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Sample records for abdominal plain film

  1. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    PubMed

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  2. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    PubMed Central

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-01-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations. PMID:11807192

  3. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    PubMed

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  4. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with a subphrenic abscess revealed by plain abdominal X-ray films and confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer disease is still the major cause of gastrointestinal perforation despite major improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. While the diagnosis of a perforated ulcer is straightforward in typical cases, its clinical onset may be subtle because of comorbidities and/or concurrent therapies. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic myeloid leukemia on maintenance therapy (100mg/day) with imatinib who was found to have a subphrenic abscess resulting from a perforated duodenal ulcer that had been clinically overlooked. Our patient was febrile (38.5°C) with abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. On the abdominal plain X-ray films, a right subphrenic abscess could be seen. On contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography, a huge air-fluid collection extending from the subphrenic to the subhepatic anterior space was observed. After oral administration of 500cm3 of 3 percent diluted diatrizoate meglumine, an extraluminal leakage of the water-soluble iodinated contrast media could then be appreciated as a result of a perforated duodenal ulcer. During surgery, the abscess was drained and extensive adhesiolysis had to be performed to expose the duodenal bulb where the ulcer was first identified by methylene blue administration and then sutured. Conclusions While subphrenic abscesses are well known complications of perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, they have nowadays become rare thanks to advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease. However, when peptic ulcer disease is not clinically suspected, the contribution of imaging may be substantial. PMID:24215711

  5. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that a diagnosis based solely on a patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests is not reliable enough, despite the fact that these aspects are essential parts of the workup of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. Traditionally, imaging workup starts with abdominal radiography. However, numerous studies have demonstrated low sensitivity and accuracy for plain abdominal radiography in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain as well as various specific diseases such as perforated viscus, bowel obstruction, ingested foreign body, and ureteral stones. Computed tomography, and in particular computed tomography after negative ultrasonography, provides a better workup than plain abdominal radiography alone. The benefits of computed tomography lie in decision-making for management, planning of a surgical strategy, and possibly even avoidance of negative laparotomies. Based on abundant available evidence, major advances in diagnostic imaging, and changes in the management of certain diseases, we can conclude that there is no place for plain abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department in current practice. PMID:22807640

  6. Diagnosis of bowel infarction: a comparison of plain films and CT scans in 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Smerud, M J; Johnson, C D; Stephens, D H

    1990-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT and plain film findings in 23 proved cases of mesenteric infarction to compare the value of the two techniques. Criteria considered specific for infarction on CT were identified in nine (39%) of 23 patients and comprised pneumatosis in seven patients (30%), mesenteric or portal venous gas in three patients (13%), and focally thick-walled bowel in two patients (9%). Criteria considered specific for bowel infarction on plain films were identified in seven (30%) of 23 patients and comprised focally edematous bowel in six patients (26%) and pneumatosis intestinalis in one patient (4%). Only one patient had specific changes on both CT and plain films, but 15 (65%) of the 23 showed specific changes on at least one study. The results indicate that plain films remain an important tool in patients suspected of mesenteric infarction and can provide information that is complementary to CT. Also, as both studies were nonspecific in eight (35%) of our patients, negative or nonspecific findings should not deter further diagnostic or interventional procedures in patients in whom the clinical suspicion of bowel infarction is high.

  7. Does abdominal sonography provide additional information over abdominal plain radiography for diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates?

    PubMed

    Dilli, Dilek; Suna Oğuz, S; Erol, Reyhan; Ozkan-Ulu, Hülya; Dumanlı, Hüseyin; Dilmen, Uğur

    2011-03-01

    To explore whether addition of abdominal sonography (AUS) to plain radiography is helpful in the management of premature newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This study is a prospective analysis of 93 premature neonates with NEC who were followed-up in our neonatal intensive care unit between October 2007 and April 2009. Patients were classified into two groups; group I with suspected NEC (stage I) (n = 54) and group II with definite NEC (stage ≥II) (n = 39). Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) (n = 29), free air (n = 9), and portal venous gas (PVG) (n = 1) were observed in group II on plain radiography. In the same group, echoic free fluid (EFF) (n = 9), PVG (n = 6), PI (n = 5), and focal fluid collection (n = 3) were the most prominent sonographic findings. In patients with intestinal perforation, whereas EFF and bowel wall thinning were observed on AUS, free air was not detected on plain radiography as a sign of intestinal perforation. Our results suggest AUS to be superior to plain radiography on early detection of intestinal perforation by demonstrating PVG and EFF collection. Therefore, it may be life-saving by directing the surgeon to perform surgical intervention in the case of clinical deterioration in the course of NEC.

  8. Plain film measurement error in acute displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Lori Anne; Hunt, Stephen; Squire, Daniel; Moores, Carl; Stone, Craig; O’Dea, Frank; Furey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background Clavicle fractures are common and optimal treatment remains controversial. Recent literature suggests operative fixation of acute displaced mid-shaft clavicle fractures (DMCFs) shortened more than 2 cm improves outcomes. We aimed to identify correlation between plain film and computed tomography (CT) measurement of displacement and the inter- and intraobserver reliability of repeated radiographic measurements. Methods We obtained radiographs and CT scans of patients with acute DMCFs. Three orthopedic staff and 3 residents measured radiographic displacement at time zero and 2 weeks later. The CT measurements identified absolute shortening in 3 dimensions (by subtracting the length of the fractured from the intact clavicle). We then compared shortening measured on radiographs and shortening measured in 3 dimensions on CT. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated. Results We reviewed the fractures of 22 patients. Bland–Altman repeatability coefficient calculations indicated that radiograph and CT measurements of shortening could not be correlated owing to an unacceptable amount of measurement error (6 cm). Interobserver reliability for plain radiograph measurements was excellent (Cronbach α = 0.90). Likewise, intraobserver reliabilities for plain radiograph measurements as calculated with paired t tests indicated excellent correlation (p > 0.05 in all but 1 observer [p = 0.04]). Conclusion To establish shortening as an indication for DMCF fixation, reliable measurement tools are required. The low correlation between plain film and CT measurements we observed suggests further research is necessary to establish what imaging modality reliably predicts shortening. Our results indicate weak correlation between radiograph and CT measurement of acute DMCF shortening. PMID:27438054

  9. Volvulus of the ascending colon in a non-rotated midgut: Plain film and MDCT findings.

    PubMed

    Camera, Luigi; Calabrese, Milena; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Masone, Stefania; Vecchio, Walter Del; Persico, Giovanni; Salvatore, Marco

    2012-10-28

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction usually involving mobile, intra-peritoneal, colonic segments. Congenital or acquired anatomic variation may be associated with an increased risk of colonic volvulus which can occasionally involve retro-peritoneal segments. We report a case of 54-year-old female who presented to our Institution to perform a plain abdominal film series for acute onset of cramping abdominal pain. Both the upright and supine films showed signs of acute colonic obstruction which was thought to be due to an internal hernia of the transverse colon into the lesser sac. The patient was therefore submitted to a multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). CT findings were initially thought to be consistent with the presumed diagnosis of internal hernia but further evaluation and coronal reformatting clearly depicted the presence of a colonic volvulus possibly resulting from a retro-gastric colon. At surgery, a volvulus of the ascending colon was found and a right hemi-colectomy had to be performed. However, a non rotated midgut with a right-sided duodeno-jejunal flexure and a left sided colon was also found at laparotomy and overlooked in the pre-operative CT. Retrospective evaluation of CT images was therefore performed and a number of CT signs of intestinal malrotation could be identified.

  10. Abdominal girth, vertebral column length, and spread of spinal anesthesia in 30 minutes after plain bupivacaine 5 mg/mL.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-he; Xiao, Wang-pin; Shen, Ying-yan

    2014-07-01

    The spread of spinal anesthesia is highly unpredictable. In patients with increased abdominal girth and short stature, a greater cephalad spread after a fixed amount of subarachnoidally administered plain bupivacaine is often observed. We hypothesized that there is a strong correlation between abdominal girth/vertebral column length and cephalad spread. Age, weight, height, body mass index, abdominal girth, and vertebral column length were recorded for 114 patients. The L3-L4 interspace was entered, and 3 mL of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was injected into the subarachnoid space. The cephalad spread (loss of temperature sensation and loss of pinprick discrimination) was assessed 30 minutes after intrathecal injection. Linear regression analysis was performed for age, weight, height, body mass index, abdominal girth, vertebral column length, and the spread of spinal anesthesia, and the combined linear contribution of age up to 55 years, weight, height, abdominal girth, and vertebral column length was tested by multiple regression analysis. Linear regression analysis showed that there was a significant univariate correlation among all 6 patient characteristics evaluated and the spread of spinal anesthesia (all P < 0.039) except for age and loss of temperature sensation (P > 0.068). Multiple regression analysis showed that abdominal girth and the vertebral column length were the key determinants for spinal anesthesia spread (both P < 0.0001), whereas age, weight, and height could be omitted without changing the results (all P > 0.059, all 95% confidence limits < 0.372). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the combination of a patient's 5 general characteristics, especially abdominal girth and vertebral column length, had a high predictive value for the spread of spinal anesthesia after a given dose of plain bupivacaine.

  11. Clinical evaluation of CR versus plain film for neonatal ICU applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Brasch, Robert C.; Gooding, Charles A.; Gould, Robert G.; Huang, H. K.

    1995-05-01

    The clinical utility of computed radiography (CR) versus screen-film for neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) applications is investigated. The latest versions of standard ST-V and high- resolution HR-V CR imaging plates were compared via measurements of image contrast, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The ST-V imaging plate was found to have equivalent spatial resolution and object detectability at a lower required dose than the HR-V, and was therefore chosen as the CR plate to use in clinical trials in which a modified film cassette containing the CR imaging plate, a conventional screen and film was utilized. For 50 portable neonatal chest examinations, plain film was subjectively compared to the perfectly matched, simultaneously obtained CR hardcopy and softcopy images. Grading of overall image quality was on a scale of one (poor) to five (excellent). Readers rated the visualization of various structures in the chest (i.e., lung parenchyma, pulmonary vasculature, tubes/lines) as well as the visualization of pathologic findings. Preliminary results indicate that the image quality of both CR soft and hardcopy are comparable to plain film and that CR may be a suitable alternative to screen-film imaging for portable neonatal chest x rays.

  12. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy and precision of 3D cephalometric landmarks from biorthogonal plain-film x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David; Palomo, Martin; Subramanyan, Krishna; Hans, Mark G.; Broadbent, B. H., Jr.; Moullas, Alexander; Macaraeg, Omar

    1998-06-01

    Three dimensional (3D) plain film radiographic cephalometric analysis of boney skull landmarks may be used for patient diagnosis, treatment planning, prosthetic design, intra- operatively, and outcome assessment. To test the accuracy and reliability of 50 cephalometric landmarks, three dry human skulls, with and without metallic markers affixed to the landmarks, were digitized in our 3dCEPH software by 4 operators. The average inter-operator variability about mean landmark position, across all operators, for all 3 skull image pairs, was 3.33 mm. Ten landmarks exhibiting least variability were 1.15 mm average distance from the mean, including: B point 0.69 mm, Lower Incisal Edge 0.85 mm, and Anterior Nasal Spine 0.90 mm. The average rms error from the metallic fiducials for these 4 operators across all 50 landmarks, and 3 skulls was 5.03 mm. The 10 landmarks with the least variability exhibited 2.01 mm average distance from the fiducial, including: B point 1.69 mm, upper incisal edge 1.71 mm, lower incisal edge 1.78 mm. Additional studies are needed to test the robusticity of the hypothesis of homologous anatomy. Homology of landmarks is important to cephalometric comparisons between image pairs representing patient and 'normative,' pre- and post-surgical alteration, and different ages of the same patient.

  14. Plain ABDO X-rays: a waste of time?

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study, 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed by the research team. In only 16 cases (12 per cent) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47 per cent), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24 per cent). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7 per cent). The researchers argue that most plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies are inappropriate. They suggest there is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  15. [Detection of tibial condylar fractures using 3D imaging with a mobile image amplifier (Siemens ISO-C-3D): Comparison with plain films and spiral CT].

    PubMed

    Kotsianos, D; Rock, C; Wirth, S; Linsenmaier, U; Brandl, R; Fischer, T; Euler, E; Mutschler, W; Pfeifer, K J; Reiser, M

    2002-01-01

    To analyze a prototype mobile C-arm 3D image amplifier in the detection and classification of experimental tibial condylar fractures with multiplanar reconstructions (MPR). Human knee specimens (n = 22) with tibial condylar fractures were examined with a prototype C-arm (ISO-C-3D, Siemens AG), plain films (CR) and spiral CT (CT). The motorized C-arm provides fluoroscopic images during a 190 degrees orbital rotation computing a 119 mm data cube. From these 3D data sets MP reconstructions were obtained. All images were evaluated by four independent readers for the detection and assessment of fracture lines. All fractures were classified according to the Müller AO classification. To confirm the results, the specimens were finally surgically dissected. 97 % of the tibial condylar fractures were easily seen and correctly classified according to the Müller AO classification on MP reconstruction of the ISO-C-3D. There is no significant difference between ISO-C and CT in detection and correct classification of fractures, but ISO-CD-3D is significant by better than CR. The evaluation of fractures with the ISO-C is better than with plain films alone and comparable to CT scans. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the ISO-C can provide important information which cannot be obtained from plain films. The ISO-C-3D may be useful in planning operative reconstructions and evaluating surgical results in orthopaedic surgery of the limbs.

  16. Clinical application of entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films in patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Li, Xiao-Gang; Du, Ming-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Dan; Tao, Zheng-Gui; Liao, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To report and evaluate the application of entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films in the diagnosis of patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND type B). Thirty-six patients with symptoms of long-standing constipation were enrolled in this study. The study took place at the Department of General Surgery, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei Province, China from July 2007 to October 2012. All of them had already been subjected to the tests of barium enema and anorectal manometry and were suspected to be IND type B, but were not confirmed by mucous membrane acetylcholinesterase determination. All underwent the entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films. The data was collected and then analyzed retrospectively. After entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films, 30 out of 36 cases in this group were diagnosed with intestinal neuronal diseases, and then were treated with appropriate surgical treatment. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was IND type B. The other 6 patients in this group still could not be diagnosed explicitly after the test; thus, we treated them with conservative treatment. Entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films has the advantage of being able to test the gastrointestinal transfer capabilities and to find physiological and pathological changes simultaneously. It could provide important proof for the diagnosis of patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B.

  17. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  18. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  19. Diagnostic significance of rib series in minor thorax trauma compared to plain chest film and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, Patrick; Dornia, Christian; Schäfer, Stephan; Wagner, Merle; Dendl, Lena M; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schreyer, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    Rib series (RS) are a special radiological technique to improve the visualization of the bony parts of the chest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rib series in minor thorax trauma. Retrospective study of 56 patients who received RS, 39 patients where additionally evaluated by plain chest film (PCF). All patients underwent a computed tomography (CT) of the chest. RS and PCF were re-read independently by three radiologists, the results were compared with the CT as goldstandard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value were calculated. Significance in the differences of findings was determined by McNemar test, interobserver variability by Cohens kappa test. 56 patients were evaluated (34 men, 22 women, mean age =61 y.). In 22 patients one or more rib fracture could be identified by CT. In 18 of these cases (82%) the correct diagnosis was made by RS, in 16 cases (73%) the correct number of involved ribs was detected. These differences were significant (p = 0.03). Specificity was 100%, negative and positive predictive value were 85% and 100%. Kappa values for the interobserver agreement was 0.92-0.96. Sensitivity of PCF was 46% and was significantly lower (p = 0.008) compared to CT. Rib series does not seem to be an useful examination in evaluating minor thorax trauma. CT seems to be the method of choice to detect rib fractures, but the clinical value of the radiological proof has to be discussed and investigated in larger follow up studies.

  20. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  1. Diagnostic utility of attenuation measurement (Hounsfield units) in computed tomography stonogram in predicting the radio-opacity of urinary calculi in plain abdominal radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chua, Michael E; Gatchalian, Glenn T; Corsino, Michael Vincent; Reyes, Buenaventura B

    2012-10-01

    (1) To determine the best cut-off level of Hounsfield units (HU) in the CT stonogram that would predict the appearance of a urinary calculi in plain KUB X-ray; (2) to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut-off HU; and (3) to determine whether stone size and location affect the in vivo predictability. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients aged 18-85 diagnosed with urolithiases on CT stonogram with concurrent plain KUB radiograph was conducted. Appearance of stones was recorded, and significant difference between radiolucent and radio-opaque CT attenuation level was determined using ANOVA. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve determined the best HU cut-off value. Stone size and location were used for factor variability analysis. A total of 184 cases were included in this study, and the average urolithiasis size on CT stonogram was 0.84 cm (0.3-4.9 cm). On KUB X-ray, 34.2 % of the urolithiases were radiolucent and 65.8 % were radio-opaque. Mean value of CT Hounsfield unit for radiolucent stones was 358.25 (±156), and that for radio-opaque stones was 816.51 (±274). ROC curve determined the best cut-off value of HU at 498.5, with the sensitivity of 89.3 % and specificity of 87.3 %. For >4 mm stones, the sensitivity was 91.3 % and the specificity was 81.8 %. On the other hand, for =<4 mm stones, the sensitivity was 60 % and the specificity was 89.5 %. Based on the constructed ROC curve, a threshold value of 498.5 HU in CT stonogram was established as cut-off in determining whether a calculus is radio-opaque or radiolucent. The determined overall sensitivity and specificity of the set cut-off HU value are optimal. Stone size but not location affects the sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  3. Clinical comparison of CR and screen film for imaging the critically ill neonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Brasch, Robert C.; Gooding, Charles A.; Gould, Robert G.; Cohen, Pierre A.; Rencken, Ingo R.; Huang, H. K.

    1996-05-01

    A clinical comparison of computed radiography (CR) versus screen-film for imaging the critically-ill neonate is performed, utilizing a modified (hybrid) film cassette containing a CR (standard ST-V) imaging plate, a conventional screen and film, allowing simultaneous acquisition of perfectly matched CR and plain film images. For 100 portable neonatal chest and abdominal projection radiographs, plain film was subjectively compared to CR hardcopy. Three pediatric radiologists graded overall image quality on a scale of one (poor) to five (excellent), as well as visualization of various anatomic structures (i.e., lung parenchyma, pulmonary vasculature, tubes/lines) and pathological findings (i.e., pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pleural effusion, pneumothorax). Results analyzed using a combined kappa statistic of the differences between scores from each matched set, combined over the three readers showed no statistically significant difference in overall image quality between screen- film and CR (p equals 0.19). Similarly, no statistically significant difference was seen between screen-film and CR for anatomic structure visualization and for visualization of pathological findings. These results indicate that the image quality of CR is comparable to plain film, and that CR may be a suitable alternative to screen-film imaging for portable neonatal chest and abdominal examinations.

  4. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  5. The Plains are Not Plain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-01

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft covers some of the plains south of Capri Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris. Where the aeolian (wind-blown) sedimentary cover has been stripped away, we see diverse colors indicative of of a variety of altered minerals formed in Mars' wetter past. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20730

  6. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  7. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Fetus-in-Fetu: An Unusual Cause for Abdominal Mass in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Grosfeld, Jay L.; Stepita, Donald S.; Nance, Walter E.; Palmer, Catherine G.

    1974-01-01

    Fetus-in-fetu is an unusual cause of retroperitoneal abdominal mass in infants, which most likely arises from inclusion of a monozygotic, diamniotic twin. This entity is distinguished from teratoma by its embryological origin, its unusual location in the retroperitoneal space, its invariable benignity, and by the presence of vertebral organization with limb buds and well-developed organ systems. Diagnosis is made radiographically by the finding of a diminutive vertebral column on a plain abdominal film. The treatment of choice is total excision with special attention being given to the fetus' blood supply which may be directly from the host's superior mesenteric vessels. A well-documented example of this unusual entity that occurred in a six-week old infant male is presented. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4471720

  9. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  10. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  11. Charon's Smooth Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Nimmo, F.; Beddingfield, C.; Grundy, W. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Moore, J.; Robbins, S.; Runyon, K.; Schenk, P.; Singer, K.; Weaver, H.; Young, L. A.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C.; Stern, S. A.; New Horizons Science Team

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesize that Charon's smooth plains result from its global extension that caused crustal blocks to founder. Then, a viscous cryoflow composed of ammonia-rich mantle material rose up, enveloped the sinking blocks, and produced the plains.

  12. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  13. Great plains, Chapter 11

    Treesearch

    C.M. Clark

    2011-01-01

    The North American Great Plains are the largest contiguous ecoregion in North America, covering 3.5 million square km2, or 16 percent of the continental area (CEC 1997). In the United States, the Great Plains ecoregion encompasses a roughly triangular region (Figure 2.2), bordered on the west by the Rocky Mountains and the southwestern deserts in...

  14. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  15. Film and Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltrow, David

    1978-01-01

    One practical method which development film makers can adopt to increase comprehension of important scenes is to eliminate extraneous background information by putting it out of focus, or by shooting against plain backgrounds. (Author/STS)

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  17. Walking on thin ice! Identifying methamphetamine "drug mules" on digital plain radiography.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rashid, S N; Mohamad Saini, S B; Abdul Hamid, S; Muhammad, S J; Mahmud, R; Thali, M J; Flach, P M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of identifying methamphetamine (MA) internal payloads in "drug mules" by plain abdominal digital radiography (DR). The study consisted of 35 individuals suspected of internal MA drug containers. A total of 59 supine digital radiographs were collected. An overall calculation regarding the diagnostic accuracy for all "drug mules" and a specific evaluation concerning the radiological appearance of drug packs as well as the rate of clearance and complications in correlation with the reader's experience were performed. The gold standard was the presence of secured drug packs in the faeces. There were 16 true-positive "drug mules" identified. DR of all drug carriers for Group 1 (forensic imaging experienced readers, n = 2) exhibited a sensitivity of 100%, a mean specificity of 76.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 78.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% and a mean accuracy 87.2%. Group 2 (inexperienced readers, n = 3) showed a lower sensitivity (93.7%), a mean specificity of 86%, a PPV of 86.5%, an NPV of 94.1% and a mean accuracy of 89.5%. The interrater agreement within Group 1 was 0.72 and within Group 2 averaged to 0.79, indicating a fair to very good agreement. DR is a valuable screening tool in cases of MA body packers with huge internal payloads being associated with a high diagnostic insecurity. Diagnostic insecurity on plain films may be overcome by low-dose CT as a cross-sectional imaging modality and addressed by improved radiological education in reporting drug carriers on imaging. Diagnostic signs (double-condom and halo signs) on digital plain radiography are specific in MA "drug mules", although DR is associated with high diagnostic insecurity and underreports the total internal payload.

  18. Walking on thin ice! Identifying methamphetamine “drug mules” on digital plain radiography

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rashid, S N; Mohamad Saini, S B; Abdul Hamid, S; Muhammad, S J; Mahmud, R; Thali, M J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of identifying methamphetamine (MA) internal payloads in “drug mules” by plain abdominal digital radiography (DR). Methods: The study consisted of 35 individuals suspected of internal MA drug containers. A total of 59 supine digital radiographs were collected. An overall calculation regarding the diagnostic accuracy for all “drug mules” and a specific evaluation concerning the radiological appearance of drug packs as well as the rate of clearance and complications in correlation with the reader's experience were performed. The gold standard was the presence of secured drug packs in the faeces. Results: There were 16 true-positive “drug mules” identified. DR of all drug carriers for Group 1 (forensic imaging experienced readers, n = 2) exhibited a sensitivity of 100%, a mean specificity of 76.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 78.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% and a mean accuracy 87.2%. Group 2 (inexperienced readers, n = 3) showed a lower sensitivity (93.7%), a mean specificity of 86%, a PPV of 86.5%, an NPV of 94.1% and a mean accuracy of 89.5%. The interrater agreement within Group 1 was 0.72 and within Group 2 averaged to 0.79, indicating a fair to very good agreement. Conclusion: DR is a valuable screening tool in cases of MA body packers with huge internal payloads being associated with a high diagnostic insecurity. Diagnostic insecurity on plain films may be overcome by low-dose CT as a cross-sectional imaging modality and addressed by improved radiological education in reporting drug carriers on imaging. Advances in knowledge: Diagnostic signs (double-condom and halo signs) on digital plain radiography are specific in MA “drug mules”, although DR is associated with high diagnostic insecurity and underreports the total internal payload. PMID:24472728

  19. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  20. The Plains of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  1. Mountains, Craters and Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-17

    New Horizons views of the informally named Sputnik Planum on Pluto (top) and the informally named Vulcan Planum on Charon (bottom). Both scale bars measure 20 miles (32 kilometers) long; illumination is from the left in both instances. The Sputnik Planum view is centered at 11°N, 180°E, and covers the bright, icy, geologically cellular plains. Here, the cells are defined by a network of interconnected troughs that crisscross these nitrogen-ice plains. At right, in the upper image, the cellular plains yield to pitted plains of southern Sputnik Planum. This observation was obtained by the Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) at a resolution of 1,050 feet (320 meters) per pixel. The Vulcan Planum view in the bottom panel is centered at 4°S, 4°E, and includes the "moated mountain" Clarke Mons just above the center of the image. As well as featuring impact craters and sinuous troughs, the water ice-rich plains display a range of surface textures, from smooth and grooved at left, to pitted and hummocky at right. This observation was obtained by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at a resolution of 525 feet (160 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20535

  2. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  3. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  4. Plains Tectonics on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; McGill, G. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    Tectonic deformation in the plains of Venus is pervasive, with virtually every area of the planet showing evidence for faulting or fracturing. This deformation can be classified into three general categories, defined by the intensity and areal extent of the surface deformation: distributed deformation, concentrated deformation, and local fracture patterns.

  5. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  6. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  7. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  8. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  9. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  10. Expansive Northern Volcanic Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    Mercury northern region is dominated by expansive smooth plains, created by huge amounts of volcanic material flooding across Mercury surface in the past, as seen by NASA MESSENGER spacecraft. The volcanic lava flows buried craters, leaving only traces of their rims visible. Such craters are called ghost craters, and there are many visible in this image, including a large one near the center. Wrinkle ridges cross this scene and small troughs are visible regionally within ghost craters, formed as a result of the lava cooling. The northern plains are often described as smooth since their surface has fewer impact craters and thus has been less battered by such events. This indicates that these volcanic plains are younger than Mercury's rougher surfaces. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 60.31° N Center Longitude: 36.87° E Scale: The large ghost crater at the center of the image is approximately 103 kilometers (64 miles) in diameter http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19415

  11. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  13. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  14. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  16. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  17. Polygon-Cracked Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polygon-cracked plain in the south polar region of Mars. When this picture was acquired in April 2005, the surface was covered with seasonal carbon dioxide frost. Dark spots and streaks indicate areas where the frost had begun to change and sublime away.

    Location near: 86.8oS, 300.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  18. Digital radiographic imaging transfer: comparison with plain radiographs.

    PubMed

    Averch, T D; O'Sullivan, D; Breitenbach, C; Beser, N; Schulam, P G; Moore, R G; Kavoussi, L R

    1997-04-01

    Advances in digital imaging and computer display technology have allowed development of clinical teleradiographic systems. There are limited data assessing the effectiveness of such systems when applied to urologic pathology. In an effort to appraise the effectiveness of teleradiology in identifying renal calculi, the accuracy of findings on transmitted radiographic images were compared with those made when viewing the actual plain film. Plain films (KUB) were obtained from 26 patients who presented to the radiology department to rule out urinary calculous disease. The films were digitalized by a radiograph scanner into ARCNEMA-2 file format, compressed by a NASA algorithm, and transferred via a 28.8-kbps modern over standard telephone lines to a remote section 25 miles away, where they were decompressed and viewed on a 1600 x 1200-pixel monitor. Two attending urologists and two endourologic fellows were randomized to read either the transmitted image or the original radiograph with minimal clinical history provided. Of the 26 plain radiographic films, 24 were correctly interpreted by the fellows and 25 by the attending physicians (92% and 96% accuracy, respectively) for a total accuracy of 94% with no statistical difference (p = 0.16). After compression, all but one of the digital images were transferred successfully. The attending physicians correctly interpreted 24 of the 25 digital images (96%), whereas the fellows were correct on 21 interpretations (84%), resulting in a total 90% accuracy with a significant difference between the groups (p < or = 0.04). Overall, no statistical difference between the interpretations of the plain film and the digital image was revealed (p = 0.21). Using available technology, KUB images can be transmitted to a remote site, and the location of a stone can be determined correctly. Higher accuracy is demonstrated by experienced surgeons.

