to developing countries. Although the syndrome is usually self-limited and recovery occurs in the majority of cases without any specific form of therapy, there is a need for safe and effective ways of preventing and treating it. Since the syndrome is most often caused by an infection acquired by ingesting fecally contaminated food or beverages, precautions regarding dietary habits remain the cornerstone of prophylaxis, but dietary self-restrictions do not always translate to reduced rates of diarrheal illness. Administration of probiotics (e.g. lactobacilli or Saccharomyces boulardii) and immunoprophylaxis with the newer oral cholera vaccines have been tried with promising results. Antimicrobials remain, however, the most successful form of prophylaxis, being effective in up to 90% of travelers. For those with impaired health who will take prophylaxis, systemic agents with proved efficacy should be recommended. For other otherwise healthy persons, poorly absorbed agents are preferable in order to avoid the serious, albeit rare, toxicity of systemic drugs. The key factor in the management of acute watery traveler's diarrhea, particularly in infants and young children, is the restoration of water and electrolyte balance. This does not reduce the duration of the illness but will limit dehydration and prevent acidosis. Many patients will require no additional therapy, whereas some will need pharmacologic treatment to shorten the duration of diarrhea or to relieve the accompanying symptoms, like abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting. A typical 3- to 5-day illness can be reduced to approximately 1 day by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) combination. Some other systemic antimicrobials have been successfully used but, during the last few years, the 4-fluoroquinolone drugs have received considerable attention and have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the duration of traveler's diarrhea. These

  15. Tetany caused by chronic diarrhea in a child with celiac disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Valenzuela, Jaime Gabriel; Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto; López-Cervantes, Guillermo; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón

    2008-01-01

    There is no awareness about celiac disease (CD) in Mexico. A 2.9 year old mestizo boy was admitted to a Mexican hospital with muscle cramps and fine tremors. He suffered chronic diarrhea, abdominal distention, hypotrophic limbs, stunting and wasting, and presented hypocalcemia, anemia and high titers of serological markers. Diagnosis of CD was confirmed by a duodenal biopsy. After replacement of calcium and a gluten-free diet, the symptoms resolved within 6 weeks. After 2-months, serum analyses, anthropometric data as well as antibodies titers were normal after 4 years. CD screening tests are needed in chronic diarrhea for any ethnicity patients. PMID:18811963

  16. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  18. Acute Abdominal Pain Secondary to Chilaiditi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Andrew S.; Lopez, Michael A.; Buicko, Jessica L.; Lopez-Viego, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare condition occurring in 0.025% to 0.28% of the population. In these patients, the colon is displaced and caught between the liver and the right hemidiaphragm. Patients' symptoms can range from asymptomatic to acute intermittent bowel obstruction. Diagnosis is best achieved with CT imaging. Identification of Chilaiditi syndrome is clinically significant as it can lead to many significant complications such as volvulus, perforation, and bowel obstruction. If the patient is symptomatic, treatment is usually conservative. Surgery is rarely indicated with indications including ischemia and failure of resolution with conservative management. PMID:23936720

  19. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  20. Prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea in Egypt: results of a double blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Raedsch, R; Walter-Sack, I; Galle, P R; Kommerell, B

    1991-11-26

    Diarrhea represents the most frequent health problem of Western tourists visiting subtropical and tropical areas. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been suggested by some authors but may not be generally advisable because of adverse drug effects. In the present study we investigated the prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. During a 16-day cruise in Egypt, 77 tourists were assigned to either placebo or prophylactic doses of tannalbuminate (500 mg) and ethacridin-lactate (50 mg), 1 tbl. b.i.d., in a randomized double-blind fashion. The number of bowel movements, consistency of stools, and clinical symptoms like nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and fever were monitored daily. In the placebo group (n = 43) 35 tourists developed diarrhea (81.4%), whereas in the verum group (n = 34) only 18 tourists (52.9%) had diarrhea (p less than 0.0125). In the travelers receiving verum and developing diarrhea the clinical symptoms were less pronounced than in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that the events of traveler's diarrhea may be reduced; moreover, symptoms are attenuated by medical prophylaxis with tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. PMID:1812314

  1. The Day Care Center Diarrhea Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Larry K.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention and control of diarrhea in day care settings depends on: maintenance of hygienic standards; disease surveillance; adhering to a policy for exclusion of children with diarrhea; and education of staff. When diarrhea afflicts several children, isolating together can stop the spread of disease without interrupting normal operation. (KH)

  2. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  3. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  4. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... of low-fiber foods, such as white rice, bananas, applesauce, mashed potatoes, low-fat cottage cheese, and ... toast. Eat foods that are high in potassium (bananas, potatoes, and apricots) when you have diarrhea. Eat ...

  5. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended. PMID:26698210

  6. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. PMID:24787342

  7. Lack of Association Found between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Feng; Xiong, Man; Ma, Zonghui; Huang, Senxiong; Li, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is still controversial. Here we performed a retrospective study to explore this issue. Methods. A total of 502 inpatients with Rome III confirmed IBS-D and known H. pylori status from 8 hospitals were enrolled. H. pylori-positive patients, hospitalized in the recent year, were followed up to evaluate the effects of H. pylori eradication on IBS-D clinical course. Results. Of the 502 IBS-D patients, 206 were H. pylori-positive, with an infection rate that has no significant difference with that of the general population in Guangdong province (p = 0.348). For patients followed up, no significant differences were noted as to overall symptoms (p = 0.562), abdominal pain/discomfort (p = 0.777), bloating (p = 0.736), stool frequency (p = 0.835), or stool characteristics (p = 0.928) between the H. pylori-eradicated group and the control group. The results were the same in long-term follow-up patients except the improvement of bloating, which showed that the bloating score in the H. pylori-eradicated group was significantly lower (p = 0.047). Conclusions. No significant correlation between H. pylori infection and IBS-D was noted. Overall, IBS-D patients may not benefit from H. pylori eradication. PMID:27493660

  8. A major pain in the … Back and epigastrium: an unusual case of spontaneous celiac artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kumkum Sarkar; Benshar, Orel; Vrabie, Raluca; Patel, Anik; Adler, Marc; Hines, George

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman with mitral valve prolapse, chronic low back pain, and a 30-pack year smoking history presented for a second admission of poorly controlled mid-back pain 10 days after her first admission. She had concomitant epigastric pain, sharp/burning in quality, radiating to the right side and to the mid-back, not associated with food nor improving with pain medications. She denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dark stools, or blood per rectum. Our purpose was to determine the cause of the patient's epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed epigastric and mid-back tenderness on palpation. Labs were normal except for a hemoglobin drop from 14 to 12.1 g/dL over 2 days. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy were normal. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed the development of a spontaneous celiac artery dissection as the cause of the epigastric pain. The patient was observed without stenting and subsequent CT angiography 4 days later did not reveal worsening of the dissection. She was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel with outpatient follow-up. Thus far, less than 100 cases of isolated spontaneous celiac artery dissections have been reported. The advent of CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly enabled its detection. Risk factors may include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, smoking, and cystic medial necrosis. There is a 5:1 male to female ratio with an average presenting age of 55. Management of dissections may include surgical repair, endovascular stenting, and selective embolization. Limited dissections can be managed conservatively with anti-platelet and/or anticoagulation agents and strict blood pressure control, as done in our patient. PMID:25432642

  9. [Reactive polyarthritis and painful dermatographism caused by Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Ramos, Héctor Antonio

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a 36 year-old white woman with six month history of epigastric abdominal pain, reactive arthritis and painful dermographism. Serum antibodies to Helicobacter pylori were identified. All symptoms subsided when she received eradication treatment. PMID:12190006

