Science.gov

Sample records for abdominal radiograph demonstrated

  1. Postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in feline cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Teoh, Wen Tian; Sheikh-Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are commonly performed in judicial investigations to rule out gunshot and fractures. However, there was no available data on radiographic postmortem changes of animals. Forty-one sets of abdominal radiographs of feline cadavers made within 12 h of death were evaluated for postmortem changes. Intravascular gas was detected in 11 of 41 (27%) cadavers. The most common site of intravascular gas was the liver. Intravascular gas was also present in the aorta, femoral artery, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries, and caudal superficial epigastric artery. Intrasplenic gas was detected in two cadavers. Only two cadavers had distended small intestine. One cadaver had pneumatosis coli. The changes detected were most likely due to putrefaction.

  2. Abdominal Plain Radiograph in Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G Raghavendra; Aziz, Amtul

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive all-inclusive resource on plain radiograph in neonatal intestinal obstruction is presented. This is an attempt to develop a protocol and to regain expertise in evaluating a plain radiograph that most often yields more than enough clues to diagnose and to decide a plan of action. PMID:28083492

  3. [Radiographic diagnosis of abdominal diseases in foals and ponys. II. Pathologic findings in 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Gerhards, H; Klein, H J; Offeney, F

    1990-08-01

    A diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic examinations for evaluation of young foals and small ponies with acute abdominal discomfort is presented. Standing right to left lateral abdominal radiographs were taken of 54 foals and 6 ponies using a previously described technique. Interpretation of the radiographs was in conjunction with all clinical and laboratory findings and patient management. Using this approach, the site and cause of acute abdominal discomfort could be diagnosed accurately in 55 of 60 (91%) patients as confirmed by clinical, surgical or necropsy findings. Typical radiographs and photographs taken at surgery or at necropsy are presented. Typical radiographic findings, their interpretation and possible underlying gastrointestinal diseases are listed. The incorporation of standing lateral abdominal radiography in the clinical evaluation of foals and ponies with acute abdominal diseases gives findings of high diagnostic significance and should contribute to clinical decision-making. Abdominal radiography can replace data from rectal palpation in foals and ponies.

  4. Panoramic radiographic demonstration of bilateral tonsilloliths.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Carlo; Mandel, Louis

    2011-04-01

    Calcifications can develop within the crypts of the palatine tonsil. During routine dental panoramic radiography, these tonsillar calcifications, or tonsilloliths, may be visualized superimposed upon the mandibular ramus. Their anatomic location and radiographic appearance are such that confusion with parotid sialolithiasis may occur. This report defines the symptomatology and differential diagnosis of these tonsilloliths.

  5. Adynamic ileus after caesarean section mimicking intestinal obstruction: findings on abdominal radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kammen, B F; Levine, M S; Rubesin, S E; Laufer, I

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of findings and the frequency of apparent distal colonic obstruction on abdominal radiographs in women with obstructive symptoms following Caesarean section. A search of radiology files yielded 21 patients who had abdominal radiographs because of obstructive symptoms during the early post-operative period. The radiographs were reviewed retrospectively to characterize the bowel gas patterns in these patients. Medical records were also reviewed to determine the treatment and patient course. Abdominal radiographs showed findings suggestive of distal colonic obstruction in 15 patients (71%), small bowel obstruction in 2 (10%), adynamic ileus in 3 (14%) and a normal bowel gas pattern in 1 (5%). In all 15 patients with apparent distal colonic obstruction, there was minimal or no gas in the rectosigmoid, with an associated pelvic mass representing the enlarged post-partum uterus, which compressed the rectosigmoid and prevented it from filling with gas. All 21 patients had rapid clinical or radiographic improvement on conservative management, indicating a transient post-operative ileus. Radiologists should be aware of the limitations of abdominal plain radiographs following Caesarean section so that a post-operative ileus is not mistaken for a distal colonic obstruction and conservative measures can be undertaken to decompress the bowel until the ileus resolves.

  6. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  7. Radiographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of radiographer, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of radiographer. The following skill areas are covered in the…

  8. Inductive voltage adder advanced hydrodynamic radiographic technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen; Rovang, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the design, results, and analysis of a high-brightness electron beam technology demonstration experiment completed at Sandia National Laboratories, performed in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The anticipated electron beam parameters were: 12 MeV, 35-40 kA, 0.5-mm rms radius, and 40-ns full width half maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. This beam, on an optimum thickness tantalum converter, should produce a very intense x-ray source of {approximately} 1.5-mm spot size and 1 kR dose @ 1 m. The accelerator utilized was SABRE, a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source was a magnetically immersed foilless electron diode. For these experiments, SABRE was modified to high-impedance negative-polarity operation. A new 100-ohm magnetically insulated transmission line cathode electrode was designed and constructed; the cavities were rotated 180{degrees} poloidally to invert the central electrode polarity to negative; and only one of the two pulse forming lines per cavity was energized. A twenty- to thirty-Tesla solenoidal magnet insulated the diode and contained the beam at its extremely small size. These experiments were designed to demonstrate high electron currents in submillimeter radius beams resulting in a high-brightness high-intensity flash x-ray source for high-resolution thick-object hydrodynamic radiography. The SABRE facility high-impedance performance was less than what was hoped. The modifications resulted in a lower amplitude (9 MV), narrower-than-anticipated triangular voltage pulse, which limited the dose to {approximately} 20% of the expected value. In addition, halo and ion-hose instabilities increased the electron beam spot size to > 1.5 mm. Subsequent, more detailed calculations explain these reduced output parameters. An accelerator designed (versus retrofit) for this purpose would provide the desired voltage and pulse shape.

  9. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  10. Abdominal Contents from Two Large Early Cretaceous Compsognathids (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Demonstrate Feeding on Confuciusornithids and Dromaeosaurids

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Bell, Phil R.; Persons, W. Scott; Ji, Shuan; Miyashita, Tetsuto; Burns, Michael E.; Ji, Qiang; Currie, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Two skeletons of the large compsognathid Sinocalliopteryx gigas include intact abdominal contents. Both specimens come from the Jianshangou Beds of the lower Yixian Formation (Neocomian), Liaoning, China. The holotype of S. gigas preserves a partial dromaeosaurid leg in the abdominal cavity, here attributed to Sinornithosaurus. A second, newly-discovered specimen preserves the remains of at least two individuals of the primitive avialan, Confuciusornis sanctus, in addition to acid-etched bones from a possible ornithischian. Although it cannot be stated whether such prey items were scavenged or actively hunted, the presence of two Confuciusornis in a grossly similar state of digestion suggests they were consumed in rapid succession. Given the lack of clear arboreal adaptations in Sinocalliopteryx, we suggest it may have been an adept stealth hunter. PMID:22952855

  11. Endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: serial changes of periaortic fibrosis demonstrated by CT.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Eijun; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka

    2009-07-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is characterized by inflammatory and/or fibrotic changes in the periaortic regions of the retroperitoneum. Surgical repair is usually selected for this disease. However, the perioperative mortality associated with open surgical repair of IAAs is three times higher than that with noninflammatory aortic aneurysms due to inflammation and periaortic fibrosis (PAF). Endovascular aneurysm repair of IAAs excludes the aneurysm and seems to reduce the size of the aneurysmal sac and the extent of PAF with acceptable peri-interventional and long-term morbidity. We describe the successful endovascular repair of an IAAA and the serial CT findings after repair.

  12. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles.

  13. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  14. Prediction of intermittent claudication, ischemic stroke, and other cardiovascular disease by detection of abdominal aortic calcific deposits by plain lumbar radiographs.

    PubMed

    Levitzky, Yamini S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Murabito, Joanne M; Kannel, William B; Kiel, Douglas P; Wilson, Peter W F; Wolf, Philip A; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2008-02-01

    There has been little attention to vascular calcium testing for generalized assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, such as intermittent claudication (IC) and ischemic stroke (IS). We hypothesize that aortic calcium is an important predictor of CVD outcomes. Lumbar x-rays were obtained in 848 men and 1,301 women (mean ages 59.7 and 60.1 years, respectively) from the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) deposits were graded using a previously validated scale. Participants were categorized according to a 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to relate AAC to CVD outcomes. There were 199 IC events, 201 IS events, 702 CHD events, and 1,121 CVD events during 32 years of follow-up. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the third versus first AAC tertile in the combined cohort were 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 2.50) for IC, 1.73 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.65) for IS, 1.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.00) for CHD, and 1.64 (95% CI 1.37 to 1.97) for CVD. Hazard ratios for IC and IS were similar in magnitude to those for CHD and CVD. A high AAC score was associated with significantly higher incidence of events in subjects at intermediate Framingham CHD risk for all end points. Risk prediction based on cardiovascular risk factors improved for most outcomes when AAC was added. In conclusion, there was a graded, increasing, and independent association of AAC with incident IC and IS, similar in magnitude to risks predicted for CHD and CVD. AAC appears to be useful for risk stratification in patients at intermediate CHD risk.

  15. Radiographic techniques for investigating cereal grains

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    Radiographic examination of cereal grain can determine nondestructively the presence of internal structural damage and other defects, which can be correlated to associated problems such as disease and infestation. Radiographs of several representative grains demonstrate the capabilities of the radiographic technique to detect structural deviations in the grains.

  16. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  17. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  18. Radiographical evaluation of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Parakkal; Bruining, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographical modalities have become important diagnostic tools in cases of ulcerative colitis (UC). Imaging can be used non-invasively to determine the extent of involvement, severity of disease and to detect disease-related complications and extra-intestinal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifestations. While abdominal X-rays and barium enemas still retain their relevance in specific clinical settings, the use of computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) are now used as first-line investigations to exclude active small bowel disease in IBD patients and can be utilized to detect active colonic inflammation. Additionally, CT colonography and MR colonography are emerging techniques with potential applications in UC. Ultrasonography, leukocyte scintigraphy and positron emission tomography are novel abdominal imaging modalities currently being explored for IBD interrogations. This plethora of radiological imaging options has become a vital component of UC assessments. PMID:24843072

  19. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  20. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  1. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  2. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  3. Visual simulation of radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-18

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made.

  4. Radiographic simulations and analysis for ASCI

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.; Stone, D.; VonWittenau, A.

    1998-12-18

    In this paper, the authors describe their work on developing quantitatively accurate radiographic simulation and analysis tools for ASCI hydro codes. they have extended the ability of HADES, the code which simulates radiography through a mesh, to treat the complex meshes used in ASCI calculations. The ultimate goal is to allow direct comparison between experimental radiographs and full physics simulated radiographs of ASCI calculations. They describe the ray-tracing algorithm they have developed for fast, accurate simulation of dynamic radiographs with the meshes used in ALE3D, an LLNL ASCI code. Spectral effects and material compositions are included. In addition to the newness of the mesh types, the distributed nature of domain decomposed problems requires special treatment by the radiographic code. Because of the size of such problems, they have parallelized the radiographic simulation, in order to have quick turnaround time. presently, this is done using the domain decomposition from the hydro code. They demonstrate good parallel scaling as the size of the problem is increased. They show a comparison between an experimental radiograph of a high explosive detonation and a simulated radiograph of an ALE3D calculation. They conclude with a discussion of future work.

  5. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  6. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  7. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  8. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  9. Abdominal Pain Caused by a Potentially Fatal Attraction.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Danielle Claire; Scace, Candace; Shah, Bhairav; Weiner, Evan; Prasad, Rajeev

    2016-11-19

    Abdominal pain is a challenging presentation in children. Examination findings and etiology vary greatly, spanning a vast spectrum from flatulence to frank peritonitis with septic shock. Here, we discuss a 10-year-old boy with 24 hours of progressively worsening lower abdominal pain, nausea, and subjective fevers. History and physical examination findings were consistent with appendicitis. However, physicians were surprised when the single-view abdominal radiograph showed an unanticipated, somewhat perplexing discovery.