  19. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  20. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  1. America's First Government Documentary Films as Teaching Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews two documentaries produced by the U.S. government: "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (1936) and "The River" (1937). The first examines soil erosion in the Great Plains; the second considers Mississippi River usage. Narrates storylines and explains initial film criticism. Highlights the films' effectiveness for teaching…

  2. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  3. Functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  4. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  5. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  6. Young Craters on Smooth Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-15

    This image, from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974, shows young craters superposed on smooth plains. Larger young craters have central peaks, flat floors, terraced walls, and radial ejecta deposits.

  7. Origin of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Hodges, C. A.; Boyce, J. M.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the origin of Cayley-type lunar light plains, their physical properties, distribution, and relative ages are examined from Apollo orbital and Lunar Orbiter photographs. The distribution and apparent age of the plains deposits and data on highly feldspathic breccias indicate that these superficial materials are neither locally derived nor part of the Imbrium ejecta. The existence of a planar facies of continuous ejecta at Orientale and in the ejecta blankets of small craters is demonstrated. The data and interpretation presented support the hypothesis that the surface and near-surface materials of some light plains, including those at the Apollo 16 site, are at least partly composed of ejecta from the Orientale basin and that the materials of many rugged areas, such as the Descartes highlands, are overlain by similar material. The possibility that some Cayley-type plains may have a different origin is not excluded.

  8. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. [Abdominal wall reconstruction with collagen membrane in an animal model of abdominal hernia. A preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Aleksander; Drewa, Tomasz; Skopińska-Wiśniewska, Joanna; Molski, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical procedures. Current data indicate that the best treatment results are achieved with use of synthetic material to reinforce weakened abdominal wall. Prosthetic materials utilized for hernia repair induce adhesions with underlying viscera. They should be therefore separated from them by a layer of peritoneum otherwise adhesions may cause to serious complications such as bowel-skin fistulas. The aim of our work was to determine if implantation of our collagen membrane into abdominal wall defect induce adhesions in rat model of ventral hernia. The collagen film was obtained by acetic acid extraction of rat tail tendons and than casting the soluble fraction onto polyethylene shits. Abdominal wall defect was created in 10 Wistar male rats. Collagen membranes were implanted into the defect using interrupted polypropylene stitches. After 3 months of observation all animals were sacrificed. No adhesions between path structure and bowel developed. In one often rats (10%) adhesion between fixating stitch and omentum was observed. Complete mesothelium lining and vascular ingrowth were microscopically observed within implanted structure. Promising result requires further confirmation in a larger series of animals.

  10. Gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    2004-04-01

    To determine the pattern, presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children. A retrospective study. Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma from 1984-2002. The pattern, presentation, management and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma. In the 19 year period, 1984-2002, 92 children were treated for blunt abdominal trauma, 21(23%) of who had injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Three presenting after 24 hours had evidence of peritonitis. In six children with isolated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) injury who presented within two hours, abdominal signs were vague at initial evaluation but became marked over a few hours at repeated examination. In eight with associated intraabdominal injuries, abdominal signs were marked at initial examination and five presented with shock. Free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiograph in three of ten patients, dilated bowel loops in six and fluid levels in one. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis was positive in four patients with isolated GIT injuries and eight with associated intraabdominal injuries. There were 24 injuries in the 21 patients consisting of 15 perforations, five contusions, two seromuscular tears, and two gangrene from mesenteric injury. The small intestine was involved in 11 patients, colon six, stomach five, duodenum one and rectum one. Seven (35%) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury. One patient each developed prolonged ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in

  11. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  12. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...abdominal complications was 25%, with Curl- ng’s ulcer the most common malady (54% of the total), ollowed by esophageal lesions (17%), hemorrhagic...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large

  14. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  15. Abdominal girth and vertebral column length can adjust spinal anesthesia for lower limb surgery, a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-he; Zhu, Bo; Wei, Chang-na; Yan, Min

    2016-03-24

    Studies have shown that abdominal girth and vertebral column length have high predictive value for spinal spread after administering a dose of plain bupivacaine. we designed a study to identify the specific correlations between abdominal girth, vertebral column length and a 0.5% dosage of plain bupivacaine, which should provide a minimum upper block level (T12) and a suitable upper block level (T10) for lower limb surgeries. A suitable dose of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was administered intrathecally between the L3 and L4 vertebrae for lower limb surgeries. If the upper cephalad spread of the patient by loss of pinprick discrimination was T12 or T10, the patient was enrolled in this study. Five patient variables and intrathecal plain bupivacaine dose were recorded. Linear regression and multiple regression analyses were performed. Totals of 111 patients and 121 patients who lost pinprick discrimination at T12 and T10, respectively, were analyzed in this study. Linear regression analysis showed that only abdominal girth and plain bupivacaine dose were strongly correlated (r =-0.827 for T12, r = -0.806 for T10; both p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both abdominal girth and vertebral column length were the key determinants of plain bupivacaine dose (both p < 0.0001). R(2) was 0.874 and 0.860 for the loss of pinprick discrimination at T12 and T10, respectively. Our data indicated that vertebral column length and abdominal girth were strongly correlated with the dosage of intrathecal plain bupivacaine for the loss of pinprick discrimination at T12 and T10. The two regression equations were YT12 = 3.547 + 0.045X1-0.044X2 and YT10 = 3.848 + 0.047X1- 0.046X2 (Y, 0.5% plain bupivacaine volume; X1, vertebral column length;and X 2, abdominal girth), which can accurately predict the minimum and suitable intrathecal bupivacaine dose for lower limb surgery to a great extent, separately.

  16. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  17. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  18. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  19. Genetic variation in Great Plains Juniperus

    Treesearch

    David F. Van Haverbeke; Rudy M. King

    1990-01-01

    Fifth-year analyses of Great Plains Juniperus seed sources indicate eastern redcedar should be collected in east-central Nebraska for use throughout the Great Plains; Rocky Mountain juniper seed should be collected from northwest Nebraska, or central Montana, for planting southward through the Great Plains into west-central Kansas west of the 100th meridian.

  20. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms ofmore » peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.« less

  1. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  2. Abdominal elephantiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.

  3. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  4. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  7. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M.; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  8. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Abdominal aortic feminism

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  10. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  11. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  12. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Fever Hospital, Cairo, In the past, abdominal tuberculous ýileocaecal: was Egypt, are prospectively evaluated by the US Naval one of the commonest forms...8217. females of child-bearing age) indicated that 9 of 20 40%, were diagnosed as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. isolates from 91 tuberculous peritonitis

  13. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  14. Plains South of Valles Marineris

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-28

    This enhanced-color sample reveals the incredible diversity of landforms on some Martian plains that appear bland and uniform at larger scales. Here we see layers, small channels suggesting water flow, craters, and indurated sand dunes. The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 25.7 centimeters (10.1 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 77 centimeters (30.3 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21573

  15. Martian Plain in Late Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander acquired this view of the textured plain near the lander at about 11 a.m. local Mars solar time during the mission's 124th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2008).

    The image was taken through an infrared filter. The brighter patches are dustier than darker areas of the surface.

    The last signal from the lander came on Nov. 2, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  17. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  18. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  19. Plain radiography, renography, and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Munck, O; Gerquari, I; Møller, J T; Jensen, L I; Thomsen, H S

    1992-11-01

    Eighteen patients were evaluated before and 5 weeks after the first treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using abdominal plain radiography, 131I-hippuran probe renography, and 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. In 6 patients no urolithiasis was present on the post ESWL plain radiograph, in 7 the size had decreased, and in 5 the stone mass was unchanged. The renograms were within normal range in the 6 patients who were cured by ESWL, whereas this was the case for only 4 of the 12 who still had renal calculi. In 2 patients pelvic stones had descended into the ureter after ESWL, and the renograms indicated obstruction. Another 3 patients had ureteral stones, whereas in the remaining 7 patients only pelvic stones were found on the plain radiographs. In no patient did the scintigrams reveal scars. It is concluded that abdominal plain radiography of the urinary tract and probe renography are complementary and sufficient in the monitoring of patients with urolithiasis post ESWL.

  20. Abdominal ultrasound and medical education.

    PubMed

    García de Casasola Sánchez, G; Torres Macho, J; Casas Rojo, J M; Cubo Romano, P; Antón Santos, J M; Villena Garrido, V; Diez Lobato, R

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasound is a very versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization of multiple internal organs. It is of invaluable help for the physical examination of the patients. To assess if ultrasound can be incorporated into medical education and if the students can perform a basic abdominal ultrasound examination without the necessity of a long period of training. Twelve medical students were trained in basic abdominal ultrasound during a 15-h training program including a 5-h theoretical and practical course and supervised practice in 20 selected patients. Subsequently, we conducted an evaluation test that assessed the ability of students to obtain the ultrasound views and to detect various pathologies in five different patients. The students were able to correctly identify the abdominal views more than 90% of the times. This percentage was only lower (80%) in the right subcostal view to locate the gallbladder. The accuracy or global efficiency of the ultrasound for the diagnosis of relevant pathological findings of the patients was greater than 90% (91.1% gallstones, abdominal aortic aneurysm 100%; splenomegaly 98.3%, ascites 100%; dilated inferior vena cava 100%; acute urinary retention 100%). The ultrasound may be a feasible learning tool in medical education. Ultrasound can help students to improve the physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  2. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  3. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  4. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-09-19

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Abdominal shotgun trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Larentzakis, Andreas; Drimousis, Panagiotis; Riga, Maria; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction One of the most lethal mechanisms of injury is shotgun wound and particularly the abdominal one. Case presentation We report a case of a 45 years old male suffering abdominal shotgun trauma, who survived his injuries. Conclusion The management of the abdominal shotgun wounds is mainly dependent on clinical examination and clinical judgment, while requires advanced surgical skills. PMID:18625076

  6. Abdominal compartment syndrome related to noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Backer, Adelard; Schepens, Dirk R; Daelemans, Ronny; Wilmer, Alexander; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on intra-abdominal pressure. Single case report from a tertiary teaching hospital. A 65-year-old man who experienced a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse during NIPPV. This was caused by gastric overdistension due to aerophagia followed by raised intra-abdominal pressure leading to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The respiratory and cardiovascular problems resolved immediately after the introduction of a nasogastric tube. This resulted in normalization of IAP. This is the first case reported of an abdominal compartment syndrome related to NIPPV. Clinicians should be aware of this possible complication while using NIPPV.

  7. Acidalia and Chryse Plains, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-14

    Somewhere down there sits the Mars Pathfinder lander and Sojourner rover. This Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera view of the red planet shows the region that includes Ares Vallis and the Chryse Plains upon which both Mars Pathfinder and the Viking 1 landed in 1997 and 1976, respectively. Acidalia Planitia is the dark surface that dominates the center left. The Pathfinder site is immediately south of Acidalia, just left of center in this view. Also shown--the north polar cap is at the top, and Arabia Terra and Sinus Meridiani are to the right. The bluish-white features are clouds. This is a color composite of 9 red and 9 blue image strips taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera on 9 successive orbits from pole-to-pole during the calibration phase of the mission in March 1999. The color is computer-enhanced and is not shown as it would actually appear to the human eye. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02000

  8. Intercrater Plains and Heavily Cratered Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    This image, from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974, shows intercrater plains and heavily cratered terrain typical of much of Mercury outside the area affected by the formation of the Caloris basin.

  9. Boulder Strewn Plain in Northern Utopia Planitia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-31

    This image taken by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in the Cydnus Rupes region, shows that the northern plains of Mars are rock and boulder strewn landscapes otherwise devoid of major features except a few impact craters.

  10. Looking out Across the Martian Polar Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-26

    This image shows the vast plains of the northern polar region of Mars, as seen by NASA Phoenix Mars Lander shortly after touching down on the Red Planet. The flat landscape is strewn with tiny pebbles and shows polygonal cracking.

  11. Depopulation of the Northern Plains Natives.

    PubMed

    Decker, J F

    1991-01-01

    Nine major epidemics of acute infectious diseases swept the Northern Plains of the Western Interior of Canada between 1774 and 1839. The Blackfeet, Plains Cree and Assiniboin, Atsina and Saulteaux who exploited the Plains were differentially exposed to these epidemics of smallpox, measles, whooping cough and influenza. Mortality estimates from these epidemics were used in assessing the degree to which a series of epidemics contributed to depopulation of the Plains Natives. A criteria was established to determine an epidemic from a depopulation epidemic, which involved among other factors, the determination of age-selective mortality. The analysis concludes that despite the fact several Native groups exploited, and in some cases co-resided in a similar ecological area, they suffered differential mortality and depopulation rates.

  12. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    For more than half a century after Lewis and Clark crossed the country in 1805-6, the Great Plains was the testing ground of frontier America here America grew to maturity (fig. 1). In 1805-7, explorer Zebulon Pike crossed the southcentral Great Plains, following the Arkansas River from near Great Bend, Kans., to the Rocky Mountains. In later years, Santa Fe traders, lured by the wealth of New Mexican trade, followed Pike's path as far as Bents Fort, Colo., where they turned southwestward away from the river route. Those pioneers who later crossed the plains on the Oregon Trail reached the Platte River near the place that would become Kearney, Nebr., by a nearly direct route from Independence, Mo., and followed the Platte across the central part of the Great Plains.

  13. Small Craters Engulfed by Smooth Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    This double ring basin top center of image was photographed during NASA Mariner 10 second encounter and shows two craters about 30 km in diameter which have been engulfed by smooth plains on the floor of the inner ring.

  14. Premature deterioration of jointed plain concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-29

    Six sections of jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP)s throughout the state were selected as candidates for the evaluation of premature deterioration. The data used in performing the evaluation included manual and historic automated distress survey...

  15. Premature deterioration of jointed plain concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-29

    Six sections of jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP)s throughout the state were selected as : candidates for the evaluation of premature deterioration. The data used in performing the evaluation included manual : and historic automated distress su...

  16. The High Plains: Land of Extremes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, Ranel Stephenson; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides rich background information about unique High Plains ecosystems. Focuses on water, plant, animal, and energy resources. Describes hands-on activities related to ground water movement and energy resources. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  17. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  18. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  19. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  20. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  1. Subsidence driving forces in large Delta Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grall, C.; Steckler, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies show large variability in subsidence rates among large delta plains that directly impact coastal management of these highly vulnerable environments. Observations show both significant spatial variation in subsidence across each delta, as well as large differences in magnitude between different deltas. This variability raises the question of what are the driving forces that control subsidence in large delta plains that this study aims to address. Subsidence and sediment compaction is studied in 4 end-member large Delta Plains: the Ganges-Brahmaputra, the Mekong, the Mississippi and the Nile. Those large delta plains drastically contrast in subsidence rates (from values to several mm/yr to several cm/yr), in the nature of the sediment (notably in clay and organic matter content), and in the volume of sediment supplied by the large rivers that feed those coastal environments. The volume of sediment deposited in each delta plain during the Holocene is estimated and the compaction of the underlying sedimentary column is computed by using a backstripping approach. Sediment compaction behaviors are defined accordingly to the observed clay, silt and organic contents, and the rate of subsidence associated with compaction is determined. Results suggest that about 2/3 of observed Holocene subsidence may be associated with the mechanical and chemical compaction of the underlying sedimentary column due to the load of sediment deposited. The compaction appears to be significantly higher in delta plains characterized by a high sediment input and a high organic matter and clay content. Thus, the observed subsidence rates in the (muddy) Mekong delta appear to be one order of magnitude higher than other delta plains. In contrast, subsidence rates are modest in the Ganges-Brahmaputra, the Mississippi and the Nile delta plains, except away from the major rivers where deposits are muddier.

  2. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smooth Plains in Mercury's North

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA acquired: March 29, 2011 As the MESSENGER spacecraft passed low over Mercury's north polar region, MDIS used its pivot to capture this image, showing terrain that had not been previously seen by spacecraft. The newly imaged surface is located in Mercury's north polar region, to the north of the bright, rayed crater Hokusai. Looking from the bottom of the image toward the top is looking southward, just as MDIS was doing when this image was acquired. This newly seen terrain shows craters with long shadows, as expected at this high northern latitude. Understanding the interiors of the craters in Mercury's polar regions and any ices they may contain is one of the main science goals of the MESSENGER mission. The long shadows also accentuate the topography of the surface, which includes a number of ridges that resemble those seen on the expansive smooth plains imaged during Mercury flyby 3. On March 17, 2011 (March 18, 2011, UTC), MESSENGER became the first spacecraft ever to orbit the planet Mercury. The mission is currently in its commissioning phase, during which spacecraft and instrument performance are verified through a series of specially designed checkout activities. In the course of the one-year primary mission, the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation will unravel the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the science questions that the MESSENGER mission has set out to answer. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  4. Layered Craters and Icy Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-05

    This highest-resolution image from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft reveals new details of Pluto's rugged, icy cratered plains. Notice the layering in the interior walls of many craters (the large crater at upper right is a good example) -- layers in geology usually mean an important change in composition or event but at the moment New Horizons team members do not know if they are seeing local, regional or global layering. The darker crater in the lower center is apparently younger than the others, because dark material ejected from within -- its "ejecta blanket" -- have not been erased and can still be made out. The origin of the many dark linear features trending roughly vertically in the bottom half of the image is under debate, but may be tectonic. Most of the craters seen here lie within the 155-mile (250-kilometer)-wide Burney Basin, whose outer rim or ring forms the line of hills or low mountains at bottom. The basin is informally named after Venetia Burney, the English schoolgirl who first proposed the name "Pluto" for the newly discovered planet in 1930. The top of the image is to Pluto's northwest. These images were made with the telescopic Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard New Horizons, in a timespan of about a minute centered on 11:36 UT on July 14 -- just about 15 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach to Pluto-- from a range of just 10,000 miles (17,000 kilometers). They were obtained with an unusual observing mode; instead of working in the usual "point and shoot," LORRI snapped pictures every three seconds while the Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) aboard New Horizons was scanning the surface. This mode requires unusually short exposures to avoid blurring the images. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20200

  5. Film Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  6. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Eze, Kenneth C; Salami, Taofeek A; Kpolugbo, James U

    2014-05-01

    To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission.

  7. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A.; Kpolugbo, James U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission

  8. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  9. Abdominal Sarcoidosis Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Won Seok; Lee, Seungho; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jeonghyun

    2018-04-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with skin sarcoidosis, breast cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and peritoneal sarcoidosis with a past history of colorectal cancer. During stage work up for breast cancer, suspicious lesions on peritoneum were observed in imaging studies. Considering our patient's history and imaging findings, we initially suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, the peritoneal lesion was diagnosed as sarcoidosis in laparoscopic biopsy. This case demonstrates that abdominal sarcoidosis might be considered as a differential diagnosis when there is a lesion suspected of being peritoneal carcinomatosis with nontypical clinical presentations.

  10. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  11. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  12. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Phillip D; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    With an aging population, emergency department clinicians can expect an increase in geriatric patients presenting with abdominal pain. Compared with younger patients, this patient population is less likely to present with classic symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory values of abdominal disease. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with elderly patients presenting with abdominal pathologic conditions are significant. For this reason, the clinician must be familiar with some subtle and not so subtle differences when caring for the geriatric patient with abdominal pain to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of plain radiography in the diagnosis, surgical management, and postoperative treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in 25 goats and 2 sheep.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Marc A; Semevolos, Stacy; Parker, Jill E; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja; Huber, Michael

    2013-08-01

    To describe use of plain radiography for diagnosis, surgical management, and postoperative treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants. Retrospective case series. Small ruminants (n = 27; 25 goats, 2 sheep). Medical records (January 2002-November 2011) and radiographs for all small ruminants diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis and having plain abdominal radiographs were reviewed. Signalment, surgical procedures, radiographic findings, ultrasonographic findings, position of calculi, and how plain radiography influenced surgical management and postoperative treatment were recorded. Radiopaque urinary calculi were detected in 23 (85%) plain radiographic studies. Location of uroliths determined by plain radiography included: cystic only (n = 5), distal to the sigmoid flexure and cystic (5), subischial (5), distal to the sigmoid flexure only (3), sigmoid flexure (3), and subischial and cystic (2). In 8 of these animals, postoperative radiographs revealed residual calculi in the urethra and were essential for their targeted removal by urethrotomy in 7 animals. In regions where radiopaque calculi (calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, silica) are commonly encountered in small ruminants, plain radiographs are recommended to determine the appropriate surgical approach(es) and to confirm resolution of the obstruction. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Study of the malaria situation in forested foothill and nearby plain areas of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Myint, L; Ye, H

    1991-12-01

    A longitudinal demographic-parasitological survey on malaria was conducted at 10 weekly intervals starting from September in one foothill village with the population of 1,095 and one epidemiologically comparable plain village with the population of 962 in Kyauktaga township, Bago division, 120 miles north of Yangon. The objective was to describe and analyse the current malaria situation in a forested foothill area and an adjacent plain area. Ten weekly blood film collections for malaria parasite examination, six monthly sera collections on filter paper for serological examination from the whole study population and ten weekly splenic measurements from 2-9 year children were done. The malaria parasite rate in the foothill area was invariably higher than that in the plain area in all age groups throughout the study period. Moreover, the parasite rate decreased with the increase in distance from the forested foothill area indicating that the deep forest malaria may have some influence on the foothill villages. The total age specific parasite rate in foothill villages was found to be highest in the 5-8 year age group and decreased as the age advanced which may be due to the increasing immunity. The study revealed the presence of local transmission in the foothill village. From these data it is evident that new village sites should be chosen at least 5 miles away from the forest fringe and the malaria control measures in the plain area should utilize chemoprophylaxis and effective chemotherapy focusing on the people who travel into the forest.

  15. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious.

  16. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  17. The Laurentian Fan: Sohm Abyssal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.J.W.; Stow, D.A.V.; Normark, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The 0.5- to 2-km thick Quaternary Laurentian Fan is built over Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments that rest on oceanic crust. Two 400-km long fan valleys, with asymmetric levees up to 700-m high, lead to an equally long, sandy, lobate basin plain (northern Sohm Abyssal Plain). The muddy distal Sohm Abyssal Plain is a further 400-km long. The sediment supplied to the fan is glacial in origin, and in part results from seismically triggered slumping on the upper continental slope. Sandy turbidity currents, such as the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake event, probably erode the fan-valley floors; but thick muddy turbidity currents build up the high levees. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  19. Plain packaging policy: Preventing industry innovations.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2017-04-20

    The pack is a marketing tool for the tobacco industry - its shape, colour, fonts, descriptors and logos attract and mislead smokers. Health warnings on cigarette packs serve as a knowledge reminder for smokers to quit smoking. Plain packaging eliminates brand imagery elements from cigarette packs and has many benefits, including the reduction of intention to smoke and the denormalization of smoking behaviour. The tobacco industry has devised pack and product marketing innovations that thwart the effectiveness of health warnings. Plain packaging policy needs to address these innovations by restricting their use and preventing them from undermining health warnings.

  20. Geologic history of the Cerberus Plains, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanagan, Peter Denham

    This work examines the relative chronology of geologic units within the Cerberus Plains of Mars with an emphasis on lava flows emplaced after the last Marte Valles fluvial episode. High resolution images show the bulk of the Cerberus Plains is covered by platy-ridged and inflated lavas, which are interpreted as insulated sheet flows. Eastern Cerberus Plains lavas originate at Cerberus Fossae fissures and shields. Some flows extend for >2000 km through Marte Valles into Amazonis Planitia. Athabasca Valles are both incised into pristine lavas and embayed by pristine lavas, indicating that Athabascan fluvial events were contemporaneous with volcanic eruptions. Deposits of the Medusae Fossae Formation lie both over and under lavas, suggesting the deposition of the Medusae Fossae Formation was contemporaneous with volcanism. Statistics of small craters indicate lavas in the Western Cerberus Plains may be less than a million years old, but the model isochrons may be unreliable if the small crater population is dominated by secondary craters. Images showing no large craters with diameters >500 m superimposed on Western Cerberus Plains lavas indicate the same surface is younger than 49 Ma. High resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have revealed the existence of small cones in the Cerberus Plains, Marte Valles, and Amazonis Planitia. These cones are similar in both morphology and planar dimensions to the larger Icelandic rootless cones, which form due to explosive interactions between surficial lavas and near-surface groundwater. If martian cones form in the same manner as terrestrial rootless cones, then equatorial ground-ice or ground water must have been present near the surface in geologically recent times. Evidence for a shallow lake in the Western Cerberus Plains during the Late Amazonian is also presented. High-resolution images show features interpreted as flood-eroded scarps and fluvial spillways exiting the lake. Based on present-day topography, a lake

  1. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  2. Retrospective comparison of abdominal ultrasonography and radiography in the investigation of feline abdominal disease

    PubMed Central

    Won, Wylen Wade; Sharma, Ajay; Wu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are commonly used as part of the initial diagnostic plan for cats with nonspecific signs of abdominal disease. This retrospective study compared the clinical usefulness of abdominal radiography and ultrasonography in 105 feline patients with signs of abdominal disease. The final diagnosis was determined more commonly with ultrasonography (59%) compared to radiography (25.7%). Ultrasonography was also able to provide additional clinically relevant information in 76% of cases, and changed or refined the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Based on these findings, ultrasonography may be sufficient as an initial diagnostic test for the investigation of feline abdominal disease. PMID:26483582

  3. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  4. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  5. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  6. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  7. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A plain...

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An update

    PubMed

    Chuen, Jason; Theivendran, Mayo

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Medical therapy options remain limited and no aneurysm-specific pharmacotherapy is currently available. Recent years have witnessed a significant shift in AAA surgery from open repair to EVAR and expansion of EVAR techniques. General management of cardiovascular risk factors remains key to reducing all-cause mortality for patients with AAA.

  9. Da Vinci-assisted abdominal cerclage.

    PubMed

    Barmat, Larry; Glaser, Gretchen; Davis, George; Craparo, Frank

    2007-11-01

    To report the first placement of an abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Case report. Tertiary-care hospital. A 39-year-old female with a history of cervical insufficiency who required a cerclage and was not a candidate for transvaginal cerclage placement. Abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement using the da Vinci robot. Ability to safely and successfully place an abdominal cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Abdominal cerclage was successfully placed using the da Vinci robot. The patient had minimal blood loss and was discharged to home on the same day as surgery. Da Vinci robot-assisted abdominal cerclage placement is an innovative application of robotic surgery and may alter the standard of care for women who require this surgery.

  10. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  12. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  13. Second chance for the plains bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  14. Plains Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    One in a series of Native American instructional materials, this booklet introduces elementary students to the tribes of the plains culture area, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River and from Texas to Canada. Written in simple language, the booklet begins with a brief description of the region--its extreme climate and the…

  15. Soil suitability for hardwoods in Coastal Plains

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot; J. S. McKnight

    1962-01-01

    The Coastal Plain soil area occupies the major portion of Mississippi east of the Delta and Loess areas. In general, the soils are sandy, acid, and lacking in natural fertility, but on the alluvial soils moisture and drainage relations appear sufficient to support good growth of some tree species.

  16. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  17. Juniper seed sources in the Great Plains

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Cunningham; Rudy M. King

    2000-01-01

    At age 10, 100% of eastern redcedar ( L.) and Rocky Mountain juniper ( Sarg.) trees from several seed sources throughout the Great Plains had survived. Seed sources from southeastern Texas had the poorest survival. Eastern redcedar trees from Kansas seed sources grew tallest, and trees from Montana and southeastern Texas seed sources were the shortest. Rocky Mountain...

  18. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer...,000 scale. (c) Boundary. The Outer Coastal Plain viticultural area includes all of Cumberland, Cape... Counties in the State of New Jersey. The boundary of the Outer Coastal Plain viticultural area is as...

  19. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation. All...