  10. Perforated appendix presenting with severe diarrhea: findings on barium-enema examination

    SciTech Connect

    Picus, D.; Shackelford, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    Severe diarrhea and marked lower abdominal cramps are unusual manifestations of appendicitis. The authors performed a barium-enema examination (BE) on 9 pediatric patients who were utlimately shown to have a perforated appendix and pelvic abscesses. In 8 cases, the atypical symptoms initially led to an incorrect clinical diagnosis. In all 9, the BE demonstrated extensive inflammatory changes of the rectosigmoid colon, caused by the surrounding pelvic infection. Recognizing this clinical and radiographic association could lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Contributions of pain sensitivity and colonic motility to IBS symptom severity and predominant bowel habits

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Palsson, Olafur S; Thiwan, Syed IM; Turner, Marsha J; van Tilburg, Miranda AL; Gangarosa, Lisa M; Chitkara, Denesh K; Fukudo, Shin; Drossman, Douglas A; Whitehead, William E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show pain hypersensitivity and hypercontractility in response to colonic or rectal distention. Aims were to determine whether predominant bowel habits and IBS symptom severity are related to pain sensitivity, colon motility, or smooth muscle tone. Methods 129 patients classified as IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, n=44), IBS with constipation (IBS-C, n=29), mixed IBS (IBS-M, n=45) and unspecified IBS (IBS-U, n=11) based on stool consistency, and 30 healthy controls (HC) were studied. A manometric catheter containing a 600-ml capacity plastic bag was positioned in the descending colon. Pain threshold was assessed using a barostat. Motility was assessed for 10 min with the bag minimally inflated (individual operating pressure or IOP), 10 min at 20 mmHg above the IOP, and for 15-min recovery following bag inflation. Motility was also recorded for 30 min following an 810-kcal meal. Results Compared to HC, IBS patients had lower pain thresholds (medians: 30 vs. 40 mmHg, p<0.01), but IBS subtypes were not different. IBS symptom severity was correlated with pain thresholds (rho=-0.36, p<0.001). During distention, the motility index (MI) was significantly higher in IBS compared to HC (909±73 vs. 563±78, p<0.01). Average barostat bag volume at baseline was higher (muscle tone lower) in HC compared to IBS-D and IBS-M but not compared to IBS-C. The baseline MI and bag volume differed between IBS-D and IBS-C and correlated with symptoms of abdominal distention and dissatisfaction with bowel movements. Pain thresholds and MI during distention were uncorrelated. Conclusions Pain sensitivity and colon motility are independent factors contributing to IBS symptoms. Treatment may need to address both and to be specific to predominant bowel habit. PMID:18684175

  12. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. PMID:22917167

  13. [Antidiarrheal drugs for chronic diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Vohmann, B; Hoffmann, J C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic diarrhea can be caused by multiple disease entities. Basic diagnostic tests are required in order to administer specific therapies whenever possible. If no specific treatment can be used, a symptomatic management should be initiated in order to prevent massive electrolyte- and water losses. Substances that can be used are loperamide, cholestyramine, bulking agents, probiotics, anticholinergic agents and in severe cases opioids. If used properly these agents can be prescribed longterm with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24163167

  14. The Efficacy of Shugan Jianpi Zhixie Therapy for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomin; Tang, Yang; Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Kuang, Yuxiang; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    Background Shugan Jianpi Zhixie therapy (SJZT) has been widely used to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), but the results are still controversial. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of SJZT for IBS-D. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database and the Wanfang database were searched up to June 2014 with no language restrictions. Summary estimates, including 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated for global symptom improvement, abdominal pain improvement, and Symptom Severity Scale (BSS) score. Results Seven trials (N=954) were included. The overall risk of bias assessment was low. SJZT showed significant improvement for global symptom compared to placebo (RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.24, 2.10; P =0.0004; therapeutic gain = 33.0%; number needed to treat (NNT) = 3.0). SJZT was significantly more likely to reduce overall BSS score (SMD –0.67; 95% CI –0.94, –0.40; P < 0.00001) and improve abdominal pain (RR 4.34; 95% CI 2.64, 7.14; P < 0.00001) than placebo. The adverse events of SJZT were no different from those of placebo. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that SJZT is an effective and safe therapy option for patients with IBS-D. However, due to the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample size of the included trials, further standardized preparation, large-scale and rigorously designed trials are needed. PMID:25853241

  15. [Abdominal splenosis: an often underdiagnosed entity].

    PubMed

    Vercher-Conejero, J L; Bello-Arqués, P; Pelegrí-Martínez, L; Hervás-Benito, I; Loaiza-Góngora, J L; Falgas-Lacueva, M; Ruiz-Llorca, C; Pérez-Velasco, R; Mateo-Navarro, A

    2011-01-01

    Splenosis is defined as the heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue because of a ruptured spleen due to trauma or surgery. It is a benign and incidental finding, although imaging tests may sometimes orient toward malignancy simulating renal tumors, abdominal lymphomas, endometriosis, among other. We report the case of a 42-year old male in whom a MRI was performed after a study due to abdominal pain. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were observed in the abdomen, suggestive of lymphoproliferative disease. As an important background, splenectomy was carried out due to abdominal trauma at age 9. After several studies, it was decided to perform a (99m)Tc-labeled heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy that showed multiple pathological deposits distributed throughout the abdomen, and even the pelvis, being consistent with splenosis. PMID:20570413

  16. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  17. Abdominal Trigger Points and Psychological Function.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Myofascial trigger points (TPs) are a poorly understood phenomenon involving the myofascial system and its related neural, lymphatic, and circulatory elements. Compression or massage of a TP causes localized pain and may cause referred pain and autonomic phenomena. The authors describe a 58-year-old woman who experienced precipitation of substantial psychological symptoms directly related to her treatment for a lower abdominal TP. Her symptoms resolved after 2 weeks of receiving high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation and soft tissue massage. Particularly in the abdomen, TPs may be associated with psychological reactions as well as physical aspects of bodily function. PMID:26830528

  18. Balsalazide

    MedlinePlus

    ... to mesalamine and works by reducing bowel inflammation, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and stomach pain.This medication is ... not go away: headache abdominal pain upset stomach diarrhea vomiting joint pain difficulty falling or staying asleep ...

  19. The Pharmacology of Visceral Pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony C; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Visceral pain describes pain emanating from the internal thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal organs. Unlike somatic pain, visceral pain is generally vague, poorly localized, and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. While current therapeutics provides some relief from somatic pain, drugs used for treatment of chronic visceral pain are typically less efficacious and limited by multiple adverse side effects. Thus, the treatment of visceral pain represents a major unmet medical need. Further, more basic research into the physiology and pathophysiology of visceral pain is needed to provide novel targets for future drug development. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. However, persistent stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders. We will focus on stress-induced exacerbation of chronic visceral pain and provide supporting evidence that centrally acting drugs targeting the pain and stress-responsive brain regions may represent a valid target for the development of novel and effective therapeutics. PMID:26920016

  20. Clinicopathological Profile of Childhood Primary Abdominal Tumours in Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Khan, Parwez Sajad; Akhter, Zahida; Majeed, Showkat; Wani, Mohd Yousuf; Hayat, Humera

    2015-12-01

    Primary abdominal tumours attract considerable notice because of their serious prognosis, high cost of treatment and the emotional and psychological trauma. Abdominal tumours can present with pain, vomiting, constipation or less commonly intestinal obstruction. The presentation of cancer in children mimic those of childhood conditions like infections particularly viral infections, urinary tract infections, gastro-oesophageal reflux, malnutrition, constipation, lymphadnenitis, glomerulonephritis and congenital urinary tract anomalies. PMID:26730026

  1. [Crepitant abdominal cellulitis: a rare clinical presentation of sigmoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Chaib, E; Leal, M C; Onofrio, P L; Nahas, P; de Mello, J B

    1990-01-01

    Unusual infections associated with colorectal tumors may, in some instances, be the sole clue to presence of malignancy. The infections are either related to invasion of tissues or organs in close proximity to the tumor or secondary to distant seeding by transient bacteremia arising from necrotic tumors. The authors present one case of spontaneous crepitant cellulitis in the lower abdominal wall, associated with sigmoid tumor. The patient had abdominal pain in the left iliaca fossa, fever and skin necrosis of the lower abdominal wall in the last 4 hours. At surgery they performed debridement and excision of necrotic tissue (lower abdominal wall) and partial sigmoidectomy with sigmoid colostomy. The patient died 9 months after initial surgery. A study of tumor mass revealed an adenocarcinoma. The presence of crepitant cellulitis in a lower abdominal wall should result in a search for bowel perforation. PMID:2151244

  2. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cats.