  10. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  12. Weld radiograph enigmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1986-01-01

    Weld radiograph enigmas are features observed on X-ray radiographs of welds. Some of these features resemble indications of weld defects, although their origin is different. Since they are not understood, they are a source of concern. There is a need to identify their causes and especially to measure their effect on weld mechanical properties. A method is proposed whereby the enigmas can be evaluated and rated, in relation to the full spectrum of weld radiograph indications. Thie method involves a signature and a magnitude that can be used as a quantitive parameter. The signature is generated as the diference between the microdensitometer trace across the radiograph and the computed film intensity derived from a thickness scan along the corresponding region of the sample. The magnitude is the measured difference in intensity between the peak and base line values of the signature. The procedure is demonstated by comparing traces across radiographs of a weld sample before and after the introduction of a hole and by a system based on a MacIntosh mouse used for surface profiling.

  13. Comparison Of Digital Radiographic Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yen

    1986-06-01

    A total PACS will be inevitable for radiology practice within several years. To achieve a total PACS for radiology, a satisfactory digital radiographic unit is required, because approximately 65% of digital data for PACS comes from digital radiographs. There are several possibilities for producing digital radiographs, and 3 - 4 companies have been marketing digital radiographic devices. Some data regarding the digital radiographic units on the market are compared. It will aid in assessing the current status and availability of this aspect of development, as well as providing a summary of further development of digital radiographic technology.

  14. Neutron radiographic viewing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leysath, W.; Brown, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Neutron radiographic viewing system consisting of camera head and control processor is developed for use in nondestructive testing applications. Camera head consists of neutron-sensitive image intensifier system, power supply, and SEC vidicon camera head. Both systems, with their optics, are housed on test mount.

  15. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.

  16. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  17. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  18. Digital processing of radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  19. Sudden onset abdominal pain and distension: an imaging sparkler.

    PubMed

    Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, M; Medarametla, S; Shah, H R

    2014-11-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged patient presenting with acute onset abdominal pain and distension who had signs of bowel obstruction on physical exam. He was afebrile, hemodynamically stable with no peritoneal signs. Abdominal radiograph and CT scan were pathognomic for sigmoid volvulus. Through this case report we want to discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management options for sigmoid volvulus and importance of features suggestive of ischemic bowel that necessitates different management options.

  20. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs

    PubMed Central

    SOHN, Jungmin; YUN, Sookyung; LEE, Jeosoon; CHANG, Dongwoo; CHOI, Mincheol; YOON, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly. PMID:27594274

  1. Computer enhancement of radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekaney, A.; Keane, J.; Desautels, J.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of three relevant noise processes and the image degradation associated with Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) X-ray/scanning system was conducted for application to computer enhancement of radiographs using MSFC's digital filtering techniques. Graininess of type M, R single coat and R double coat X-ray films was quantified as a function of density level using root-mean-square (RMS) granularity. Quantum mottle (including film grain) was quantified as a function of the above film types, exposure level, specimen material and thickness, and film density using RMS granularity and power spectral density (PSD). For various neutral-density levels the scanning device used in digital conversion of radiographs was examined for noise characteristics which were quantified by RMS granularity and PSD. Image degradation of the entire pre-enhancement system (MG-150 X-ray device; film; and optronics scanner) was measured using edge targets to generate modulation transfer functions (MTF). The four parameters were examined as a function of scanning aperture sizes of approximately 12.5 25 and 50 microns.

  2. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Tawonsawatruk, T.; Simpson, C. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The radiographic union score for tibial (RUST) fractures was developed by Whelan et al to assess the healing of tibial fractures following intramedullary nailing. In the current study, the repeatability and reliability of the RUST score was evaluated in an independent centre (a) using the original description, (b) after further interpretation of the description of the score, and (c) with the immediate post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Methods A total of 15 radiographs of tibial shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing (IM) were scored by three observers using the RUST system. Following discussion on how the criteria of the RUST system should be implemented, 45 sets (i.e. AP and lateral) of radiographs of IM nailed tibial fractures were scored by five observers. Finally, these 45 sets of radiographs were rescored with the baseline post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Results The initial intraclass correlation (ICC) on the first 15 sets of radiographs was 0.67 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). However, the original description was being interpreted in different ways. After agreeing on the interpretation, the ICC on the second cohort improved to 0.75. The ICC improved even further to 0.79, when the baseline post-operative radiographs were available for comparison. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the RUST scoring system is a reliable and repeatable outcome measure for assessing tibial fracture healing. Further improvement in the reliability of the scoring system can be obtained if the radiographs are compared with the baseline post-operative radiographs. Cite this article: Mr J.M. Leow. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures: Reliability of the outcome measure at an independent centre. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:116–121. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000628. PMID:27073210

  3. Determinants Of Acceptability Of Radiographic Images For Archival Digital Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markivee, C. R.; Nalesnik, W. J.; Chiang, M. C.; Tio, J. R.; Hall, E. L.

    1983-05-01

    The parameter, quality of radiographic film exposure, was evaluated by computer and 15 human observers for the purpose of determining the feasibility of automatic computer eval-uation of radiographs prior to archival storage. Histograms of digitized knee radiographs were parameterized according to the Pearson technique and the computer was used to grade exposure quality relative to a set of training radiographs evaluated by the readers. There was a significant variation in the assessment of film exposure quality among the different observers. The computer scored 73% for the AP films and 53% for the laterals relative to the general consensus. The discrepancies were explained in terms of differences in anatomy and radiographic technique. The significance of this work is that it demonstrates that a computer can grade films according to a predetermined standard set by the radiologist.

  4. Human Identification via Lateral Patella Radiographs: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Niespodziewanski, Emily; Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Fenton, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the utility of patella outline shape for matching 3D scans of patellae to knee radiographs using elliptical Fourier analysis and subjective methods of human visual comparison of patellae across radiographs for identification purposes. Repeat radiographs were captured of cadaver's knees for visual comparison before patellae were extracted and skeletonized for quantitative comparisons. Quantitative methods provided significant narrowing down of the candidate pool to just a few potential matches (<5% of original sample), while the human analysts showed high capacity for correctly matching radiographs, irrespective of educational level (positive predictive value = 99.8%). The successful computerized matching based on a single quantified patella trait (outline shape) helps explain the potency achieved by subjective visual examination. This work adds to a growing body of studies demonstrating the value of single isolated infracranial bones for human identification via radiographic comparison.

  5. Textbook of radiographic science

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    This book has been written to provide an outline of scientific background of specialized radiologic procedures for candidates studying for the higher examination of the College of Radiographers (United Kingdom). The book contains nine chapters on various areas such as emergency/trauma; pediatrics; neurologic, angiographic, and urodynamic studies; and a final chapter on research. An index concludes the book. Information on historical and scientific procedural background, equipment, anatomic and pathologic correlates, and positioning of the patient is organized and presented. Scientific data are inserted in the text where appropriate. Metrizamide is given an extensive write-up as the contrast medium of choice for imaging of the spinal cord and is said to be ''less toxic than other forms of water-soluble contrast.''

  6. Dynamic Radiographic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, A.; Turley, D.; Veeser, L.; Lukyanov, N.; Yegorov, N.; Baker, S.A.; Mirenko, V.; Lewis, W.; Kuropatkin, Y.

    1999-06-01

    A radiographic system recently developed by American and Russian collaborators is designed to capture multiple images of a dynamic event lasting less than 10 microseconds. Various optical and electro-optical components were considered and their performance compared. The final system employed a solid crystal of lutetium oxyorthosilicate doped with cerium (LSO:Ce or LSO) for X-ray-to-light conversion with a coherent fiber optic bundle to relay the scintillator image to a streak camera with charge coupled device (CCD) readout. Resolution and sensitivity studies were carried out for this system on two different sources of X-rays: a 20 MeV microtron and a 70 MeV betatron.

  7. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  8. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  11. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  12. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  13. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18.

  14. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  15. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  16. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  17. Automatic image hanging protocol for chest radiographs in PACS.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Hao, Wei; Foos, David H; Cornelius, Craig W

    2006-04-01

    Chest radiography is one of the most widely used techniques in diagnostic imaging. It comprises at least one-third of all diagnostic radiographic procedures in hospitals. However, in the picture archive and communication system, images are often stored with the projection and orientation unknown or mislabeled, which causes inefficiency for radiologists' interpretation. To address this problem, an automatic hanging protocol for chest radiographs is presented. The method targets the most effective region in a chest radiograph, and extracts a set of size-, rotation-, and translation-invariant features from it. Then, a well-trained classifier is used to recognize the projection. The orientation of the radiograph is later identified by locating the neck, heart, and abdomen positions in the radiographs. Initial experiments are performed on the radiographs collected from daily routine chest exams in hospitals and show promising results. Using the presented protocol, 98.2% of all cases could be hung correctly on projection view (without protocol, 62%), and 96.1% had correct orientation (without protocol, 75%). A workflow study on the protocol also demonstrates a significant improvement in efficiency for image display.

  18. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jefferson Luis Oshiro; Medici Filho, Edmundo; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de; Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli de; Castilho, Julio Cezar de Melo

    2008-01-01

    Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s) and the target-sensor distance (40 cm) were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the 'histogram' tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p < 0.05) and for bovine and human coronal dentin (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found for the bovine and human radicular dentin (p > 0.05). Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a) the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b) the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c) bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADVANCED RADIOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY FRONT END ON NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, C; Heebner, J; Dawson, J; Fochs, S; Shverdin, M; Crane, J K; Kanz, V K; Halpin, J; Phan, H; Sigurdsson, R; Brewer, W; Britten, J; Brunton, G; Clark, W; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Nguyen, H; Shaw, B; Hackel, R; Hermann, M; Tietbohl, G; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-07-15

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  20. Acid corrosive esophagitis: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-06-01

    Thirty-nine esophagograms of 24 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCI) in suicide attempts were reviewed. All esophagograms were obtained in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases. In the acute and subacute phases, the radiographic findings consisted of mucosal edema, submucosal edema or hemorrhage, ulcerations, sloughing of the mucosa, atony, and dilatation. Strictures of the esophagus were present in the chronic phase. These radiographic findings were not different from those found in alkaline corrosive esophagitis. The severity of the corrosive esophagitis is considered related to the concentration, amount, viscosity, and duration of contact between the caustic agent and the esophageal mucosa.

  1. Tonsillolith: a panoramic radiograph presentation.

    PubMed

    Babu B, Balaji; Tejasvi M L, Avinash; Avinash, C K Anulekha; B, Chittaranjan

    2013-10-01

    Tonsilloliths are calcifications within a tonsillar crypt, involve primarily the palatine tonsil caused by dystrophic calcification as a result of chronic inflammation. Tonsilloliths are very uncommon and are microscopic. Tonsillar concretions sometimes produce symptoms which include non-specific chronic halitosis, irritable cough, dysphagia, otalgia and foreign body-like sensation or foul taste. Patients with tonsillolithiasis may also be asymptomatic, with their lesions being discovered incidentally on panoramic radiographs. This article presents an unusual case of multiple bilateral and asymptomatic tonsilloliths which were found during a routine panoramic radiographic examination.

  2. Presentation and analysis of radiographic data in clinical trials and observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Landewe, R; van der Heijde, D

    2005-01-01

    Despite the advent of sophisticated imaging systems, plain radiography continues to be a valuable outcome variable in clinical trials of inflammatory disorders for a number of reasons. This paper discusses the pros and cons of the different ways in which radiographic data in trials is presented; the minimum time needed to demonstrate radiographic progression in the context of a clinical trial; and the best ways to statistically analyse radiographic data. PMID:16239387

  3. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  4. Torsion of an intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar

    2000-09-01

    To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.

  5. Reference for radiographic film interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

  6. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  7. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  8. Improved radiographic image amplifier panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L., Sr.

    1968-01-01

    Layered image amplifier for radiographic /X ray and gamma ray/ applications, combines very high radiation sensitivity with fast image buildup and erasure capabilities by adding a layer of material that is both photoconductive and light-emitting to basic image amplifier and cascading this assembly with a modified Thorne panel.

  9. Chemical intensification of dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.

    1983-04-01

    The potential applications of chemical intensification in dental radiography are explored. Three standard photographic intensifiers and three methods designed for radiographic use are evaluated. One of these methods is shown to be capable of reducing radiation dose to one half, without loss of diagnostic quality. Further work is necessary to achieve a system sufficiently practicable to deserve widespread use in routine clinical dental radiography.

  10. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  11. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  12. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  13. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  14. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or...