  20. 12 CFR 611.1217 - Plain language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plain language requirements. 611.1217 Section 611.1217 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Termination of System Institution Status § 611.1217 Plain language requirements. (a) Plain language presentation. All...

  1. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  2. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  3. An evaluation of abdominal wall closure in general surgical and gynecological residents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Z; Williams, S; Easley, H A; Seita, H M; Hope, W W

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate abdominal wall closure knowledge base and technical skills in surgical and OB/GYN residents. Residents consented to participate in a skills laboratory and quiz. The skills portion involved closure of a 10-cm incision on a simulated abdominal wall. Participants were timed, filmed, and graded using a standardized grading system. Thirty surgical and OB/GYN residents participated. All residents reported closing the abdominal wall continuously, 97% preferred slowly absorbing sutures (28/29), 97% preferred taking 1-cm bites (29/30), and 93% spaced bites 1 cm apart (27/29). However, 77% (10/13) of surgery residents identified 4:1 as the ideal suture to wound length ratio; 47% (7/15) of OB/GYN residents believed it to be 2:1, and another 40% (6/15) indicated 3:1 (p < 0.0001). In the simulation, OB/GYN residents used significantly fewer stitches (p = 0.0028), significantly more distance between bites (p < 0.0001), and significantly larger bite size (p < 0.0001) than surgery residents. When graded, there was no significant difference between programs. Despite some knowledge regarding the principles of abdominal wall closure among surgical and OB/GYN residents, more instruction is needed. We identified some differences in knowledge base and techniques for abdominal wall closure among general surgery and OB/GYN residents, which are likely due to differences in educational curriculums.

  4. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 2: Experimental Pressure Measurements and Fractional Frequency Whirl Threshold for Wave and Plain Journal Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Dimofte, Florin; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A new hydrodynamic bearing concept, the wave journal bearing, is being developed because it has better stability characteristics than plain journal bearings while maintaining similar load capacity. An analysis code to predict the steady state and dynamic performance of the wave journal bearing is also part of the development. To verify numerical predictions and contrast the wave journal bearing's stability characteristics to a plain journal bearing, tests were conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center using an air bearing test rig. Bearing film pressures were measured at 16 ports located around the bearing circumference at the middle of the bearing length. The pressure measurements for both a plain journal bearing and a wave journal bearing compared favorably with numerical predictions. Both bearings were tested with no radial load to determine the speed threshold for self-excited fractional frequency whirl. The plain journal bearing started to whirl immediately upon shaft start-up. The wave journal did not incur self-excited whirl until 800 to 900 rpm as predicted by the analysis. Furthermore, the wave bearing's geometry limited the whirl orbit to less than the bearing's clearance. In contrast, the plain journal bearing did not limit the whirl orbit, causing it to rub.

  5. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  6. Laparoscopy In Unexplained Abdominal Pain: Surgeon's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad Tariq; Waqar, Shahzad Hussain; Zahid, Muhammad Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained abdominal pain is a common but difficult presenting feature faced by the clinicians. Such patients can undergo a number of investigations with failure to reach any diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad from January 2009 to December 2013. This study included 91 patients of unexplained abdominal pain not diagnosed by routine clinical examination and investigations. These patients were subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy for evaluation of their conditions and to confirm the diagnosis. These patients presented 43% of patients undergoing investigations for abdominal pain. Patients diagnosed with gynaecological problems were excluded to see surgeon's perspective. The findings and the outcomes of the laparoscopy were recorded and data was analyzed. Unexplained abdominal pain is common in females than in males. The most common laparoscopic findings were abdominal tuberculosis followed by appendicitis. Ninety percent patients achieved pain relief after laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopy is both beneficial and safe in majority of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. General surgeons should acquire training and experience in laparoscopic surgery to provide maximum benefit to these difficult patients.

  7. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  9. Review article: the functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D; Drossman, D A

    2011-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a debilitating disorder with constant or nearly constant abdominal pain, present for at least 6 months and loss of daily functioning. To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of FAPS. A literature review using the keywords: functional abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional gastrointestinal disorders. No epidemiological studies have focused specifically on FAPS. Estimates of prevalence range from 0.5% to 1.7% and tend to show a female predominance. FAPS pathophysiology appears unique in that the pain is caused primarily by amplified central perception of normal visceral input, rather than by enhanced peripheral stimulation from abdominal viscera. The diagnosis of FAPS is symptom-based in accordance with the Rome III diagnostic criteria. These criteria are geared to identify patients with severe symptoms as they require constant or nearly constant abdominal pain with loss of daily function and are differentiated from IBS based on their non-association with changes in bowel habit, eating or other gut-related events. As cure is not feasible, the aims of treatment are reduced suffering and improved quality of life. Treatment is based on a biopsychosocial approach with a therapeutic patient-physician partnership at its base. Therapeutic options include central nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities and peripheral modalities. These can be combined to produce an augmentation effect. Although few studies have assessed functional abdominal pain syndrome or its treatment specifically, the treatment strategies outlined in this paper appear to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma formation and physical function. A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases with the use of abdominal binders. Reduction of pulmonary function during use of abdominal binders has not been revealed. Abdominal binders reduce post-operative psychological distress, but their effect on post-operative pain after laparotomy and seroma formation after ventral hernia repair remains unclear. Due to the sparse evidence and poor quality of the literature, solid conclusions may be difficult to make, and procedure-specific, high-quality randomised clinical trials are warranted.

  11. Abdominal epilepsy as an unusual cause of abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Yilmaz; Sefer, Ustebay; Dondu, Ulker Ustebay; Ismail, Ozanli; Yusuf, Ehi

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal pain, in etiology sometimes difficult to be defined, is a frequent complaint in childhood. Abdominal epilepsy is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In this article, we report on 5 year old girl patient with abdominal epilepsy. Some investigations (stool investigation, routine blood tests, ultrasonography (USG), electrocardiogram (ECHO) and electrocardiograpy (ECG), holter for 24hr.) were done to understand the origin of these complaints; but no abnormalities were found. Finally an EEG was done during an episode of abdominal pain and it was shown that there were generalized spikes especially precipitated by hyperventilation. The patient did well on valproic acid therapy and EEG was normal 1 month after beginning of the treatment. The cause of chronic recurrent paroxymal abdominal pain is difficult for the clinicians to diagnose in childhood. A lot of disease may lead to paroxysmal gastrointestinal symptoms like familial mediterranean fever and porfiria. Abdominal epilepsy is one of the rare but easily treatable cause of abdominal pain. In conclusion, abdominal epilepsy should be suspected in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  12. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  13. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  14. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  16. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  17. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J J; Brown, S J; Beeman, R W; Denell, R E

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  18. Volcanic Plains of Io Near Galai Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Io's volcanic plains are shown in this Voyager 1 image, which spans an area about 1030 km (640 miles) from left to right. North is about the 1:30 position. Numerous volcanic calderas and lava flows are visible here. The brown teardrop-shaped feature at left center is Galai Patera, a 100-km-long (62 mi) lava-flooded caldera (collapsed vent) of a volcano. The composition of Io's volcanic plains and lava flows has not been determined. The prevalent yellow, brown, and orange material may consist dominantly of sulfur with surface frosts of sulfur dioxide or of silicates (such as basalt) encrusted with sulfur and sulfur dioxide condensates. The whitish patches probably are freshly deposited SO2 frost.

  19. Outwash plains and thermokarst on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costard, F.M.; Kargel, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution of different types of rampart craters on Mars suggests a hemispheric asymmetry in the distribution of ground ice. The northern plains, especially major topographic depressions near the terminations of outflow channels, have high percentages of rampart craters. Two of these basins, Acidalia and Utopia Planitiae, received extraordinarily large amounts of water and sediment from the Chryse and Elysium outflow channels. In both regions, the analysis of high-resolution Viking pictures (12 m/pixel) indicates a concentration of kilometer-scale depressions that are similar in size and form to thermokarstic features in Yakutia (Siberia) and parts of the arctic coastal plain of North America. Accordingly, we infer that (1) Utopia Planitia and Acidalia Planitia may contain thick, laterally continuous, ice-rich sedimentary deposits related to outflow channel-forming floods, and (2) these areas of Mars may have experienced thermokarstic processes similar to modern thermokarstic processes in some periglacial regions of Earth.

  20. [Desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Henriksen, L O; Medgyesi, S; Waever, E

    1994-02-07

    Four cases of muscle-aponeurotic fibroadenomatosis (desmoid) of the abdominal wall are reported. The etiological factors, the recurrence rate, the treatment and the pre- and postoperative examinations are discussed.

  1. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long-term Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term Ankle Problems Breast Problems in Men Breast Problems in Women Chest Pain in Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis . Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the ... covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) ...

  3. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  4. Plain Language Summary: Earwax (Cerumen Impaction)

    PubMed

    Krouse, Helene J; Magit, Anthony E; O'Connor, Sarah; Schwarz, Seth R; Walsh, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining earwax (cerumen). The summary applies to patients older than 6 months with a clinical diagnosis of earwax impaction and is based on the 2017 update of the Clinical Practice Guideline: Earwax (Cerumen Impaction). The evidence-based guideline includes research that supports diagnosis and treatment of earwax impaction. The guideline was developed to improve care by health care providers for managing earwax impaction by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  5. High Plains regional ground-water study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, industry and government have made large financial investments aimed at improving water quality across the Nation. Significant progress has been made; however, many water-quality concerns remain. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment Program to provide consistent and scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers, (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality. Assessing the quality of water in every location in the Nation would not be practical; therefore, NAWQA Program studies are conducted within a set of areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units are composed of more than 50 important river and aquifer systems that represent the diverse geography, water resources, and land and water uses of the Nation. The High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study is one such study area, designed to address issues relevant to the High Plains Aquifer system while supplementing water-quality information collected in other study units across the Nation. Implementation of the NAWQA Program for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study area began in 1998.

  6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hip Arthroscopy Justin Fowler, M.D., and Brett D. Owens, M.D. Abstract: As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur...We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy

  7. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  8. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  10. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  11. Mechanisms and management of functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome is characterised by frequent or continuous abdominal pain associated with a degree of loss of daily activity. It has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 1.7%, with a female preponderance. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is incompletely understood although it has been postulated that peripheral sensitisation of visceral afferents, central sensitisation of the spinal dorsal horn and aberrancies within descending modulatory systems may have an important role. The management of patients with functional abdominal pain requires a tailored multidisciplinary approach in a supportive and empathetic environment in order to develop an effective therapeutic relationship. Patient education directed towards an explanation of the pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is in our opinion a prerequisite step and provides the rationale for the introduction of interventions. Interventions can usefully be categorised into general measures, pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions and 'step-up' treatments. Pharmacotherapeutic/step-up options include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors and the gabapentinoids. Psychological treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy and hypnotherapy. However, the objective evidence base for these interventions is largely derived from other chronic pain syndrome, and further research is warranted in adult patients with functional abdominal pain. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  12. Genes and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2011-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since the first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, approximately 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. These studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, only when appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called contactin-3, which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. However, two follow-up studies could not replicate this association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33, were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense ribonucleic acid that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute toward AAA pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    PubMed

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  14. Management of complex abdominal wall defects associated with penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Arul, G Suren; Sonka, B J; Lundy, J B; Rickard, R F; Jeffery, S L A

    2015-03-01

    The paradigm of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) has radically improved the management of abdominal trauma, but less well described are the options for managing the abdominal wall itself in an austere environment. This article describes a series of patients with complex abdominal wall problems managed at the UK-led Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Contemporaneous review of a series of patients with complex abdominal wall injuries who presented to the Role 3 MTF between July and November 2012. Five patients with penetrating abdominal trauma associated with significant damage to the abdominal wall were included. All patients were managed using DCS principles, leaving the abdominal wall open at the end of the first procedure. Subsequent management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses. The principles of management identified included minimising tissue loss on initial laparotomy by joining adjacent wounds and marginal debridement of dead tissue; contraction of the abdominal wall was minimised by using topical negative pressure dressing and dermal-holding sutures. Definitive closure was timed to allow oedema to settle and sepsis to be controlled. Closure techniques include delayed primary closure with traction sutures, components separation, and mesh closure with skin grafting. A daily multidisciplinary team discussion was invaluable for optimal decision making regarding the most appropriate means of abdominal closure. Dermal-holding sutures were particularly useful in preventing myostatic contraction of the abdominal wall. A simple flow chart was developed to aid decision making in these patients. This flow chart may prove especially useful in a resource-limited environment in which returning months or years later for closure of a large ventral hernia may not be possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  15. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. A total of 3783 cases were included, with a mean age of 39.1 ± 17.7 years (14-99), 76.1% being male. Abdominal injuries were detected in 130 patients (3.4%). Patients sustaining abdominal injuries had significantly lower mean age (35.4 + 15.4 vs. 39.2 + 17.7), lower mean systolic blood pressure on admission (114.7 + 32.4 mmHg vs. 129.1 + 21.7 mmHg), lower mean Glasgow coma scale (12.9 + 3.9 vs. 14.3 + 2.0), as well as higher head AIS (0.95 + 1.5 vs. 0.67 + 1.1), higher thorax AIS (1.10 + 1.5 vs. 0.11 + 0.6) and higher extremities AIS (1.70 ± 1.8 vs. 1.03 ± 1.2). Patients sustaining abdominal injuries also presented higher frequency of severe injuries (AIS>3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  16. [Implementationof a low FODMAP dietforfunctional abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Baranguán Castro, María Luisa; Ros Arnal, Ignacio; García Romero, Ruth; Rodríguez Martínez, Gerardo; Ubalde Sainz, Eduardo

    2018-04-20

    The low FODMAP diet (fermentable oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polyols) has shown to be effective in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome, but there are few studies on paediatric patients. The aim of this study is to assess the implementation and the outcomes of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children from a Mediterranean area. A table was designed in which foods were classified according to their FODMAP content, as well as a 'Symptoms and Stools Diary'. A prospective study was conducted on children with functional abdominal pain in our Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit. A total of 22 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 20 completed it. Data were collected of the abdominal pain features over a period of 3 days, and then patients followed a two-week low FODMAP diet. Afterwards, information about abdominal pain features was collected again. After the diet, they showed fewer daily abdominal pain episodes compared to baseline (1.16 [IQR: 0.41-3.33] versus 2 [IQR: 1.33-6.33] daily episodes, P=.024), less pain severity compared to baseline (1.41cm [IQR: 0.32-5.23] versus 4.63cm [IQR: 2.51-6.39] measured by 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale, P=.035), less interference with daily activities, and less gastrointestinal symptoms. Only 15% of patients found it difficult to follow the diet. The implementation of a low FODMAP diet for 2 weeks in a Mediterranean paediatric population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain is possible with adapted diets. It was highly valued by patients, and they showed an improvement in abdominal pain symptoms assessed by objective methods. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  18. Chronic abdominal wall pain and ultrasound-guided abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kanakarajan, Saravanakumar; High, Kristina; Nagaraja, Ravi

    2011-03-01

    Chronic abdominal wall pain occurs in about 10-30% of patients presenting with chronic abdominal pain. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of abdominal wall pain. We report our experience of treating such patients using ultrasound-guided abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration. We conducted a retrospective audit of abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration performed in the period between September 2008 to August 2009 in our center. All patients had received local anesthetic and steroid injection under ultrasound guidance. The response to the infiltration was evaluated in the post-procedure telephone review as well as in the follow-up clinic. Brief pain inventory (BPI) and numerical rating scale pain scores were collated from two points: the initial outpatient clinic and the follow up clinic up to 5 months following the injection. Nine patients had abdominal cutaneous nerve injections under ultrasound guidance in the period under review. Six patients reported 50% pain relief or more (responders) while three patients did not. Pain and BPI scores showed a decreasing trend in responders. The median duration of follow-up was 12 weeks. Ultrasound can reliably be used for infiltration of the abdominal cutaneous nerves. This will improve the safety as well as diagnostic utility of the procedure. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pediatrics. A review.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Farah Chedly; Ejike, Janeth Chiaka

    2017-10-01

    To consolidate pediatric intensivists' understanding of the pathophysiology, definition, incidence, monitoring, and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); and to highlight the characteristics related to the pediatric population. This is a narrative review article that utilized a systematic search of the medical literature published in the English language between January 1990 and august 2016. Studies were identified by conducting a comprehensive search of Pub Med databases. Search terms included "intra-abdominal hypertension and child", "intra-abdominal hypertension and pediatrics", "abdominal compartment syndrome and child", and "abdominal compartment syndrome and pediatrics". Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are associated with a number of pathophysiological disturbances and increased morbidity and mortality. These conditions have been well described in critically ill adults. In children, the IAH and the ACS have a reported incidence of 13% and 0.6 to 10% respectively; they carry similar prognostic impact but are still under-diagnosed and under-recognized by pediatric health care providers. Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are conditions that are regularly encountered in critically ill children. They are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition, prevention and timely management of this critical condition are necessary to improve its outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between vascular calcification scores on plain radiographs and fatty acid contents of erythrocyte membrane in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Son, Young K; Lee, Su M; Kim, Seong E; Kim, Ki H; Lee, Seon Y; Bae, Hae R; Han, Jin Y; Park, Yongsoon; An, Won S

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) scores determined by using simple plain radiographic films are known to be associated with coronary artery disease and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Omega-3 fatty acid (FA) has been shown to reduce ectopic calcifications in an animal model, and it has also been shown that erythrocyte membrane omega-3 FA content is an independent discriminator of coronary artery disease. The present study was designed to demonstrate relations between VC scores and erythrocyte membrane FA contents in patients undergoing HD. A cross-sectional study was carried out. The study was carried out at an outpatient hemodialysis unit at Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea. A total of 31 patients undergoing HD were recruited. Patients with significant malnutrition, a short duration of dialysis (<12 months), a history of recent infection, malignancy, or liver disease were excluded. Plain radiographic films of the feet, hands, pelvis, and lateral lumbar spine were examined and VC scores were determined using previously reported methods. Erythrocyte membrane FA contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. The erythrocyte membrane contents of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were not found to be related with VC on simple plain radiographic films. However, erythrocyte membrane contents of oleic acid and total monounsaturated FA (MUFA) were significantly higher in patients with significant VC scores. Furthermore, erythrocyte membrane contents of MUFA and oleic acid were found to be negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and positively associated with triglyceride level. Erythrocyte membrane contents of MUFA and oleic acid were found to be associated with VC scores determined using plain radiographs and with dyslipidemia in patients undergoing HD. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Utility of plain radiographs in detecting traumatic injuries of the cervical spine in children.

    PubMed

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Rogers, Alexander J; Adelgais, Kathleen M; Olsen, Cody S; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Jaffe, David M; Leonard, Julie C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity of plain radiographs in identifying bony or ligamentous cervical spine injury in children. We identified a retrospective cohort of children younger than 16 years with blunt trauma-related bony or ligamentous cervical spine injury evaluated between 2000 and 2004 at 1 of 17 hospitals participating in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We excluded children who had a single or undocumented number of radiographic views or one of the following injuries types: isolated spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities, or atlantoaxial rotary subluxation. Using consensus methods, study investigators reviewed the radiology reports and assigned a classification (definite, possible, or no cervical spine injury) as well as film adequacy. A pediatric neurosurgeon, blinded to the classification of the radiology reports, reviewed complete case histories and assigned final cervical spine injury type. We identified 206 children who met inclusion criteria, of which 127 had definite and 41 had possible cervical spine injury identified by plain radiograph. Of the 186 children with adequate cervical spine radiographs, 168 had definite or possible cervical spine injury identified by plain radiograph for a sensitivity of 90% (95% confidence interval, 85%-94%). Cervical spine radiographs did not identify the following cervical spine injuries: fracture (15 children) and ligamentous injury alone (3 children). Nine children with normal cervical spine radiographs presented with 1 or more of the following: endotracheal intubation (4 children), altered mental status (5 children), or focal neurologic findings (5 children). Plain radiographs had a high sensitivity for cervical spine injury in our pediatric cohort.

  2. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  3. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  4. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation.

  5. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  6. Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  7. Film Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

  8. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  9. Ground-water conditions in the Plaine de Moustiques, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Plaine des Moustiques lies on the north coast of Haiti about 12 kilometers west-southwest of Port-de-Paix. During January 1949 the writers made a brief geologic study to determine the availability of ground water in the plain for irrigation. At present irrigation is practiced by diversions from the Rivière des Moustiques. However, the dry-season flow of this stream is generally inadequate for irrigation or is sufficient to cover only a small part of the Irrigable area of the plain. According to Lieurance1 there is a total of about 1,120 hectares of irrigable land in the plain.

  10. On Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Marty

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

  11. Nanocomposite films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlin, David; , Ophus, Colin; Evoy, Stephane; Radmilovic, Velimir; Mohammadi, Reza; Westra, Ken; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel; Lee, Zonghoon

    2010-07-20

    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  12. Abdominal Wall Desmoid during Pregnancy: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Johnny; Hammoud, Nadine; Farra, Chantal; Fares, Farah; Abi Saad, George; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-01-01

    Background. Desmoids are benign tumors, with local invasive features and no metastatic potential, which have rarely been described to be pregnancy associated. Case. We described the rapid growth of an anterior abdominal wall mass in a 40-year-old pregnant woman. Due to its close proximity to the enlarged uterus, it was misdiagnosed to be a uterine leiomyoma by ultrasound examination. Final tissue diagnosis and radical resection were done at the time of abdominal delivery. Conclusion. Due to the diagnostic limitations of imaging techniques, desmoids should always be considered when the following manifestations are observed in combination: progressive growth of a solitary abdominal wall mass during pregnancy and well-delineated smooth tumor margins demonstrated by imaging techniques. This case emphasizes the importance of entertaining uncommon medical conditions in the differential diagnosis of seemingly common clinical manifestations. PMID:23346436

  13. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  14. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant.

  15. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, L. Ben; Ghariani, B.; Rabeh, A.; Dali, N.; Said, W.; Hendaoui, L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ewing sarcoma is most commonly a bone tumour which has usually extended into the soft tissues at the time of diagnosis. Exceptionally, this tumour can have an extraskeletal origin. Clinical or imaging findings are non-specific and diagnosis is based on histology. We report a case of an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma developed in the soft tissues of the abdominal wall in a 35-year-old woman who presented a painful abdominal wall tumefaction. Ultrasongraphy and computed tomography showed a large, well-defined soft tissue mass developed in the left anterolateral muscle group of the abdominal wall. Surgical biopsy was performed and an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma was identified histologically. PMID:18818133

  16. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Plain Language Summary: Adult Sinusitis (Sinus Infection).

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Leslie A; Walter, Lindsey M; Walsh, Sandra A; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2015-08-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining sinusitis (pronounced sign-you-side-tis). The purpose of this plain language summary is to provide patients with standard language explaining their condition in an easy-to-read format. This summary applies to those 18 years of age or older with sinusitis. The summary is featured as an FAQ (frequently asked question) format. The summary addresses how to manage and treat sinusitis symptoms. Adult sinusitis is often called a sinus infection. A healthcare provider may refer to a sinus infection as rhinosinusitis (pronounced rhi-no-sign-you-side-tis). This includes the nose as well as the sinuses in the name. A sinus infection is the swelling of the sinuses and nasal cavity.The summary is based on the published 2015 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of adult sinus infections. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing sinus infections by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  18. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  19. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  20. River flood plains: Some observations on their formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolman, M. Gordon; Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1957-01-01

    On many small rivers and most great rivers, the flood plain consists of channel and overbank deposits. The proportion of the latter is generally very small.Frequency studies indicate that the flood plains of many streams of different sizes flowing in diverse physiographic and climatic regions are subject to flooding about once a year.The uniform frequency of flooding of the flood-plain surface and the small amount of deposition observed in great floods (average 0.07 foot) support the conclusion that overbank deposition contributes only a minor part of the material constituting the flood plain. The relatively high velocities (1 to 4 fps) which can occur in overbank flows and the reduction in sediment concentration which often accompanies large floods may also help account for this. Although lateral migration of channels is important in controlling the elevation of the flood plain, rates of migration are extremely variable and alone cannot account for the uniform relation the flood-plain surface bears to the channel.Detailed studies of flood plains in Maryland and in North Carolina indicate that it is difficult to differentiate between channel and overbank deposits in a stratigraphic section alone.Because deposition on the flood plain does not continue indefinitely, the flood-plain surface can only be transformed into a terrace surface by some tectonic or climatic change which alters the regimen of the river and causes it to entrench itself below its established bed and associated flood plain. A terrace, then, is distinguished from a flood plain by the frequency with which each is overflowed.

  1. In vitro comparison of intra-abdominal hypertension development after different temporary abdominal closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Emanuel; Labler, Ludwig; Seifert, Burkhardt; Trentz, Otmar; Menger, Michael D; Meier, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    To compare volume reserve capacity (VRC) and development of intra-abdominal hypertension after different in vitro temporary abdominal closure (TAC) techniques. A model of the abdomen was designed. The abdominal wall was simulated with polychloroprene, a synthetic rubber compound. A lentil-shaped defect of 150 cm(2) was cut into the anterior aspect of the abdominal wall. TAC of this defect was performed by a zipper system (ZS), a bag silo closure (BSC), or a vacuum assisted closure (VAC) with subatmospheric pressures ranging from 0- to 200 mmHg. The model with intact abdominal wall served as reference. The model was filled with water to baseline level. The intra-abdominal pressure was increased in 2 mmHg steps from baseline level (6 mmHg) to 40 mmHg by adding volume to the system according to a standardized protocol. VRC with corresponding intra-abdominal pressure were analyzed and compared for the different TAC techniques. VRC was the highest after BSC at all pressure levels studied (P < 0.05). VAC and ZS resulted in significantly lower VRC compared with BSC and reference (P < 0.05). The magnitude of negative pressure on the VAC did not significantly influence the VRC. In the present in vitro model, BSC demonstrated the highest VRC of all evaluated TAC techniques. Different levels of subatmospheric pressures applied to the VAC did not affect VRC. The results for ZS and VAC indicate that these TAC techniques may increase the risk for recurrent intra-abdominal hypertension and should therefore not be used in high-risk patients during the initial phase after abdominal decompression.

  2. O Wakaga. Activities for Learning about the Plains Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Linda Skinner

    A companion to The Mamook Book (ED 214 720), the student activity book teaches about Plains Indian cultures (in particular about Lakota life) through a series of activities such as: coloring panoramas of a Plains tipi encampment and a contemporary reservation; depicting historical and contemporary children; making a mobile; constructing a tipi and…

  3. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program-High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  4. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  5. Twin abdominal pregnancy - A rare scenario.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Faiqa

    2017-05-01

    Twin abdominal pregnancy is rarely encountered by gynaecologists throughout their professional career. It poses a challenge in terms of diagnosis and management. This case report is about a patient who was diagnosed and successfully managed for this complication at a peripheral hospital of Pakistan Armed Forces.

  6. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  7. Childhood functional abdominal pain: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Vlieger, Arine; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition.

  8. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  10. [Abdominal traumatic evisceration: reconstruction abdominal wall with biologic mesh and negative pressure therapy].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Gómez, M; Betancor Rivera, N; Lima Sánchez, J; Hernández Hernández, J R

    2016-04-10

    Abdominal traumatic evisceration as a result of high energy trauma is uncommon. Once repaired the possible internal damage, an abdominal wall defect of high complexity may exist, whose reconstruction represents a surgical challenge. Politraumatized male with important abdominal muculocutaneous avulsion and evisceration. After initial repair, the patient developed a big eventration in which we use a porcine dermis-derived mesh (Permacol TM ), a safe and effective alternative in abdominal wall repair, thanks to its seamless integration with other tissues, even when exposed. Negative pressure therapy has been used for the management of wound complications after surgical implantation of PermacolTM mesh. We describe our experience with the use of PermacolTM mesh and negative pressure therapy to aid the wound closure after skin necrosis and exposed mesh.