    PubMed

    Bosch, L; Rivera del Álamo, M M; Andaluz, A; Monreal, L; Torrente, C; García-Arnas, F; Fresno, L

    2012-12-15

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) have shown clinical relevance in monitoring critically ill human beings submitted to abdominal surgery. Only a few studies have been performed in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess how pregnancy and abdominal surgery may affect IAP and APP in healthy cats. For this purpose, pregnant (n=10) and non-pregnant (n=11) queens undergoing elective spaying, and tomcats (n=20, used as controls) presented for neutering by scrotal orchidectomy were included in the study. IAP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), APP, heart rate and rectal temperature (RT) were determined before, immediately after, and four hours after surgery. IAP increased significantly immediately after abdominal surgery in both female groups when compared with baseline (P<0.05) and male (P<0.05) values, and returned to initial perioperative readings four hours after surgery. Tomcats and pregnant females (P<0.05) showed an increase in MAP and APP immediately after surgery decreasing back to initial perioperative values four hours later. A significant decrease in RT was appreciated immediately after laparotomy in both pregnant and non-pregnant queens. IAP was affected by abdominal surgery in this study, due likely to factors, such as postoperative pain and hypothermia. Pregnancy did not seem to affect IAP in this population of cats, possibly due to subjects being in early stages of pregnancy. PMID:23118052

  3. The effect of abdominal massage in reducing malignant ascites symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yang, Tsai-Sheng; Jane, Sui-Whi; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2015-02-01

    As many as 50% of end-stage cancer patients will develop ascites and associated symptoms, including pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, loss of appetite, dyspnea, perceived abdominal bloating, and immobility. Abdominal massage may stimulate lymph return to the venous system and reduce ascites-related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of abdominal massage in reducing these symptoms and reducing ascites itself as reflected in body weight. For a randomized controlled design using repeated measures, a sample of 80 patients with malignant ascites was recruited from gastroenterology and oncology units of a medical center in northern Taiwan and randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. A 15-minute gentle abdominal massage, using straight rubbing, point rubbing, and kneading, was administered twice daily for 3 days. The control group received a twice-daily 15-minute social interaction contact with the same nurse. Symptoms and body weight were measured in the morning for 4 consecutive days from pre- to post-test. In generalized estimation equation modeling, a significant group-by-time interaction on depression, anxiety, poor wellbeing, and perceived abdominal bloating, indicated that abdominal massage improved these four symptoms, with the greatest effect on perceived bloating. The intervention had no effect on pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, poor appetite, shortness of breath, mobility limitation, or body weight. Abdominal massage appears useful for managing selected symptoms of malignant ascites. PMID:25558030

  4. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-227-2345 Home Learn About Cancer Stay Healthy Find Support & Treatment Explore Research Get Involved Find Local ACS ... window. Print Share Save Saved this Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. ...

  5. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about when and where they should receive healthcare. Unfortunately, most people lack the medical knowledge needed to make these decisions safely. FreeMD.com is powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of ...

  6. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Rotarix is given in two doses. The first dose is given when the baby is 6 weeks old, and the second is given at least 4 weeks later but before the baby is 24 weeks old. To learn more about rotavirus vaccines, talk with your child’s ...

  7. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... products? Yes Your symptoms may be caused by LACTOSE INTOLERANCE. People who have this condition have trouble digesting ... other dairy products. If you think you have lactose intolerance, talk to your doctor. He or she may ...

  8. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem for people traveling to developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Visitors to ... Get Email Updates Twitter Facebook Follow Us Privacy Policy | Freedom of Information Act | Accessibility | Disclaimers | Copyright | Sitemap | ...

  9. Resection and Abdominal Wall Reconstruction of a Desmoid Tumor with Endometrioma Features

    PubMed Central

    Majors, Jaqueline; Stoikes, Nathaniel F.; Nejati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27247824

  10. Resection and Abdominal Wall Reconstruction of a Desmoid Tumor with Endometrioma Features.

    PubMed

    Majors, Jaqueline; Stoikes, Nathaniel F; Nejati, Reza; Deneve, Jeremiah L

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27247824

  11. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  12. New Developments in Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    de la Cabada Bauche, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. More than 60% of TD cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and noncholera Vibrios. Noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. Recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility to pathogen-specific TD. Prevention strategies should be emphasized, as all individuals with TD experience approximately 24 hours of disability and 5-10% experience chronic functional bowel disease. Poorly absorbed rifaximin provides protection for trips lasting 2 weeks or less. TD vaccines are also currently in development. All individuals planning trips to developing regions should be armed with 1 of the 3 agents that have shown efficacy for self-treatment of TD: ciprofloxacin (or levofloxacin), rifaximin, or azithromycin, depending upon the location of the trip. Although global epidemiologic changes in etiologic agents as well as antibiotic resistance patterns have been better understood recently, changes should be expected during the next decade due to new prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:21475415

  13. Abdominal Mondor disease mimicking acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Schuppisser, Myriam; Khallouf, Joe; Abbassi, Ziad; Erne, Michel; Vettorel, Denise; Paroz, Alexandre; Naiken, Surennaidoo P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mondor disease (MD), a superficial thrombophlebitis of the thoraco-epigastric veins and their confluents is rarely reported in the literature. The superior epigastric vein is the most affected vessel but involvement of the inferior epigastric vessels or their branches have also been described. There is no universal consensus on treatment in the literature but most authors suggest symptomatic treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Case report We report the case of a marathon runner who presented with right iliac fossa pain mimicking the clinical symptomatology of an acute appendicitis. The history and the calculated Alvarado score were not in favor of an acute appendicitis. This situation motivated multiple investigations and we finally arrived at the diagnosis of MD. Discussion Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common cause of surgical emergencies and one of the most frequent indications for an urgent abdominal surgical procedure around the world. In some cases, right lower quadrant pain remains unclear in spite of US, CT scan, and exclusion of urological and gynecological causes, thus we need to think of some rare pathologies like MD. Conclusion MD is often mentioned in the differential diagnosis of breast pathologies but rarely in abdominal pain assessment. It should be mentioned in the differential diagnosis of the right lower quadrant pain when the clinical presentation is unclear and when acute appendicitis has been excluded. Awareness of MD can avoid misdiagnosis and decrease extra costs by sparing unnecessary imaging. PMID:26803533

  14. Pain Characteristics after Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Bum; Kang, Kyeongjin; Song, Mi Kyung; Seok, Suhyun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ji Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) causes various types of postoperative pain, and the pain pattern has not been evaluated in detail to date. This prospective observational study investigated the types of postoperative pain, intensity in the course of time, and pain characteristics during the first postoperative 72 hr after TLH. Methods. Sixty four female patients undergoing TLH were enrolled, which finally 50 patients were included for the data analyses. The locations of pain included overall pain, abdominal visceral and incisional pains, shoulder pain, and perineal pain. Assessments were made at rest and in motion, and pain level was scored with the use of the 100 mm visual analog scale. The pain was assessed at baseline, and at postoperative 30 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 24 hr, 48 hr, and 72 hr. Results. Overall, visceral, and incisional pains were most intense on the day of operation and then decreased following surgery. In contrast, shoulder pain gradually increased, peaking at postoperative 24 hr. Shoulder pain developed in 90% of all patients (44/50). It was not more aggravated in motion than at rest, in comparison with other pains, and right shoulder pain was more severe than left shoulder pain (p=0.006). In addition, the preoperative exercise habit of patients increased the threshold of shoulder pain. Most patients (46/50) had perineal pain, which was more severe than abdominal pain in approximately 30% of patients (17/50). Conclusion. Pain after TLH showed considerably different duration, severity, and characteristics, compared with other laparoscopic procedures. Shoulder pain was most intense at postoperative 24 hr, and the intensity was associated with the prior exercise habit of patients and the high level of analgesic request. PMID:27499688