  19. Comparing prediction models for radiographic exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, W.; Robinson, J.; McEntee, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    During radiographic exposures the milliampere-seconds (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp) and source-to-image distance can be adjusted for variations in patient thicknesses. Several exposure adjustment systems have been developed to assist with this selection. This study compares the accuracy of four systems to predict the required mAs for pelvic radiographs taken on a direct digital radiography system (DDR). Sixty radiographs were obtained by adjusting mAs to compensate for varying combinations of source-to-image distance (SID), kVp and patient thicknesses. The 25% rule, the DuPont Bit System and the DigiBit system were compared to determine which of these three most accurately predicted the mAs required for an increase in patient thickness. Similarly, the 15% rule, the DuPont Bit System and the DigiBit system were compared for an increase in kVp. The exposure index (EI) was used as an indication of exposure to the DDR. For each exposure combination the mAs was adjusted until an EI of 1500+/-2% was achieved. The 25% rule was the most accurate at predicting the mAs required for an increase in patient thickness, with 53% of the mAs predictions correct. The DigiBit system was the most accurate at predicting mAs needed for changes in kVp, with 33% of predictions correct. This study demonstrated that the 25% rule and DigiBit system were the most accurate predictors of mAs required for an increase in patient thickness and kVp respectively. The DigiBit system worked well in both scenarios as it is a single exposure adjustment system that considers a variety of exposure factors.

  20. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a “crossover” sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Results: Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Clinical Relevance: Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI. PMID:24587869

  1. Predicting the underestimation of the femoral offset in anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using 'lesser trochanter index': a 3D CT derived simulated radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Krishna; Siebachmeyer, Martin; Lakkol, Sandesh; Rajayogeswaran, Brathaban; Kavarthapu, Venu; Li, Patrick L S

    2014-06-01

    We developed 'lesser trochanter index' (LTI) and estimated its accuracy in predicting the underestimation of offset in the anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs. We reconstructed 320 simulated radiographs from the CT scans of 40 adult hips at different rotational projections of 10° increments from 30° internal rotation to 40° external rotation. Underestimation of femoral offset as a percentage was derived from the neck profile angle for all radiographs. Radiographs with an LTI value above 35 were 94% (95% CI, 89%-97%) likely to underestimate femoral offset by more than 5%. Radiographs with LTI between 0 and 30 demonstrated femoral offset within 5% of the true offset (predictive value 100%, CI 87%-100%). LTI could be a useful guide in preoperative templating of hip arthroplasty.

  2. HADES, A Radiographic Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B.; Slone, D.M.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    2000-08-18

    We describe features of the HADES radiographic simulation code. We begin with a discussion of why it is useful to simulate transmission radiography. The capabilities of HADES are described, followed by an application of HADES to a dynamic experiment recently performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. We describe quantitative comparisons between experimental data and HADES simulations using a copper step wedge. We conclude with a short discussion of future work planned for HADES.

  3. Radiographic identification by mastoid sinus and arterial pattern.

    PubMed

    Rhine, S; Sperry, K

    1991-01-01

    A skull and some incomplete postcranial remains were discovered in two searches over a two-month period near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The discoveries could be demonstrated to be from the same person, and the remains were shown to be consistent with a specific missing person on the basis of anthropological analysis. Further work led to a positive identification on multiple grounds, including agreement of the details of the mastoid sinus and endocranial arterial patterns observed radiographically. These features may be useful for establishing positive identification from skeletal remains when antemortem radiographic studies for comparison are limited to lateral cranial vault studies.

  4. Computer-assisted diagnosis of chest radiographs for pneumoconioses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliz, Peter; Pattichis, Marios S.; Ramachandran, Janakiramanan; James, David S.

    2001-07-01

    A Computer-assisted Chest Radiograph Reader System (CARRS) was developed for the detection of pathological features in lungs presenting with pneumoconioses. CARRS applies novel techniques in automatic image segmentation, incorporates neural network-based pattern classification, and integrates these into a graphical user interface. The three aspects of CARRS are described: Chest radiograph digitization and display, rib and parenchyma characterization, and classification. The quantization of the chest radiograph film was optimized to maximize the information content of the digital images. Entropy was used as the benchmark for optimizing the quantization. From the rib-segmented images, regions of interest were selected by the pulmonologist. A feature vector composed of image characteristics such as entropy, textural statistics, etc. was calculated. A laterally primed adaptive resonance theory (LAPART) neural network was used as the classifier. LAPART classification accuracy averaged 86.8 %. Truth was determined by the two pulmonologists. The CARRS has demonstrated potential as a screening device. Today, 90% or more of the chest radiographs seen by the pulmonologist are normal. A computer-based system that can screen 50% or more of the chest radiographs represents a large savings in time and dollars.

  5. Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Eshed, Iris

    2015-12-01

    The term non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nrAxSpA) was coined for patients who have a clinical picture of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but do not exhibit radiographic sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification criteria for nrAxSpA, ensuring the recruitment of homogenous study cohorts, were accepted in 2009, although the respective diagnostic criteria for daily clinical practice have not yet been developed. The clinical diagnosis should be based on the composite of clinical symptoms and signs of the disease, HLA B27 status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints. Notably, a negative MRI or HLA B27 does not exclude the diagnosis in patients with a high clinical suspicion for nrAxSpA. The prevalence of nrAxSpA is similar to that of AS, but the former has a higher female preponderance. The rate of progression of nrAxSpA to the radiographic stage of disease (AS) ranges from 10% to 20% over 2 years. Current treatment strategies for nrAxSpA are the same as for AS and include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. While this review summarizes the current achievements in the field of nrAxSpA, further understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of the disease and, particularly, mechanisms of inflammation and subsequent new bone formation is essential for the development of new treatment strategies for nrAxSpA patients.

  6. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  7. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  8. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  9. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  11. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  12. Upper airway radiographs in infants with upper airway insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, S L; Davis, S L; Gunn, T R

    1994-01-01

    Upper airway measurements in nine infants considered to be at risk of upper airway insufficiency, six of whom presented after an apnoeic episode, were compared with measurements taken in two age groups of healthy infants. Paired, inspiratory and expiratory, lateral upper airway radiographs were obtained while the infants were awake and breathing quietly. The radiographs of all nine infants demonstrated narrowing in the oropharyngeal portion of the airway during inspiration and in six infants there was ballooning of the upper airway during expiration. Seven of the nine infants subsequently experienced recurrent apnoeic episodes which required vigorous stimulation to restore breathing. Experience suggests that respiratory phase timed radiographs are a useful adjunct to the evaluation of infants who are suspected of having upper airway dysfunction. They provide information regarding both the dimensions and compliance of the upper airway as well as the site of any restriction. Images PMID:8048825

  13. Development of osteochondrosis in Lusitano foals: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Baccarin, Raquel Yvonne Arantes; Pereira, Marco Antonio; Roncati, Neimar Vanderlei; Bergamaschi, Rafael Ramalho Corso; Hagen, Stefano Carlo Filippo

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to detect, by radiographic examination, the evolution of osteochondral lesions in the tarsocrural and femoropatellar joints of Lusitano foals. Within 1 month of age, 76.08% of foals had radiographic signs of osteochondrosis, but only 16.20% had lesions at 18 months. The radiographic signs resolved by 5 mo of age in most foals, but some cases that involved either joint, were not resolved until 12 mo of age. It is thought that the "age of no return" is 5 mo for the tarsocrural and 8 mo for the femoropatellar joint but this study demonstrated regression of osteochondral lesions in both joints of Lusitano foals up to 12 months of age.

  14. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  15. Point-of-care ultrasound identification of pneumatosis intestinalis in pediatric abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    James, Vigil; Warier, Aswin; Lee, Khai Pin; Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang

    2017-12-01

    We describe a case report of an infant with intussusception who presented to a pediatric emergency department with diarrhea and increased irritability. Pneumatosis intestinalis (intra-mural air) detected on point-of-care ultrasonography (but not apparent on plain abdominal radiographs) alerted the emergency physicians towards the severity of disease process.

  16. Material identification with multichannel radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Noelle; Jimenez, Edward S.; Thompson, Kyle R.

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to validate previous exploratory work done to characterize materials by matching their attenuation profiles using a multichannel radiograph given an initial energy spectrum. The experiment was performed in order to evaluate the effects of noise on the resulting attenuation profiles, which was ignored in simulation. Spectrum measurements have also been collected from various materials of interest. Additionally, a MATLAB optimization algorithm has been applied to these candidate spectrum measurements in order to extract an estimate of the attenuation profile. Being able to characterize materials through this nondestructive method has an extensive range of applications for a wide variety of fields, including quality assessment, industry, and national security.

  17. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  18. ROC Detectability Evaluation Of A Filmless Digital Radiographic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaber, Gary S.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard; D'Adamo, Arthur J.

    1988-06-01

    A new digital radiographic system (Matrix Laser Rad) employing a filmless photostimulable reusable phosphor (PSP) was evaluated for spatial resolution and high and low contrast object detectability. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) comparisons were made to film images using equal or lower exposure factors. The low and high contrast test objects for the ROC evaluation were respectively a 5/32 inch diameter hemispheric depression filled with mineral oil and 250-500 micrometer diameter silicon carbide granules, both in a 2 inch thick plexiglass block. These object sizes were shown to be at thresh-old of detectability for either the film or PSP system at the exposure factors used. The ROC curves were generated from data obtained by radiologists viewing multiple film radiographs and CRT displays of both the digitized film radiographs and PSP images with the test objects in random locations. There were 90 images generated for each system, 45 with test objects and 45 without. Each observer had 15 seconds at a fixed distance to view each image presented at random at standard view box intensities (140 foot-lamberts) on either a light view box or CRT. The unenhanced filmless PSP radiographs had a reduced detectability threshold for the test objects, however with the use of windowing, level manipulations and appropriate filtering, detectability could be improved for the low contrast objects with the digital system surpassing unenhanced film radiographs. In addition, a dose reduction could be achieved with the PSP filmless system without loss of significant detectability. Enhanced film radiographs demonstrated the highest detectability characteristics. To achieve similar detectability for high contrast objects with the PSP system, a significant increase in object size was necessary.

  19. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  20. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-06-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes.

  1. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kanzler, Daniel E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Ewert, Uwe E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de Müller, Christina E-mail: uwe.ewert@bam.de; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-31

    The radiographic testing (RT) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method capable of finding volumetric and open planar defects depending on their orientation. The radiographic contrast is higher for larger penetrated length of the defect in a component. Even though, the detectability of defects does not only depend on the contrast, but also on the noise, the defect area and the geometry of the defect. The currently applied Probability of Detection (POD) approach uses a detection threshold that is only based on a constant noise level or on a constant contrast threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the lateral area and shape of the indication. This work shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data of different defect types, such as ASTM E 476 EPS plates, flat bottom holes and notches. Additional experiments with different operators confirm that the depth of a defect, the lateral area and shape of its indication contribute with different weight to the detectability of the defect if evaluated by human operators on monitors.

  2. DIGITAL SPALL RADIOGRAPH ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CURTIS L. HARRIS - LATA

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring Technology Assessment National Laboratory. momentum and kinetic energy of span for the Advanced Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (As) program at Los Alamos The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated span motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z-number of the span material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed span image) that approximates the original span cloud. From the model the mass of span fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the span configuration at two instants of time. Span fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in. this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected span analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques.

  3. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  4. Endovascular Repair of a Blunt Abdominal Aortic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, William D.; Tan, Tze-Woei; Farber, Alik

    2012-01-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury is an uncommon traumatic finding. In the past, treatment options have traditionally consisted of open operative repair; however, the development of endovascular surgery has created new interventional possibilities. This case is presented to demonstrate the applications of endovascular abdominal aortic repair for a blunt traumatic injury. PMID:23730142

  5. Radiography of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Wagner, W M; Kirberger, R M

    2001-01-01

    A standard radiographic procedure was developed for the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female nonbreeding ostriches. Positioning, collimation, centering and a technique chart were defined to give reproducible and consistently good quality radiographs. Radiographs were obtained from one adult ostrich cadaver, two adult female ostriches as well as two growing ostriches at various stages. A 6-frame technique was established for lateral views taking the topographic tissue distribution into consideration and using easily palpable landmarks as centering points. Standing true right lateral radiographs are recommended for standard procedures. For dorsoventral exposures a 3-frame technique in the recumbent ostrich was found to be optimal. Birds should be fasted if possible. A technique chart for lateral exposures is provided.