  11. Portion of Pluto Sputnik Planum Sputnik Plain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-17

    This annotated view of a portion of Pluto's Sputnik Planum (Sputnik Plain), named for Earth's first artificial satellite, shows an array of enigmatic features. The surface appears to be divided into irregularly shaped segments that are ringed by narrow troughs, some of which contain darker materials. Features that appear to be groups of mounds and fields of small pits are also visible. This image was acquired by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on July 14 from a distance of 48,000 miles (77,000 kilometers). Features as small as a half-mile (1 kilometer) across are visible. The blocky appearance of some features is due to compression of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19714

  12. Closer Look: Majestic Mountains and Frozen Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-17

    Just 15 minutes after its closest approach to Pluto on July 14, 2015, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft looked back toward the sun and captured a near-sunset view of the rugged, icy mountains and flat ice plains extending to Pluto's horizon. The smooth expanse of the informally named Sputnik Planum (right) is flanked to the west (left) by rugged mountains up to 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) high, including the informally named Norgay Montes in the foreground and Hillary Montes on the skyline. The backlighting highlights more than a dozen layers of haze in Pluto's tenuous but distended atmosphere. The image was taken from a distance of 11,000 miles (18,000 kilometers) to Pluto; the scene is 230 miles (380 kilometers) across. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19947

  13. Viking 2 Image of Mars Utopian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The boulder-strewn field of red rocks reaches to the horizon nearly two miles from Viking 2 on Mars' Utopian Plain. Scientists believe the colors of the Martian surface and sky in this photo represent their true colors. Fine particles of red dust have settled on spacecraft surfaces. The salmon color of the sky is caused by dust particles suspended in the atmosphere. Color calibration charts for the cameras are mounted at three locations on the spacecraft. Note the blue star field and red stripes of the flag. The circular structure at top is the high-gain antenna, pointed toward Earth. Viking 2 landed September 3,1976, some 4600 miles from its twin, Viking 1, which touched down on July 20.

  14. Frosty Gullies on the Northern Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-15

    Seasonal frost commonly forms at middle and high latitudes on Mars, much like winter snow on Earth. However, on Mars most frost is carbon dioxide dry ice rather than water ice. This image is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. This image shows frost in gully alcoves in a crater on the Northern plains. The frost highlights details of the alcoves, since it forms in different amounts depending on slopes and shadows as well as the type of material making up the ground. Rugged rock outcrops appear dark and shadowed, while frost highlights the upper alcove and the steepest route down the slope. Most changes associated with gullies are observed in the Southern hemisphere. However, some are seen in the Northern hemisphere, where steep slopes are less common. HiRISE is monitoring these gullies to look for changes and to understand the behavior of the frost. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19852

  15. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  16. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  17. Temporary Abdominal Closure Combined With an Irrigating System Utilizing Hypochlorous Acid Solution to Decrease Abdominal Mucopurulence

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marc R.; Quan, Asia N.; Weir, Alexandra S.; Foster, Kevin N.; Caruso, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Leaving the abdominal cavity open is a well-described and frequently utilized technique in the treatment of severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Irrigation through a negative pressure wound therapy device is a technique employed to assist in the closure of wounds as well as the reduction of bacterial contamination. Furthermore, hypochlorous acid has been found to be safe and effective in microorganismal elimination from extremity wounds. There is no literature regarding the infusion of hypochlorous solution into the abdominal cavity for intra-abdominal sepsis or mucopurulent abscesses or biofilm. Objectives: A 47-year-old man with granulomatosis polyangiitis was started on weekly rituximab. After 4 infusions, skin sloughing, ultimately diagnosed as toxic epidermal necrolysis, developed. During the hospital course, he developed sepsis and bowel perforation necessitating an exploratory laparotomy. The abdomen was left open with a temporary abdominal closure using the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device; however, the abdomen remained infected with visually diffuse, thickening mucopurulence despite multiple washouts. Therefore, a VAC Vera-Flo irrigation device was combined with the Abthera open abdomen negative wound therapy device and cyclical irrigation of hypochlorous acid. After 72 hours, the purulence visually was improved and no adverse events were recorded with the placement of intra-abdominal hypochlorous acid. Conclusions: The combination of two medical devices for the intra-abdominal instillation of irrigation is considered “off-label use” from the manufacturer's recommendations. In addition, the repeated instillation of hypochlorous acid solution has not been described but was noted to have visually decreased the contaminated effluent within the intra-abdominal fluid. PMID:29527250

  18. Analysis of polyethylene wear in plain radiographs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Two-dimensional computerized radiographic techniques are frequently used to measure in vivo polyethylene (PE) wear after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and several variables in the clinical set-up may influence the amount of wear that is measured. We compared the repeatability and concurrent validity of linear PE wear on plain radiographs using the same software but a different number of radiographs. Methods We used either 1, 2, or 6 anteroposterior (AP) hip radiographs of 11 patients from a clinical THA series with 12 years of follow-up, and measured the PE wear with the software PolyWare 3D Pro. Repeatability within and concurrent validity between the different numbers of radiograph strategies were assessed using limits of agreement (LOAs) and bias. Results Observed median wear (range) in mm was 3.4 (1.6–4.6), 2.3 (0.7–4.9), and 4.0 (2.6–6.2) for the 1-, 2-, and 6-radiograph strategies. For repeatability, no bias (p > 0.41) was observed. LOAs around the bias were ± 0.6, ± 0.4, and ± 1.2 mm for the 1-, 2-, and 6-radiograph strategies. For concurrent validity, a bias (± LOA) between all pairwise comparisons was observed (p < 0.02) with 0.8 mm (± 2.5) between the 1- and 2-radiograph strategies, 1.0 mm (± 2.2) between the 1- and 6-radiograph strategies, and 1.8 mm (± 1.2) between the 2- and 6-radiograph strategies. Interpretation The number of radiographs used for wear measurement with a shadow-casting analysis method on plain AP radiographs influences the amount of linear wear measured. Results of PE wear obtained with PolyWare in studies using a different number of radiographs are not comparable. PMID:19995318

  19. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  20. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  1. Gorham disease of the lumbar spine with an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Yohei; Iizuka, Haku; Kobayashi, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toru; Mohara, Jun; Takagishi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Reports of Gorham disease of the lumbar spine complicated by abdominal aortic aneurysms are rare. We herein report the case of a patient with Gorham disease of the lumber spine involving an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Case report. A 49-year-old man had a 1-month history of right leg pain and severe low back pain. Plain lumbar radiography revealed an osteolytic lesion in the L4 vertebral body. Computed tomography images demonstrated the presence of an extensive osteolytic lesion in the L4 vertebral body and an AAA in front of the L4 vertebral body. The patient underwent mass resection, spinal reconstruction, and blood vessel prosthesis implantation. During surgery, it was found that the wall of the aorta had completely disappeared and was shielded by the tumor mass; therefore, we speculated that the mass in the lumbar spine had directly invaded the aorta. The patient was able to walk without right leg or low back pain 1 year after undergoing surgery. No recurrence was demonstrated in the magnetic resonance images taken 1 year and 10 months after surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  3. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Qazi, Saqib Hamid; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Akhtar, Wassem; Majeed, Amina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1,2000 to December 31,2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonograpy had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be limited to those cases in which focussed

  4. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  5. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios <1. One sample of the Gomti river and seven small adjacent tributaries have elevated Na concentrations likely caused by dissolution of Na carbonate salts. The compositions of the carbonate and silicate components of the sediments were determined from sequential leaches of floodplain bedloads and these were used to partition the dissolved cation load between silicate and carbonate sources. The 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios of the carbonate

  6. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    PubMed

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p < 0.001) and to contain better tasting cigarettes (β = 3.53, p < 0.001), but were not perceived as less harmful than plain packs. Participants rated people who smoke the branded packs as having relatively more positive smoker-image traits overall (β = 2.10, p < 0.001), with particularly strong differences found among non-smokers for the traits 'glamorous', 'stylish', 'popular' and 'sophisticated' (p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found for the proportion of youth that accepted when offered branded compared with plain packs. These results suggest that plain packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. Design and Setting: 2 × 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. Measurements: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. Results: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. Conclusions: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles. PMID:15085209

  9. Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. DESIGN AND SETTING: 2 x 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. MEASUREMENTS: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. RESULTS: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles.

  10. The geomorphology of the Mississippi River chenier plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The chenier plain of the Mississippi River is a shore-parallel zone of alternating transgressive clastic ridges separated by progradational mudflats. The term chenier is derived from the cajun term chene for oak, the tree species that colonizes the crests of the higher ridges. The Mississippi River chenier plain stretches 200 km from Sabine Pass, Texas, to Southwest Point, Louisiana and ranges between 20 and 30 km wide, with elevations of 2-6 m. The timing and the process of formation could be re-evaluated in the light of new chronostratigraphic findings in the Mississippi River delta plain. The stratigraphic relationship between the Teche and Lafourche delta complexes and Ship Shoal offshore indicates that these delta complexes belong to different delta plains that developed at different sealevels. It appears that the Teche delta complex is associated with the late Holocene delta plain which developed 7000 to 3000 yrs B.P. when sealevel stood 5-6 m lower than present. A regional transgression occurred between approximately 3000 BP and 2500 yrs B.P., leading to the transgressive submergence of the late Holocene delta plain, producing the regional Teche shoreline. The timing of this transgression conforms to the age of the most landward ridge in the chenier plain, the Little Chenier-Little Pecan Island trend, which dates at about 2500 yrs B.P. This ridge trend was originally interpreted as representing the Teche delta complex switching event with the landward Holocene/Pleistocene contact representing the high stand shoreline. The implication of this new interpretation is that the Little Chenier-Little Pecan Island trend represents the high stand shoreline, a continuation of the Teche shoreline separating the late Holocene and Recent delta plains, and that the Holocene/Pleistocene contact represents the leading edge of the marshes transgressing onto the Prairie Terrace. Significant mudflat progradation seems to require a westerly position of the Mississippi River

  11. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  12. Acute abdomen in children due to extra-abdominal causes.

    PubMed

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Kambouri, Katerina; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Deftereos, Savas; Chatzimichael, Athanasios

    2008-06-01

    Acute abdominal pain in children is a common cause for referral to the emergency room and for subsequent hospitalization to pediatric medical or surgical departments. There are rare occasions when the abdominal pain is derived from extra-abdominal organs or systems. The aim of the present study was to establish the most common extra-abdominal causes of acute abdominal pain. The notes of all children (1 month-14 years of age) examined for acute abdominal pain in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department of Alexandroupolis District University Hospital in January 2001-December 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory findings were recorded, as well as the final diagnosis and outcome. Of a total number of 28 124 children who were brought to the A&E department, in 1731 the main complaint was acute abdominal pain. In 51 children their symptoms had an extra-abdominal cause, the most frequent being pneumonia (n = 15), tonsillitis (n = 10), otitis media (n = 9), and acute leukemia (n = 5). Both abdominal and extra-abdominal causes should be considered by a pediatrician who is confronted with a child with acute abdominal pain.

  13. Plasma osmotic changes during major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Malone, R A; McLeavey, C A; Arens, J F

    1977-12-01

    Fluid balance across the capillary membrane is maintained normally by a balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (COP). In 12 patients having major intra-abdominal procedures, the COP was followed during the operative and immediate postoperative periods. The patients' intraoperative fluid management consisted of replacing shed blood with blood and following Shires' concept of crystalloid replacement. Significant decreases in COP to approximately two thirds of the initial value occurred in patients having intra-abdominal procedures versus only a 10 percent decrease in those having peripheral procedures (greater than .001). As a result of this decrease in COP, the balance between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures is lost and risk of pulmonary intersitial edema is increased.

  14. Preincisional intraparietal Augmentin in abdominal operations.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, A. V.; Evans, M.; Smith, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 624 consecutive eligible patients undergoing abdominal operations received a single preoperative dose of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (1.2 g Augmentin) for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. They were randomised to have the antibiotic injected intravenously at induction of anaesthesia (n = 328) or infiltrated subcutaneously along the line of the proposed incision (n = 296). The incidence of wound infections was considerably lower in the group given the antibiotic into the abdominal wall (8.4% compared with 15.9%--chi 2 = 7.90, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found in the incidence of other major or minor infective or non-infective postoperative complications between the groups. It is concluded that preincisional intraparietal injection is more effective than intravenous injection of Augmentin for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. PMID:2523210

  15. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  16. Film Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudlin, Edward W.

    1979-01-01

    The author briefly surveys some of the claims made about the presumed nature of film as language and some of the problems that arise. He considers the views of two influential schools of film criticism: the Russian formalists (Pudovkin and Eisenstein) and the British semiologist (Peter Wollen). (Author/SJL)

  17. About Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and briefly describes 46 college-level films. Films are arranged in the following categories: volcanism and earthquakes; plate tectonics; energy, water, and environmental concerns; petroleum and coal; astronomy; space exploration, space shuttle; paleontology; geomorphology; and mineralogy, petrology, and economic geology. (BC)

  18. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (≈27), wide band gap (≈4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (≈10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

  19. Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Polito, Cesare; La Manna, Angela; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Marte, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Our goal was to establish the clinical presentation and features of pain attacks in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and urolithiasis. We compared the rate of previous appendectomy among 100 consecutive patients with that of 270 control subjects. We also compared the frequency of pain attacks with that reported by children with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. Fifty-three patients had no history of dysuria or gross hematuria, and only 35 had hematuria at the first visit; 41 patients were evaluated for urolithiasis only because of a family history of kidney stones associated with RAP. Twenty-nine patients had been previously hospitalized for abdominal symptoms. Sixteen patients and 4 control subjects (1.5%) had undergone a previous appendectomy (P < .0001). Two to 28 months before the diagnosis of urolithiasis, 37 patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography, which did not show urinary stones. Sixty-nine percent of subjects younger than 8 years of age had central/diffuse abdominal pain. The mean frequency of pain attacks was 4 to 9 times lower than in patients with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. Because of the inconstant occurrence of dysuria and hematuria, the location of pain in areas other than the flank, and the lack of calculi shown on imaging studies performed after pain attacks, the urologic origin of pain may be overlooked and ineffective procedures performed. The possibility of urolithiasis should be considered in children with RAP who have a family history of urolithiasis and/or infrequent pain attacks, even when dysuria and hematuria are lacking, and in younger children even when pain is not lateral.

  20. Relationships between metabolic profile, hypertension and uric acid with cardiometabolic risk in adolescents with abdominal obesity: impact of geodemographic factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bouhenni, Hamida; Daoudi, Hadjer; Djemai, Haidar; Noirez, Philippe; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Vitiello, Damien; Rouabah, Leila

    2017-11-23

    Background Association of hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure (BP) among adolescents with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) remains not fully addressed and could represent a new way to diagnose adolescents early with cardiometabolic risk. Objective We aimed to determine abdominal obesity (AO) prevalence and investigate relations between AO, uric acid (UA), lipid profiles, BP and geographical patterns in adolescents. Subjects 577 and 204 Algerian students aged between 10 and 19 years were included in our epidemiological and biochemical studies, respectively. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference (Wc) and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) and BP were measured. Fasting blood sampling was performed to measure glycemia, lipid profile, uricemia, insulinemia and leptinemia. The WHtR ≥0.50 was applied for the diagnosis of AO and geodemographics was evaluated. Results The prevalence of AO was 12.13% among all students, 19.17% and 16.39% among students living in urban and plain areas, respectively. The risk of AO may be reduced in rural and mountainous areas. Lipid parameters, UA, insulin and leptin serum concentrations were significantly increased in adolescents with WHtR ≥0.50 compared to those with WHtR <0.50. Cardiometabolic risk was increased with WHtR ≥0.50 and BMI >26. Means of BMI, Wc, BP, and lipid parameters were significantly increased in the fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile of UA. Conclusion Urban areas and plains represent factors contributing to AO and WHtR ≥0.50 may be used as a cut-off point to define risks of high BP, lipid abnormalities and UA serum level in Algerian adolescents.

  1. Abdominal wall desmoid tumors: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MA, JIN-HUI; MA, ZHEN-HAI; DONG, XUE-FENG; YIN, HANG; ZHAO, YONG-FU

    2013-01-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare lesions that do not possess any metastatic potential. However, they have a strong tendency to invade locally and recur. They constitute 3% of all soft tissue tumors and 0.03% of all neoplasms. Abdominal DTs occur sporadically or are associated with certain familial syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The single form of this neoplasm most frequently occurs in females of reproductive age and during pregnancy. A female patient with a DT of the abdominal wall who had no relevant family history was admitted to hospital. The patient, who presented with a painless mass in the left anterolateral abdomen, had no history of trauma, surgery or childbearing. According to the medical history, physical examination and CT report, the patient was diagnosed with DT. Radical resection of the affected abdominal wall musculature was performed, and the defect was replaced with a polypropylene mesh. The histological diagnosis was of DT. The patient remains in good health and complete remission without any other treatment following surgery. DTs exhibit aggressive growth and have a high rate of recurrence. Surgery is the optimal treatment, and subsequent radiotherapy may decrease the local recurrence rate. Further research into their aetiology is required combined with multicentre clinical trials of new treatments in order to improve management of this disease. This case report provides general knowledge of DT, and may be used as a guidance for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23833679

  2. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Evolving Controversies and Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Carino, Davide; Sarac, Timur P; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a permanent dilatation of the abdominal aorta that exceeds 3 cm. Most AAAs arise in the portion of abdominal aorta distal to the renal arteries and are defined as infrarenal. Most AAAs are totally asymptomatic until catastrophic rupture. The strongest predictor of AAA rupture is the diameter. Surgery is indicated to prevent rupture when the risk of rupture exceeds the risk of surgery. In this review, we aim to analyze this disease comprehensively, starting from an epidemiological perspective, exploring etiology and pathophysiology, and concluding with surgical controversies. We will pursue these goals by addressing eight specific questions regarding AAA: (1) Is the incidence of AAA increasing? (2) Are ultrasound screening programs for AAA effective? (3) What causes AAA: Genes versus environment? (4) Animal models: Are they really relevant? (5) What pathophysiology leads to AAA? (6) Indications for AAA surgery: Are surgeons over-eager to operate? (7) Elective AAA repair: Open or endovascular? (8) Emergency AAA repair: Open or endovascular?

  4. Nonspecific abdominal pain is a safe diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pennel, David John Laurie; Goergen, Nina; Driver, Chris P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe and if patients with this initial diagnosis are likely to require further investigation or surgical intervention. 3323 patients admitted with NSAP from July 1990 to September 2012 utilizing a prospective database of all surgical admissions were included. Readmission over the period of the study and specifically within 30 days of their initial presentation was identified together with any invasive investigation or surgical intervention. 319 children (9.6%) were subsequently readmitted with abdominal pain at some point during the study period. Of these, 78 (2.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. 118 (3.5%) children subsequently had an operation or invasive investigation some point following their initial admission. Of these 33 (0.6%) had the procedure within 3 months of the initial admission. 13 patients had an appendicectomy within 3 months of the initial presentation. Of these histology confirmed appendicitis in 8 patients. This gives an overall incidence of "missed" appendicitis of 0.2 % (8/3323). This study confirms that a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe in a pediatric population and the risk of "missing" appendicitis is only 0.2%. Patients and/or parents can be confidently reassured that the risk of missing organic pathology is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, <5 cm H2O), or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  6. Snake River Plain FORGE Site Characterization Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Moos, Danial; Barton, Colleen A.

    2016-04-18

    The site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. This collection includes data on seismic events, groundwater, geomechanical models, gravity surveys, magnetics, resistivity, magnetotellurics (MT), rock physics, stress, the geologic setting, and supporting documentation, including several papers. Also included are 3D models (Petrel and Jewelsuite) of the proposed site. Data for wells INEL-1, WO-2, and USGS-142 have been included as links to separate data collections. These data have been assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Other contributors include the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CEAS), the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, University of Wyoming, University of Oklahoma, Energy and Geoscience Institute-University of Utah, US Geothermal, Baker Hughes Campbell Scientific Inc., Chena Power, US Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Department of Water Resources, Idaho Geological Survey, and Mink GeoHydro.

  7. In Vivo Measurement of Surface Pressures and Retraction Distances Applied on Abdominal Organs During Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dignesh; Alderson, Andrew; Corden, James; Satyadas, Thomas; Augustine, Titus

    2018-02-01

    This study undertook the in vivo measurement of surface pressures applied by the fingers of the surgeon during typical representative retraction movements of key human abdominal organs during both open and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Surface pressures were measured using a flexible thin-film pressure sensor for 35 typical liver retractions to access the gall bladder, 36 bowel retractions, 9 kidney retractions, 8 stomach retractions, and 5 spleen retractions across 12 patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery. The maximum and root mean square surface pressures were calculated for each organ retraction. The maximum surface pressures applied to these key abdominal organs are in the range 1 to 41 kPa, and the average maximum surface pressure for all organs and procedures was 14 ± 3 kPa. Surface pressure relaxation during the retraction hold period was observed. Generally, the surface pressures are higher, and the rate of surface pressure relaxation is lower, in the more confined hand-assisted laparoscopic procedures than in open surgery. Combined video footage and pressure sensor data for retraction of the liver in open surgery enabled correlation of organ retraction distance with surface pressure application. The data provide a platform to design strategies for the prevention of retraction injuries. They also form a basis for the design of next-generation organ retraction and space creation surgical devices with embedded sensors that can further quantify intraoperative retraction forces to reduce injury or trauma to organs and surrounding tissues.

  8. From technical jargon to plain English for application.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, O R

    1991-01-01

    These examples of translating technical jargon into plain English application words, acronyms, letter codes, and simple tests were necessary as we developed Precision Teaching. I hope our experience is useful to others facing the problems of applying technology in practical settings. At the least, our experience should give you an idea of the work and time involved in making your own translations. Above all, be patient. Accurate plain English translations do not come easily. They cannot be made at your desk. A search often takes years to produce one new accurate plain English translation. Rapid publication pressures, journal editorial policies, and investments in materials, books, and computer programs all combine to hamper these translations. It's possible that you will find some of our plain English equivalents useful in your own applied behavior analysis applications. PMID:1752836

  9. Intercrater Plains and Heavily Cratered Terrain - First Encounter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-18

    Intercrater plains and heavily cratered terrain typical of much of Mercury outside the area affected by the formation of the Caloris basin are shown in this image taken during the NASA Mariner 10 first encounter with Mercury in 1974.

  10. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  11. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has...

  12. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has...

  13. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  14. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has...

  15. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has...

  16. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  17. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  18. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has...

  19. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  20. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish...

  1. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish...

  2. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nonstructural nature for the protection of flood plains subject to frequent flooding. (3) Assist in the study and classification of flood prone lands to ascertain the relative risk of flooding, and establish...

  3. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., welfare, safety and property, and to sustain economic development. (c) To foster sound flood plain controls, as an essential part of water resources management, the Commission shall: (1) Encourage and...

  4. Provenance of aeolian sands in the Hetao Plain, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingchen; Cai, Maotang; Ye, Peisheng; Ye, Mengni; Li, Chenglu; Wu, Hang; Lu, Jing; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Zhirong; Luzhou, Yangfan; Liu, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Patches of aeolian sand are distributed throughout the Hetao Plain, which pose threats to farming and agriculture. Identification of the provenance of the aeolian sands may help with efforts to alleviate ecological stress in Inner Mongolia and in the paleoenvironmental interpretation of sandy sequences. This study uses geochemical data to determine the provenance of aeolian sands from the Hetao Plain. Provenance discrimination diagrams revealed that the aeolian sands were mainly derived from mixed source felsic granites and granodiorites, which have undergone weak sedimentary recycling. The chemical index of alteration and A-CN-K data indicated that the aeolian sediments were transported over a short distance. Comparison of trace element and rare earth element (REE) ratios of the aeolian sands with rock samples from potential source areas has revealed that aeolian sand deposits in the Hetao Plain were mainly derived from Sertengshan and Yellow River sediments. The Langshan and Ordos Plateau may represent additional sand sources for the Hetao Plain.

  5. Plain language: a strategic response to the health literacy challenge.

    PubMed

    Stableford, Sue; Mettger, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Low health literacy is a major challenge confronting American and international health organizations. Research in the past decade has documented the prevalence of limited literacy and limited health literacy skills among adults worldwide. This creates a major policy challenge: how to create text-based health information - a common method of health communication - that is accessible to the public. Plain language is a logical, flexible response. While touted by American, Canadian, and European health policy makers, adoption and promotion of plain language standards and skills in health-focused organizations have lagged. Most text-based health information continues to be too hard for most adults to read. Barriers to more rapid diffusion of plain language are reflected in a set of myths perpetuated by critics. These myths are identified and refuted. While plain language is only one of many broad-based solutions needed to address low health literacy, the benefits to everyone demand increased use by health organizations.

  6. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Vargas, Vanessa N; Jones, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and managementmore » practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.« less

  7. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  8. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of landscape metrics, in conjunction with stream water quality to estimate the biological integrity of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains using multivariate techniques.

  9. 18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Processing & Electronics Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  11. SECOND FLOOR, VIEW OF THE NORTH PLAIN OF THE 1772 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR, VIEW OF THE NORTH PLAIN OF THE 1772 ROOF TO SHOW ROUND-BUTT WOOD SHINGLES; THIS ROOF IS PROTECTED BY THE 1784 SHED ADDITION - Murray-Dick-Fawcett House, 517 Prince Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  12. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  13. Great Plains Drought in Simulations of Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Randall, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States was influenced by a number of multi-year droughts during the twentieth century. Most notable were the "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s and the 1950s Great Plains drought. In this study we evaluate the ability of three of the Coupled Global Climate Models (CGCMs) used in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC to simulate Great Plains drought with the same frequency and intensity as was observed during the twentieth century. The models chosen for this study are: GFDL CM 2.0, NCAR CCSM3, and UKMO HadCM3. We find that the models accurately capture the climatology of the hydrologic cycle of the Great Plains, but that they tend to overestimate the variability in Great Plains precipitation. We also find that in each model simulation at least one long-term drought occurs over the Great Plains region during their representations 20th Century Climate. The multi-year droughts produced by the models exhibit similar magnitudes and spatial scales as was observed during the twentieth century. This study also investigates the relative roles that external forcing from the tropical Pacific and local feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere have in the initiation and perpetuation of Great Plains drought in each model. We find that cool, La Nina-like conditions in the tropical pacific are often associated with long-term drought conditions over the Great Plains in GFDL CM 2.0 and UKMO HadCM3, but there appears to be no systematic relationship between tropical Pacific SST variability and Great Plains drought in CCSM3. It is possible the strong coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere in the NCAR model causes precipitation anomalies to lock into phase over the Great Plains thereby perpetuating drought conditions. Results from this study are intended to help assess whether or not these climate models are credible for use in the assessment of future drought over the Great Plains region of the United States.

  14. Agriculture on the Chaco Plain, Paraguay, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of extensive agriculture on the Chaco Plain, Paraguay, (22.5S, 60.5W) depicts the fertility of the soils between the Andes Mountains and the Paraguay - Parana Rivers in the northwestern Paraguay. The Gran Chaco Plain is flat landscape built up by sediments. Frontier settlements like Marsical Estigarribia, seen in the image, are dominated by agriculture along the stream courses that abound in the area.

  15. Ground water in the Cul-de-Sac Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    The Cul-de-Sac Plain is perhaps the most important agricultural area in Haiti because of its nearness and accessibility to Port-au-Prince, the nation's capital, metropolis, and principal seaport. Most of the agricultural produce consumed in Port-au-Prince as well as a considerable part of that exported from Haiti is grown in the plain.Because of variable and poorly distributed rainfall, high temperature, and high evaporation, semiarid climatic conditions prevail in the plain. Irrigation is, therefore, necessary for successful farming. There are no regulatory or storage facilities on the streams that enter the plain, but the mean and low-water stream flow and the discharge of springs are almost entirely appropriated for irrigation. Ground water has been utilized for irrigation to an increasing extent by the Haitian American Sugar Company, which has put down about 100 wells in the plain since 1919.Outside the existing irrigated areas of the plain are large tracts of potentially irrigable land that are uncultivated and agriculturally unproductive for lack of water. The object of the present study was to determine the possibilities of bringing these lands into cultivation by irrigation from wells. This study was part of a larger program of the Food Supply Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, to increase the production of food in Haiti.From September through November 1948 the senior author, a member of the U. S. Geological Survey, spent three months in the field in an investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. He was ably assisted by Mr. Rémy C. Lemoine, Haitian engineer-geologist, employed by the Food Supply Division. The field work included principally the geologic mapping of' the plain and the adjacent mountain borders, a ground-water inventory of existing wells and springs, and a general evaluation of significant geologic and hydrologic features.