  15. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  16. Coexistence of Celiac and Crohn's Disease in a Patient Presenting with Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lail, Ghulamullah; Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Butt, Muhammed Osama; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Laeq, Syed Mudassir; Abbas, Zaigham; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common causes of malabsorption. It is an immune-mediated disease manifested by diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, and weight loss, caused by ingestion of gluten containing diets. The disease has typical small intestinal biopsy features of villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and intense inflammation of the mucosal layer. The disease is rarely associated with Crohn's disease (CRD). Studies on the impact of CD on the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have shown that the natural course of CRD is not influenced by coexistent CD. We report a case of 54-year female who presented with diarrhea and weight loss. On initial evaluation, CD was diagnosed, and responded to gluten-free diet (GFD). Later on, she developed joint pains and her diarrhea recurred. Further evaluation revealed coexistence of CRD. The treatment of CRD was also initiated and this led to marked improvement in the symptoms of the patient. PMID:27353997

  17. Chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyungil; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151

  18. Chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyungil; Park, Sang Hyoung; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2016-07-01

    As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151

  19. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  20. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  1. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  2. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; De Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  4. Combined vesical and abdominal endometriosis following abdominal hysterotomy and tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Dhall, K; Bhatia, K; Sharma, S K

    1980-09-01

    The article reports on the case of a 29 year old patient who developed abdominal endometriosis 4 years after having had hysterotomy and tubal ligation. About a month after the excision of the endometrial tissue she was examined for suprapubic pains, strangury, and frequency of micturition. A nodule was found in the deepest part of the abdominal wall and the patient was treated for 6 months, without success, with medroxyprogesterone acetate. A subsequent laparotomy showed bladder endometriosis, obviously still an endometrial implant at the time of hysterotomy, which was missed at the time of the first excision. Total hysterectomy was carried out and the patient recovered successfully. Bladder endometriosis is the most common site of involvement among urinary tract endometriosis. The peculiarity of the case presented here is in the total absence of hematuria, and in the fact that pains had no relation with the menstrual cycle. Hormonal therapy is often ineffective, and surgery often the only advisable form of treatment. PMID:12311304

  5. Acute Abdominal Compartment Syndrome as a Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Two Cases Reports and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Zhang, Hao-Jie; Chen, Ran; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Qian, Wei-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a technique commonly used to remove large or multiple kidney stones and stones in the inferior calyx, with the advantages of lower morbidity rates, decrease in post-operative pain with faster recovery. Intra-abdominal irrigation fluid extravasation which leads to abdominal hypertension is a rare complication of PCNL with little reports. Early detection of intra-abdominal extravagation is very important to prevent morbidity and mortality. We present two cases and review the literature. PMID:27313986

  6. Extensive Erosion of Vertebral Bodies Due to a Chronic Contained Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Alecio Fernando; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; da Rocha Fernandes, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of chronically ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm contained within the lumbar vertebral bodies that presented with dull abdominal pain. Sudden, massive hemorrhage is an uncommon, yet well-known complication of an untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm. In addition, misleading clinical and radiological findings present difficult diagnostic challenges in such cases. This report emphasizes the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography and delineates the differentiation of this condition from similar pathologies. PMID:27200153

  7. Isolation of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O-rough:K1:H7 from two patients with traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Vila, J; Vargas, M; Ruiz, J; Gallardo, F; Jimenez de Anta, M T; Gascón, J

    1997-01-01

    Two Escherichia coli O-rough:K1:H7 strains producing verotoxin 1 that were isolated from stool samples of two travelers with diarrhea who consulted our clinic after trips to the Indian Subcontinent and Central America were characterized. Both strains were sorbitol negative, the same phenotype presented by E. coli O157:H7, but in contrast they were beta-glucuronidase positive. Low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindrome-PCR showed that both strains were epidemiologically related. The illness was self-limited in both cases but involved long-duration, watery diarrhea (10 to 50 days) accompanied by abdominal cramps and flatulence. This serotype should be taken into account as a possible cause of traveler's diarrhea. PMID:9276402

  8. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability correlates with trait anxiety and urinary norepinephrine/creatinine (CR)ratio in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP)and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FAP and IBS affect 10–15% of school age children and bear many similarities to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (e.g., functional pain, visceral hyperalgesia). Animal models of IBS have suggested a relationship between neonatal stress/anxiety and increased GI permeability later in life. We h...

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) differs in tertiary vs. primary care and is related to mother's view of child disability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine if CAM use was greater in children in tertiary vs. primary care, and whether child or parent report of pain characteristics, and/or child and mother's psychological characteristics differed between those who did/did not use CAM. We identified children 7-10 years of age with FA...

  10. Ultrasound diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Well, Y; Kaloti, S; Hadas-Halpern, I; Munter, G; Yinnon, A M

    2015-10-01

    Clostridium difficile colitis is diagnosed using an immunoassay or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for toxins A/B. Since ultrasound is frequently used as a screening test for hospitalized patients suffering from different abdominal morbidities, we searched for sonographic indicators of C. difficile infection (CDI). In a prospective and blinded case-control study, abdominal ultrasound was performed on hospitalized patients for whom stool samples were sent for C. difficile toxin immunoassay. All patients with positive toxin were included as the case group and patients with negative toxin comprised the control group. Sonographic parameters of both groups were compared. Demographic variables of the 67 patients in the toxin-positive group were similar to those of the 71 patients in the toxin-negative group. The sonographic parameters which were found to be associated with CDI included colonic wall thickening, appearing in 61 (91%) patients of the toxin-positive group versus 15 (21%) patients of the toxin-negative group (p < 0.001), and also internal ring (24 versus 0%, p < 0.001), external ring (15 versus 0%, p < 0.001), ascites (24 versus 10%, p < 0.001), and diminution of large bowel content (16 versus 1%, p < 0.001). Bowel wall thickening had high positive and negative predictive values (0.80 and 0.90, respectively), while the other features had only high positive predictive values (0.7-1.0). Abdominal ultrasound may contribute to the diagnosis of C. difficile colitis in patients developing hospital-acquired diarrhea. PMID:26173691

  11. Diarrhea complicating enteral feeding after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benya, R; Damle, P; Mobarhan, S

    1990-03-01

    In this case report we present in detail the complex nature of enteral feeding, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and edema in a critically ill patient. We also discuss the use of a peptide-elemental formula in this patient, who suffered continuous diarrhea for 15 weeks after liver transplantation. Use of this formula was associated with cessation of the diarrhea and permitted adequate nutritional delivery. After 26 weeks of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, extubation was possible. This case illustrates the ineffectiveness of parenteral albumin infusions for treatment of enteral edema and demonstrates the restoration of normal intestinal absorptive capacity when ultrafiltration was instituted and the patient's generalized edematous state was corrected. PMID:2106103

  12. Flank pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  13. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... your pain. Medicines used for chronic pain include pain relievers, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Different types of medicines help ... If your doctor recommends an over-the-counter pain reliever, read and follow the instructions on the box. ...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to... an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution....

  15. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP is required to... an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect before being placed in commercial distribution....