  6. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of panoramic and occlusal radiographs in detecting submandibular sialoliths

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Aoki, Eduardo Massaharu; Abdala-Júnior, Reinaldo; Asaumi, Junichi; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic performance of panoramic and occlusal radiographs in detecting submandibular sialoliths. Materials and Methods A total of 40 patients (20 cases and 20 controls) were included in this retrospective study. Cases were defined as subjects with a submandibular sialolith confirmed by computed tomography (CT), whereas controls did not have any submandibular calcifications. Three observers with different expertise levels assessed panoramic and occlusal radiographs of all subjects for the presence of sialoliths. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were assessed using the kappa test. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and the diagnostic odds ratio of panoramic and occlusal radiographs in screening for submandibular sialoliths were calculated for each observer. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for occlusal and panoramic radiographs all ranged from 80% to 100%. The lowest values of sensitivity and specificity observed among the observers were 82.6% and 80%, respectively (P=0.001). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were higher for occlusal radiographs than for panoramic radiographs, although panoramic radiographs demonstrated a higher overall accuracy. Conclusion Both panoramic and occlusal radiographic techniques displayed satisfactory diagnostic performance and should be considered before using a CT scan to detect submandibular sialoliths. PMID:27358815

  7. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  8. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  9. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  10. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 892.1910 - Radiographic grid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic grid. 892.1910 Section 892.1910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1910 Radiographic grid. (a) Identification....

  15. Electromyographic analysis of four popular abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.

  16. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  17. Multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged <18 years with acute abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded. A total of 156 patients with acute abdominal pain (85 males and 71 females, age 1-17 years; mean age 10.9 ± 4.6 years) who underwent abdominal MDCT in the pediatric ED during this 3-year period were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen patients with suspected appendicitis underwent abdominal MDCT. Sixty four (54.2%) of them had appendicitis, which was proven by histopathology. The sensitivity of abdominal MDCT for appendicitis was found to be 98.5% and the specificity was 84.9%. In this study, the other two common causes of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies were gastrointestinal tract (GI) infections and ovarian cysts. The most common etiology of abdominal pain in children that requires imaging with abdominal MDCT is appendicitis. MDCT has become a preferred and invaluable imaging modality in evaluating uncertain cases of pediatric acute abdominal pain in ED, in particular for suspected appendicitis, neoplasms, and gastrointestinal abnormalities.

  18. Abdominal aortic calcification is not superior over other vascular calcification in predicting mortality in hemodialysis patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines recommend that a lateral abdominal radiograph should be performed to assess vascular calcification (VC) in dialysis patients. However, abdominal aortic calcification is a prevalent finding, and it remains unclear whether other anatomical areas of VC can predict mortality more accurately. Methods A total of 217 maintenance hemodialysis patients were enrolled at the Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital between July 2010 and March 2011. Radiographs of the abdomen, pelvis and hands were evaluated by a radiologist to evaluate the presence of VC. The correlation between different areas of VC and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality was analyzed using univariate and multivariate models. Results The prevalence of VC was 70.0% (152 patients), and most had abdominal aortic calcification (90.1%). During 26 ± 7 months of follow-up, 37 patients died. The VC score was independently associated with patient mortality. VC observed on abdominal radiographs (abdominal aortic calcification) was associated with all-cause mortality in models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (HR, 4.69; 95%CI, 1.60-13.69) and dialysis factors (HR, 3.38; 95%CI, 1.18-9.69). VC in the pelvis or hands was associated with all-cause mortality in the model adjusted for dialysis factors. When three combinations of VC in different radiographs were included in models, the presence of abdominal VC was only significantly associated with all-cause mortality in the integrated model. VC in the abdomen and pelvis was associated with all-cause mortality in the model adjusted for cardiovascular factors and the integrated model, but neither was significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. VC in all radiographs was significantly associated with a more than 6-fold risk of all-cause mortality and a more than 5-fold risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to patients without VC. Conclusions VC in different arteries as shown on

  19. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  20. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of vertebrae for identification of decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Vidoli, Giovanna; Melinek, Judy

    2006-09-01

    This case study demonstrates the importance of involving an anthropologist in forensic situations with decomposed remains. Anthropological consultation was used in conjunction with the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs to establish positive identification of unknown, decomposed remains. The remains had no traditional identifying features such as fingerprints or dental. Through anthropological analysis, it was determined the decedent was male, between 20 and 23 years at time of death and c. 5'2'' tall. This information allowed for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem radiographs. The missing person was identified comparing the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae between ante- and postmortem radiographs.

  1. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  2. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  3. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  4. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  5. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  6. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  7. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  8. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet... for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  9. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiographic intensifying screen is a device that is a thin radiolucent sheet... for medical purposes to expose radiographic film. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  10. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  11. Unusual radiographic appearance of adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Michele; Montalti, Maurizio; Bosco, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare tumor with an indolent course that occurs most commonly in the tibia. It is locally aggressive, and local recurrences are described after resection. Pain is the most common symptom. Since the lesion is typically slow growing, the pain can be present for many years before the patient seeks medical attention. Microscopically, adamantinoma consists of islands of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma. Nuclear atypia is minimal, and mitotic figures are rare. The most common radiographic appearance is that of multiple sharply demarcated radiolucent lesions surrounded by areas of dense, sclerotic bone. This tumor most often affects the tibial diaphysis and produces lytic lesions that can cause fractures. A 31-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing lytic lesion of the distal tibia. On histological examination, many areas of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma were identified. Diagnosis of adamantinoma was performed. The lesion was treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with distal tibia allograft and ankle arthrodesis with retrograde nail. At 2-year follow-up, there were no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence of disease.

  12. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  13. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E.; Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S.

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  14. Abdominal wall abscess: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jamish; Gandhi, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    An 83-year-old, mildly demented rest home resident presented to the emergency department with a 2 day history of a right sided abdominal wall mass. He had a mechanical fall 2 days previously and landed on his right side and had attributed the mass to this. He had no symptoms apart from feeling bloated and not being able to pass wind for a day. He had passed a normal bowel motion the day before presentation. On abdominal examination there was an 11 × 4 cm mass in the right lower quadrant. It was firm in consistency, non-fluctuant and non-tender to touch. There was mild erythema over the area but no skin breaks. Chest radiograph was unremarkable. The abdominal film showed dilated small bowel and no large bowel could be seen. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a thick walled gallbladder with multiple calculi and air present. There was also an extensive air and fluid collection in the layers of the abdominal wall and subcutaneous fat which arose from a perforation of the gallbladder. The patient was not a surgical candidate due to multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with antibiotics and underwent a CT guided percutaneous cholecystostomy. Despite the radiological intervention and antibiotics the patient progressively deteriorated and died peacefully 5 days after admission.

  15. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  16. From inhibition of radiographic progression to maintaining structural integrity: a methodological framework for radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Landewé, Robert; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2013-07-01

    Usually, a clinical trial in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis aiming to demonstrate that a new antirheumatic drug treatment can inhibit progression of structural damage has a 'superiority design': The new treatment is compared to placebo or to another active treatment. Currently, many new drug treatments have shown to be able to completely suppress progression (progression rates close to zero). For largely unknown reasons, during the last 10 years, radiographic progression rates in clinical trials have gradually decreased, so that progression rates in the comparator groups are often too low to demonstrate meaningful inhibition, and thus superiority of the new treatment. We here propose an alternative framework to demonstrate that new treatments have the ability to 'preserve structural integrity' rather than to 'inhibit radiographic progression'. Anno 2013, preserving structural integrity is conceptually more realistic than inhibiting radiographic progression.

  17. Computer assisted measurement of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Yixun; Chen, Foster; Summers, Ronald M.; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Radiographic features such as femoral cortex thickening have been frequently observed with atypical subtrochanteric fractures. These features may be a valuable finding to help prevent fractures before they happen. The current practice of manual measurement is often subjective and inconsistent. We developed a semi-automatic tool to consistently measure and monitor the progress of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs. By placing two seed points on each side of the femur, the program automatically extracts the periosteal and endosteal layers of the cortical shell by active contour models and B-spline fitting. Several measurements are taken along the femur shaft, including shaft diameter, cortical thickness, and integral area for medial and lateral cortex. The experiment was conducted on 52 patient datasets. The semi-automatic measurements were validated against manual measurements on 52 patients and demonstrated great improvement in consistency and accuracy (p<0.001).

  18. CHAOS: Prenatal imaging findings with post mortem contrast radiographic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Manoharan, Kiruba Shankar; Rajalakshmi, Vaithianathan; Menon, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome is a rare fetal anomaly with characteristic constellation of prenatal findings on ultrasound and MRI. The typical triad of imaging features are enlarged and echogenic lungs, flattening or inversion of diaphragm and fetal hydrops. Early prenatal recognition of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome by ultrasound and/or MRI is mandatory for the appropriate perinatal management. We report a case of a male fetus with typical imaging findings of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome on ultrasound and MRI at 19 weeks of gestation. The role of contrast radiographs of fetal airways, including retrograde laryngogram, in confirming the postnatal diagnosis of this fetal condition is demonstrated. The prenatal imaging findings were correlated with contrast radiographs of upper airways, sonography of aborted fetus and fetal autopsy findings. PMID:27761192

  19. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szepesi, Z.

    1971-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

  20. Radiographic selection criteria: new guidelines, old challenges.

    PubMed

    Horner, K

    2013-02-01

    Radiographic selection criteria are a legal requirement for any establishment using ionising radiation for medical purposes, including dental practices. The Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) pioneered the development of radiographic selection criteria for dentistry in the UK in 1998 and followed this with a second edition in 2004. This year will see a third edition, updated by new research evidence and developments in X-ray imaging for dentistry, including cone beam computed tomography (CT). Radiographic selection criteria are not rules but are one form of clinical guideline designed to help in clinical decision making. There are many influences on the use of radiography in dental practice including non-clinical factors. Evidence-based radiographic selection criteria can help to reinforce good practice, but require a multi-faceted implementation strategy including incorporation into clinical audit, easy availability to users and education.

  1. Film adhesive enhances neutron radiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Resolution of neutron radiographic images of thermally conductive film is increased by replacing approximately 5 percent of aluminum powder, which provides thermal conductivity, with gadolinium oxide. Oxide is also chemically stable.

  2. Method prevents secondary radiation in radiographic inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struckus, A. A.

    1967-01-01

    Thin-walled neoprene containers prevent secondary radiation, scatter, and undercut during radiographic inspection. The containers are filled with a mixture of barium sulfate, red lead, and petroleum jelly that achieves the required absorption rate.

  3. The forensic importance of frontal sinus radiographs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Caputo, Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti; Devito, Karina Lopes; Botelho, Tessa de Luscena; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The identification of unidentified human remains through the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs has found wide acceptance in recent years. Reported here is the forensic case of an unidentified adult male who had died as the result of a traffic accident, after which the body was identified by matching images of ante- and postmortem radiographs of the frontal sinus. A general discussion on identification using frontal sinus radiographs is presented, highlighting the reliability of this method, in reference to the uniqueness of the frontal sinus in humans. However, it also notes a few difficulties, especially in reference to the X-ray technique in cases where antemortem radiographs are available and a potentially larger number of anatomical, pathological or traumatic features are present. The comparison of frontal sinus outlines is recommended when it may become necessary to provide quantitative substantiation for forensic identification based on these structures.

  4. Lead Scales for X-Radiographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Adams, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Indentations made by typing on lead tape. Lead scales for inclusion in x-radiographs as length and position references created by repeatedly imprinting character like upper-case I, L, or V, or lower-case L into lead tape with typewriter. Character pitch of typewriter serves as length reference for scale. Thinning of tape caused by impacts of type shows up dark in radiograph.

  5. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  6. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected.

  7. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  8. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  9. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease.

    PubMed

    Bellows, J

    1993-08-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats.

  10. Recurrent pneumothorax following abdominal paracentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561

  11. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  12. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  13. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  14. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  15. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  16. [Intra-abdominal mycoses].

    PubMed

    Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.