  16. Somatization symptoms in pediatric abdominal pain patients: relation to chronicity of abdominal pain and parent somatization.

    PubMed

    Walker, L S; Garber, J; Greene, J W

    1991-08-01

    Symptoms of somatization were investigated in pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and comparison groups of patients with organic etiology for abdominal pain and well patients. Somatization scores were higher in RAP patients than well patients at the clinic visit, and higher than in either well patients or organic patients at a 3-month followup. Higher somatization scores in mothers and fathers were associated with higher somatization scores in RAP patients, but not in organic or well patients. Contrary to the findings of Ernst, Routh, and Harper (1984), chronicity of abdominal pain in RAP patients was not significantly associated with their level of somatization symptoms. Psychometric information about the Children's Somatization Inventory is presented.

  17. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  18. Hyperbaric versus plain bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Heng Sia, Alex Tiong; Tan, Kok Hian; Sng, Ban Leong; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid

    2015-01-01

    Bupivacaine is an amide local anesthetic used in hyperbaric and plain forms administered as spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. In this systematic review, we summarized the effectiveness and safety of hyperbaric versus plain bupivacaine in providing anesthesia for cesarean delivery. We considered the adequacy of anesthesia for completion of cesarean delivery and the need for interventions to treat complications. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. We imposed no language restriction. We included all randomized controlled trials involving patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery that compared the use of hyperbaric bupivacaine with plain bupivacaine. We included 6 studies with a total of 394 patients in this review. These studies have small sample size, few observed events, differences in methodology, and insufficient information pertaining to assessment of risk of bias. This prevented us from calculating pooled estimates. Results show that there is no compelling evidence in favor of the use of intrathecal plain or hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. There is a lack of clear evidence regarding the superiority of hyperbaric compared with plain bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. The need for conversion to general anesthesia because of failed spinal anesthesia is an important clinical outcome, but current data are insufficient to compare spinal anesthesia induced with hyperbaric compared with plain bupivacaine for this outcome. Further research is required.

  19. Medical evacuation for unrecognized abdominal wall pain: a case series.

    PubMed

    Msonda, Hapu T; Laczek, Jeffrey T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a frequently encountered complaint in the primary care setting. The abdominal wall is the etiology of this pain in 10 to 30% of all cases of chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of this pain. In the military health care system, patients with unexplained abdominal pain are often transferred to military treatment facilities via the Military Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) system. We present two cases of patients who transferred via MEDEVAC to our facility for evaluation and treatment of chronic abdominal pain. Both patients had previously undergone extensive laboratory evaluation, imaging, and invasive procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy before transfer. Upon arrival, history and physical examinations suggested an abdominal wall source to their pain, and both patients experienced alleviation of their abdominal wall pain with lidocaine and corticosteroid injection. This case series highlights the need for military physicians to be aware of abdominal wall pain. Early diagnosis of abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by eliciting Carnett's sign will limit symptom chronicity, avoid unnecessary testing, and even prevent medical evacuation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Effect of abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy on the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    García, Alberto Federico; Sánchez, Álvaro Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Álvaro José; Bayona, Juan Gabriel; Naranjo, María Paula; Lago, Sebastián; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2018-07-01

    In critically ill surgical patients undergoing abdominal negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), it remains uncertain whether or not intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements should be obtained when NPWT is activated. We aimed to determine agreement between IAP measured with and without NPWT. In this analytic cross-sectional study, critically ill surgical adults (≥18 y) requiring abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure after a damage control laparotomy were selected. Patients with urinary tract injuries or with pelvic packing were excluded. Paired IAP measures were performed in the same patient, with and without NPWT; two different operators performed the measures unaware of the other's result. Bland-Altman methods assessed the agreement between the two measures. Subgroup analyses (trauma and nontrauma) were performed. There were 198 IAP measures (99 pairs) in 38 patients. Mean IAP with and without NPWT were 8.33 (standard deviation 4.01) and 8.65 (standard deviation 4.04), respectively. Mean IAP difference was -0.323 (95% confidence interval -0.748 to 0.101), and reference range for difference was -4.579 to 3.932 (P = 0.864). From 112 IAP measures (56 pairs) in 21 trauma patients, mean IAP difference was -0.268 (95% confidence interval -0.867 to 0.331), and reference range for the difference was -4.740 to 4.204 (P = 0.427). There was no statistically significant disagreement in IAP measures. IAP could be measured with or without NPWT. In critically ill surgical patients with abdominal NPWT for temporary abdominal closure, monitoring and management of IAP either with or without NPWT is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New Surgical Drapes for Observation of the Lower Extremities during Abdominal Aortic Repair.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Yukio; Shigematsu, Hiroshi; Satou, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiko; Saiki, Naozumi; Koizumii, Nobusato

    2010-01-01

    For the early diagnosis and therapy of peripheral thromboembolism (TE) as a complication of abdominal aortic repair (AAR), we developed and evaluated the usefulness of surgical drapes that permit observation of the lower extremities during AAR. Between January 2007 and June 2009, the handling, durability, and usefulness of new surgical drapes were evaluated during AAR in 157 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and 9 patients with peripheral arterial disease. The drapes are manufactured by Hogy Medical Co. Ltd. and made of a water-repellent, spun lace, non-woven fabric, including a transparent polyethylene film that covers the patients' legs. This transparent film enables inspection and palpation of the lower extremities during surgery for early diagnosis and therapy of peripheral TE. As a peripheral complication, 1 patient had right lower extremity TE. This was diagnosed immediately after anastomosis, thrombectomy was performed, and the remaining clinical course was uneventful. In all patients, the drapes permitted observation of the lower extremities , and the dorsal arteries were palpable. There were no problems with durability. New surgical drapes permit observation of the lower extremities during AAR for early diagnosis and treatment of peripheral TE.

  2. Six-month therapy for abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Sophie; Jain, Siddharth; Ryan, Hannah; Ahuja, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers. Objectives To compare six-month versus longer drug regimens to treat people that have abdominal TB. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases up to 2 September 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase (accessed via OvidSP), LILACS, INDMED, and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We also checked article reference lists. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared six-month regimens versus longer regimens that consisted of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol to treat adults and children that had abdominal TB. The primary outcomes were relapse, with a minimum of six-month follow-up after completion of antituberculous treatment (ATT), and clinical cure at the end of ATT. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. For analysis of dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from the included

  3. The Virginia Coastal Plain Hydrogeologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, Randolph E.; Scott, Bruce T.

    2006-01-01

    A refined descriptive hydrogeologic framework of the Coastal Plain of eastern Virginia provides a new perspective on the regional ground-water system by incorporating recent understanding gained by discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and determination of other geological relations. The seaward-thickening wedge of extensive, eastward-dipping strata of largely unconsolidated sediments is classified into a series of 19 hydrogeologic units, based on interpretations of geophysical logs and allied descriptions and analyses from a regional network of 403 boreholes. Potomac aquifer sediments of Early Cretaceous age form the primary ground-water supply resource. The Potomac aquifer is designated as a single aquifer because the fine-grained interbeds, which are spatially highly variable and inherently discontinuous, are not sufficiently dense across a continuous expanse to act as regional barriers to ground-water flow. Part of the Potomac aquifer in the outer part of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater consists of megablock beds, which are relatively undeformed internally but are bounded by widely separated faults. The Potomac aquifer is entirely truncated across the inner part of the crater. The Potomac confining zone approximates a transition from the Potomac aquifer to overlying hydrogeologic units. New or revised designations of sediments of Late Cretaceous age that are present only south of the James River include the upper Cenomanian confining unit, the Virginia Beach aquifer and confining zone, and the Peedee aquifer and confining zone. The Virginia Beach aquifer is a locally important ground-water supply resource. Sediments of late Paleocene to early Eocene age that compose the Aquia aquifer and overlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit are truncated along the margin of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Sediments of late Eocene age compose three newly designated confining units within the crater, which are from bottom to top, the impact-generated Exmore clast

  4. Film Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, George T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)

  5. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  6. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve [Champaign, IL; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A [Maplewood, NJ

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  7. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  8. Diagnosing Femoroacetabular Impingement From Plain Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Ayeni, Olufemi R.; Chan, Kevin; Whelan, Daniel B.; Gandhi, Rajiv; Williams, Dale; Harish, Srinivasan; Choudur, Hema; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Karlsson, Jon; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Background: A diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) requires careful history and physical examination, as well as an accurate and reliable radiologic evaluation using plain radiographs as a screening modality. Radiographic markers in the diagnosis of FAI are numerous and not fully validated. In particular, reliability in their assessment across health care providers is unclear. Purpose: To determine inter- and intraobserver reliability between orthopaedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Six physicians (3 orthopaedic surgeons, 3 musculoskeletal radiologists) independently evaluated a broad spectrum of FAI pathologies across 51 hip radiographs on 2 occasions separated by at least 4 weeks. Reviewers used 8 common criteria to diagnose FAI, including (1) pistol-grip deformity, (2) size of alpha angle, (3) femoral head-neck offset, (4) posterior wall sign abnormality, (5) ischial spine sign abnormality, (6) coxa profunda abnormality, (7) crossover sign abnormality, and (8) acetabular protrusion. Agreement was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: When establishing an FAI diagnosis, there was poor interobserver reliability between the surgeons and radiologists (ICC batch 1 = 0.33; ICC batch 2 = 0.15). In contrast, there was higher interobserver reliability within each specialty, ranging from fair to good (surgeons: ICC batch 1 = 0.72; ICC batch 2 = 0.70 vs radiologists: ICC batch 1 = 0.59; ICC batch 2 = 0.74). Orthopaedic surgeons had the highest interobserver reliability when identifying pistol-grip deformities (ICC = 0.81) or abnormal alpha angles (ICC = 0.81). Similarly, radiologists had the highest agreement for detecting pistol-grip deformities (ICC = 0.75). Conclusion: These results suggest that surgeons and radiologists agree among themselves, but there is a need to improve the reliability of radiographic interpretations for FAI between the

  9. Lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M; Godet, G; Fléron, M H; Bernard, M A; Orcel, P; Riou, B; Kieffer, E; Coriat, P

    1997-07-01

    Lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis has been very rarely reported after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine its incidence and main characteristics in a large population undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. Over a 21-mo period, 224 consecutive patients, 209 male and 15 female, mean age 65 +/- 10 yr, underwent abdominal aortic surgery (aortic aneurysm in 142 patients and occlusive aortic degenerative disease in 82 patients). Surgical incision was a midline incision with exaggerated hyperlordosis in 173 patients and a flank incision with a retroperitoneal approach in 51 patients. Postoperative rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in 20 patients. In these patients, 9 (4%) experienced severe low back pain, and lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by tomodensitometry (n = 6) or muscle biopsy (n = 3). The remaining 11 patients had lower limb muscle rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis occurred after surgery of longer duration, which involved more frequent visceral artery reimplantation, with longer duration of aortic clamping and greater intraoperative bleeding. Lumbar rhabdomyolysis occurred in younger patients who were more frequently obese. On first postoperative day, the mean creatine kinase (CK) value was greater in lumbar rhabdomyolysis than in lower limb rhabdomyolysis (17,082 +/- 15,003 vs 3,313 +/- 3,120 IU/L, P < 0.05). Acute renal failure and postoperative death did not occur in patients with lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis. Lumbar rhabdomyolysis was not a rare event after abdominal aortic surgery (4%). This syndrome was characterized by postoperative low back pain of unusual severity, which required analgesic therapy, and induced a very high increase in CK with typical findings at tomodensitometry or muscle biopsy but was not associated with postoperative renal failure.

  10. Abdominal pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Melissa M; Bates, David Gregory; Andrews, Tina; Adkins, Laura; Thornton, Jennifer; Denham, Jolanda M

    2014-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is broad in any child, and further complicated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Acute causes of abdominal pain may require emergent surgery, such as for appendicitis or obstruction caused by a bezoar. Rapid intervention is necessary and life-saving in children with SCD and acute splenic or hepatic sequestration. The majority of children with SCD presenting to the physician's office or emergency department will have subacute reasons for their abdominal pain, including but not limited to constipation, urinary tract infection, peptic ulcer disease, and cholecystitis. Vaso-occlusive pain often presents in children as abdominal pain, but is a diagnosis of exclusion. The case of a 10-year-old girl with intermittent abdominal pain is used as a starting point to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most acute and common causes of abdominal pain in children with SCD.

  11. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood.

  12. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Boese, Austin C; Chang, Lin; Yin, Ke-Jie; Chen, Y Eugene; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Hamblin, Milton H

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disorder with a high case fatality rate in the instance of rupture. AAA is a multifactorial disease, and the etiology is still not fully understood. AAA is more likely to occur in men, but women have a greater risk of rupture and worse prognosis. Women are reportedly protected against AAA possibly by premenopausal levels of estrogen and are, on average, diagnosed at older ages than men. Here, we review the present body of research on AAA pathophysiology in humans, animal models, and cultured cells, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex steroid hormone signaling.

  13. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Kargl, S; Breitwieser, J; Gitter, R; Pumberger, W

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma with liver damage. We report the case of a child who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery after a bicycle accident with central liver rupture. After an episode of hemodynamically relevant hemobilia due to delayed bleeding, the asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed coincidentally by ultrasound. Because of the progression in size angiographic coiling was performed and led to thrombotic occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. After a symptom-free period of 1 month the child required surgery because of acute cholecystitis.

  14. A Syrian man with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Mary; Hoencamp, Rigo; Bronkhorst, Maarten

    2017-05-22

    A 32-year-old man presented with progressive abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after swallowing a packet of dollar bills, his entire money savings, during his journey to Europe as a refugee. Subsequent imaging confirmed the presence of a foreign body in his stomach, which required surgical intervention to be removed. This is one of many cases that illustrate the hopeless circumstances people in the Middle-Eastern warzone are currently facing. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Castleman Disease Presenting as an Abdominal Mass.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Farnaz; Verter, Elizabeth; Chang, Wendy; Huang, Li; Joshi, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman disease is a rare condition of lymphoid hyperplasia, of which only 15% of cases occur in the abdomen. We report a 66-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans revealed nephrolithiasis and a homogeneous calcified mass between the pancreas and stomach and several para-pancreatic nodes. Direct visualization during exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Pyloromyotomy and mass resection were performed. Biopsy showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia consistent with the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease.

  16. Castleman Disease Presenting as an Abdominal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Verter, Elizabeth; Chang, Wendy; Huang, Li; Joshi, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman disease is a rare condition of lymphoid hyperplasia, of which only 15% of cases occur in the abdomen. We report a 66-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans revealed nephrolithiasis and a homogeneous calcified mass between the pancreas and stomach and several para-pancreatic nodes. Direct visualization during exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Pyloromyotomy and mass resection were performed. Biopsy showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia consistent with the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease. PMID:28584844

  17. Chylous ascites following abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Panieri, E; Kussman, B D; Michell, W L; Tunnicliffe, J A; Immelman, E J

    1995-03-01

    Chylous ascites is an extremely rare complication of abdominal aortic surgery. A case with a successful outcome is presented, followed by a review of the 17 published cases. Chylous ascites can result in nutritional imbalance, immunological deficit and respiratory dysfunction. Paracentesis confirms the diagnosis and provides symptomatic relief. Conservative management, beginning with a low-fat diet and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplementation, is recommended, changing to total parenteral nutrition if unsuccessful. Failure of non-operative treatment may necessitate the need for laparotomy and ligation of leaking lymphatics or peritoneovenous shunting.

  18. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  19. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.

    1999-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135

  20. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  1. Desmoid tumors of the abdominal wall: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Overhaus, Marcus; Decker, Pan; Fischer, Hans Peter; Textor, Hans Jochen; Hirner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential. Case Presentation We report on two female patients with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. Both patients had a history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The histology in both cases revealed a desmoid tumor. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is the first line management of this tumor entity. PMID:12890284

  2. Optimized flexible cover films for improved conversion efficiency in thin film flexible solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterman, Sidney; Wen, Xin; Gudavalli, Ganesh; Rhajbhandari, Pravakar; Dhakal, Tara P.; Wilt, David; Klotzkin, David

    2018-05-01

    Thin film solar cell technologies are being developed for lower cost and flexible applications. For such technologies, it is desirable to have inexpensive, flexible cover strips. In this paper, we demonstrate that transparent silicone cover glass adhesive can be doped with TiO2 nanoparticles to achieve an optimal refractive index and maximize the performance of the cell. Cells covered with the film doped with nanoparticles at the optimal concentration demonstrated a ∼1% increase in photocurrent over the plain (undoped) film. In addition, fused silica beads can be incorporated into the flexible cover slip to realize a built-in pseudomorphic glass diffuser layer as well. This additional degree of freedom in engineering flexible solar cell covers allows maximal performance from a given cell for minimal increased cost.

  3. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  4. Wireless system for monitoring Intra-abdominal pressure in patient with severe abdominal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, S. S.; Shtotskiy, Y. V.; Leljanov, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses an experimental design of the wireless system for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) using Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The possibility of measuring IAP via the bladder using a wireless pressure sensor with a hydrophobic bacteria filter between the liquid transmitting medium and the sensor element is grounded.

  5. Elasticity of the living abdominal wall in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengli; Alijani, Afshin; Frank, Tim; Hanna, George; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires inflation of the abdominal cavity and this offers a unique opportunity to measure the mechanical properties of the living abdominal wall. We used a motion analysis system to study the abdominal wall motion of 18 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and found that the mean Young's modulus was 27.7+/-4.5 and 21.0+/-3.7 kPa for male and female, respectively. During inflation, the abdominal wall changed from a cylinder to a dome shape. The average expansion in the abdominal wall surface was 20%, and a working space of 1.27 x 10(-3)m(3) was created by expansion, reshaping of the abdominal wall and diaphragmatic movement. For the first time, the elasticity of human abdominal wall was obtained from the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and a 3D simulation model of human abdominal wall has been developed to analyse the motion pattern in laparoscopic surgery. Based on this study, a mechanical abdominal wall lift and a surgical simulator for safe/ergonomic port placements are under development.

  6. Congenital heart disease manifested as acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Macha, Mahender; Gupta, Dipin; Molina, Ezequiel; Palma, Jon; Rothman, Steven

    2007-06-12

    We present a case of a 53-year-old man with complaints of severe abdominal pain and nausea. Emergency department abdominal workup was non-diagnostic. Physical examination revealed signs of right- and left-heart failure. A past medical history of dysrhythmias and chronic abdominal complaints prompted hospital admission. Subsequent right heart catheterization revealed a significant left-to-right shunt. CT scan of the chest and angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an abnormal ascending vein between the innominate vein and the left superior pulmonary vein. After the anomalous vein was ligated, the patient's abdominal pain resolved.

  7. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A; Bhat, Nisar A; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt.

  8. Post ventriculoperitoneal shunt abdominal pseudocyst: Challenges posed in management

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Raashid; Baba, Aejaz A.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Mufti, Gowhar; Mir, Younis A.; Sajad, Wani

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with hydrocephalus, the abdominal cavity has been used for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) since 1905. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation is followed by abdominal complications in about 5-47% cases. Abdominal CSF pseudo cyst is an uncommon, but well described complication. Aim: This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and management of this entity. We present our experience with cases of CSF pseudo cyst in children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 4 cases diagnosed to have abdominal pseudo cyst following VP shunt between 2008 and 2013. All the four cases were suspected clinically and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. Results: In three patients, the cyst was multilocular and of varying size. Fourth one had a unilocular cyst at the lower end of VP shunt. All the four patients had features of varying degree raised intracranial pressure and a two patients had abdominal signs also. All the patients needed open exploration. Cyst fluid was drained and partial to complete excision of the cyst was done along with the repositioning of the shunt in abdominal cavity in three patients and exteriorization of shunt in one patient. Patients were followed for any further complication over a period of 1-year. Conclusion: Abdominal pseudo cyst is a rare complication after VP Shunt and could result in shunt malfunction or abdominal symptoms and signs. Whenever suspected it should be confirmed by imaging, followed by open exploration and repositioning of the shunt. PMID:28413525

  9. Defensive abdominal rotation patterns of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed.

  10. Defensive Abdominal Rotation Patterns of Tenebrionid Beetle, Zophobas atratus, Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed. PMID:23448289

  11. Constraints on mantle melt geometries from body wave attenuation in the Salton Trough and Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Bezada, M.

    2017-12-01

    Melt can be retained in the mantle at triple junctions between grain boundaries, be spread in thin films along two-grain boundaries, or be organized by shear into elongate melt-rich bands. Which of these geometries is most prevalent is unknown. This ambiguity makes the interpretation of anomalous seismic velocities and quality factors difficult, since different geometries would result in different mechanical effects. Here, we compare observations of seismic attenuation beneath the Salton Trough and the Snake River Plain; two regions where the presence of melt has been inferred. The results suggest that seismic attenuation is diagnostic of melt geometry. We measure the relative attenuation of P waves from deep focus earthquakes using a time-domain method. Even though the two regions are underlain by comparably strong low-velocity anomalies, their attenuation signature is very different. The upper mantle beneath the Salton Trough is sufficiently attenuating that the presence of melt must lower Qp, while attenuation beneath the Snake River Plain is not anomalous with respect to surrounding regions. These seemingly contradictory results can be reconciled if different melt geometries characterize each region. SKS splitting from the Salton Trough suggests that melt is organized into melt-rich bands, while this is not the case for the Snake River Plain. We infer that beneath the Snake River Plain melt is retained at triple junctions between grain boundaries, a geometry that is not predicted to cause seismic attenuation. More elongate geometries beneath the Salton Trough may cause seismic attenuation via the melt-squirt mechanism. In light of these results, we conclude that prior observations of low seismic velocities with somewhat high quality factors beneath the East Pacific Rise and Southern California suggest that melt does not organize into elongate bands across much of the asthenosphere.

  12. The utility of focused abdominal ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Wilson, Jennifer; Augustosky, Kim

    2007-12-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) has become commonplace in the management of blunt abdominal trauma. However, newer computed tomography (CT) scanners have decreased imaging time for trauma patients and provide more detailed examination of abdominal contents. It was the aim of the current study to evaluate practice patterns of FAST and abdominal CT in blunt trauma victims. This was a retrospective study of all blunt trauma patients (N = 299) who received at least 1 FAST examination in the emergency department by surgeons and were admitted. Patients were tracked for subsequent CT scanning, disposition from the emergency department, any operative findings, and survival. Twenty-one of 299 patients (7%) had a positive FAST. There were 7 deaths and 14 patients were taken directly to the operating room (OR) for control of abdominal bleeding. Thirty-one of 299 (10%) had equivocal FAST. There were 4 deaths and 8 patients were taken to the OR for control of abdominal bleeding. A total of 247 of the 299 patients had a negative FAST. CT scans were performed in 193: 15 showed a visceral injury. There were 13 deaths and 29 patients were taken to the OR (4 for bleeding). Patients with a positive FAST had a higher mortality than FAST-negative patients (P < .001) and greater likelihood for operation (P < .001). Those with equivocal FAST had a greater likelihood for operation than FAST-negative patients (P < .05). FAST examinations can identify patients at risk for hemorrhage and in whom operation may be needed and, therefore, can guide mobilization of hospital resources. FAST-negative patients can be managed expectantly, using more specific imaging techniques.

  13. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A G

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intra-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intra-gastrically. Trunk flexions and extensions were performed lying on one side on a swivel table. An adjustable brake provided different friction loading conditions, while adding weights to an unbraked swivel table afforded various levels of inertial loading. During trunk extensions at all friction loads, IAP was elevated (1.8-7.2 kPa) with concomitant activity in transversus abdominis and obliquus internus muscles--little or no activity was seen from rectus abdominis and obliquus externus muscles. For inertia loading during trunk extension, IAP levels were somewhat lower (1.8-5.6 kPa) and displayed a second peak when abdominal muscle activity occurred in the course of decelerating the movement. For single trunk flexions with friction loading, IAP was higher than that seen in extension conditions and increased with added resistance. For inertial loading during trunk flexion, IAP showed two peaks, the larger first peak matched peak forward acceleration and general abdominal muscle activation, while the second corresponded to peak deceleration and was accompanied by activity in transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles. It was apparent that different loading strategies produced markedly different patterns of response in both trunk musculature and intra-abdominal pressure.

  14. Drop impact on thin liquid films using TIRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Min; Ying Sun Team

    2015-11-01

    Drop impact on thin liquid films is relevant to a number of industrial processes such as pesticide spraying and repellent surface research such as self-cleaning applications. In this study, we systematically investigate the drop impact dynamics on thin liquid films on plain glass substrates by varying the film thickness, viscosity and impact velocity. High speed imaging is used to track the droplet morphology and trajectory over time as well as observing instability developments at high Weber number impacts. Moreover, the air layer between the drop and thin film upon drop impact is probed by total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) where the grayscale intensity is used to measure the air layer thickness and spreading radius over time. For low We impact on thick films (We ~ 10), the effect of the air entrainment is pronounced where the adhesion of the droplet to the wall is delayed by the air depletion and liquid film drainage, whereas for high We impact (We >100) the air layer is no longer formed and instead, the drop contact with the wall is limited only to the film drainage for all film thicknesses. In addition, the maximum spreading radius of the droplet is analyzed for varying thin film thickness and viscosity.

  15. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  16. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    PubMed

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  17. Laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a cost comparison.

    PubMed

    Tsaltas, J; Magnus, A; Mamers, P M; Lawrence, A S; Lolatgis, N; Healy, D L

    1997-02-17

    To compare the cost of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with that of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) under casemix. Retrospective comparison of the costs, operating time and length of hospital stay. The 16 women undergoing consecutive LAVH and 16 age-matched women undergoing TAH between 1 February 1994 and 31 July 1995; all women were public patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. Monash Medical Centre, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia, where casemix is used to determine funding and budget allocation. The difference between the costs of the two procedures was not statistically significant (P = 0.5), despite the cost of laparoscopic hysterectomy including that of disposables. The mean operating time for TAH was 86 minutes (95% CI, 65.5-106.5), compared with 120 minutes (95% CI, 100.8-140.5) for LAVH (P < 0.01). The mean length of stay in the TAH group was 5.75 days, compared with 3.25 days in the LAVH group (P < 0.001). In hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease, the laparoscopic procedure costs the same as the total abdominal procedure. Audit such as this is important in patient management and in guiding hospitals in funding and bed allocation.

  18. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Zeevenhooven, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota. It is possible that the environmental risk factors intricately interact with genes through epigenetic mechanisms to contribute to the pathophysiology. The diagnosis mainly depends on clinical evaluation. Commonly used pharmacological interventions do not play a major role in relieving symptoms. Centrally directed, nonpharmacological interventions such as hypnotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy have shown both short and long term efficacy in relieving pain in children with FAPDs. However, these interventions are time consuming and need specially trained staff and therefore, not currently available at grass root level. Clinicians and researchers should join hands in searching for more pragmatic and effective therapeutic modalities to improve overall care of children with FAPDs.

  19. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  20. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  1. The evolution of the New Jersey Pine Plains.

    PubMed

    Ledig, F Thomas; Hom, John L; Smouse, Peter E

    2013-04-01

    Fire in the New Jersey Pine Plains has selectively maintained a dwarf growth form of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), which is distinct from the surrounding tall forest of the Pine Barrens and has several other inherited adaptations that enable it to survive in an environment dominated by fire. Pitch pine progeny from two Pine Plains sites, the West and East Pine Plains, were grown in common garden environments with progeny from two Pine Barrens stands, Batsto and Great Egg Harbor River. The tests were replicated in five locations: in New Jersey, Connecticut, two sites in Massachusetts, and Korea. One of the tests was monitored for up to 36 yr. Progeny of Pine Plains origin were, in general, shorter, more crooked, precocious, bore more cones, had a higher frequency of serotinous cones, and had a higher frequency of stem cones than did Pine Barrens progeny, wherever they were grown. The Pine Plains is an ecotype that has evolved in response to disturbance. The several characters that distinguish it from the surrounding tall forest of the Pine Barrens are inherited. The dwarf stature and crooked form not only enable the ecotype to persist in an environment of frequent fires but also increase its flammability.