  16. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  17. Comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan signaling pathway characteristics in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng-Yan; Huang, Shao-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ye, Hua; Chi, Hong-Gang; Zou, Ying; Lv, Ru-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study differences in the visceral sensitivity of the colonic mucosa between patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and those with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission and to relate these differences with changes in the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) signaling pathway. METHODS: Gastrointestinal symptoms were used to determine the clinical symptom scores and rectal visceral sensitivity of patients with IBS-D and patients with UC in remission. Blood levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using an HPLC-electrochemical detection system. The levels of 5-HT 3 receptor (3R), 4R, and 7R mRNAs in colonic biopsy samples were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of TPH1 was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Abdominal pain or discomfort, stool frequency, and the scores of these symptoms in combination with gastrointestinal symptoms were higher in the IBS-D and UC groups than in the control groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the IBS-D and UC remission groups. With respect to rectal visceral sensitivity, the UC remission and IBS-D groups showed a decrease in the initial perception threshold, defecating threshold and pain threshold. However, these groups exhibited significantly increased anorectal relaxation pressure. Tests examining the main indicators of the 5-HT signaling pathway showed that the plasma 5-HT levels, 5-HIAA concentrations, TPH1 expression in the colonic mucosa, and 5-HT3R and 5-HT5R expression were increased in both the IBS-D and the UC remission groups; no increases were observed with respect to 5-HT7R expression. CONCLUSION: The IBS-D and UC groups showed similar clinical symptom scores, visceral sensitivity, and levels of serotonin signaling pathway indicators in the plasma and colonic mucosa. However, the pain threshold and 5-HT7R expression in the colonic mucosa were significantly different

  18. Antidiarrheal Medicines: OTC Relief for Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a symptom of an infection caused by bacteria or parasites, antidiarrheal medicines can actually make the ... keeps your body from getting rid of the bacteria or parasite that is causing the diarrhea. Talk ...

  19. [Medication in infectious acute diarrhea in children].

    PubMed

    Cézard, J-P; Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute infectious diarrhea in children remain still a frequent cause of morbidity. 50 % of them are due to rotavirus. Oral rehydration therapy and early realimentation have drastically reduced their mortality and morbidity. Beside oral or eventually IV rehydration therapy no medication has proven its efficacy based on the main HMO criteria (reduction of over 30 % of the stool output) except racecadotril and loperamide which is contre-indicated for the last one in children less than 2 years old. Other medications such as silicates or some probiotics have shown efficacy on diarrhea duration or stool consistency but not on stool output. They have so no formal indication in infectious diarrhea and should be considered as "comfort" treatment. Antibiotics, beside their indication in shigella, cholera and amibiasis could be used in invasive diarrhea in some debilating conditions or infants less than 3 months. PMID:17961811

  20. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.

    1987-10-01

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style.

  1. What I Need to Know about Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas of the world such as Latin America, Africa, and southern Asia. Traveler’s diarrhea is caused by ... Get Email Updates Twitter Facebook Follow Us Privacy Policy | Freedom of Information Act | Accessibility | Disclaimers | Copyright | Sitemap | ...

  2. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I need to stop? Should I water down my child's formula? ...

  3. Update on the Management of Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Focus on Rifaximin and Eluxadoline.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Rybalov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is one of the most common diagnoses made by gastroenterologists. Current pharmacologic treatments for IBS-D include fiber supplements, antidiarrheal over-the-counter medications, probiotics, antispasmodics, antidepressants, and a 5-hydroxytryptophan 3 receptor antagonist. All of these options have limited efficacy in managing IBS-D. Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic, has been evaluated in patients with IBS-D. In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trials evaluating rifaximin 550 mg by mouth 3 times/day for 14 days, the primary efficacy end point was achieved by 9% more patients randomized to the rifaximin group compared with placebo (40.7% vs 31.7%, p<0.001, number needed to treat ~11). The primary efficacy end point was defined as the proportion of patients having adequate relief of global IBS symptoms for at least 2 of the 4 weeks during the primary follow-up period (weeks 3-6). In the phase III trial examining the efficacy and safety of repeated courses of rifaximin in patients who responded to the initial 2-week course, rifaximin given for up to two additional courses provided a statistically significant incremental benefit (33% vs 25%, p=0.02). Eluxadoline is a gut-targeting μ and κ opioid receptor agonist and a δ opioid receptor antagonist. The dual mechanism of eluxadoline may explain the antidiarrheal and abdominal pain-modulating properties and lack of profound constipation. In two identically designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III studies, 10.3% more patients in an eluxadoline 100 mg by mouth twice/day group met the primary efficacy end point during the follow-up 1-12 week period compared with placebo (p<0.001). The primary efficacy end point was a composite response, defined as improvement in worst abdominal pain and stool consistency at the same time on most (50% or more) days during the follow-up period. This review evaluates evidence for the

  4. Abdominal Dual Energy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, F. Graham; Brody, William R.; Cassel, Douglas M.; Macovski, Albert

    1981-11-01

    Dual energy scanned projection radiography of the abdomen has been performed using an experimental line-scanned radiographic system. Digital images simultaneously obtained at 85 and 135 kVp are combined, using photoelectric/Compton decomposition algorithms to create images from which selected materials are cancelled. Soft tissue cancellation images have proved most useful in various abdominal imaging applications, largely due to the elimination of obscuring high-contrast bowel gas shadows. These techniques have been successfully applied to intravenous pyelography, oral cholecystography, intravenous abdominal arteriog-raphy and the imaging of renal calculi.

  5. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  6. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  8. Management of children with prolonged diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Giannattasio, Antonietta; Guarino, Alfredo; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged diarrhea is usually defined as acute-onset diarrhea lasting 7 days or more, but less than 14 days. Its trend has been declining in recent years because of improvement in the management of acute diarrhea, which represents the ideal strategy to prevent prolonged diarrhea. The pathogenesis of prolonged diarrhea is multifactorial and essentially based on persistent mucosal damage due to specific infections or sequential infections with different pathogens, host-related factors including micronutrient and/or vitamin deficiency, undernutrition and immunodeficiency, high mucosal permeability due to previous infectious processes and nutrient deficiency with consequential malabsorption, and microbiota disruption. Infections seem to play a major role in causing prolonged diarrhea in both developing and developed areas. However, single etiologic pathogens have not been identified, and the pattern of agents varies according to settings, host risk factors, and previous use of antibiotics and other drugs. The management of prolonged diarrhea is complex. Because of the wide etiologic spectrum, diagnostic algorithms should take into consideration the age of the patient, clinical and epidemiological factors, and the nutritional status and should always include a search for enteric pathogens. Often, expensive laboratory evaluations are of little benefit in guiding therapy, and an empirical approach may be effective in the majority of cases. The presence or absence of weight loss is crucial for driving the initial management of prolonged diarrhea. If there is no weight loss, generally there is no need for further evaluation. If weight loss is present, empiric anti-infectious therapy or elimination diet may be considered once specific etiologies have been excluded. PMID:26962439

  9. Management of children with prolonged diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, Antonietta; Guarino, Alfredo; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged diarrhea is usually defined as acute-onset diarrhea lasting 7 days or more, but less than 14 days. Its trend has been declining in recent years because of improvement in the management of acute diarrhea, which represents the ideal strategy to prevent prolonged diarrhea. The pathogenesis of prolonged diarrhea is multifactorial and essentially based on persistent mucosal damage due to specific infections or sequential infections with different pathogens, host-related factors including micronutrient and/or vitamin deficiency, undernutrition and immunodeficiency, high mucosal permeability due to previous infectious processes and nutrient deficiency with consequential malabsorption, and microbiota disruption. Infections seem to play a major role in causing prolonged diarrhea in both developing and developed areas. However, single etiologic pathogens have not been identified, and the pattern of agents varies according to settings, host risk factors, and previous use of antibiotics and other drugs. The management of prolonged diarrhea is complex. Because of the wide etiologic spectrum, diagnostic algorithms should take into consideration the age of the patient, clinical and epidemiological factors, and the nutritional status and should always include a search for enteric pathogens. Often, expensive laboratory evaluations are of little benefit in guiding therapy, and an empirical approach may be effective in the majority of cases. The presence or absence of weight loss is crucial for driving the initial management of prolonged diarrhea. If there is no weight loss, generally there is no need for further evaluation. If weight loss is present, empiric anti-infectious therapy or elimination diet may be considered once specific etiologies have been excluded. PMID:26962439

  10. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  11. The clinical potential of ramosetron in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D).