  17. Radiographic diagnosis of feline heartworm disease and correlation to other clinical criteria: results of a multicenter clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Brawner, W R; Dillon, A R; Robertson-Plouch, C K; Guerrero, J

    2000-01-01

    radiographs were taken of 10. Of the 10 cats, 5 had radiographic changes indicative of FHD; one had changes consistent with FHD; and 4 cats showed no radiographic signs of FHD. Follow-up radiographs were taken of 6 of these 11 cats: 1/6 worsened in radiographic score, 3/6 improved in radiographic score, and 2/6 still demonstrated no radiographic signs of heartworm. Ninety-two cats tested Ab positive at initial examination, and radiographs were available for 91 of these cats. In 22/91 (24%), enlarged caudal lobar arteries indicated FHD. In 39/91 cats (43%) cats, radiographic signs consistent with or indicative of FHD were seen. Of the 38 cats that had radiographic signs indicative of FHD, 22 (58%) were Ab positive on one or both tests. Seven (32%) had positive DiroCHEK Ag tests at initial or recheck examination. At recheck examinations, 2 cats that initially had radiographic signs indicative of FHD converted from DiroCHEK Ag negative to positive, confirming their infection with at least 1 sexually mature female heartworm. While many affected cats show pulmonary arterial enlargement and/or a bronchointerstitial pattern typical of FHD, some cats with serologic evidence of heartworms do not demonstrate any thoracic radiographic changes. Conversely, some cats show radiographic signs suggesting heartworm disease when concurrent serology is negative. These discrepancies may be caused by time between infection and examination, by differences in individual cats' immune response to the presence of larval or adult stages of heartworm, or by aberrant migrations.

  18. Fournier's gangrene secondary to intra-abdominal processes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, G S; Guss, S P; Pielet, R W

    1994-11-01

    We report 2 cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, perianal area, and male genitalia (Fournier's gangrene) that arose secondary to intra-abdominal infectious processes (ruptured appendicitis and diverticulitis). Management consisted of immediate debridement of necrotic tissue, exploratory laparotomy, and diverting colostomy. The presence of an acute abdominal process was not immediately evident on initial evaluation of either patient. This demonstrates the critical importance of considering intra-abdominal infection in patients with Fournier's gangrene when the more commonly seen urinary tract, perirectal, and traumatic causes are not readily apparent.

  19. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  3. Reducing missing fracture clinic radiographs by entrusting them to patients.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Peter R.; Hynes, Matthew C.; Goodier, W. David

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Missing radiographs in fracture clinics may compromise fracture management and lead to inappropriate use of clerical resources. METHODS: We prospectively compared the number of missing radiographs in two hospitals over a period of two months. In hospital A the radiographs were retained and in hospital B they were entrusted to the patients. RESULTS: At the completion of the study, entrusting patients with their radiographs resulted in statistically less radiographs missing from the clinic. PMID:15333169

  4. Resection and Abdominal Wall Reconstruction of a Desmoid Tumor with Endometrioma Features

    PubMed Central

    Majors, Jaqueline; Stoikes, Nathaniel F.; Nejati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare, musculoaponeurotic mesenchymal origin tumors arising from the proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblasts. Desmoid tumors may arise from any location with the abdominal cavity, abdominal wall and extremity locations being most frequent. We present the case of a 35-year-old female with a history of endometriosis who presented palpable abdominal mass and cyclic abdominal pain. Resection was performed for a presumed desmoid soft tissue tumor. Final pathology demonstrated desmoid histology admixed with abdominal wall endometriosis (endometrioma). This unique pathologic finding has only been rarely reported and is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27247824

  5. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  8. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  9. A radiographic scanning technique for cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.W.; Dorsey, M.E.; Woods, J.C.; Miller, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiographic scanning technique (RST) can produce single continuous radiographs of cores or core sections up to 1.5 m long and up to 30 cm wide. Changing a portable industrial X-ray unit from the normal still-shot mode to a scanning mode requires simple, inexpensive, easily constructed, and highly durable equipment. Additional components include a conveyor system, antiscatter cylinder-diaphragm, adjustable sample platform, developing tanks, and a contact printer. Complete cores, half cores, sample slabs or peels may be scanned. Converting the X-ray unit from one mode to another is easy and can be accomplished without the use of special tools. RST provides the investigator with a convenient, continuous, high quality radiograph, saves time and money, and decreases the number of times cores have to be handled. ?? 1979.

  10. Centric relation determinations: clinical and radiographic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Carwell, M L; McFall, W T

    1981-07-01

    This study investigated variations in occlusal prematurities and condylar positions using different methods of determining centric relation. Thirty patients were randomly placed into three groups of 10. In Group I a clinical analysis of occlusal patterns using bilateral mandibular manipulation (BMM) was compared to results with a chin point (CPM) method. Group II compared CPM to an anterior guidance jig (CPJ) method. Group III compared BMM to CPJ. Standardized transcranial oblique radiographs were taken of each temporomandibular joint using CPM and BMM on 10 patients. Condylar position was determined with tracing evaluations and direct measurements of the radiographs. Clinical results indicated that the initial point of contact was located most accurately with CPJ. Both initial contact points and secondary points were disclosed with CPM. The BMM disclosed the most tooth contacts. Contacts were most prevalent on the premolars. Radiographic analyses of condylar positions were inconclusive.

  11. The impact of clinical indications on visual search behaviour in skeletal radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A.; McEntee, M. F.; Rainford, L.; O'Grady, M.; McCarthy, K.; Butler, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    The hazards associated with ionizing radiation have been documented in the literature and therefore justifying the need for X-ray examinations has come to the forefront of the radiation safety debate in recent years1. International legislation states that the referrer is responsible for the provision of sufficient clinical information to enable the justification of the medical exposure. Clinical indications are a set of systematically developed statements to assist in accurate diagnosis and appropriate patient management2. In this study, the impact of clinical indications upon fracture detection for musculoskeletal radiographs is analyzed. A group of radiographers (n=6) interpreted musculoskeletal radiology cases (n=33) with and without clinical indications. Radiographic images were selected to represent common trauma presentations of extremities and pelvis. Detection of the fracture was measured using ROC methodology. An eyetracking device was employed to record radiographers search behavior by analysing distinct fixation points and search patterns, resulting in a greater level of insight and understanding into the influence of clinical indications on observers' interpretation of radiographs. The influence of clinical information on fracture detection and search patterns was assessed. Findings of this study demonstrate that the inclusion of clinical indications result in impressionable search behavior. Differences in eye tracking parameters were also noted. This study also attempts to uncover fundamental observer search strategies and behavior with and without clinical indications, thus providing a greater understanding and insight into the image interpretation process. Results of this study suggest that availability of adequate clinical data should be emphasized for interpreting trauma radiographs.

  12. Grading Osteoarthritic Changes of the Zygapophyseal Joints from Radiographs: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Joshua W.; Grieve, Thomas J.; Cramer, Gregory D.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Laptook, Evelyn E.; Stiefel, Joseph P.D.; Linaker, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested the reliability of a 5-point ordinal scale used to grade the severity of degenerative changes of zygapophyseal (Z) joints on standard radiographs. Methods Modifications were made to Kellgren’s grading system to improve agreement for grading the severity of osteoarthritic changes in lumbar Z joints. These included adding 1 grade of no degeneration, multiple radiographic views, and structured examiner training. Thirty packets of radiographic files were obtained, which included representation of all 5 grades including no degeneration (0) and Kellgren’s 4-point (1 to 4) joint degeneration classification criteria. Radiographs were digitized to create a radiographic atlas that was given to examiners for individual study and blinded evaluation sessions. Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement was determined by weighted kappa (κw) from the examination of 79 Z joints (25 packets). Results Using the modified scale and following training, examiners demonstrated a moderate to substantial level of inter-rater agreement (κw = 0.57, 0.60, and 0.68). Intra-rater agreement was moderate (κw = 0.42 and 0.54). Conclusions The modified Kellgren 5-point grading system provides acceptable intra- and inter-rater reliability when examiners are adequately trained. This grading system may be a useful method for future investigations assessing radiographic osteoarthritis of the Z joints. v PMID:26118786

  13. Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser System Configured for Picosecond Scale Advanced Radiographic Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-23

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  14. Abdominal scar characteristics as a predictor of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Jin; Ju, Xingzhu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether abdominal scar characteristics could predict the occurrence of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART), we conducted a retrospective study and investigated the relationship between abdominal scar characteristics and the occurrence of cervical stenosis in patients one year after undergoing ART. The abdominal scars were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Seventy-two participants were enrolled in the study, including 15 (20.8%) women with cervical stenosis, and 57 (79.2%) without stenosis. Results showed that the mean abdominal scar score assessed by VSS was higher in patients with cervical stenosis (7, range: 1–10) compared to those without stenosis (4, range: 0–9) (P = 0.001). Incidence rates of cervical stenosis increased with the VSS score. For women with VSS scores of 0 to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, respectively, the occurrences of cervical stenosis were 6.1%, 16.7%, 16.7%, 27.3%, 37.5%, 50% and 100%. The cutoff point of VSS score was 7 according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Fourteen of the 15 stenosis happened either in patients without anti-stenosis tools (Foley catheters or tailed intrauterine devices) placed during the surgery or after the devices were removed. Our results demonstrated that VSS is an effective approach to assess the presence of cervical stenosis after ART. Women who have an abdominal scar with a VSS score > 7 have a high risk of developing isthmic stenosis without anti-stenosis tools in place. PMID:27191256

  15. Method of radiographic inspection of wooden members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Maggie L. (Inventor); Berry, Robert F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method to be used for radiographic inspection of a wooden specimen for internal defects which includes the steps of introducing a radiopaque penetrant into any internal defects in the specimen through surface openings; passing a beam of radiation through a portion of the specimen to be inspected; and making a radiographic film image of the radiation passing through the specimen, with the radiopaque penetrant in the specimen absorbing the radiation passing through it, thereby enhancing the resulting image of the internal defects in the specimen.

  16. Pathologic aerophagia: a rare cause of chronic abdominal distension

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Cestari, Ana Beatriz C.S.S.; da Silva, Orli Carvalho; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Firme, Livia Honorato

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adolescent with pathologic aerophagia, a rare condition caused by excessive and inappropriate swallowing of air and to review its treatment and differential diagnoses. Case description: An 11-year-old mentally impaired blind girl presenting serious behavior problems and severe developmental delay with abdominal distension from the last 8 months. Her past history included a Nissen fundoplication. Abdominal CT and abdominal radiographs showed diffuse gas distension of the small bowel and colon. Hirschsprung's disease was excluded. The distention was minimal at the moment the child awoke and maximal at evening, and persisted after control of constipation. Audible repetitive and frequent movements of air swallowing were observed. The diagnosis of pathologic aerophagia associated to obsessive-compulsive disorder and developmental delay was made, but pharmacological treatment was unsuccessful. The patient was submitted to an endoscopic gastrostomy, permanently opened and elevated relative to the stomach. The distention was resolved, while maintaining oral nutrition. Comments: Pathologic aerophagia is a rare self-limiting condition in normal children exposed to high levels of stress and may be a persisting problem in children with psychiatric or neurologic disease. In this last group, the disease may cause serious complications. Pharmacological and behavioral treatments are ill-defined. Severe cases may demand surgical strategies, mainly decompressive gastrostomy. PMID:26100594

  17. Acquired Wharton's duct stenosis after dental radiographs treated with sialendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kieliszak, Christopher R; Shokri, Tom; Joshi, Arjun S

    2015-04-26

    Salivary gland trauma may result in ductal stenosis and chronic sialadenitis. We describe a case of an 81-year-old woman with a history of intermittent left submandibular swelling that began after recent dental examination and radiographs. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was performed and demonstrated a near complete distal stenosis. It was determined that trauma experienced during dental radiography may have resulted in the patient's ductal obstruction and subsequent sialadenitis. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of non-sialolith-related ductal obstruction in the submandibular gland, treated with sialendoscopic-assisted sialodochoplasty.