  2. Health Needs Assessment of Plain Populations in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Abbott, Christina; Thompson, Scottie; Dlugi, Emily; Adams, Zachary; Schulman, Meryl; Strauss, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    We performed a health needs assessment for three Plain communities in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania from a random sample of households. Compared with the general population of adults, Plain respondents were more likely to be married, to have children, and they had large families; they were more likely to drink well water, to eat fruit and vegetables, to drink raw milk, and to live on a farm. Plain respondents had better physical and mental health and were less likely to have been diagnosed with various medical conditions compared with the general population of adults in Lancaster County but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have been diagnosed compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Plain respondents usually have a regular doctor and often receive preventive care but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have a regular doctor, to receive preventive care, to have had their children vaccinated, and to receive routine dental care compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Despite their relative geographic and genetic isolation, and despite the small, relative differences noted, the health of Plain communities in Lancaster County is similar to that of other adults in the County.

  3. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Carli, C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Filacchione, G.; Giacomini, L.

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by the MESSENGER spacecraft \\citet{solomon2007}. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done revealing that ∼27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains \\citet{denevi2013}. Large part of Mercury's smooth plain (SP) seems to have volcanic origin. Different composition has been observed, most of the SP have a magnesian alkali-basalt-like composition, while some of them have been interpreted as ultramafic. A further 2% of smooth plains have been identified as Odin-type plains and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin \\citet{denevi2013}. Application of classification methods \\citet{adams2006} applied to color image data of the MESSENGER wide angle camera (MDIS-WAC) \\citet{MDIS} and a spectral analysis of the spec- trometer data (MASCS-VIRS) \\citet{MASCS} are useful to highlight the differences in composition of the smooth planes. A compa rison between Mercury's SP and those of other solar system bodies, such as Vesta \\citet{desanctis2012}, reveals useful to obtain information on the origin and the evolution of this bodies.

  4. Temporary closure of the abdominal wall by use of silicone rubber sheets after operative repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Akers, D L; Fowl, R J; Kempczinski, R F; Davis, K; Hurst, J M; Uhl, S

    1991-07-01

    Management of patients after operative repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms can be further complicated if primary closure of the abdominal wall cannot be technically accomplished or is associated with profound increases in intraabdominal and peak inspiratory pressures. We recently treated five patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and one patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm whose abdominal incisions had to be closed with a Dacron reinforced, silicone sheet. All patients were hemodynamically unstable either at admission to the hospital or became so during operation. Four patients required the insertion of a silicone rubber sheet at the primary operation because of massive retroperitoneal hematoma or edema of the bowel wall or both. Incisions in two patients were closed primarily, but the patients required reexploration and secondary closure with silicone rubber sheets because of the development of marked increases in peak inspiratory pressures, intraabdominal pressures, and decreased urinary output. Four of the six patients subsequently underwent successful removal of the silicone rubber sheets with delayed primary closure of the abdominal wall, and two others died before removal. The patient with the ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm died on postoperative day 20 because of pulmonary sepsis but had a healed abdominal incision. The three surviving patients have been discharged. A silicone rubber sheet may be necessary for closure of the abdominal wall after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients where primary abdominal wall closure is impossible or where it results in compromise in respiratory or renal function.

  5. Science Fiction on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  6. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  7. Ice in the northern plains: Relic of a frozen ocean?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images revealed many features in the northern plains and along their boundary that early investigators believed to be formed by ice-related processes. The features are possible pingos, pseudocraters, table mountains and moberg ridges, thermokarst depressions, moraines, patterned ground, and lobate aprons that suggest viscous flow such as that of ice or rock glaciers. More recently, many of these features were reinterpreted as related to sedimentation in hypothetical former polar lakes, oceans, or alluvial plains or as shoreline features of associated water bodies. Some evidence that points toward the existence of former bodies of standing water in the northern plains, but is also consistent with the idea that these bodies were ice covered or completely frozen is reviewed.

  8. Water Flow in the High Plains Aquifer in Northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, Richard R.; Osborn, Noel I.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains is a major agricultural area, supported primarily by water from the High Plains aquifer, which is used to irrigate wheat and corn and to raise cattle and swine. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) began a study of the High Plains aquifer in 1996. One purpose of the study was to develop a ground-water flow model that the OWRB could use to allocate the amount of water withdrawn from the a aquifer. The study area in Oklahoma covers all or parts of Beaver, Cimarron, Dewey, Ellis, Harper, Texas, and Woodward Counties. To provide appropriate hydrologic boundaries for the ground-water flow model, the study area was expanded to include parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

  9. East China plains: a "basin" of ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Tao

    2009-03-15

    Economic growth and associated pollution emissions in China are concentrated over three connected plains to the east In this work, we analyze an episode of highly elevated ozone over East China on June 9-14, 2004, using a 3-D chemical transport model. During this episode, the East China plains were under a high-pressure system, which suppressed the ventilation of pollutants from the boundary layer. Simulated ozone concentrations over a major fraction of East China reached high levels, all the way down to the Pearl River Delta region in the southern border. The convergence of pollutant emissions and population over the vast stretch of the geographically flat plains of East China makes the region susceptible to high-ozone exposure. During this episode, the high-03 region extended over an area >1 million km2, which hosts a population of >800 million people. Model results indicate that controlling anthropogenic NOx emissions effectively reduces the area with high-ozone exposure.

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  11. Causes and Predictability of the 2012 Great Plains Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Kumar, A.; Leung, R.; Mariotti, A.; Mo, K.; Schubert, S.; Seager, R.

    2013-01-01

    Central Great Plains precipitation deficits during May-August 2012 were the most severe since at least 1895, eclipsing the Dust Bowl summers of 1934 and 1936. Drought developed suddenly in May, following near-normal precipitation during winter and early spring. Its proximate causes were a reduction in atmospheric moisture transport into the Great Plains from the Gulf of Mexico. Processes that generally provide air mass lift and condensation were mostly absent, including a lack of frontal cyclones in late spring followed by suppressed deep convection in summer owing to large-scale subsidence and atmospheric stabilization. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the summer 2012 central Great Plains drought development, which therefore arrived without early warning. Climate simulations and empirical analysis suggest that ocean surface temperatures together with changes in greenhouse gases did not induce a substantial reduction in summertime precipitation over the central Great Plains during 2012. Yet, diagnosis of the retrospective climate simulations also reveals a regime shift toward warmer and drier summertime Great Plains conditions during the recent decade, most probably due to natural decadal variability. As a consequence, the probability for severe summer Great Plains drought may have increased in the last decade compared to the 1980s and 1990s, and the so-called tail-risk for severe drought may have been heightened in summer 2012. Such an extreme drought event was nonetheless still found to be a rare occurrence within the spread of 2012 climate model simulations. Implications of this study's findings for U.S. seasonal drought forecasting are discussed.

  12. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility. PMID:28670024

  13. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.

  14. Abdominal Cysticercosis in a Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes ).

    PubMed

    Whipp, Christopher James; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Conboy, Gary; Gelens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.

  15. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Eleven Years After Cesarean Section: Case Report

    PubMed

    Djaković, Ivka; Vuković, Ante; Bolanča, Ivan; Soljačić Vraneš, Hrvojka; Kuna, Krunoslav

    2017-03-01

    Endometriosis is a common chronic disease characterized by growth of the endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterus. Symptoms affect physical, mental and social well-being. Extrapelvic location of endometriosis is very rare. Abdominal wall endometriosis occurs in 0.03%-2% of women with a previous cesarean section or other abdominopelvic operation. The leading symptoms are abdominal nodular mass, pain and cyclic symptomatology. The number of cesarean sections is increasing and so is the incidence of abdominal wall endometriosis as a potential complication of the procedure. There are cases of malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis. Therefore, it is important to recognize this condition and treat it surgically. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with abdominal wall endometriosis 11 years after cesarean section. She had low abdominal pain related to menstrual cycle, which intensified at the end of menstrual bleeding. A nodule painful to palpation was found in the medial part of previous Pfannenstiel incision. Ultrasound guided biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of endometriosis confirmed. Surgery is the treatment of choice for abdominal wall endometriosis. Excision with histologically proven free surgical margins of 1 cm is mandatory to prevent recurrence. A wide spectrum of mimicking conditions is the main reason for late diagnosis and treatment of abdominal wall endometriosis. In our case, the symptoms lasted for eight years and had intensified in the last six months prior to surgery.

  16. Bogota bag in the treatment of abdominal wound dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, N; Shaharin, S; Razman, J; Jasmi, A Y

    2004-06-01

    A patient who underwent emergency laparotomy for rectal prolapse developed repeated abdominal wound dehiscence and subsequently an enteric fistula. The management of abdominal wound dehiscence is discussed, specifically with regards to the Bogota bag. Use of Bogota bag has been reported worldwide but this may be the first report here.

  17. [Abdominal gunshot wounds. Ballistic data and practical management].

    PubMed

    Vicq, P; Jourdan, P; Chapuis, O; Baranger, B

    1996-01-01

    The mortality from abdominal gunshot wounds remains high, either in civilian or military cases. The severity factors of these wounds include bullet calibre and energy transfer of the missile. This paper studies some of the ballistics features of abdominal gunshot wounds. Practical guidelines are inferred concerning diagnosis and treatment of these wounds.

  18. [Clinical Approach to Abdominal Pain as Functional Origin].

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2018-02-25

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom that patients refer to a hospital. Organic causes should be differentiated in patients with abdominal pain and treatment should be administered in accordance with the causes. A meticulous history taking and physical examination are highly useful in making a diagnosis, and blood tests, imaging modalities, and endoscopy are useful for confirming diagnosis. However, in many cases, patients have functional disorders with no obvious abnormal findings obtained even if many diagnostic tests are performed. Patients with functional disorders usually complain the vague abdominal pain located in the center and other portions of the abdominal area. Although the most representative disease is irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pain syndrome is currently researched as a new disease entity of functional abdominal pain. As various receptors related to functional abdominal pain have been discovered, drugs associated with those receptors are used to treat the disorders, and additional new drugs are vigorously developed. In addition, medical therapy with pharmacological or non-pharmacological psychiatric treatment is effective for treating functional abdominal pain.

  19. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section 884.5225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  20. Water Ice Clouds over the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 48.5 N and 240.5 W, displays splotchy water ice clouds that obscure the northern lowland plains in the region where the Viking 2 spacecraft landed. This image is far enough north to catch the edge of the north polar hood that develops during the northern winter. This is a cap of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds that form over the Martian north pole. As Mars progresses into northern spring, the persistent north polar hood ice clouds will dissipate and the surface viewing conditions will improve greatly. As the season develops, an equatorial belt of water ice clouds will form. This belt of water ice clouds is as characteristic of the Martian climate as the southern hemisphere summer dust storm season. Seasons on Mars have a dramatic effect on the state of the dynamic Martian atmosphere. The Story Muted in an almost air-brushed manner, this image doesn't have the crispness that most THEMIS images have. That's because clouds were rising over the surface of the red planet on the day this picture was taken. Finding clouds on Mars might remind us of conditions here on Earth, but these Martian clouds are made of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide -- in other words, clouds of ice and 'dry ice.' Strange as that may sound, the clouds seen here form on a pretty regular basis at the north Martian pole during its winter season. As springtime comes to the northern hemisphere of Mars (and fall comes to the southern), these clouds will slowly disappear, and a nice belt of water ice clouds will form around the equator. So, if you were a THEMIS camera aimer, that might tell you when your best viewing conditions for different areas on Mars would be. As interesting as clear pictures of Martian landforms are, however, you wouldn't want to bypass the weather altogether. Pictures showing seasonal shifts are great for scientists to study, because they reveal a lot about the patterns of the Martian climate and the

  1. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic framework of the Alabama Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Tertiary and Cretaceous sand aquifers of the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain comprise a major multlstate aquifer system informally defined as the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, which is being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program. The major objectives of each RASA study are to identify, delineate, and map the distribution of permeable clastlc rock, to examine the pattern of ground-water flow within the regional aquifers, and to develop digital computer simulations to understand the flow system. The Coastal Plain aquifers in Alabama are being studied as a part of this system. This report describes the stratlgraphlc framework of the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary Systems in Alabama to aid in delineating aquifers and confining units within the thick sequence of sediments that comprises the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in the State. Stratigraphlc units of Cretaceous and Tertiary age that make up most of the aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of Alabama consist of clastlc deposits of Early Cretaceous age; the Coker and Gordo Formations of the Tuscaloosa Group, Eutaw Formation, and Selma Group of Late Cretaceous age; and the Midway, Wilcox, and Clalborne Groups of Tertiary age. However, stratigraphlc units of late Eocene to Holocene age partially overlie and are hydraulically connected to clastic deposits in southern Alabama. These upper carbonate and clastlc stratlgraphic units also are part of the adjoining Florldan and Gulf Coastal Lowlands aquifer systems. The Coastal Plain aquifer system is underlain by pre-Cretaceous rocks consisting of low-permeabillty sedimentary rocks of Paleozolc, Triassic, and Jurassic age, and a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian and Paleozolc age similar to those found near the surface in the Piedmont physiographic province. Twelve hydrogeologlc units in the Alabama Coastal Plain are defined--slx aquifers and six confining

  2. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for USGS-142

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    2015-11-23

    Well data for the USGS-142 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes lithology reports, borehole logs, and photos of rhyolite core samples. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  3. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Regional viewing of ERTS-1 imagery around the test sites shows that storm paths can be accurately traced and a count made of the number of intermittent lake basins filled by the storm. Therefore, during wet years ERTS-type imagery can be used to conduct a reliable count of the tens of thousands of natural lake basins on the southern High Plains which contain water. This type of regional overview of water filled basins in the normally arid southern High Plains is illustrated by bands 6 and 7, ERTS E-1078-16524.

  4. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Fast-Dissolving Sublingual Film of Iloperidone Using Box-Behnken Design for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Londhe, Vaishali; Shirsat, Rucha

    2018-04-01

    Iloperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic drug which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia and has very low aqueous solubility and bioavailability. This drug also undergoes first-pass metabolism. The aim of this work is to formulate fast-dissolving sublingual films of iloperidone to improve its bioavailability. Sublingual films were prepared by solvent casting method. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E5, propylene glycol 400, and transcutol HP were optimized using Box-Behnken three-level statistical design on the basis of disintegration time and folding endurance of films. Iloperidone:hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin kneaded complex was used in films instead of plain drug due to its low solubility. Optimized film was further evaluated for drug content, pH, dissolution studies, ex vivo permeation studies, and pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The optimized film disintegrated within 30 s. The in vitro dissolution of the film showed 80.3 ± 3.4% drug dissolved within first 5 min. In ex vivo permeation studies using sublingual tissue, flux achieved within first 15 min by film was around 117.1 ± 0.35 (mcg/cm 2 /h) which was ten times more than that of plain drug. This formulation showed excellent uniformity. AUC and C max of film were significantly higher (p < 0.001) as compared to plain drug and relative bioavailability of the films was 148% when compared to the plain drug. Thus, this study showed optimized fast-dissolving sublingual film to improve permeation and bioavailability of iloperidone. Fast-dissolving films will be customer-friendly approach for geadiatric schizophrenic patients.

  6. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.

  8. Desmoid Fibromatosis of the Lower Abdominal Wall in Irrua Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awe, Oluwafemi Olasupo; Eluehike, Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis (desmoid tumors) is rare tumors. It can occur as intra-abdominal, extraabdominal, or abdominal wall tumor depending on the site. The abdominal wall type is usually sporadic, but few have been associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. They are commonly seen in young females who are pregnant with a history of the previous cesarean section scar or within the 1st year of the last childbirth. There is an association between this tumor, presence of estrogen receptors, and abdominal trauma. We present a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with fungating lower abdominal wall tumor. This tumor is rare, a high index of suspicion will be very important in making the diagnosis. PMID:29643736

  9. Unusual causes of abdominal pain: sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Shahid, Rabia K; Russo, Linda A

    2005-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive painful crises. The vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease is a complex process and accounts for the majority of the clinical manifestation of the disease. Abdominal pain is an important component of vaso-occlusive painful crises. It often represents a substantial diagnostic challenge in this population of patients. These episodes are often attributed to micro-vessel occlusion and infarcts of mesentery and abdominal viscera. Abdominal pain due to sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis is often indistinguishable from an acute intra-abdominal disease process such as acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, hepatic infarction, ischemic colitis and acute appendicitis. In the majority of cases, however, no specific cause is identified and spontaneous resolution occurs. This chapter will focus on etiologies, pathophysiology and management of abdominal pain in patients with sickle cell disease.

  10. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  11. Medical Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Timothy; Terrin, Michael C.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of detection. A number of studies have sought to determine factors that lead to progression of aneurysmal disease that might be amenable to intervention during this period of observation. We review these studies and make recommendations for the medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis of our current knowledge of the causes of aneurysm, a number of approaches have been proposed to prevent progression of aneurysmal disease. These include hemodynamic management, inhibition of inflammation, and protease inhibition. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines rules of evidence have helped to define strength of evidence to support these approaches. Level A evidence (from large randomized trials) is available to indicate that observation of small aneurysms in men is safe up to a size of 5.5 cm and that propranolol does not inhibit aneurysm expansion. Level B evidence (from small randomized trials) suggests that roxithromycin or doxycycline will decrease the rate of aneurysm expansion. A number of studies agree that tobacco use is associated with an increased rate of aneurysm expansion. Level B and C evidence is available to suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may inhibit aneurysm expansion. There are animal data but no human data demonstrating that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, will decrease the rate of AAA expansion. A pharmacological agent without important side effects that inhibited aneurysm expansion could change

  12. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Incidence, Patterns, and Factors Predicting Mortality of Abdominal Injuries in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Mohammad A; Saber, Aly; Farrag, Shereif; Shams, Mohamed E; Ellabban, Goda M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abdominal trauma is a major public health problem for all nations and all socioeconomic strata. Aim: This study was designed to determine the incidence and patterns of abdominal injuries in trauma patients. Materials and Methods: We classified and identified the incidence and subtype of abdominal injuries and associated trauma, and identified variables related to morbidity and mortality. Results: Abdominal trauma was present in 248 of 300 cases; 172 patients with blunt abdominal trauma and 76 with penetrating. The most frequent type of abdominal trauma was blunt trauma; its most common cause was motor vehicle accident. Among patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, the most common cause was stabbing. Most abdominal trauma patients presented with other injuries, especially patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Mortality was higher among penetrating abdominal trauma patients. Conclusions: Type of abdominal trauma, associated injuries, and Revised Trauma Score are independent risk factors for mortality in abdominal trauma patients. PMID:22454826

  14. Temporary abdominal closure with zipper-mesh device for management of intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo; Pflug, Adriano Ribeiro Meyer; Damous, Sérgio Henrique Bastos; Rodrigues, Adilson Costa; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza; Birolini, Claudio Augusto Vianna

    2015-01-01

    to present our experience with scheduled reoperations in 15 patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. we have applied a more effective technique consisting of temporary abdominal closure with a nylon mesh sheet containing a zipper. We performed reoperations in the operating room under general anesthesia at an average interval of 84 hours. The revision consisted of debridement of necrotic material and vigorous lavage of the involved peritoneal area. The mean age of patients was 38.7 years (range, 15 to 72 years); 11 patients were male, and four were female. forty percent of infections were due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Sixty percent were due to perforation of the intestinal viscus secondary to inflammation, vascular occlusion or trauma. We performed a total of 48 reoperations, an average of 3.2 surgeries per patient. The mesh-zipper device was left in place for an average of 13 days. An intestinal ostomy was present adjacent to the zipper in four patients and did not present a problem for patient management. Mortality was 26.6%. No fistulas resulted from this technique. When intra-abdominal disease was under control, the mesh-zipper device was removed, and the fascia was closed in all patients. In three patients, the wound was closed primarily, and in 12 it was allowed to close by secondary intent. Two patients developed hernia; one was incisional and one was in the drain incision. the planned reoperation for manual lavage and debridement of the abdomen through a nylon mesh-zipper combination was rapid, simple, and well-tolerated. It permitted effective management of severe septic peritonitis, easy wound care and primary closure of the abdominal wall.

  15. Compliance of the abdominal wall during laparoscopic insufflation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Chuck; Plymale, Margaret A; Wennergren, John; Totten, Crystal; Stigall, Kyle; Roth, J Scott

    2017-04-01

    To provide adequate workspace between the viscera and abdominal wall, insufflation with carbon dioxide is a common practice in laparoscopic surgeries. An insufflation pressure of 15 mmHg is considered to be safe in patients, but all insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative physiologic effects. As a composition of viscoelastic materials, the abdominal wall should distend in a predictable manner given the pressure of the pneumoperitoneum. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between degree of abdominal distention and the insufflation pressure, with the goal of determining factors which impact the compliance of the abdominal wall. A prospective, IRB-approved study was conducted to video record the abdomens of patients undergoing insufflation prior to a laparoscopic surgery. Photo samples were taken every 5 s, and the strain of the patient's abdomen in the sagittal plane was determined, as well as the insufflator pressure (stress) at bedside. Patients were insufflated to 15 mmHg. The relationship between the stress and strain was determined in each sample, and compliance of the patient's abdominal wall was calculated. Subcutaneous fat thickness and rectus abdominus muscle thickness were obtained from computed tomography scans. Correlations between abdominal wall compliances and subcutaneous fat and muscle content were determined. Twenty-five patients were evaluated. An increased fat thickness in the abdominal wall had a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance (R 2  = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between muscle and fat thickness. All insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative complications. The compliance of patients' abdominal body walls differs, and subcutaneous fat thickness has a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance. Thus, insufflation pressures can be better tailored per the patient. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the

  16. How useful is abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with diarrhoea?

    PubMed

    Mapletoft, E K; Allenspach, K; Lamb, C R

    2018-01-01

    To assess the utility of abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up of dogs with diarrhoea. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on a referral population of dogs with diarrhoea. Associations between the clinical signs, use of abdominal ultrasonography, results of abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent work-up were examined. The utility of abdominal ultrasonography was scored as high, moderate, none or counterproductive based on review of medical records. Medical records of 269 dogs were reviewed, of which 149 (55%) had abdominal ultrasonography. The most frequent result was no ultrasonographic abnormalities affecting the intestine in 65 (44%) dogs. Ultrasonography results were associated with subsequent work-up as follows: (1) no detected abnormalities and dietary trial; (2) focal thickening of the intestinal wall, loss of intestinal wall layers or enlarged abdominal lymph nodes and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates; (3) diffuse thickening of the intestinal wall or hyperechoic striations in the small intestinal mucosa and endoscopy; and (4) small intestinal foreign body and coeliotomy. Abdominal ultrasonography was considered to be diagnostic without further testing in only four (3%) dogs: two had a portosystemic shunt identified ultrasonographically, one had a linear foreign body and one had a perforated pyloric ulcer. Abdominal ultrasonography had moderate utility in 56 (38%) dogs and no utility in 79 (53%) dogs. Abdominal ultrasonography was considered counterproductive in 10 (7%) dogs because results were either falsely negative or falsely positive. These results should prompt clinicians to reconsider routine use of abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with diarrhoea. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudotumors after primary abdominal lipectomy as a new sequela in patients with abdominal apron.

    PubMed

    Dragu, Adrian; Bach, Alexander D; Polykandriotis, Elias; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E

    2009-11-01

    Malnutrition and overweight is a common problem in modern societies. Primary abdominal lipectomy is a standard surgical tool in patients with these problems. However, unknown secondary problems result from recent advances in obesity surgery. Plication of the anterior musculoaponeurotic wall is a widely and commonly used operative technique during abdominoplasty. Many different plication techniques have been published. So far no common standard and long-term effectiveness is proven. In addition, there is no sufficient literature dealing with the postoperative risks of plication of the musculoaponeurotic wall. Four patients with development of pseudotumors were reviewed. All four patients received 12 months in advance a primary abdominal lipectomy including a vertical plication of the musculoaponeurotic wall. All four patients were females with mean age of 61 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 37 kg/m(2). All four patients had developed a pseudotumor of the abdomen as a long-term complication more than 12 months after primary abdominal lipectomy including a vertical plication of the anterior rectus sheath. One should be aware of the potential long-term risk of secondary postoperative hematoma formation, with or without partial necrosis of the anterior rectus sheath after vertical plication of the anterior musculoaponeurotic wall. Viewed clinically and radiologically, such sequelas may appear as pseudotumor like masses and require immediate revision.

  19. [Abdominal catastrophe--abdominal wall defect associated with gastrointestinal fistula--strategy of therapy].

    PubMed

    Chobola, M; Sobotka, L; Ferko, A; Oberreiter, M; Kaska, M; Motycka, V; Páral, J; Mottl, R

    2010-11-01

    Wound dehiscence complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) fistula to belong ,,abdominal catastrophe". Therapy is prolonged and connected with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the period from October 2006 to July 2009 we performed 12 reconstructive surgical procedures on gastrointestinal tract in patients with abdominal catastrophe. Treatment of 12 consecutive patients (9 men, 3 women) was managed according to a standardize protocol. The protocol consists of treatment of septic complications, optimisation of nutritional state, special wound procedures, diagnosis of gastrointestinal fistulas and GI tract, timing of surgical procedures, reconstruction of GI tract and postoperative care. Reconstructive surgery of GI tract was successful on 11 patients. One patient developed recurrence of early GI fistula. In four patients we let open abdomen to heal per secundam. We observed no deaths after operation. With regard to complex character of therapy of abdominal catastrophe there is a need of multidisciplinary approach. Considering long-lasting and expensive therapy there is logical step to concentrate these patients into special centres which are experienced, equipped and their staff is trained in treatment of such a seriously impaired patients.

  20. Perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy compared with total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pundir, J; Walawalkar, R; Seshadri, S; Khalaf, Y; El-Toukhy, T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically review and summarise existing evidence related to the perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy in comparison with abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out. The primary outcome was the major morbidity rate and secondary outcomes were uterine size, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion, operating time and duration of hospital stay. The results identified six observational studies including 1520 participants. All studies scored moderately on the N-OQA scale and were limited to a uterine size of up to 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in the rate of major morbidity (RR 0.94; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.81; p = 0.91) between the two operations. It was concluded that based on variable quality data from retrospective cohort studies, abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy appear to have similar major morbidity rates for the uterine size up to 16-18 weeks. Well-designed trials with a standardised morbidity outcome and including uterine size greater than 18 weeks are required.

  1. Black Films and Film-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

    The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

  2. Postoperative intra-abdominal collections using a sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) barrier at the time of laparotomy for uterine or cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Leitao, Mario M; Byrum, Graham V; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Brown, Carol L; Chi, Dennis S; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A; Gardner, Ginger J; Barakat, Richard R

    2010-11-01

    A prior analysis of patients undergoing laparotomy for ovarian malignancies at our institution revealed an increased rate of intra-abdominal collections using HA-CMC film during debulking surgery. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether the use of HA-CMC is associated with the development of postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for uterine or cervical malignancies. We retrospectively identified all laparotomies performed for these malignancies from 3/1/05 to 12/31/07. We identified cases involving the use of HA-CMC via billing records and operative reports. Intra-abdominal collections were defined as localized intraperitoneal fluid accumulations in the absence of re-accumulating ascites. We noted incidences of intra-abdominal collections, as well as other complications. Appropriate statistical tests were applied using SPSS 15.0. We identified 169 laparotomies in which HA-CMC was used and 347 in which HA-CMC was not used. The following were statistically similar in both cohorts: age, body mass index (BMI), primary site, surgery for recurrent disease, prior intraperitoneal surgery, and extent of current surgery. Intra-abdominal collections were seen in 6 (3.6%) of 169 HA-CMC cases compared to 10 (2.9%) of 347 non-HA-CMC cases (p=0.7). The rate of infected collections was similar in both groups (1.2% vs. 1.4%). In the subgroup that underwent tumor debulking, intra-abdominal collections were seen in 3 (11.5%) of 26 HA-CMC cases compared to 2 (5.4%) of 37 non-HA-CMC cases (p=0.6). HA-CMC use does not appear to be associated with postoperative intra-abdominal collections in patients undergoing laparotomy for uterine or cervical cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Sibling Connection in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author argues that sibling relationships are a missing piece of the eating disorder puzzle. She notes that disturbing relationships with siblings have been present all along in the literature, but have not been included as a separate area of study. They have thus been hiding in plain sight, present but not accounted for in our…

  4. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon; Rimmer, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires nations that have ratified the convention to ban all tobacco advertising and promotion. In the face of these restrictions, tobacco packaging has become the key promotional vehicle for the tobacco industry to interest smokers and potential smokers in tobacco products. This paper reviews available research into the probable impact of mandatory plain packaging and internal tobacco industry statements about the importance of packs as promotional vehicles. It critiques legal objections raised by the industry about plain packaging violating laws and international trade agreements. Searches for available evidence were conducted within the internal tobacco industry documents through the online document archives; tobacco industry trade publications; research literature through the Medline and Business Source Premier databases; and grey literature including government documents, research reports and non-governmental organization papers via the Google internet search engine. Plain packaging of all tobacco products would remove a key remaining means for the industry to promote its products to billions of the world's smokers and future smokers. Governments have required large surface areas of tobacco packs to be used exclusively for health warnings without legal impediment or need to compensate tobacco companies. Requiring plain packaging is consistent with the intention to ban all tobacco promotions. There is no impediment in the FCTC to interpreting tobacco advertising and promotion to include tobacco packs.