    PubMed

    Min, Yang Won; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional bowel disorder. Serotonin (5-HT) is known to play a physiological and pathophysiological role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function. In experimental studies, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been reported to slow colon transit, to blunt gastrocolonic reflex, and to reduce rectal sensitivity. Alosetron and cilansetron, potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, have proven efficacy in the treatment of IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D). However, alosetron was voluntarily withdrawn due to postmarketing reports of ischemic colitis and complications of constipation, and cilansetron was never marketed. Currently alosetron is available under a risk management program for women with severe IBS-D. Ramosetron is another potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which has been marketed in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. In animal studies, ramosetron reduced defecation induced by corticotrophin-releasing hormone and had inhibitory effects on colonic nociception. In two randomized controlled studies including 957 patients with IBS-D, ramosetron increased monthly responder rates of patient-reported global assessment of IBS symptom relief compared with placebo. Ramosetron was also as effective as mebeverine in male patients with IBS-D. In a recent randomized controlled trial with 343 male patients with IBS-D, ramosetron has proved effective in improving stool consistency, relieving abdominal pain/discomfort, and improving health-related quality of life. Regarding safety, ramosetron is associated with a lower incidence of constipation compared with other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and has not been associated with ischemic colitis. Although further large prospective studies are needed to assess whether ramosetron is effective for female patients with IBS-D and to evaluate its long-term safety, ramosetron appears to be one of the most promising agents for patients with IBS-D. PMID:25949526

  12. UNEXPLAINED VISCERAL PAIN IN CHILDREN: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, CLINICAL FEATURES AND MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many children experience recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, but it is unclear why this occurs. This article reviews our present understanding of this common condition and how it sometimes can relate to diet, inherent pain sensing ability, and the influence of how the parents perceive pain....

  13. Olsalazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestine] and rectum). Olsalazine reduces the bowel inflammation, diarrhea (stool frequency), rectal bleeding, and abdominal pain.This ... call your doctor immediately: skin rash chest pain diarrhea unusual bleeding or bruising If you experience a ...

  14. Peripheral embolisation after an abdominal massage.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sandeep; Tak, Shubhanjali; Gupta, Alok

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with a history of acute onset pain in toes of the right foot immediately after an abdominal massage by a 'local healer'. General physical examination and systemic examination were normal except for discolouration of the fourth and fifth toes and cold toes. Investigations including complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, renal function tests, liver profile, lipid profile, antinuclear antibody, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, ECG, chest X-ray, ultrasound abdomen, cardiac echocardiography, lower limb Doppler and CT scan of the abdomen were normal. The patient was treated with regular heparin infusion, aspirin and tramadol. Recovery was complete in 5 days. PMID:24928926

  15. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  16. Coexistence of expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm and aggravated intervertebral disc extrusion -a case report-.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nan Seol; Kang, Sung Hyun; Park, Sun Young

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is included in the differential diagnosis of lower back pain. Although rare, this important disease can cause potentially lethal complications. In this case, expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm coexisted with intervertebral disc extrusion. The diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm was delayed, putting the patient at risk of aneurysmal rupture. In the management of patients with degenerative spinal diseases, we should not overlook the possibility of comorbidities such as an abdominal aortic aneurysm. We also suggest the importance of interpreting images more carefully, especially for elderly male patients. PMID:24228150

  17. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  18. Pain and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Davis, Brian; Binion, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD: Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis). Pain may arise from different mechanisms, which can include partial blockage and gut distention as well as severe intestinal inflammation. A majority of patients suffering from acute flares of IBD will experience pain, which will typically improve as disease activity decreases. However, a significant percentage of IBD patients continue experiencing symptoms of pain despite resolving inflammation and achieving what appears to be clinical remission. Current evidence suggests that sensory pathways sensitize during inflammation, leading to persistent changes in afferent neurons and central nervous system pain processing. Such persistent pain is not only a simple result of sensory input. Pain processing and even the activation of sensory pathways is modulated by arousal, emotion, and cognitive factors. Considering the high prevalence of iatrogenic as well as essential neuropsychiatric comorbidities including anxiety and depression in IBD patients, these central modulating factors may significantly contribute to the clinical manifestation of chronic pain. The improved understanding of peripheral and central pain mechanisms is leading to new treatment strategies that view pain as a biopsychosocial problem. Thus, improving the underlying inflammation, decreasing the excitability of sensitized afferent pathways, and altering emotional and/or cognitive functions may be required to more effectively address the difficult and disabling disease manifestations. PMID:19130619

  19. Spontaneous uterine rupture after abdominal myomectomy at the gestational age of 20 weeks in pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pakniat, Hamideh; Soofizadeh, Nasrin; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uterine rupture in pregnancy is rare and often could be life threatening and catastrophic. Myomectomy is one of very common surgeries in gynecology, performed as the vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic surgeries. Pregnancies occured after abdominal and laparoscopic myomectomy are high risk for uterine rapture. Case: Patient was a 28 Years old female, pregnant woman at the 20 wks of gestational age with abdominal pain and a history of abdominal myomectomy 6 yrs ago. Uterus was ruptured and fetus in amniotic sac was found in abdominal cavity. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of uterine rupture after myomectomy can save patients from death. PMID:27525334

  20. Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back Pain Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Back Pain March 2015 Handout on Health: Back Pain This publication is for people who have back ... to discuss them with your doctor. What Is Back Pain? Back pain is an all-too-familiar problem ...

  1. Cancer pain

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.

  2. Chronic diarrhea: causes, presentation, and management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D I; Lebenthal, E; Blecker, U

    1996-01-01

    Important inroads are being made into understanding the pathophysiology of diarrhea. Clear understanding of key mechanisms should suggest new approaches to combat disease. Exciting developments are occurring in terms of super-ORS solutions, particularly with the promise of short chained glucose polymers and glutamine. Perhaps the most important development is the prospect of a good rotavirus vaccine being available before the end of the decade. Chronic diarrhea seems to be on the increase globally, probably because of the success of ORS. The mechanisms that lead to mucosal injury are elusive, and therapy still largely supportive and empiric. Celiac disease continues to be a puzzle, because of the uncomfortable feeling that a majority of cases may be missed because of atypical presentations. The successful use of long term parenteral nutrition has allowed survival and better characterization of cases that otherwise would have perished as 'lethal protracted diarrhea'. Microvillus inclusion disease may be the commonest congenital secretory diarrhea. The role of the recently reported high prevalence of glucoamlase deficiency may be important. Lastly, attention to micronutrients, particularly low vitamin A and probably zinc may prove to be important in prevention and amelioration of diarrhea and growth failure. PMID:10832466

  3. Chronic diarrhea in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D I; Blecker, U

    1998-09-01

    Important inroads are being made into understanding the pathophysiology of acute diarrhea. Clear understanding of key mechanisms should suggest new approaches to combat disease. Exciting developments are occurring in terms of super-ORS solutions, particularly with the promise of short-chained glucose polymers and glutamine. Perhaps the most important development is the prospect of a good rotavirus vaccine being available before the end of the decade. Chronic diarrhea seems to be on the increase globally, probably because of the success of ORS. The mechanisms that lead to mucosal injury are elusive and therapy is still largely supportive and empiric. Celiac disease continues to be a puzzle, not least because of the uncomfortable feeling that a majority of cases may be being missed because of atypical presentations. The successful use of long-term parenteral nutrition has allowed survival and better characterization of cases that otherwise would have perished as "lethal protracted diarrhea". Microvillus inclusion disease may be the most common congenital secretory diarrhea. The role of the recently reported high prevalence of glucoamylase deficiency may be important. Lastly attention to micronutrients, particularly low vitamin A and probably zinc, may prove to be important in prevention and amelioration of diarrhea and growth failure. PMID:9785754