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  20. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  3. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  4. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  5. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  6. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  7. Computer Tomography Imaging Findings of Abdominal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Xin-Ke; Chen, Rui-Ying; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Lv, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a neoplasm that arises from follicular dendritic cells. FDCSs originating in the abdomen are extremely rare. Clinically, they often mimic a wide variety of other abdominal tumors, and correct preoperative diagnosis is often a challenging task. To date, only scattered cases of abdominal FDCS have been reported and few data are available on their radiological features. Here we present the computer tomography imaging findings of 5 patients with surgically and pathologically demonstrated abdominal FDCS. An abdominal FDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis when single or multiple masses with relatively large size, well- or ill-defined borders, complex internal architecture with marked internal necrosis and/or focal calcification, and heterogeneous enhancement with “rapid wash-in and slow wash-out” or “progressive enhancement” enhancement patterns in the solid component are seen. PMID:26735543

  8. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  9. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  10. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student…

  12. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  13. Three cases demonstrating the role of gallium scanning in relapsing Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zollars, L.E.; Nagel, J.S.; Tumeh, S.S.

    1987-10-01

    Restaging of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma for chemotherapy traditionally requires chest radiograph and abdominal computerized tomogram (CT) for routine follow-up examination. Although gallium scanning has had a poor record in the past, recent studies suggest that improved techniques have given this method high sensitivity. We present three cases in which gallium correctly staged lymphoma that had been missed or misinterpreted by chest radiographs and abdominal CT. Gallium imaging is useful in follow-up of lymphoma patients especially when the CT scan is difficult to interpret.

  14. Detecting objects in radiographs for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Snyder, Hans

    2005-05-01

    We present a general scheme for segmenting a radiographic image into polygons that correspond to visual features. This decomposition provides a vectorized representation that is a high-level description of the image. The polygons correspond to objects or object parts present in the image. This characterization of radiographs allows the direct application of several shape recognition algorithms to identify objects. In this paper we describe the use of constrained Delaunay triangulations as a uniform foundational tool to achieve multiple visual tasks, namely image segmentation, shape decomposition, and parts-based shape matching. Shape decomposition yields parts that serve as tokens representing local shape characteristics. Parts-based shape matching enables the recognition of objects in the presence of occlusions, which commonly occur in radiographs. The polygonal representation of image features affords the efficient design and application of sophisticated geometric filtering methods to detect large-scale structural properties of objects in images. Finally, the representation of radiographs via polygons results in significant reduction of image file sizes and permits the scalable graphical representation of images, along with annotations of detected objects, in the SVG (scalable vector graphics) format that is proposed by the world wide web consortium (W3C). This is a textual representation that can be compressed and encrypted for efficient and secure transmission of information over wireless channels and on the Internet. In particular, our methods described here provide an algorithmic framework for developing image analysis tools for screening cargo at ports of entry for homeland security.

  15. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively.

  16. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  17. Radiographic applications of spatial frequency multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macovski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of spacial frequency encoding techniques which allow different regions of the X-ray spectrum to be encoded on conventional radiographs was studied. Clinical considerations were reviewed, as were experimental studies involving the encoding and decoding of X-ray images at different energies and the subsequent processing of the data to produce images of specific materials in the body.

  18. TECHNICAL TRAINING FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHERS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEARDEN, H.D.

    TO OFFSET THE PROBLEM OF A SHORTAGE OF QUALIFIED TECHNICIANS TO SERVE AS RADIOGRAPHERS IN INDUSTRY, 19 STUDENTS WERE TRAINED IN TWO CLASSES, THE FIRST CONSISTING OF 19, AND THE SECOND OF EIGHTEEN 30-HOUR WEEKS. ORGANIZED FORMAL OR LECTURE-TYPE INSTRUCTION WAS PRESENTED IN SOME SUBJECT AREAS, BUT THE MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON LABORATORY EXPERIENCES…

  19. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  20. The Design of Radiographic Enhancement Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    reco Inc., 547 St. Thomas, Longueuil , Quebec, Canada J4H 3A7 9 S. I",, . % . . ,. . - . % % .,, . -.- . . . .d- . - ,. , - - .,, - ,. - ..- , .S...34: the IED safe. Samples of original and enhanced radiographs made with the P-1700 scanner are shown in Figures 5 and 6. The improvement in image

  1. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  2. Pulp size in molars: underestimation on radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Ford, T R Pitt; Monteith, B D

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to determine whether radiographs provide a clinically useful indication of pulp size in diseased/restored human first molar teeth, and to investigate accessibility of pulp tissue for diagnostic testing using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Extracted teeth of known age were collected. Restorative materials were removed and teeth with evidence of pulp exposures excluded. Fifty-six teeth were radiographed from buccal and mesial aspects, and then their crowns were sectioned axiobuccolingually and photographed. Images were digitally scanned and measurements made of the total pulp area (above a line across the most superior part of the pulpal floor) and the pulp area in the clinical crown (superior to a line between the amelocemental junctions). The pulp width at the cervix and the highest point of the pulp were also recorded. Data were analysed using Pearson correlations. Pulp areas within the clinical crowns were significantly larger than indicated by radiographs, by 23% in the case of the clinically attainable buccal view (P < 0.05). Pulps may be more accessible to flowmeter testing than they appear. Absence of pulp tissues in the crown was recorded in equal numbers of teeth on radiographs and sections, but with agreement for only one tooth. Sixteen per cent of the teeth had no pulp area in the clinical crown when sectioned, but might still be suitable for testing using LDF.

  3. Radiographic evaluation and assessment of paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Palestro, C; Vaheesan, K

    2001-10-01

    Radiographic imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of paragangliomas. Diagnosis and treatment should be performed as a team effort, with all the involved disciplines working together to provide the best possible individualized work-up and treatment plan for the patient.

  4. Radiographic Differentiation of Advanced Fibrocystic Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Akira, Masanori

    2017-03-01

    The concept of end-stage lung disease suggests a final common pathway for most diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. In accordance with this concept, end-stage disease is characterized radiographically and pathologically by the presence of extensive honeycombing. However, sequential computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained from patients with chronic diffuse lung disease evolve over time to show various advanced lung disease patterns other than honeycombing. In addition, several radiographically distinct honeycomb patterns, including microcystic, macrocystic, mixed, and combined emphysema and honeycombing, differentiate one advanced lung disease from another. For example, usual interstitial pneumonia (IP) usually shows mixed microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing. In contrast, CT images of long-standing fibrotic nonspecific IP typically show only small, scattered foci of honeycombing; instead, most enlarged airspaces observed in the advanced stage of this disease represent dilatation of bronchioles. In desquamative IP and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, focal opacities typically evolve into emphysema-like lesions seen on CT imaging. In combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema and sarcoidosis, the cysts tend to be larger than those observed in usual IP. Sequential CT scans in other chronic, diffuse lung diseases also show various distinctive changes. This article highlights radiographic patterns of lung destruction that belie a single common pathway to end-stage lung disease. Recognition of distinct radiographic patterns of lung destruction can help differentiate diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, even in advanced stages of disease evolution.

  5. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  7. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  8. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Radiographer Certification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Pt. 34, App. A Appendix A to Part 34—Radiographer Certification I... Agreement State requirements; 2. Written in a multiple-choice format; 3. Have test items drawn from...

  10. Reliability of Panoramic Radiographs in the Localization of Mandibular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of panoramic radiographs in the localization of mandibular foramen. Materials and Methods Twenty five Indian dry human adult mandibles constituted the study material. Ten measurements were carried on each of them to evaluate the location of mandibular foramen with respect to adjacent anatomic landmarks. Panoramic radiographs were then made of the mandibles. Same distances were measured on the traced images of the radiographs. Paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of panoramic radiographs in localization of mandibular foramen. Results The mean distances measured on dry mandibles and panoramic radiographs showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was strong positive correlation between the measurements on dry mandible and panoramic radiographs. Conclusion The panoramic radiographs can serve as a guide in locating the anterosuperior point of mandibular foramen on panoramic radiographs. PMID:26155559

  11. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  2. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  3. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  5. 42 CFR 37.41 - Chest radiograph specifications-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chest radiograph specifications-film. 37.41 Section... Specifications for Performing Chest Radiographic Examinations § 37.41 Chest radiograph specifications—film. (a... posteroanterior projection at full inspiration on a film being no less than 14 by 17 inches and no greater than...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device intended to be used during...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1890 - Radiographic film illuminator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film illuminator. 892.1890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1890 Radiographic film illuminator. (a) Identification. A radiographic film illuminator is a device containing a visible light source covered with...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use during diagnostic x-ray procedures...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1900 - Automatic radiographic film processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automatic radiographic film processor. 892.1900... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1900 Automatic radiographic film processor. (a) Identification. An automatic radiographic film processor is a device intended to be used...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1640 - Radiographic film marking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film marking system. 892.1640 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1640 Radiographic film marking system. (a) Identification. A radiographic film marking system is a device intended for medical purposes...

  10. Elbow Radiographic Anatomy: Measurement Techniques and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Charles A.; Patterson, J. Megan M.; Sutter, Melanie; Krauss, Melissa; Steffen, Jennifer A.; Galatz, Leesa

    2011-01-01

    Background An increase in elbow pathology in adolescents has paralleled an increase in sports participation. Evaluation and classification of these injuries is challenging because of limited information regarding normal anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal radiographic anatomy in adolescents to establish parameters for diagnosing abnormal development. Established and new measurements were evaluated for reliability and variance based on age and sex. Methods Three orthopaedic surgeons independently and in a standardized fashion evaluated the normal anteroposterior and lateral elbow radiographs of 178 adolescent and young adult subjects. Fourteen measurements were performed including radial neck- shaft angle, articular surface angle, articular surface morphologic assessment (subjective and objective evaluation of the patterns of ridges and sulci), among others. We performed a statistical analysis by age and sex for each measure and assessed for inter and intra-observer reliability. Results The distal humerus articular surface was relatively flat in adolescence and became more contoured with age as objectively demonstrated by increasing depth of the trochlear and trochleocapitellar sulci, and decreasing trochlear notch angle. Overall measurements were similar between males and females, with an increased carrying angle in females. There were several statistically significant differences based on age and sex but these were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. Inter and intra-observer reliability were variable; some commonly utilized tools had poor reliability. Conclusions Most commonly utilized radiographic measures were consistent between sexes, across the adolescent age group, and between adolescents and young adults. Several commonly used assessment tools show poor reliability. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Anatomic Study, Imaging PMID:22329911

  11. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Traumatized Immature Permanent Necrotic Teeth after Revascularization/Revitalization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A.; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Lin, Louis M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Revascularization treatment is rapidly becoming an accepted alternative for the management of endodontic pathology in immature permanent teeth with necrotic dental pulps. However, the success and timing of clinical resolution of symptoms and of radiographic outcomes of interest, such as continued hard tissue deposition within the root, are largely unknown. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 20 teeth were treated with a standardized revascularization treatment protocol, and monitored for clinical and radiographic changes for one year. Standardized radiographs were collected at regular intervals and radiographic changes were quantified. Results All 20 treated teeth survived during the 12 month follow up period and all 20 also met the clinical criteria for success at 12 months. As a group, the treated teeth demonstrated a statistically significant increase in radiographic width and length, and a decrease in apical diameter, although the changes in many cases were quite small such that the clinical significance is unclear. The within-case percent change in apical diameter after 3 months was 16% and had increased to 79% by 12 months, with 55% (11/20) showing complete apical closure. The within-case percent change in root length averaged less than 1% at 3 months and increased to 5% at 12 months. The within-case percent change in root thickness averaged 3% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Conclusions Although clinical success was highly predictable with this procedure, clinically meaningful radiographic root thickening and lengthening is less predictable at one year of follow up. Apical closure is the most consistent radiographic finding. PMID:25443280

  12. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  13. Clinical predictors of injuries not identified by focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) examinations.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lance; Pierce, Daniel; Puumala, Susan

    2009-04-01

    This study's objective was to identify clinical characteristics of patients with a blunt traumatic injury that increased the risk of peritoneal or pericardial fluid collections and abdominal organ injuries not identified by a bedside focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) examination. This observational study used a retrospective chart review of a cohort of patients identified through a query of the University of Nebraska Medical Center's trauma registry, a tertiary referral center for portions of Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri. Adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) for an evaluation of blunt traumatic injury from September 1996 to December 2002 were eligible if their ED course included admission to the trauma service after completion of a bedside FAST examination (US) and a confirmatory study (Conf) such as an abdominopelvic computed tomography scan or exploratory laparotomy within 12 h of completion of the ED FAST examination. The medical records of those patients with a US+/Conf+ or US-/Conf+ examination were reviewed. Clinical characteristics were recorded on a standard data collection form. Statistically significant predictors of a US-/Conf+ examination were found using a stepwise logistic regression procedure. A query of the trauma registry for the study period revealed 1453 adult individuals with blunt abdominal trauma, with 458 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The clinical characteristics of the 79 US+/Conf+ examinations were compared to those of the 53 US-/Conf+ examinations. The presence of a radiographically proven pelvic fracture (odds ratio 3.459; 95% confidence interval of 1.308-9.157) and a radiographically or operatively proven renal injury (odds ratio 3.667; 95% confidence interval of 1.013-13.275) were found to be significant predictors. The presence of a pelvic fracture or renal injury in adult victims of blunt abdominal trauma increases the likelihood of a US-/Conf+ examination. Patients with a negative FAST

  14. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  15. Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R; Gregor, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Use of a coded source facilitates high-resolution neutron imaging but requires that the radiographic data be deconvolved. In this paper, we compare direct deconvolution with two different iterative algorithms, namely, one based on direct deconvolution embedded in an MLE-like framework and one based on a geometric model of the neutron beam and a least squares formulation of the inverse imaging problem.