  5. Ammonia losses from a southern high plains dairy during summer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete a large amount of nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges including repo...

  6. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...” 1954, revised 1975. (6) “Big Spring, Texas” 1954, revised 1975. (c) Boundary. The Texas High Plains...; (2) The boundary follows U.S. Route 180 east through Seminole, Texas and onto the Big Spring, Texas... the U.S.G.S. maps of Big Spring and Lubbock, Texas; (4) The boundary continues along the 3,000 foot...

  7. Traditional Plains Indian Art and the Contemporary Indian Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakes, Fraser

    1987-01-01

    Examines underlying concepts in traditional Plains Indian arts and encourages incorporation of traditional concepts into contemporary art education. Discusses spiritual foundations, holism, art for art's sake, portability, body art, conservation, tribal identity, aesthetic features, age/sex differentiation in art production, white society's…

  8. A Socioeconomic Profile of the Northern Great Plains Coal Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Paul R.; And Others

    When historic (1940-70) and recent (1970-74) trends in population, income, and employment for the Northern Great Plains coal region are compared with that for the entire U.S. and all U.S. nonmetro counties, data reveal a minimal population increase from 1940 to 1970, a period of declining agricultural employment and high outmigration rates. In…

  9. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...

  10. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    DOE PAGES

    Vukovich, Mark; Turner, Kelsey L.; Grazia, Tracy E.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the wintersmore » of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.« less

  11. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain management. 650.25 Section 650.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... management will be provided by the NRCS technical service centers (§ 600.3 of this part). (2) NRCS state...

  12. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... human life, health, and property in ways that are environmentally sensitive. Most flood plains are... management will be provided by the NRCS technical service centers (§ 600.3 of this part). (2) NRCS state...

  13. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...” 1954, revised 1975. (6) “Big Spring, Texas” 1954, revised 1975. (c) Boundary. The Texas High Plains...; (2) The boundary follows U.S. Route 180 east through Seminole, Texas and onto the Big Spring, Texas... the U.S.G.S. maps of Big Spring and Lubbock, Texas; (4) The boundary continues along the 3,000 foot...

  14. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...” 1954, revised 1975. (6) “Big Spring, Texas” 1954, revised 1975. (c) Boundary. The Texas High Plains...; (2) The boundary follows U.S. Route 180 east through Seminole, Texas and onto the Big Spring, Texas... the U.S.G.S. maps of Big Spring and Lubbock, Texas; (4) The boundary continues along the 3,000 foot...

  15. Coastal plain community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planning

    Treesearch

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for representative large, medium, and small broadleaf trees and coniferous trees in the Coastal Plain region: the species chosen as representative are the Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida...

  16. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sit...

  17. Fields of Opportunity: Wind Machines Return to the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a rebirth of wind machines on the rural landscape. In ironic fashion the wind's kinetic energy has grown in significance through its ability to generate commercial amounts of electricity, the commodity that a few generations earlier hastened the demise of the old Great Plains windmill. Yet the reemergence of wind…

  18. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  19. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...” 1954, revised 1975. (6) “Big Spring, Texas” 1954, revised 1975. (c) Boundary. The Texas High Plains...; (2) The boundary follows U.S. Route 180 east through Seminole, Texas and onto the Big Spring, Texas... the U.S.G.S. maps of Big Spring and Lubbock, Texas; (4) The boundary continues along the 3,000 foot...

  20. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...” 1954, revised 1975. (6) “Big Spring, Texas” 1954, revised 1975. (c) Boundary. The Texas High Plains...; (2) The boundary follows U.S. Route 180 east through Seminole, Texas and onto the Big Spring, Texas... the U.S.G.S. maps of Big Spring and Lubbock, Texas; (4) The boundary continues along the 3,000 foot...

  1. Great Plains Project: at worst a $1. 7 billion squeeze

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.

    1983-04-11

    On January 29, 1982, seeking a loan guarantee for its coal-to-gas synfuels project, Great Plains Gasification Associates told the Department of Energy that they expected to reap $1.2 billion in net income to the partnership during the first 10 years of the venture. On March 31, 1983, Great Plains treasurer Rodney Boulanger had a different projection: a horrific loss of $773 million in the first decade. The Great Plains project, with construction 50% complete, is being built near Beulah, ND. The project has a design capacity of 137.5 million cubic feet a day of SNG. Great Plains' analysis assumes thatmore » the plant will operate at 70% of design capacity in 1985, 77% in 1986, 84% in 1987 and 91% thereafter. The company projects the total project cost at $2.1 billion, consisting of plant costs of $1.9 billion and coal mine costs of $156 million. In originally projecting a cumulative net income of better than $1 billion, the partners anticipated running losses in only three of the first 10 years, and cash distributions from the project of $893 million during the first decade. Under the new projections, even in the best case, the first four years would show losses and there would be no distribution to the partners. In the worst case, the project would run in the red every year for the first 10 years.« less

  2. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the northern Great Plains

    Treesearch

    Gary E. Larson

    1993-01-01

    A taxonomic treatment of aquatic and wetland vascular plants has been developed as a tool for identifying over 500 plant species inhabiting wetlands of the northern Great Plains region. The treatment provides dichotomous keys and botanical descriptions to facilitate identification of all included taxa. Illustrations are also provided for selected species. Geographical...

  3. How New Zealand Consumers Respond to Plain English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nittaya

    1999-01-01

    Considers how New Zealand has seen a need for providing readily understandable business and government documents. Reports a psycholinguistic study testing the level of consumer comprehension of bank contracts, and the effect of using plain English to rewrite them. Finds that the most effective means of enhancing comprehension was that which…

  4. Deathscapes, Topocide, Domicide: The Plains in Contemporary Print Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    The American print media are a powerful mechanism for communicating information about places and environment to the American public. When it comes to a landscape such as the Great Plains, experienced by many Americans as either sleep-through land in a car or flyover land in a plane, the print media may be their only real source of information…

  5. Regional dynamics of grassland change in the western Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contemporary land-cover changes in two western Great Plains ecoregions between 1973 and 2000. Agriculture and other land uses can have a substantial effect on grassland cover that varies regionally depending on the primary driving forces of change. In order to better understand change, the rates, types, and causes of land conversion were examined for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 using Landsat satellite data and a statistical sampling strategy. The overall estimated rate of land-cover change between 1973 and 2000 was 7.4% in the Northwestern Great Plains and 11.5% in the Western High Plains. Trends in both ecoregions have similarities, although the dynamics of change differ temporally depending on driving forces. Between 1973 and 1986, grassland cover declined when economic opportunity drove an expansion of agriculture. Between 1986 and 2000, grassland expanded as public policy and a combination of socioeconomic factors drove a conversion from agriculture to grassland. ?? 2007 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  6. A Plain English Map of the Human Glycolysis Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the gene coding for the glycolysis enzymes in humans to be used as a teaching tool. The map can be used to illustrate that every reaction in a cell requires an enzyme, and that every enzyme is a protein coded for by a gene somewhere on the chromosomes. (WRM)

  7. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Benjamin L. Koontz; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987, area of timberland in the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 3.3 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control nearly three-fourths of the region's timberland. The area classified as pine increased by 14 percent, while hardwood acreage dropped by 12 percent. The area harvested annually fell to 87.000...

  8. Ball Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The problem under investigation concerned (1) determining the ball games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) determining the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) determining the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 48 "Annual Reports of the…

  9. The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act provides a brief introduction to the 1990 Clean Air Act. This summary covers some of the important provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act and may help you understand what is in the law and how it may affect you.

  10. The Great Plains Rural Principal: Characteristics and Leadership Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Edward W.

    This study of rural schools in the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas focused on self-reported characteristics of secondary school principals as well as their leadership style. A total of 592 surveys were mailed to the identified population, of whom 462 returned completed forms. It was found that the Great Plains rural…

  11. Finger millet: An alternative crop for the Southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently, corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are the two major crops grown in the region to meet silage demands for the expanding dairy industry, but they have rel...

  12. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  13. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  14. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Turner, Kelsey L.; Grazia, Tracy E.

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the wintersmore » of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.« less

  15. Visualizing Gender Variability in Plains Indian Pictographic Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carocci, Max

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the few published references to gender variation among Plains Indians in order to contribute to a growing corpus of literature concerned with building a more complete picture of the social and cultural lives of individuals accustomed to these practices. In recent years these people have been known among Native Americans under…

  16. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  17. The future of irrigation on the High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The future of irrigation on the U.S. High Plains was examined through the lens of past changes in water supply and innovations in irrigation technology, management and agronomy. The innovations have greatly increased the efficiency of water application and use, and the agricultural productivity of t...

  18. Residential fuelwood consumption in the Plains States, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1996-01-01

    Reports findings on the latest survey of residential fuelwood consumption and production in the Plains States. Topics examined include the geographic distribution of residential fuelwood consumption and production within the state; the species of trees used for residential fuelwood; the types of wood-burning facilities used; the reasons for burning fuelwood; and the...

  19. The Education of Children in Pre-European Plains America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitecap, Leah

    1988-01-01

    Describes child-rearing and educational practices of Plains Indians, stressing importance of hunting, especially of buffalo. Examines early childhood rituals and general child-rearing practices as part of cultural education. Describes religious education of children. Stresses Indian educational methods as "informal" but "direct and…

  20. Wooded draws in rangelands of the northern Great Plains

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Michele M. Girard

    1985-01-01

    Wooded draws and natural prairie woodlands occupy about 1.1 percent of the northern Great Plains. While the extent of wooded draws is extremely limited, their importance and value is much greater. These unique communities are important for wildlife and livestock habitats, soil stabilization, watershed maintenance, firewood, esthetics, and species diversity (Fig. 1). An...

  1. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1976

    Treesearch

    Noel D. Cost

    1976-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the coastal Plain of Virginia. The inventory was started in February 1975 and completed in November 1975. Three previous inventories, completed in 1940, 1956, and 1966, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this report, the primary...

  2. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF THE MISSISSIPPI ALLUVIAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of The Mississippi Alluvial Plain (73) have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a ...

  3. Prairie dogs as ecosystem regulators on the northern High Plains

    Treesearch

    Daniel W. Uresk; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1983-01-01

    The increase in prairie dog populations on the northern High Plains has emphasized the need for additional information on cattle-prairie dog forage relationships. To obtain information on cattle-prairie dog forage relationships, 4 treatments were evaluated over 4 growing seasons. These treatments were: 1) no grazing (prairie dogs eliminated and cattle excluded), 2)...

  4. Ginning picker and stripper harvested high plains cotton - update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and High Volume Instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

  5. Copper Deficiency in Pine Plantations in the Georgia Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    David B. South; William A. Carey; Donald A. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Copper deficiencies have been observed on several intensively managed pine plantations in the Georgia Coastal Plain. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) displayed plagiotropic growth within a year after planting on very acid, sandy soils. Typically, symptoms show...

  6. REGIONALIZATION OF THE WESTERN CORN BELT PLAINS ECOREGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger effort to study the fate and transport of agrichemicals in the midwestern United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commissioned a study of spatial variability within the Western Corn Belt Plains ecoregion. he objective of this study was to syste...

  7. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  8. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands... of flood prone lands with approval of the appropriate signatory party, to safeguard public health... tributaries by encroachment. (2) Plan and promote implementation of projects and programs of a structural and...

  9. Astrobiology and the Basaltic Plains in Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, John P.; Haskin, Larry A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Schroeder, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the availability of nutrient elements, energy and liquid water on the plains surrounding Columbia Memorial Station by evaluating observations by the MER rover Spirit in the context of previous Mars missions, Earth-based studies of martian meteorites and studies of microbial communities on Earth that represent potential analogs of martian biota.

  10. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1991

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Field work began in October 1990 and was completed in March 1991. Five previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, 1976, and 1985, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 51 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the...

  11. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1985

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Brown; Gerald C. Craver

    1985-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Fieldwork began in September 1984 and was completed in February 1985. Four previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, and 1976, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 45 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes...

  12. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  13. Education Tomorrow: A Collection of Articles From Mountain-Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenenbock, Michael C., Comp.

    The booklet contains 18 articles, essentially journalistic efforts topically organized according to the categories overview, research, education, human growth and development, and support, which describe the Mountain-Plains Program, a regional program in comprehensive family career education in Montana. Article titles and their authors are:…

  14. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  15. Plains tectonism on Venus: The deformation belts of Lavinia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Jankowski, David G.; Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.; Hager, Bradford H.; Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. A number of geologic units can be distinguished, including volcanic plains units with a range of ages. Transecting these plains over much of the Lavinia region are two types of generally orthogonal features that we interpret to be compressional wrinkle ridges and extensional grooves. The dominant tectonic features of Lavinia are broad elevated belts of intense deformation that transect the plains with complex geometry. They are many tens to a few hundred kilometers wide, as much as 1000 km long, and elevated hundreds of meters above the surrounding plains. Two classes of deformation belts are seen in the Lavinia region. 'Ridge belts' are composed of parallel ridges, each a few hundred meters in elevation, that we interpret to be folds. Typical fold spacings are 5-10 km. 'Fracture belts' are dominated instead by intense faulting, with faults in some instances paired to form narrow grabens. There is also some evidence for modest amounts of horizontal shear distributed across both ridge and fracture belts. Crosscutting relationships among the belts show there to be a range in belt ages. In western Lavinia, in particular, many ridge and fracture belts appear to bear a relationship to the much smaller wrinkle ridges and grooves on the surrounding plains: ridge morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains wrinkle ridges, and fracture morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains grooves. We use simple models to explore the formation of ridge and fracture belts. We show that convective motions in the mantle can couple to the crust to cause horizontal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to induce the formation of deformation belts like those observed in Lavinia. We also use the small-scale wavelengths of deformation observed within individual ridge belts to

  16. Ground-water geology of the Gonaives Plain, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1950-01-01

    The Gonaives Plain lies in northern Haiti at the head of the Gulf of Gonaives. Ground water in the plain is used widely for domestic and stock purposes but only to limited extent for irrigation. The future agricultural development of the plain will depend in large measure on the proper utilization of available ground-water supplies for irrigation. The rocks in the region of the Gonaives Plain belong to the upper (?) Cretaceous series of the Cretaceous system, the Nocene and Oligovene series of the Tertiary system, and the Pleistocene and Recent series of the Quarternary system. The structural depression occupied by the Gonaives Plain was formed in post-Miocene time by the dislocation of Oligocene and older rocks along normal faults and by the tilting of the adjacent crustal blocks. The lower parts of the depression contain a Pleistocene and Recent alluvial fill deposited by streams tributary to the plain. The upper (?) Cretaceous rocks include aniesite and basalt lava flows locally intercalated with some beds of tuff and agglomerate. These rocks are generally dense and impervious but locally small springs rise from fractures and bedding planes or from weathered zones. The Nocene rocks are hard, thin-bedded, cherty limestones with some beds of massive chalky limestone. Considerable ground water circulates through joints, bedding planes, and solution passages in these rocks giving rise to important springs such as Sources Madame Charles. These springs discharge at the rate of about 110 liters per second. The Oligocene rocks include limestone, shely limestone, limy sandstone, marl, and shale. The limestone beds contain solution passages and other openings and these may afford capacity for the circulation of ground water. However, no wells or springs in Oligocene rocks were observed during the present study. The alluvial fill of the plain is composed of interbedded lenses of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. These deposits contain a zone of saturation whose upper limit is

  17. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  18. Maintenance of Pain in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Williams, Amy E; Weidler, Erica M; Blatz, Allison M; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of 3 methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (ie, diary, parent report, child report). Seventy-six children (7-10 years old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18 to 24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Children's baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. Children who, however, displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. The presence of IBS symptoms in school-age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, whereas anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not.

  19. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  20. Maintenance of Pain in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Czyzewski, Danita I.; Self, Mariella M.; Williams, Amy E.; Weidler, Erica M.; Blatz, Allison M.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdominal pain frequency and compared the predictive value of three methods for assessing pain-stooling relations (i.e., diary, parent report, child report). Methods Seventy-six children (7–10-years-old at baseline) who presented for medical treatment of functional abdominal pain were followed up 18–24 months later. Baseline anxiety and abdominal pain-stooling relations based on pain and stooling diaries and child- and parent-questionnaires were examined in relationship to the persistence of abdominal pain frequency. Results Children’s baseline anxiety was not related to persistence of pain frequency. However, children who displayed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms at baseline maintained pain frequency at follow-up, whereas in children in whom there was no relationship between pain and stooling, pain frequency decreased. Pain and stool diaries and parent report of pain-stooling relations were predictive of pain persistence but child-report questionnaires were not. Conclusions The presence of IBS symptoms in school age children with functional abdominal pain appears to predict persistence of abdominal pain over time, while anxiety does not. Prospective pain and stooling diaries and parent report of IBS symptoms were predictors of pain maintenance, but child report of symptoms was not. PMID:26301615

  1. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  2. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  3. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? The FMR is written in a “plain language” regulatory style. This style is easy to read...

  4. Women's Life Course in Northern Plains Indian Societies: Achieving the Honored Rank of Old Lady.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Alice B.

    Among Indian groups of the Northwestern Plains (Blackfoot, Plains Cree, Dakota, Plains Ojibwa), older persons are respected for the spiritual power they have obtained. Differences exist between the several ethnic groups, but in general they assume that attainment of maturity and then old age proves spiritual power and makes the elder a proper…

  5. Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in Early-Twentieth-Century Plains Photograph Albums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did…

  6. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  7. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan; Chung, Chen-Tung; Huang, Ming-Zi; Kuo, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northern side and the Central Range in the southern side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from igneous intrusion associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use reflection seismic survey to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially in SanShin, Wujie, and Lize area. We aim to find the relationship between underground structures and geothermal forming mechanism. The research uses reflection seismic survey to investigate the high geothermal gradient area with two mini-vibrators and 240-channel system. The total length of seismic lines is more than 30 kilometers. The results show that alluvial sediments covering the area about 400 600 meters thick and then thin out to the west in SanShin area. In SanShin , the Taiyaqiao anticline in Hsuehshan Range has entered the plain area and is bounded by the Zhuoshui fault (south) and the Zailian fault (north). In Wujie and Lize , Zhuoshui fault cut through a strong reflector which is the top of the gravel layer near the bottom of the alluvial layer, while the SanShin fault seems to cut near very shallow strata. These two faults are a strike-slip fault with a bit of normal fault component distributing over a range of 600 meters. In Ilan Plain, the geothermal forming mechanism is controlled by anticlines and faults. The hydrothermal solution which migrates upward along these anticline or fault zones to the shallow part causing high geothermal gradients in these areas.

  8. Computed tomographic evaluation of abdominal fat in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Chang, Dongwoo; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) exams were conducted to determine the distribution of abdominal fat identified based on the CT number measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and to measure the volume of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat in minipigs. The relationship between the CT-based fat volumes of several vertebral levels and the entire abdomen and anthropometric data including the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference were evaluated. Moreover, the total fat volumes at the T11, T13, L3, and L5 levels were compared with the total fat volume of the entire abdomen to define the landmark of abdominal fat distribution. Using a single-detector CT, six 6-month-old male minipigs were scanned under general anesthesia. Three radiologists then assessed the HU value of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat by drawing the region of interest manually at the T11, T13, L1, L3, and L5 levels. The CT number and abdominal fat determined in this way by the three radiologists was found to be correlated (intra-class coefficient = 0.9). The overall HU ranges for the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots were -147.47 to -83.46 and -131.62 to -90.97, respectively. The total fat volume of the entire abdomen was highly correlated with the volume of abdominal fat at the T13 level (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001). These findings demonstrate that the volume of abdominal adipose tissue measured at the T13 level using CT is a strong and reliable predictor of total abdominal adipose volume.

  9. [Abdominal Tuberculosis in children and adolescents. A diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Reto Valiente, Luz; Pichilingue Reto, Catherina; Pichilingue Prieto, Oscar; Dolores Cerna, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    To present our experience with abdominal tuberculosis in children and adolescents treated in our hospital from 2003 - 2014. It is a retrospective study. We have collected clinical records of inpatients <20 years old who were admitted at Hipolito Unanue Hospital from January 2003 to July 2014, with diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Among the overall 30 patients, 16 (53.33%) were female and 14 (46.67%) were male. The mean age of all patients was 16.5 years. The most common clinical features were abdominal pain in 29 (96.67%), fever in 26 (86.67%), ascites in 23 (76.67%) and loss of weight in 21 (70%). 63.33% of the patients were eutrophics, 13.34% were overweight or obese and only 23.33% suffered of malnutrition. TB contact was present in 10 (33.33%). Positive tuberculin skin tests were seen in 10%. Extra-abdominal tuberculosis was found in 22 patients (63.32%). 12 cases had coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and 4 cases had pleural effusion. 12 patients (40%) had tuberculous peritonitis; 12 patients (40%) had intestinal tuberculosis and peritoneal tuberculosis and 4 patients (13.33%) had intestinal tuberculosis. Bacteriological confirmation of tuberculosis was achieved in 10 cases (33.33%). Antituberculous therapy for 6 months was effective in 29 cases. One patient died who multifocal tuberculosis with HIV had associated. Abdominal tuberculosis is seen in 4.37% of children affected with tuberculosis, of which over 63% will have extra abdominal manifestations. Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered in patients with abdominal pain, fever, weight loss and abnormal chest radiography. Imaging can be useful for early diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis.

  10. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  11. Abdominothoracic mechanisms of functional abdominal distension and correction by biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Barba, Elizabeth; Burri, Emanuel; Accarino, Anna; Cisternas, Daniel; Quiroga, Sergi; Monclus, Eva; Navazo, Isabel; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension has been associated with descent of the diaphragm and protrusion of the anterior abdominal wall. We investigated mechanisms of abdominal distension in these patients. We performed a prospective study of 45 patients (42 women, 24-71 years old) with functional intestinal disorders (27 with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, 15 with functional bloating, and 3 with irritable bowel syndrome with alternating bowel habits) and discrete episodes of visible abdominal distension. Subjects were assessed by abdominothoracic computed tomography (n = 39) and electromyography (EMG) of the abdominothoracic wall (n = 32) during basal conditions (without abdominal distension) and during episodes of severe abdominal distension. Fifteen patients received a median of 2 sessions (range, 1-3 sessions) of EMG-guided, respiratory-targeted biofeedback treatment; 11 received 1 control session before treatment. Episodes of abdominal distension were associated with diaphragm contraction (19% ± 3% increase in EMG score and 12 ± 2 mm descent; P < .001 vs basal values) and intercostal contraction (14% ± 3% increase in EMG scores and 6 ± 1 mm increase in thoracic antero-posterior diameter; P < .001 vs basal values). They were also associated with increases in lung volume (501 ± 93 mL; P < .001 vs basal value) and anterior abdominal wall protrusion (32 ± 3 mm increase in girth; P < .001 vs basal). Biofeedback treatment, but not control sessions, reduced the activity of the intercostal muscles (by 19% ± 2%) and the diaphragm (by 18% ± 4%), activated the internal oblique muscles (by 52% ± 13%), and reduced girth (by 25 ± 3 mm) (P ≤ .009 vs pretreatment for all). In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension is a behavioral response that involves activity of the abdominothoracic wall. This distension can be reduced with EMG-guided, respiratory-targeted biofeedback therapy. Copyright © 2015 AGA

  12. Fundamental aspects of polyimide dry film and composite lubrication: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The tribological properties of polyimide dry films and composites are reviewed. Friction coefficients, wear rates, transfer film characteristics, wear surface morphology, and possible wear mechanisms of several different polyimide films, polyimide-bonded solid lubricants, polyimide solid bodies, and polyimide composites are discussed. Such parameters as temperature, type of atmosphere, load, contact stress, and specimen configuration are investigated. Data from an accelerated test device (Pin-on-Disk) are compared to similar data obtained from an end use application test device (plain spherical bearing).

  13. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  14. Gastrointestinal Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Traumas.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both

  15. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  16. Takedown of enterocutaneous fistula and complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Slade, Dominic Alexander James; Carlson, Gordon Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Key steps in managing patients with enterocutaneous fistulation and an abdominal wall defect include dealing effectively with abdominal sepsis and providing safe and effective nutritional support and skin care, then assessing intestinal and abdominal anatomy, before undertaking reconstructive surgery. The complexity, cost, and morbidity associated with such cases justifies creation of specialized centers in which gastroenterologic, hernia, and plastic surgical expertise, as well as experienced wound and stoma nursing and nutritional and psychological support, can be made available for patients with these challenging problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    BOZKURT, MUSTAFA; OKUTUR, KEREM; AYDIN, KÜBRA; NAMAL, ESAT; ÖZTÜRK, AKIN; BALCI, CEM; DEMIR, GÖKHAN

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms. PMID:22740933

  18. Fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mustafa; Okutur, Kerem; Aydin, Kübra; Namal, Esat; Oztürk, Akin; Balci, Cem; Demir, Gökhan

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of fulminant abdominal gas gangrene in a patient with metastatic colon cancer. A 39-year-old patient with descending colon, high-grade adenocarcinoma and coexisting liver and lymph node metastases received two courses of chemotherapy. The patient developed sudden acute abdominal symptoms accompanied by septic shock parameters. The imaging findings on computed tomography were characteristic for abdominal gas gangrene, involving liver metastases, portal vein and lymph nodes with associated pneumoperitoneum. The patient succumbed to the disease within hours following the onset of symptoms.

  19. [Abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1: Liver].

    PubMed

    Jenssen, C; Pietsch, C; Gottschalk, U; Barreiros, A P; Teufel, A; Cui, X W; Dietrich, C F

    2015-04-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, abdominal ultrasonography is the appropriate diagnostic technique to detect and to follow-up secondary and accompanying diseases of the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas, the gastrointestinal tract and of abdominal vessels. Moreover, pancreatic and hepatic diseases may be realized which are of etiological importance for diabetes mellitus. Based on a systematic survey of the published literature, this review in 3 parts will describe the value of abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1 deals with the diagnostic relevance and particular findings of ultrasonographic methods in hepatic manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  1. Dual antiplatelet treatment in patients candidates for abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.

  2. Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: Is It a Real Emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; Lillo, Antonio; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening condition that occurs due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Clinical manifestations are variable, and the time interval from the initial trauma to diagnosis is variable. A prompt diagnosis and an aggressive management approach are required to avoid catastrophic complications. Possible treatment options are open surgical repair, endovascular repair, pseudoanerysmal sac thrombosis induction through direct thrombin injection, and coil embolization. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man affected by an infrarenal abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting with abdominal and lumbar pain for 3 days, who was successfully treated with an endograft. PMID:29515707

  3. Socio-economic factors, health care consumption and rating of abdominal symptom severity. A report from the abdominal symptom study.