  4. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  5. Component separation in abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Edward; Smart, Christopher J; Fallis, Simon A; Suggett, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Component separation is established for complex hernia repairs. This case presents early component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath to facilitate closure of the abdominal wall following emergency laparotomy, reinforcing the repair with a biological mesh. On Day 11 following an emergency laparotomy for penetrating trauma, this patient underwent component separation and release of the anterior and posterior sheath. An intra-abdominal biological mesh was secured, and the fascia and skin closed successfully. Primary abdominal closure can be achieved in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma with the use of component separation and insertion of intra-abdominal biological mesh, where standard closure is not possible. PMID:24876334

  6. Chronic diarrhea, eosinophilic ascites, acute pancreatitis and deep venous thrombosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Javid Bhat, Khalid; Bhat, Sanjay; Dutt, Kalyan; Gupta, Sakul; Jeelani Samoon, Hamaad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is rare and is characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract and chronic diarrhea. In this report we present a case of EG with acute pancreatitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Case presentation: A 30 years old male was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of epigastric pain, vomitting and swelling of his left limb for the past six days. He was also having diarrhea for the last several months. He had been evaluated for chronic diarrhea and ascites before he sought the current consultation. Duplex color doppler of left limb showed DVT of distal calf vein. Contrast enhanced CT imaging of abdomen revealed thickening of duodenum, proximal jejunal wall and presence of ascites. Duodenal biopsy showed normal villous pattern with mild inflammation and eosinophilic infiltration. The constellation of clinical presentation, hypereosinophilia, CT and biopsy findings all is in consistence to EG. The patient was treated with prednisolone 20 mg/day for four weeks and tapered slowly. Acute pancreatitis was managed conservatively while DVT was treated with heparin and oral anticoagulants. The patient’s diarrhea settled and ascites resolved completely. At follow up, the absolute eosinophil count was 300/μl and the patient was doing well. Conclusion: This case report emphasizes that one should consider these rare disorders during the differential diagnosis of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms in the presence of hypereosinophilia. PMID:25202449

  7. Pain Medication Requirements After Sacropexy and Combination Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schiermeier, Sven; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Soltész, Stefan; Spüntrup, Carolin; Anapolski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic surgery is associated with reduced morbidity, and postoperative pain is reduced. The aim of this study was to assess postoperative pain intensity, analgesic requirements, and the influence of cofactors after laparoscopic sacral colpopexy. Methods: The study assessed 287 patients treated with laparoscopic sacropexy for genital prolapse with a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification grade >1. Patients were asked to evaluate their pain postoperatively using a 4-point verbal pain rating scale. In addition, medical records were analyzed regarding the requirement for analgesic medication. Results: Patients distinguished between abdominal pain and shoulder pain after laparoscopy. Abdominal pain reached maximum severity on day 1 and showed a good response to nonsteroidal antiphlogistics, whereas shoulder pain was rarely found (6.27%). Of the patients, 38% required no pain treatment or required 1 dose at most. The need for pain medication reached its climax on day 1 and decreased during the 5 following days. Non-opioid analgesics provided a sufficient therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Laparoscopic sacropexy is associated with a moderate degree of postoperative pain. Non-opioid analgesics should be preferred as first-line therapy. The typical shoulder-tip pain showed only a low prevalence in our study group. From our point of view, the low rate of shoulder-tip pain corresponded with the low intra-abdominal carbon dioxide pressure. PMID:25392656

  8. Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... BACK PAIN? There are many possible causes of low back pain, including stretched (strained) muscles, torn or stretched (sprained) ... appear to be at an increased risk for low back pain in comparison to the general population (estimates range ...

  9. Neck pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Names Pain - neck; Neck stiffness; Cervicalgia; Whiplash Images Neck pain Whiplash Location of whiplash pain References ... pubmed/19272509 . Read More Diskectomy Foraminotomy Laminectomy Spinal fusion Patient Instructions Spine surgery - discharge Update Date 3/ ...

  10. Pain Relievers

    MedlinePlus

    Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve headaches, sore muscles, arthritis, or other aches and pains. There ... also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever. Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are good for ...

  11. Elbow pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

  12. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  13. Heel pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. Rarely, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... on the heel Conditions that may cause heel pain include: When the tendon that connects the back ...

  14. Wrist pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - wrist; Pain - carpal tunnel; Injury - wrist; Arthritis - wrist; Gout - wrist; Pseudogout - wrist ... Carpal tunnel syndrome: A common cause of wrist pain is carpal tunnel syndrome . You may feel aching, ...

  15. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  16. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  17. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  18. Advances in understanding of bile acid diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na+-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25–33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA (75SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss. In clinical practice, diagnosis is often based on response to BA sequestrants (e.g., cholestyramine or colesevelam). Diagnostic tests for BA malabsorption (BAM) need to be used more extensively in clinical practice. In the future, farnesoid X receptor agonists that stimulate ileal production of FGF-19 may be alternative treatments of BAD. PMID:24410472

  19. Advances in understanding of bile acid diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na(+)-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25-33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA ((75)SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss. In clinical practice, diagnosis is often based on response to BA sequestrants (e.g., cholestyramine or colesevelam). Diagnostic tests for BA malabsorption (BAM) need to be used more extensively in clinical practice. In the future, farnesoid X receptor agonists that stimulate ileal production of FGF-19 may be alternative treatments of BAD. PMID:24410472

  20. Hospitalizations for diarrhea in Quebec children from 1985 to 1998: Estimates of rotavirus-associated diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Buigues, René-Pierre; Duval, Bernard; Rochette, Louis; Boulianne, Nicole; Douville-Fradet, Monique; Déry, Pierre; De Serres, Gaston

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence and duration of hospitalization due to diarrhea and to assess the proportion of hospitalizations that are attributed to rotavirus-associated diarrhea. DESIGN: Retrospective study of hospitalization data. SETTING: Hospitals located in Quebec. POPULATION STUDIED: Children from one to 59 months of age who were discharged from hospital from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1998. MAIN RESULTS: There were 63,827 hospitalizations for diarrhea over the study period, for an average of 4910 hospitalizations/year. The epidemic curve showed a periodicity with regular alternation of high and low annual peaks. The number of hospitalizations for rotavirus-associated diarrhea was estimated according to three different methods. The estimates varied between 1353 and 1849 hospitalizations due to rotavirus-associated diarrhea/year over the 13-year period, with good agreement between the results of the three methods for a one-month to five years of age incidence of 320 hospitalizations for rotavirus-associated diarrhea/100,000 children. The average duration of hospital stay decreased from 5.2 days in 1985 to 3.3 days in 1998. CONCLUSIONS: The present article shows the importance of diarrhea hospitalizations among children and the alternating peak-year periodicity. PMID:18159396

  1. Type B Aortic Dissection with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture 1 Year after Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Guillaume; Ben Ahmed, Sabrina; Warein, Edouard; Gallon, Arnaud; Rosset, Eugenio

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient who developed a type B aortic dissection and ruptured his aneurysmal sac 1 year after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), despite standard follow-up. This 79-year-old man was presented to emergency room with acute abdominal pain and an acute lower limb ischemia. Computed tomography scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection feeding the aneurysmal sac of the EVAR. The aneurysm rupture occurred during imaging. Type B aortic dissection is a rare cause of aneurysmal rupture after EVAR. The first postoperative computed tomography scan should maybe include the arch and the descending thoracic aorta to rule out an iatrogenic dissection after EVAR. PMID:26902937

  2. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing potassium hydroxide include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns in the mouth and throat Chest pain Collapse Diarrhea Drooling Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat pain - severe Throat ...

  3. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  4. Addicts Using Diarrhea Drug Imodium to Get High

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158685.html Addicts Using Diarrhea Drug Imodium to Get High Trend is increasing ... Vicodin, some addicts are now turning to the diarrhea drug Imodium for a high, researchers say. This ...