  16. Video enhancement of dental radiographic films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dis, M.L.; Beck, F.M.; Miles, D.A. )

    1989-08-01

    A prototype video image display system, a real-time analog enhancer (RAE), was compared to conventional viewing conditions with the use of nonscreen dental films. When medium optical density films were evaluated, there was no significant difference in the number of radiographic details detected. Conventional viewing conditions allowed perception of more details when dark films were evaluated; however, the RAE unit allowed the perception of more details when light films were viewed.

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the photochromic behavior of mercury(II) bis(dithizonate) in providing a colorful demonstration of the effect that visible light can have on the conformation and bonding of molecules in solution. Provides a description of the demonstration itself, along with the preparation needed to complete it. (TW)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  14. [Radiographic and histological study of a case of apexification in a human molar].

    PubMed

    Sahli, C C

    1989-01-01

    A case of apexification in a lower right second molar is described. Radiographs demonstrate apical closure with a different morphological pattern from that of the lower left second molar. Following extraction, after 15 months, serial histologic sections show calcified tissue obturating the apical foramen, well adapted to the initial dentin and cementum walls. Inside some small areas containing connective tissue with capillaries can be observed. The histologic and radiographic observations indicate that apical closure occurs as a result of differentiation of periodontal apical cells.

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  16. Urinary interleukin-6 as a predictor of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: A 3-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yune-Jung; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Ga-Ram; Cho, Chul-Soo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the urine proteome signature of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reflects inflammation-related cellular processes. Here, we measured interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) concentrations in the urine of RA patients and prospectively investigated their role in predicting RA activity and prognosis. One hundred seventy-three RA patients and 62 non-RA controls were recruited. Urinary IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8 levels were elevated in RA patients and correlated well with disease activity. Urinary IL-6 level at presentation was an independent risk factor of radiographic progression at 1 and 3 years. High urinary IL-6 level increased the risk ratio of radiographic progression by 2.9-fold, which was comparable to high serum CRP. Moreover, combination of urinary IL-6 and serum CRP measures synergistically increased the predictability of radiographic progression. In a subgroup with normal ESR, patients with the highest tertile of urinary IL-6 were at 6.4-fold greater risk of radiographic progression. Conclusively, high urinary IL-6 level at presentation is an independent risk factor for radiographic progression of RA, reflecting disease activity. Urinary IL-6 in combination with serum CRP may be a useful parameter for estimating RA prognosis. PMID:27731382

  17. Microbiology of endotracheal aspirates in intubated pediatric intensive care unit patients: correlations with radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Golden, S E; Shehab, Z M; Bjelland, J C; Ryan, K J; Ray, C G

    1987-07-01

    We studied the utility of Gram-stained smears and semiquantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) in diagnosing pneumonia in intubated patients in a pediatric intensive care unit. The chest radiographs of 35 intubated patients were independently reviewed by a pediatric radiologist and classified into probable, possible and unlikely pneumonias. Concomitant bacteriologic and radiographic information was available in 15 episodes of probable and 13 of possible pneumonia. These findings were compared with the ETAs obtained during the study from patients with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia (N = 21). There was a good correlation between ETA findings and radiographic evidence of pneumonia when ETAs were obtained within 60 minutes of initial intubation. Only a growth of greater than or equal to 3+ of a pathogen was associated with probable pneumonia when ETAs were obtained more than 60 minutes from initial intubation. There was a poor correlation between the microbiologic findings from ETAs and the results of blood cultures and postmortem examinations. Moreover 5 of 10 pairs of ETAs obtained within 18 hours of each other demonstrated discordant results. The ETAs from patients with indwelling endotracheal tubes correlated poorly with radiographic findings and are of questionable value in diagnosing the presence of pneumonia or its etiology in this group. They must be cautiously interpreted in critically ill patients.

  18. Radiographic assessment of photodynamic therapy as an adjunctive treatment on induced periodontitis in immunosuppressed rats

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDES, Leandro Araújo; MARTINS, Thiago Marchi; de ALMEIDA, Juliano Milanezi; THEODORO, Letícia Helena; GARCIA, Valdir Gouveia

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess radiographically the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunctive treatment to scaling and root planing (SRP) on induced periodontitis in dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed rats. Material and Methods The animals were divided into 2 groups: ND group (n=60): saline treatment; D group (n=60): dexamethasone treatment. In both ND and D groups, periodontal disease was induced by the placement of a ligature in the left first mandibular molar. After 7 days, ligature was removed and all animals received SRP, being divided according to the following treatments: SRP: saline and PDT: phenothiazinium dye (TBO) plus laser irradiation. Ten animals per treatment were killed at 7, 15 and 30 days. The distance between the cementoenamel junction and the height of the alveolar bone crest in the mesial surface of the mandibular left first molars was determined in millimeters in each radiograph. The radiographic values were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at a p value <0.05. Results Intragroup radiographic assessment (ND and D groups) showed that there was statistically significant less bone loss in the animals treated with PDT in all experimental periods compared to those submitted to SRP. Intergroup radiographic analysis (ND and D groups) demonstrated that there was greater bone loss in the ND group treated with SRP compared to the D group treated with PDT at 7 and 30 days. Conclusion PDT was an effective adjunctive treatment to SRP on induced periodontitis in dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed rats. PMID:20857000

  19. Clinical and radiographic maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Nilton; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review of the literature to determine the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis emphasizing the main aspects of interest to the dentist in order to make them fit for the proper treatment of this population. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible in order to plan the treatment more suitable to provide a better life’s quality to the patients. The most frequent clinical maxillofacial features were: grooved palate, midfacial hypoplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and enamel hypoplasia. The most common radiographic maxillofacial features were: obtuse mandibular angle, frontal/parietal/occiptal bossing, open fontanels and sutures, multiple impacted teeth. The earlier diagnostic of pycnodysostosis has a fundamental role in general health of the patients. We consider that is very important that the dentist know recognize the radiographic and clinical maxillofacial features of pycnodysostosis, which allows correct treatment planning avoiding risks and ensuring better life’s quality to the patients. PMID:24753741

  20. Unsupervised segmentation of lungs from chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Payel; Antani, Sameer K.; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes our preliminary investigations for deriving and characterizing coarse-level textural regions present in the lung field on chest radiographs using unsupervised grow-cut (UGC), a cellular automaton based unsupervised segmentation technique. The segmentation has been performed on a publicly available data set of chest radiographs. The algorithm is useful for this application because it automatically converges to a natural segmentation of the image from random seed points using low-level image features such as pixel intensity values and texture features. Our goal is to develop a portable screening system for early detection of lung diseases for use in remote areas in developing countries. This involves developing automated algorithms for screening x-rays as normal/abnormal with a high degree of sensitivity, and identifying lung disease patterns on chest x-rays. Automatically deriving and quantitatively characterizing abnormal regions present in the lung field is the first step toward this goal. Therefore, region-based features such as geometrical and pixel-value measurements were derived from the segmented lung fields. In the future, feature selection and classification will be performed to identify pathological conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis on chest radiographs. Shape-based features will also be incorporated to account for occlusions of the lung field and by other anatomical structures such as the heart and diaphragm.

  1. Teeth segmentation of dental periapical radiographs based on local singularity analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, P L; Huang, P Y; Huang, P W; Hsu, H C; Chen, C C

    2014-02-01

    Teeth segmentation for periapical raidographs is one of the most critical tasks for effective periapical lesion or periodontitis detection, as both types of anomalies usually occur around tooth boundaries and dental radiographs are often subject to noise, low contrast, and uneven illumination. In this paper, we propose an effective scheme to segment each tooth in periapical radiographs. The method consists of four stages: image enhancement using adaptive power law transformation, local singularity analysis using Hölder exponent, tooth recognition using Otsu's thresholding and connected component analysis, and tooth delineation using snake boundary tracking and morphological operations. Experimental results of 28 periapical radiographs containing 106 teeth in total and 75 useful for dental examination demonstrate that 105 teeth are successfully isolated and segmented, and the overall mean segmentation accuracy of all 75 useful teeth in terms of (TP, FP) is (0.8959, 0.0093) with standard deviation (0.0737, 0.0096), respectively.

  2. Computed tomography and radiographic indirect lymphography for visualization of mammary lymphatic vessels and the sentinel lymph node in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Patsikas, Michail N; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi L; Charitanti, Afroditi; Kazakos, George M; Soultani, Christina B; Tziris, Nikolaos E; Tzegas, Sotirios I; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Savas, Ioannis; Stamoulas, Konstantinos G

    2010-01-01

    The potential of computed tomography indirect lymphography (CT-indirect lymphography) and radiographic indirect lymphography to demonstrate the draining lymphatic vessels and sentinel lymph node of normal mammary glands was tested in 31 healthy female cats. The lymphatic drainage of each mammary gland was studied initially by CT-indirect lymphography after intramammary injection of 0.5 ml of iopamidol, followed by images acquired at 1, 5, 15, and 30 min after injection. One day after CT-indirect lymphography, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland was assessed using radiographic in direct lymphography af terintramammary injection of 0.5 ml of ethiodized oil followed by radiographs made at 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after injection. The time between intramammary injection and opacification of the draining mammary lymphatic vessels and the sentinel lymph node, the duration of adequate opacification of the draining mammary lymphatic vessels and of the sentinel lymph node and also the number and course of draining mammary lymphatic vessels and location of sentinel lymph node were compared for CT-indirect lymphography vs. radiographic indirect lymphography in each examined gland. This results suggest that radiographic indirect lymphography is easy to perform and can be used for accurate demonstration of the draining lymphatic pathways of mammary glands in radiographs made at 5-30 min after injection. However, CT-indirect lymphography was able to better demonstrate small lymphatic vessels and accurately define the exact topography of the sentinel lymph node in images acquired at 1 min after injection.

  3. The forensic radiographer: a new member in the medicolegal team.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2012-03-01

    Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.

  4. Simulation of radiographic images for quality and dose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Mark P.

    A software package, Virtual Photographic Radiographic Imaging Simulator (ViPRIS), has been developed for optimizing x-ray radiographic imaging. A tomographic phantom, VIP-Man, constructed from Visible Human anatomical color images is used to simulate the scattered portion of an x-ray system and to compute organ doses using the ESGnrc Monte Carlo code. The primary portion of an x-ray image is simulated using the projection ray-tracing method through the Visible Human CT data set. To produce a realistic image, the software simulates quantum noise, blurring effects, lesions, detector absorption efficiency, and other imaging artifacts. The primary and scattered portions of an x-ray chest image are combined to form a final image for observer studies using computerized simulated observers. Absorbed doses in organs and tissues of the segmented VIP-Man phantom were also obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations to derive effective dose, which is a radiation risk indicator. Approximately 2000 simulated images and 200,000 vectorized image data files were analyzed using ROC/AUC analysis. Results demonstrated the usefulness of this approach and the software for studying x-ray image qualify and radiation dose.