    PubMed

    Agréus, L

    1993-06-01

    A study of the abdominal/gastrointestinal symptom panorama in relation to socio-economic factors and health care consumption in the general population was performed in Osthammar, Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of the adult population (n = 1260). The response rate was 87%. The responders with symptoms (52.1%) subjectively rated their illness on visual analogue scales. All responders were classified as asymptomatic or having 'minor' or 'major' abdominal symptoms. Those having dyspepsia, reflux or irritable bowel syndrome were also ranked as 'minors' or 'majors'. The proportion of subjects with abdominal/gastrointestinal complaints decreased with age, mainly due to a decrease of 'major' symptoms. Also, the proportion of complainers increased among the more educated. Those on sick leave and students had more and worse symptoms than the others, despite the former seldom stating abdominal discomfort as the main reason for sick listing. Fifty-five per cent of all persons reporting abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms had at some time consulted a doctor because of such complaints, the proportion increasing with severity, as did drug consumption and the rate of previous abdominal operations, with appendectomy as an exception. The results show that it is possible to rank the illness along a severity dimension among persons with abdominal/gastrointestinal complaints in epidemiological research.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Novel Mechanisms and Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Frank M.; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition of permanent dilation that portends the potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. This review emphasizes recent advances in mechanistic insight into aneurysm pathogenesis and potential pharmacologic therapies that are on the horizon for AAAs. Recent Findings An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic factors, including 3p12.3, DAB2IP, LDLr, LRP1, MMP3, TGFβR2 and SORT1 loci, are associated with AAA development. Current human studies and animal models have shown that many leukocytes and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-17, TGF-β and angiotensin II, are involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. Leukocytic infiltration into aortic media leads to smooth muscle cell depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and extracellular matrix fragmentation. Recent preclinical investigations into pharmacological therapies for AAAs have provided intriguing insight for roles of microRNAs to regulate many pathological pathways in AAA development. Several large clinical trials are ongoing seeking to translate preclinical findings into therapeutic options. Summary Recent studies have identified many potential mechanisms involved in AAA pathogenesis that provide insight for the development of a medical treatment for this disease. PMID:26352243

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: novel mechanisms and therapies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frank M; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition of permanent dilation that portends the potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. This review emphasizes recent advances in mechanistic insight into aneurysm pathogenesis and potential pharmacologic therapies that are on the horizon for AAAs. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic factors, including 3p12.3, DAB2IP, LDLr, LRP1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, TGFBR2, and SORT1 loci, are associated with AAA development. Current human studies and animal models have shown that many leukocytes and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-17, TGF-β, and angiotensin II, are involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. Leukocytic infiltration into aortic media leads to smooth muscle cell depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and extracellular matrix fragmentation. Preclinical investigations into pharmacological therapies for AAAs have provided intriguing insight into the roles of microRNAs in regulating many pathological pathways in AAA development. Several large clinical trials are ongoing, seeking to translate preclinical findings into therapeutic options. Recent studies have identified many potential mechanisms involved in AAA pathogenesis that provide insight into the development of a medical treatment for this disease.

  6. Diode laser for abdominal tissue cauterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durville, Frederic M.; Rediker, Robert H.; Connolly, Raymond J.; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Lantis, John

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a new device to effectively and quickly stop bleeding. The new device uses a small, 5 W diode laser to heat-up the tip of a modified medical forceps. The laser beam is totally contained within a protective enclosure, satisfying the requirements for a Class I laser system, which eliminates the need to protective eyewear. The new device is used in a manner similar to that of a bipolar electrocautery device. After visual location, the bleeding site or local vessel(s) is grabbed and clamped with the tips of the forceps-like instrument. The laser is then activated for a duration of typically 5 sec or until traditional visual or auditory clues such as local blubbling and popping indicate that the targeted site is effectively cauterized. When the laser is activated, the tip of the instrument, thus providing hemostasis. The new device was evaluated in animal models and compared with the monopolar and bipolar electrocautery, and also with the recently developed ultrasound technology. It has new been in clinical trials for abdominal surgery since September 1997.

  7. Molecular Imaging of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Aneesh K.; Hamilton, Mark; Joshi, Rucha V.; Kline, Benjamin P.; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Goergen, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Current laboratory research in the field of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease often utilizes small animal experimental models induced by genetic manipulation or chemical application. This has led to the use and development of multiple high-resolution molecular imaging modalities capable of tracking disease progression, quantifying the role of inflammation, and evaluating the effects of potential therapeutics. In vivo imaging reduces the number of research animals used, provides molecular and cellular information, and allows for longitudinal studies, a necessity when tracking vessel expansion in a single animal. This review outlines developments of both established and emerging molecular imaging techniques used to study AAA disease. Beyond the typical modalities used for anatomical imaging, which include ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), previous molecular imaging efforts have used magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), bioluminescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Mouse and rat AAA models will hopefully provide insight into potential disease mechanisms, and the development of advanced molecular imaging techniques, if clinically useful, may have translational potential. These efforts could help improve the management of aneurysms and better evaluate the therapeutic potential of new treatments for human AAA disease. PMID:23737735

  8. A study of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Shakya, K N; Dongol, U M S; Khadka, S B

    2008-01-01

    Pain abdomen is a common pediatric complaint that brings patient to the hospital in Nepal. Knowledge about its etiology and frequency helps in its evaluation and management. The present study was undertaken to find out the causes and their frequency of pain abdomen in Nepali children. Children with pain abdomen presenting at the emergency room and pediatric outpatient department of Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu from January, 2006 to December 2007 were clinically evaluated and investigated to find out the causes and frequency of their pain abdomen. The outcomes were tabulated and analyzed for interpretation. Of 444 patients attended, 356 completed investigations and came for follow up. Cause of pain abdomen was apparent in 117 (32.9%) only. 91.5% were medical causes, comprising predominantly of diarrheal diseases (28.3%), infantile colic (9.4%), urinary tract infection (7.7%) and acid peptic disease (6.8%). 8.5% causes were related to surgical conditions, which needed operative management. Secondary or extra-abdominal causes were found in 20 cases (17.1%). Pneumonia (2), functional (5), vulvovaginitis (2) and infantile colic (11) were predominant causes. Our study showed that the causes of pain abdomen in children were predominantly medical. Gastroenteritis was the most frequent cause. Secondary causes, including functional and emotional causes were infrequent. Small percentage needing surgical management formed a diagnostic challenge.

  9. Computer-assisted abdominal surgery: new technologies.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Nickel, F; Wekerle, A L; Preukschas, A; Apitz, M; Schulte, T; Rempel, R; Mietkowski, P; Wagner, F; Termer, A; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-04-01

    Computer-assisted surgery is a wide field of technologies with the potential to enable the surgeon to improve efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. This review provides an overview of the most important new technologies and their applications. A MEDLINE database search was performed revealing a total of 1702 references. All references were considered for information on six main topics, namely image guidance and navigation, robot-assisted surgery, human-machine interface, surgical processes and clinical pathways, computer-assisted surgical training, and clinical decision support. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Based on their respective field of expertise, the authors chose 64 publications relevant for the purpose of this review. Computer-assisted systems are increasingly used not only in experimental studies but also in clinical studies. Although computer-assisted abdominal surgery is still in its infancy, the number of studies is constantly increasing, and clinical studies start showing the benefits of computers used not only as tools of documentation and accounting but also for directly assisting surgeons during diagnosis and treatment of patients. Further developments in the field of clinical decision support even have the potential of causing a paradigm shift in how patients are diagnosed and treated.

  10. International Film Guide 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Peter, Ed.

    Brief descriptions of film production activity in 44 countries and reviews of important films from these countries are presented, along with lists of films recently in production. A paragraph-long description of film festivals slated for 1972 is given. Sound track music available on records, 16mm films available in the United Kingdom and the…

  11. Film: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  12. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  13. Relationship Between Abdominal Symptoms and Fructose Ingestion in Children with Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Veronika; Hammer, Katharina; Memaran, Nima; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Hammer, Karin; Hammer, Johann

    2018-05-01

    Limited valid data are available regarding the association of fructose-induced symptoms, fructose malabsorption, and clinical symptoms. To develop a questionnaire for valid symptom assessment before and during a carbohydrate breath test and to correlate symptoms with fructose breath test results in children/adolescents with functional abdominal pain. A Likert-type questionnaire assessing symptoms considered relevant for hydrogen breath test in children was developed and underwent initial validation. Fructose malabsorption was determined by increased breath hydrogen in 82 pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain disorders; fructose-induced symptoms were quantified by symptom score ≥2 and relevant symptom increase over baseline. The results were correlated with clinical symptoms. The time course of symptoms during the breath test was assessed. The questionnaire exhibited good psychometric properties in a standardized assessment of the severity of carbohydrate-related symptoms. A total of 40 % (n = 33) had malabsorption; symptoms were induced in 38 % (n = 31), but only 46 % (n = 15) with malabsorption were symptomatic. There was no significant correlation between fructose malabsorption and fructose-induced symptoms. Clinical symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during the breath test (p < 0.001, r 2  = 0.21) but not with malabsorption (NS). Malabsorbers did not differ from non-malabsorbers in terms of symptoms during breath test. Symptomatic patients had significantly higher pain and flatulence scores over the 9-h observation period (p < 0.01) than did nonsymptomatic patients; the meteorism score was higher after 90 min. Fructose-induced symptoms but not fructose malabsorption are related to increased abdominal symptoms and have distinct timing patterns.

  14. Intra-abdominal infection combined with intra-abdominal hypertension aggravates the intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Ren, Jianan; Wu, Xiuwen; Li, Jieshou

    2018-02-28

    Some patients with intra-abdominal infection (IAI) may develop intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) during treatment. The present study investigated the impact of IAI combined with IAH on the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rabbit model. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: (i) IAI and IAH; (ii) IAI alone; (iii) IAH alone; and (iv) Control group. IAI model: cecal ligation and puncture for 48 h; IAH model: raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 20 mmHg for 4 h. Pathological changes in intestinal mucosa were confirmed by light and scanning electron microscopy. FITC-conjugated dextran (FITC-dextran) by gavage was used to measure intestinal mucosal permeability in plasma. Endotoxin, d-Lactate, and diamine oxidase (DAO) in plasma were measured to determine intestinal mucosal damage. Malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH in ileum tissues were measured to evaluate intestinal mucosal oxidation and reducing state. Histopathologic scores were significantly higher in the IAI and IAH group, followed by IAI alone, IAH alone, and the control group. FITC-dextran, d-Lactate, DAO, and endotoxin in plasma and MDA in ileum tissues had similar trends. GSH and SOD were significantly lowest the in IAI and IAH group. Occludin levels were lowest in the ileums of the IAI and IAH group. All differences were statistically significant ( P -values <0.001). IAI combined with IAH aggravates damage of the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rabbit model. The combined effects were significantly more severe compared with a single factor. IAI combined with IAH should be prevented and treated effectively. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Effects of abdominal pressure on venous return: abdominal vascular zone conditions.

    PubMed

    Takata, M; Wise, R A; Robotham, J L

    1990-12-01

    The effects of changes in abdominal pressure (Pab) on inferior vena cava (IVC) venous return were analyzed using a model of the IVC circulation based on a concept of abdominal vascular zone conditions analogous to pulmonary vascular zone conditions. We hypothesized that an increase in Pab would increase IVC venous return when the IVC pressure at the level of the diaphragm (Pivc) exceeds the sum of Pab and the critical closing transmural pressure (Pc), i.e., zone 3 conditions, but reduce IVC venous return when Pivc is below the sum of Pab and Pc, i.e., zone 2 conditions. The validity of the model was tested in 12 canine experiments with an open-chest IVC bypass. An increase in Pab produced by phrenic stimulation increased the IVC venous return when Pivc-Pab was positive but decreased the IVC venous return when Pivc - Pab was negative. The value of Pivc - Pab that separated net increases from decreases in venous return was 1.00 +/- 0.72 (SE) mmHg (n = 6). An increase in Pivc did not influence the femoral venous pressure when Pivc was lower than the sum of Pab and a constant, 0.96 +/- 0.70 mmHg (n = 6), consistent with presence of a waterfall. These results agreed closely with the predictions of the model and its computer simulation. The abdominal venous compartment appears to function with changes in Pab either as a capacitor in zone 3 conditions or as a collapsible Starling resistor with little wall tone in zone 2 conditions.

  16. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    PubMed

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  17. Investigation of the feasibility of developing low permeability polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggatt, J. T.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing the gas permeability rate of Mylar and Kapton films without drastically effecting their flexibility characteristics at cryogenic temperatures was considered. This feasibility was established using a concept of diffusion bonding two layers of metallized films together forming a film-metal-film sandwich laminate. The permeability of kapton film to gaseous helium was reduced from a nominal ten = to the minus 9 power cc-mm/sq cm sec. cm Hg to ten to the minus 13 power cc-mm/ sq cm - sec. cm Hg with some values as low as ten to the minus 15 power cc - mm/sq cm m-sec - cm Hg being obtained. Similar reductions occurred in the liquid hydrogen permeability at -252 C. In the course of the program the permeability, flexibility and bond strength of plain, metalized and diffusion bond film were determined at +25 C, -195 C and -252 C. The cryogenic flexibility of Kapton film was reduced slightly due to the metallization process but no additional loss in flexibility resulted from the diffusion bonding process.

  18. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S

    2013-06-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12(th) postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  19. Wandering Ascaris Coming Out Through the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192

  20. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  1. Complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Meghoo, Colin A L; Gonzalez, Ernest A; Tyroch, Alan H; Wohltmann, Christopher D

    2003-10-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma is uncommon. When this injury results in complete vessel occlusion, the presentation is dramatic. Timely intervention is essential. After a case report, we examined all reported cases of complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta and reviewed the cause, presentation, and management of this injury. Complete vessel occlusion arises from intimal injury. The most frequent mechanism is compression from a seat belt or steering wheel during a motor vehicle crash. Patients present with absent femoral and distal pulses in association with lower extremity neuropathy. Intervention commonly involves bypass grafting of the abdominal aorta. Complete occlusion after blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is rare. Neurologic deficits most commonly arise from peripheral nerve ischemia. Reperfusion within 6 hours confers a greater chance of limb salvage and neurologic recovery.

  2. [Application of antiseptic dekasan in urgent abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Fomin, P D; Lissov, A I; Kozlov, S N; Mikhal'chishin, S N

    2009-01-01

    Experience in local application of antiseptic Dekasan in the complex treatment of abdominal infections of various origins are presented. The clinical and economic efficacy of the drug application is notice.

  3. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  4. Prognostically favorable abdominal breast cancer metastases with stomach involvement.

    PubMed

    Akcali, Zafer; Sakalli, Hakan; Ozyilkan, Ozgur; Demirhan, Beyhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2005-05-01

    Abdominal metastases with stomach involvement are rare in breast cancer. The median disease free interval from the time of breast cancer diagnosis to gastric metastasis is usually very long. Treatment is generally palliative, and expected survival time is less than 1 year. A 59-year-old woman with breast cancer developed diffuse abdominal metastases involving stomach, abdominal lymph nodes, and omentum 9 years after she underwent mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis found by stomach specimen examination was invasive lobular carcinoma, and the cells expressed high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors. The abdominal metastases were treated with surgery, postoperative chemotherapy, and further hormonal therapy. This was successful, and the patient has been in remission for more than 3 years. Once the definitive diagnosis of breast cancer metastases to the abdomen including the stomach is established, treatment that targets systemic breast cancer must be initiated. Our patient's extended survival time suggests that surgical treatment could be considered for selected patients.

  5. Functional abdominal pain syndrome treated with Korean medication.

    PubMed

    Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-06-01

    A 37-year-old female patient with chronic and stubborn abdominal pain had been hospitalized five times in three Western hospitals, but no effects were observed. No abnormalities were found in blood tests, gastrointestinal endoscopy, sonogram, and computed tomography of the abdomen, except mild paralytic ileus. The patient decided to rely on Korean medicine as an inpatient. She was diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome, and her symptom differentiation was the " Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney ." A herbal drug, Hwangikyeji-tang , along with moxibustion and acupuncture, was given to the patient. Abdominal pain and related symptoms were reduced radically within 16 days of treatment. This report shows a therapeutic potential of Korean medicine-based treatment for functional abdominal pain syndrome.

  6. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1980, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), it also mandated a study of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Section 1002 of ANILCA stated that a comprehensive inventory of fish and wildlife resources would be conducted on 1.5 million acres of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain (1002 Area). Potential petroleum reserves in the 1002 Area were also to be evaluated from surface geological studies and seismic exploration surveys. Results of these studies and recommendations for future management of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain were to be prepared in a report to Congress.In 1987, the Department of the Interior published the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment - Report and Recommendations to the Congress of the United States and Final Environmental Impact Statement. This report to Congress identified the potential for oil and gas production (updated* most recently by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2001), described the biological resources, and evaluated the potential adverse effects to fish and wildlife resources. The 1987 report analyzed the potential environmental consequences of five management alternatives for the coastal plain, ranging from wilderness designation to opening the entire area to lease for oil and gas developement. The report's summary recommended opening the 1002 Area to an orderly oil and gas leasing program, but cautioned that adverse effects to some wildlife populations were possible.Congress did not act on this recommendation nor any other alternative for the 1002 Area, and scientists continued studies of key wildlife species and habitats on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge and surrounding areas. This report contains updated summaries of those scientific investigations of caribou, muskoxen, predators (grizzly bears, wolves, golden eagles), polar bears, snow geese, and their wildlife habitats.Contributions to this report were

  7. [The etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Dinu, C A; Moraru, D

    2011-01-01

    The study of the etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children, in order to perceive the clinical-etiological correlations and the disorders distribution related to age, gender and the origin of the patients. The criteria for including patients were age (between 0 and 18 years) and the presence of acute abdominal pain before or during the consultation with the physician. The research on acute abdominal pain in children was performed on the level of the Surgery and Pediatrics II clinical departments of the "Sf. Ioan" Children's Emergency Clinical Hospital in Galati, between 01.01.2009 - 01.01.2011. The clinical study performed on the patients registered in the studied groups focused on the identification, the evaluation of the symptoms of acute abdominal pain in children, diagnosing and treating it. The criteria for excluding patients were an age older than 18 years or the absence of acute abdominal pain as a symptom before or during the examination. The statistical analysis used the descriptive and analytical methods. The data was centralized and statistically processed in M.S.EXCEL and S.P.S.S. databases. The patients with acute abdominal pain represent a percentage of 92.9% (2358 cases) of the total number of patients who suffer from abdominal pain (N=2537). The highest frequency of cases is represented by acute appendicitis (1056 cases - 44.8%). In the 5-18 years age group, acute appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, ovarian follicular cysts, acute pyelenophritis and salpingitis are predominant. In the 0-4 years age group gastroenteritis, acute pharyngitis, reactive hepatitis and lower digestive bleeding are predominant. In females, acute appendicitis, gastroenteritis, gastroduodenitis and cystitis are predominant, whereas in males, peritonitis, sepsis through E. coli, the contusion of the abdominal wall and acute pharyngitis are predominant.

  8. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  9. A Virtual Reality-Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    415) 591-7881 In! IhNiI 1 SHORT TITLE: A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery REPORTING PERIOD: October 31, 1993-June 30, 1994 The...Report - A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation Of Abdominal Surgery Page 2 June 21, 1994 TECHNICAL REPORT SUMMARY Virtual Reality is a marriage between...applications of this technology. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations. simulate and

  10. Mechanisms of postprandial abdominal bloating and distension in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Burri, Emanuel; Barba, Elizabeth; Huaman, Jose Walter; Cisternas, Daniel; Accarino, Anna; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal bloating exhibit abnormal responses of the abdominal wall to colonic gas loads. We hypothesised that in patients with postprandial bloating, ingestion of a meal triggers comparable abdominal wall dyssynergia. Our aim was to characterise abdominal accommodation to a meal in patients with postprandial bloating. A test meal (0.8 kcal/ml nutrients plus 27 g/litre polyethylenglycol 4000) was administered at 50 ml/min as long as tolerated in 10 patients with postprandial bloating (fulfilling Rome III criteria for postprandial distress syndrome) and 12 healthy subjects, while electromyographic (EMG) responses of the anterior wall (upper and lower rectus, external and internal oblique via bipolar surface electrodes) and the diaphragm (via six ring electrodes over an oesophageal tube in the hiatus) were measured. Means +/- SD were calculated. Healthy subjects tolerated a meal volume of 913±308 ml; normal abdominal wall accommodation to the meal consisted of diaphragmatic relaxation (EMG activity decreased by 15±6%) and a compensatory contraction (25±9% increase) of the upper abdominal wall muscles (upper rectus and external oblique), with no changes in the lower anterior muscles (lower rectus and internal oblique). Patients tolerated lower volume loads (604±310 ml; p=0.030 vs healthy subjects) and developed a paradoxical response, that is, diaphragmatic contraction (14±3% EMG increment; p<0.01 vs healthy subjects) and upper anterior wall relaxation (9±4% inhibition; p<0.01 vs healthy subjects). In functional dyspepsia, postprandial abdominal distension is produced by an abnormal viscerosomatic response to meal ingestion that alters normal abdominal accommodation.

  11. Chenier plain genesis explained by feedbacks between waves, mud, and sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss ontogeny of chenier plains through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and inner-shelf slope play an important role in the formation of chenier plains. In our numerical experiments, waves affect chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing coarse sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  12. Common Functional Gastroenterologic Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in a variety of peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation, luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be very helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  13. [Abdominal wall actinomycosis. A report of a case].

    PubMed

    Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, Beatriz; Guardia-Dodorico, Lorena; Arribas-Marco, Teresa; Ania-Lahuerta, Aldonza; González Ballano, Isabel; Chipana-Salinas, Margot; Carazo-Hernández, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall Actinomycosis is a rare disease associated with the use of intrauterine device and as a complication of abdominal surgery. Diagnosis is difficult because it is unusual and behaves like a malignant neoplasm. A case report is presented of a patient who had used an intrauterine device for four years and developed a stony tumour in the abdominal wall associated with a set of symptoms that, clinically and radiologically, was simulating a peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, even in the course of an exploratory laparotomy. The patient attended our hospital with a two-month history of abdominal pain and symptoms that mimic a paraneoplastic syndrome. The diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis was suspected by the finding of the microorganism in cervical cytology together with other cultures and Actinomyces negative in pathological studies, confirming the suspicion of a complete cure with empirical treatment with penicillin. Actinomycosis should be considered in patients with pelvic mass or abdominal wall mass that mimics a malignancy. Antibiotic therapy is the first treatment choice and makes a more invasive surgical management unnecessary. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology and contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Hallett, Richard L; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is most commonly defined as a maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta in excess of 3 cm in either anterior-posterior or transverse planes or, alternatively, as a focal dilation ≥ 1.5 times the diameter of the normal adjacent arterial segment. Risk factors for the development of AAA include age > 60, tobacco use, male gender, Caucasian race, and family history of AAA. Aneurysm growth and rupture risk appear to be associated with persistent tobacco use, female gender, and chronic pulmonary disease. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and detected incidentally on various imaging studies, including abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomographic angiography. Symptoms associated with AAA may include abdominal or back pain, thromboembolization, atheroembolization, aortic rupture, or development of an arteriovenous or aortoenteric fistula. The Screening Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Efficiently (SAAAVE) Act provides coverage for a one-time screening abdominal ultrasound at age 65 for men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and women who have family history of AAA disease. Medical management is recommended for asymptomatic patients with AAAs < 5 cm in diameter and focuses on modifiable risk factors, including smoking cessation and blood pressure control. Primary indications for intervention in patients with AAA include development of symptoms, rupture, rapid aneurysm growth (> 5 mm/6 months), or presence of a fusiform aneurysm with maximum diameter of 5.5 cm or greater. Intervention for AAA includes conventional open surgical repair and endovascular aortic stent graft repair.

  15. Increased auditory startle reflex in children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Mirte J; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (13 irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], 7 functional abdominal pain syndrome; mean age, 12.4 years; 15 girls) and 23 control subjects (14 girls; mean age, 12.3 years) using a case-control design. The activity of 6 left-sided muscles and the sympathetic skin response were obtained by an electromyogram. We presented sudden loud noises to the subjects through headphones. Both the combined response of 6 muscles and the blink response proved to be significantly increased in patients with abdominal pain compared with control subjects. A significant increase of the sympathetic skin response was not found. Comorbid anxiety disorders (8 patients with abdominal pain) or Rome III subclassification did not significantly affect these results. This study demonstrates an objective hyperresponsivity to nongastrointestinal stimuli. Children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders may have a generalized hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Filming The Man Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Paul

    1976-01-01

    "The Man Hunters" is a film about paleoanthropology. This article is a personal account of how the film was put together using anthropological knowledge and numerous anthropologists and how the film was received by the American public. (Author)

  17. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  18. A novel nonoperative approach to abdominal compartment syndrome after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeenat R; Sorensen, G Brent

    2013-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome have been increasingly recognized as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in both medical and surgical patients. The gold standard remains surgical intervention; however, nonoperative approaches have been investigated less. Here, we describe the successful treatment of a severe acute case by intubation, nasogastric decompression, and paralysis--a novel approach not previously described in the literature. After the patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral component separation and repair of a large recurrent ventral hernia with a 20 30-cm Strattice mesh (LifeCell Corp, Branchburg, NJ), acute renal failure developed within 12 hours postoperatively, and was associated with oliguria, hyperkalemia, and elevated peak airway and bladder pressures. The patient was treated nonoperatively with intubation, nasogastric tube decompression, and paralysis with a vecuronium drip. Rapid reversal was seen, avoiding further surgery. Within 2 hours after intubation and paralysis, our patient's urine output improved dramatically with an initial diuresis of approximately 1 L, his bladder pressures decreased, and within 12 hours his creatinine level had normalized. Although surgical intervention has traditionally been thought of as the most effective--and thus the gold standard--for abdominal compartment syndrome, this preliminary experience demonstrates nonoperative management as highly efficacious, with the added benefit of decreased morbidity. Therefore, nonoperative management could be considered first-line therapy, with laparotomy reserved for refractory cases only. This suggests a more complex pathology than the traditional teaching of congestion and edema alone.

  19. Understanding administrative abdominal aortic aneurysm mortality data.

    PubMed

    Hussey, K; Siddiqui, T; Burton, P; Welch, G H; Stuart, W P

    2015-03-01

    Administrative data in the form of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) have been used to describe surgical activity. These data have also been used to compare outcomes from different hospitals and regions, and to corroborate data submitted to national audits and registries. The aim of this observational study was to examine the completeness and accuracy of administrative data relating to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Administrative data (SMR-01 returns) from a single health board relating to AAA repair were requested (September 2007 to August 2012). A complete list of validated procedures; termed the reference data set was compiled from all available sources (clinical and administrative). For each patient episode electronic health records were scrutinised to confirm urgency of admission, diagnosis, and operative repair. The 30-day mortality was recorded. The reference data set was used to systematically validate the SMR-01 returns. The reference data set contained 608 verified procedures. SMR-01 returns identified 2433 episodes of care (1724 patients) in which a discharge diagnosis included AAA. This included 574 operative repairs. There were 34 missing cases (5.6%) from SMR-01 returns; nine of these patients died within 30 days of the index procedure. Omission of these cases made a statistically significant improvement to perceived 30-day mortality (p < .05, chi-square test). If inconsistent SMR-01 data (in terms of ICD-10 and OPCS-4 codes) were excluded only 81.9% of operative repairs were correctly identified and only 30.9% of deaths were captured. The SMR-01 returns contain multiple errors. There also appears to be a systematic bias that reduces apparent 30-day mortality. Using these data alone to describe or compare activity or outcomes must be done with caution. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal forecasts of groundwater levels in Lanyang Plain in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Chi; Lin, Yi-Chiu

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater plays a critical and important role in world's freshwater resources and it is also an important part of Taiwan's water supply for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Prolonged dry climatic conditions can induce groundwater drought and may have huge impact on water resources. Therefore, this study utilizes seasonal rainfall forecasts from the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) to simulate groundwater levels in Lanyang Plain in Taiwan up to three months into future. The MPAS is setup with 120 km uniform grid and the physics schemes including WSM6 micorphysics scheme, Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme, RRTMG radiation scheme, and YSU planetary boundary layer scheme are used to provide the rainfall forecasts. Results of this study can provide a reference for water resources management to ensure the sustainability of groundwater resources in Lanyang Plain.