  5. Cryoanalgesia in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Trescot, Andrea M

    2003-07-01

    Cryoneuroablation, also known as cryoanalgesia or cryoneurolysis, is a specialized technique for providing long-term pain relief in interventional pain management settings. Modern cryoanalgesia traces its roots to Cooper et al who developed in 1961, a device that used liquid nitrogen in a hollow tube that was insulated at the tip and achieved a temperature of - 190 degrees C. Lloyd et al proposed that cryoanalgesia was superior to other methods of peripheral nerve destruction, including alcohol neurolysis, phenol neurolysis, or surgical lesions. The application of cold to tissues creates a conduction block, similar to the effect of local anesthetics. Long-term pain relief from nerve freezing occurs because ice crystals create vascular damage to the vasonervorum, which produces severe endoneural edema. Cryoanalgesia disrupts the nerve structure and creates wallerian degeneration, but leaves the myelin sheath and endoneurium intact. Clinical applications of cryoanalgesia extend from its use in craniofacial pain secondary to trigeminal neuralgia, posterior auricular neuralgia, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia; chest wall pain with multiple conditions including post-thoracotomy neuromas, persistent pain after rib fractures, and post herpetic neuralgia in thoracic distribution; abdominal and pelvic pain secondary to ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral, subgastric neuralgia; pudendal neuralgia; low back pain and lower extremity pain secondary to lumbar facet joint pathology, pseudosciatica, pain involving intraspinous ligament or supragluteal nerve, sacroiliac joint pain, cluneal neuralgia, obturator neuritis, and various types of peripheral neuropathy; and upper extremity pain secondary to suprascapular neuritis and other conditions of peripheral neuritis. This review describes historical concepts, physics and equipment, various clinical aspects, along with technical features, indications and contraindications, with clinical description of multiple conditions

  6. Pharmacological pain management in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Søren S; Juel, Jacob; Graversen, Carina; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2013-01-01

    Intense abdominal pain is a prominent feature of chronic pancreatitis and its treatment remains a major clinical challenge. Basic studies of pancreatic nerves and experimental human pain research have provided evidence that pain processing is abnormal in these patients and in many cases resembles that seen in neuropathic and chronic pain disorders. An important ultimate outcome of such aberrant pain processing is that once the disease has advanced and the pathophysiological processes are firmly established, the generation of pain can become self-perpetuating and independent of the initial peripheral nociceptive drive. Consequently, the management of pain by traditional methods based on nociceptive deafferentation (e.g., surgery and visceral nerve blockade) becomes difficult and often ineffective. This novel and improved understanding of pain aetiology requires a paradigm shift in pain management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern mechanism based pain treatments taking into account altered pain processing are likely to increasingly replace invasive therapies targeting the nociceptive source, which should be reserved for special and carefully selected cases. In this review, we offer an overview of the current available pharmacological options for pain management in chronic pancreatitis. In addition, future options for pain management are discussed with special emphasis on personalized pain medicine and multidisciplinarity. PMID:24259960

  7. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of appetite, swollen glands, hair loss, or abdominal pain, which can be accompanied by nausea, diarrhea, and ... easy bruising (with or without nosebleeds) chest or abdominal pain seizures new or high fever The Outlook for ...

  8. Zinc: Role in the management of diarrhea and cholera

    PubMed Central

    Qadir, M Imran; Arshad, Arfa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea and cholera are major health problems. Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of cholera, infects the small intestine, resulting in vomiting, massive watery diarrhea and dehydration. Reduced water and electrolyte absorption is also due to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in recovery from the disease. The combination of zinc with cholera vaccine and oral rehydration solutions has a positive impact on cholera and diarrhea. It has led to a decrease in the mortality and morbidity associated with diarrhea. PMID:24303485

  9. Systematic review of blunt abdominal trauma as a cause of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Zaher; Chan, Anthony; Hadfield, Matthew B; Hulton, Neil R

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis commonly presents as an acute abdomen. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by blunt abdominal trauma are rare. We present a systematic review of appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim of this review was to collate and report the clinical presentations and experience of such cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase and Medline and the keywords ‘appendicitis’, ‘abdominal’ and ‘trauma’. RESULTS The initial search returned 381 papers, of which 17 articles were included. We found 28 cases of acute appendicitis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma reported in the literature between 1991 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury included road-traffic accidents, falls, assaults and accidents. Presenting symptoms invariably included abdominal pain, but also nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Only 12 patients had computed tomography scans and 10 patients had ultrasonography. All reported treatment was surgical and positive for appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS Although rare, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis must be considered following direct abdominal trauma especially if the patient complains of abdominal right lower quadrant pain, nausea and anorexia. Haemodynamically stable patients who present shortly after blunt abdominal trauma with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness should undergo urgent imaging with a plan to proceed to appendicectomy if the imaging suggested an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa. PMID:20513274

  10. Diabetic thoracic radiculopathy: an unusual cause of post-thoracotomy pain.

    PubMed

    Brewer, R; Bedlack, R; Massey, E

    2003-05-01

    Persistent pain is common following thoracotomy. A 64-year-old retired electrician with Type 2 diabetes presented with chest wall and abdominal pain 3 months following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Postoperatively the patient had suffered pain despite a functioning thoracic epidural catheter. Following investigation, his persistent pain was due to diabetic thoracic radiculopathy (DTR). The disorder is characterized by pain, sensory loss, abdominal and thoracic muscle weakness in patients with diabetes. As in this patient, the pain and sensory loss usually resolve within one year after onset. The disorder may be distinguished from intercostal neuralgia based upon clinical and electromyographic features. PMID:12749978

  11. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  12. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  13. Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Back Pain Information Page Condensed from Low Back Pain Fact ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Back Pain? Acute or short-term low back pain generally ...

  14. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  15. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin compared with placebo in bacterial diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Pichler, H E; Diridl, G; Stickler, K; Wolf, D

    1987-04-27

    In a double-blind, randomized trial, 85 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily or placebo for five days. Seventy-six patients were evaluated, 38 patients in the ciprofloxacin group (16 with Salmonella species, 19 with Campylobacter jejuni, and three with Shigella species) and 38 patients in the placebo group (21 with Salmonella species, 11 with C. jejuni, and six with Shigella species). The duration of fever in patients treated with ciprofloxacin was 1.3 days versus 3.1 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.05). The mean duration of diarrhea in the ciprofloxacin group was 1.5 days versus 2.9 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.001). The corresponding numbers in patients with salmonellosis were 1.9 versus 3.4 days (p less than 0.01). In the ciprofloxacin group, all stool culture results became negative within 48 hours of treatment. Relapse occurred in four patients with salmonellosis within three weeks after the end of treatment. In the placebo group, only four of 38 patients had negative stool culture results during treatment and results were negative in only 13 at one week after the treatment period (p less than 0.001). Modest transient elevation of serum transaminase levels was detected in three patients in the ciprofloxacin group and in two patients in the placebo group. Epigastric pain occurred in one patient, and leukopenia occurred in one patient in the ciprofloxacin group. Gastrointestinal discomfort was recorded in two patients and rash was found in one patient in the placebo group. PMID:3555057

  16. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  18. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  19. [Diarrhea from the infectologist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Zsuzsanna

    2009-02-22

    Gastroenteritis is a nonspecific term for various pathologic states of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenteritis causing pathogens are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the developed countries diarrhea is the most common reason for missing work, while in the developing world, it is a leading cause of death. Internationally, the mortality rate is 5-10 million deaths each year. "Traveller's diarrhea" is a polyetiologic common health problem of international travellers which affects travellers generally for days, but it can result in chronic postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome as well. Infectious agents usually cause acute gastroenteritis either by adherence of the intestinal mucosa, or by mucosal invasion, enterotoxin production, and/or cytotoxin production. The incubation period can often suggest the cause of etiology. When symptoms occur within 6 hours of eating, ingestion of preformed toxin of S. aureus or Bacillus cereus should be suspected. The incidence of hypervirulent C. difficile associated colitis is an emerging problem as a healthcare system associated infection. While infectious agents do not commonly cause chronic diarrhea, those that do include C. difficile, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, Aeromonas and Yersinia . Amoebiasis is the second to malaria as a protozoal cause of death. Infection with HIV is also a common cause of diarrhea. PMID:19218145

  20. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)