  5. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  6. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  7. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  8. The influence of abdominal pigmentation on desiccation and ultraviolet resistance in two species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R; Harris, Alexandra

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea are sister species that differ in their levels of abdominal pigmentation; D. yakuba shows heavily pigmented posterior abdominal segments in both sexes, whereas D. santomea lacks dark pigment anywhere on its body. Using naturally collected lines, we demonstrate the existence of altitudinal variation in abdominal pigmentation in D. yakuba but not in D. santomea. We use the variation in pigmentation within D. yakuba and two body-color mutants in D. yakuba to elucidate selective advantage of differences in pigmentation. Our results indicate that although differences in abdominal pigmentation have no effect on desiccation resistance, lighter pigmentation confers ultraviolet radiation resistance in this pair of species.

  9. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  20. Traumatic pericarditis in cattle: clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2009-11-01

    Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium with accumulation of serous or fibrinous inflammatory products. In cattle, it is almost always attributable to a reticular foreign body that has penetrated the reticular wall, diaphragm and pericardial sac. The lead signs of pericarditis are tachycardia, muffled heart sounds, asynchronous abnormal heart sounds, distension of the jugular veins and submandibular, brisket and ventral abdominal oedema. The glutaraldehyde test is an important diagnostic tool because it is positive in >90% of affected cattle. Other common laboratory findings are leukocytosis and hyperfibrinogenaemia (indicating inflammation), and elevation of liver enzyme activity (reflecting hepatic congestion). Radiographs of the thorax and reticulum often show a foreign body cranial to the reticulum. In the majority of cases, massive fibrinopurulent adhesions obscure the cardiophrenic angle, cardiac silhouette and ventral diaphragm. Ultrasonography is the method of choice for diagnosis and characterisation of pericardial effusion. Echogenic deposits and strands of fibrin are seen on the epicardium, and the ventricles are compressed by the effusion. Severe pleural effusion is usually evident. In cattle with distension of the jugular veins and tachycardia, the differential diagnosis includes right-sided cardiac insufficiency attributable to other causes. Distension of the jugular veins without signs of right-sided cardiac insufficiency may occur with obstruction or compression of the cranial vena cava. The prognosis is poor, and pericardiocentesis or pericardiotomy are inadequate methods of treatment. Thus, prompt and humane euthanasia is indicated for cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Because a definitive diagnosis of traumatic reticuloperitonitis is not always possible based on clinical signs alone, radiography and ultrasonography of the thorax and reticulum are indicated in doubtful cases.

  1. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  2. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  3. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  4. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  5. Description of the type of chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform hip dysplasia screening radiographs. A retrospective study based on 3302 radiographs.

    PubMed

    Maitre, P; Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Carozzo, C; Arnault, F; Buttin, P; Viguier, E; Fau, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the type of chemical restraint used by French practitioners to perform official hip screening radiographs, to determine the proportion of dogs under general anesthesia versus dogs under sedation, and to search for a difference in hip dysplasia (HD) prevalence between the two groups. From September 2005 to August 2008, 3302 conventional ventrodorsal hip extended radiographs sent for official scoring to the same panellist were selected because information related to the type of chemical restraint had been provided. There were 2825 dogs under general anesthesia and 477 were sedated. Chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform HD screening radiographs is mainly based on general intra-venous anesthesia with an alpha2 agonist associated with ketamine. A single injection of alpha2 agonist is also mostly used for dogs which are radiographed while under sedation. A very low (1.7%) difference in HD prevalence was noted between the anesthetized and the sedated group. Except for acepromazine, which has been demonstrated to provide insufficient muscle relaxation to show evidence of hip laxity, the protocols seem acceptable as regards the Federation Cynologique Internationale requirements for HD screening.

  6. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  7. Anatomic considerations for abdominally placed permanent left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Parnis, S M; McGee, M G; Igo, S R; Dasse, K; Frazier, O H

    1989-01-01

    To determine anatomic parameters for a permanent, electrically actuated left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the effects of abdominal placement of pneumatic LVADs used as temporary support for patients awaiting heart transplantation was studied. Understanding the anatomic constraints imposed by the abdominal viscera in LVAD placement is crucial, because improper placement can result in compression or obstruction of adjacent structures. Anatomic compatibility was assessed in four men (age 22-48 years) who were supported by the LVAD for over 1 month (range 35-132 days). The pump was intraperitoneally placed in the left upper quadrant. Radiographic techniques were employed, including CT scanning (with patients supine) and contrast imaging (patients in anatomical position), and the pump and conduits appeared to be properly positioned, with minimal compression of the body of the stomach, and no obstruction of adjacent organs. Three patients returned to a solid food diet and exercised daily by stationary cycling and walking. No signs of migration or erosion of the pump were present at the time of LVAD removal and cardiac transplantation. Successful clinical experience with short-term use of the LVAD suggests that the electrically actuated device can be well tolerated in patients requiring permanent left ventricular assistance.

  8. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child’s mood and emotions, and in turn cause depression and anxiety. Screening/Diagnosis Detailed information regarding the location of abdominal pain, the frequency (number of times per week) and ... about the cause, and will guide further testing. Other important pieces ...

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  11. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three broad classes of magnetic behavior: diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic. Presents a simple lecture demonstration using an overhead projector to synthesize triiron tetraoxide and to show its interaction with a magnetic field and comparing it to a paramagnetic material. (MVL)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  18. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  19. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  20. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  1. Bone suppression technique for chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Xu, Fan; Zhang, Jane; Zhao, Hui; Hobbs, Susan K.; Wandtke, John C.; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Paul, Narinder; Foos, David

    2014-03-01

    High-contrast bone structures are a major noise contributor in chest radiographic images. A signal of interest in a chest radiograph could be either partially or completely obscured or "overshadowed" by the highly contrasted bone structures in its surrounding. Thus, removing the bone structures, especially the posterior rib and clavicle structures, is highly desirable to increase the visibility of soft tissue density. We developed an innovative technology that offers a solution to suppress bone structures, including posterior ribs and clavicles, on conventional and portable chest X-ray images. The bone-suppression image processing technology includes five major steps: 1) lung segmentation, 2) rib and clavicle structure detection, 3) rib and clavicle edge detection, 4) rib and clavicle profile estimation, and 5) suppression based on the estimated profiles. The bone-suppression software outputs an image with both the rib and clavicle structures suppressed. The rib suppression performance was evaluated on 491 images. On average, 83.06% (±6.59%) of the rib structures on a standard chest image were suppressed based on the comparison of computer-identified rib areas against hand-drawn rib areas, which is equivalent to about an average of one rib that is still visible on a rib-suppressed image based on a visual assessment. Reader studies were performed to evaluate reader performance in detecting lung nodules and pneumothoraces with and without a bone-suppression companion view. Results from reader studies indicated that the bone-suppression technology significantly improved radiologists' performance in the detection of CT-confirmed possible nodules and pneumothoraces on chest radiographs. The results also showed that radiologists were more confident in making diagnoses regarding the presence or absence of an abnormality after rib-suppressed companion views were presented

  2. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  3. [Detection method for blurred regions in radiographs].

    PubMed

    Muroi, Tomoya; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Tsurumaki, Masaki

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a detection method for blurred regions in radiographs. The method involves edge detection using a Sobel filter, manually determining the region of interest (ROI), feature calculation, and classification using a support vector machine. We applied our method to 14 phantom images (7 normal images, 7 blurred images) and 14 clinical images (12 normal images, 2 blurred images). As a result, the average classification accuracies of ROIs with blurring and ROIs without blurring were 98% and 90% for phantom images and clinical images, respectively.

  4. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, KPP; Mannam, PR; Rajendran, K; John, RA; Ramasami, P

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of <20,000 cells/cumm, and total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P < 0.001), and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85). Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe

  5. Radiographic Evaluation of Common Pediatric Elbow Injuries

    PubMed Central

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Hansen, Heather; Gil, Joseph A.; Hawari, Ashraf H.; Cruz, Aristides I.

    2017-01-01

    Normal variations in anatomy in the skeletally immature patient may be mistaken for fracture or injury due to the presence of secondary centers of ossification. Variations in imaging exist from patient to patient based on sex, age, and may even vary from one extremity to the other on the same patient. Despite differences in the appearance of the bony anatomy of the elbow there are certain landmarks and relationships, which can help, distinguish normal from abnormal. We review common radiographic parameters and pitfalls associated in the evaluation of pediatric elbow imaging. We also review common clinical diagnoses in this population. PMID:28286625

  6. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  7. Accuracy and Consistency of Respiratory Gating in Abdominal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Yang, Deshan; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate respiratory gating accuracy and intrafractional consistency for abdominal cancer patients treated with respiratory gated treatment on a regular linear accelerator system. Methods and Materials: Twelve abdominal patients implanted with fiducials were treated with amplitude-based respiratory-gated radiation therapy. On the basis of daily orthogonal fluoroscopy, the operator readjusted the couch position and gating window such that the fiducial was within a setup margin (fiducial-planning target volume [f-PTV]) when RPM indicated “beam-ON.” Fifty-five pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic movie pairs with synchronized respiratory gating signal were recorded. Fiducial motion traces were extracted from the fluoroscopic movies using a template matching algorithm and correlated with f-PTV by registering the digitally reconstructed radiographs with the fluoroscopic movies. Treatment was determined to be “accurate” if 50% of the fiducial area stayed within f-PTV while beam-ON. For movie pairs that lost gating accuracy, a MATLAB program was used to assess whether the gating window was optimized, the external-internal correlation (EIC) changed, or the patient moved between movies. A series of safety margins from 0.5 mm to 3 mm was added to f-PTV for reassessing gating accuracy. Results: A decrease in gating accuracy was observed in 44% of movie pairs from daily fluoroscopic movies of 12 abdominal patients. Three main causes for inaccurate gating were identified as change of global EIC over time (∼43%), suboptimal gating setup (∼37%), and imperfect EIC within movie (∼13%). Conclusions: Inconsistent respiratory gating accuracy may occur within 1 treatment session even with a daily adjusted gating window. To improve or maintain gating accuracy during treatment, we suggest using at least a 2.5-mm safety margin to account for gating and setup uncertainties.

  8. Porous ceramics as bone graft substitutes in long bone defects: a biomechanical, histological, and radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K D; Frierson, K E; Keller, T S; Cook, C; Scheinberg, R; Zerwekh, J; Meyers, L; Sciadini, M F

    1996-05-01

    Three porous ceramic bone graft materials were compared with regard to their ability to heal a 2.5 cm defect created surgically in a bilateral canine radius model. The ceramic materials were analyzed at 12 and 24 weeks after surgery and included tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and collagen hydroxyapatite, which contained a mixture of 35% tricalcium phosphate and 65% hydroxyapatite with added collagen. Each material was evaluated alone and with added bone marrow aspirate. All the implants were compared with a graft of autogenous cancellous bone in the contralateral radius. Biomechanical testing and radiographic evaluation revealed that the addition of bone marrow aspirate was essential for tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite to achieve results comparable with those of cancellous bone. Collagen hydroxyapatite performed well without the addition of bone marrow, although the addition of marrow did have a positive effect. Further qualitative radiographic and histological analysis demonstrated that tricalcium phosphate was the only ceramic that showed any sign of degradation at 24 weeks. This observed degradation proved to be an important factor in evaluating radiographs because the radiodensity of collagen hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite interfered with the determination of radiographic union. At 24 weeks, tricalcium phosphate with bone marrow was the material that performed most like cancellous bone. In this study, the biomechanical and radiographic parameters of tricalcium phosphate with bone marrow were roughly comparable with those of cancellous bone at 12 and 24 weeks. Tricalcium phosphate was the only implant that showed significant evidence of degradation at 24 weeks by both histological and radiographic evaluations, and this degradation took place only after a degree of mechanical competence necessary for weight-bearing was achieved.

  9. Ultrasound and differential diagnosis of fetal abdominal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the use of ultrasound and differential diagnosis to diagnose a fetal abdominal cyst. A retrospective analysis of 41 cases of fetal abdominal cyst, which included ovarian cysts, choledochal cysts, intestinal duplication and mesenteric cysts, was performed. Imaging characteristics of various types of cysts were summarized, compared and discussed. Among 41 fetal abdominal cyst cases, there were 21 cases of ovarian cysts, 11 cases of bile duct cyst, six cases of intestinal duplication and three cases of mesenteric cyst. Each type of fetal cyst had its own distinctive characteristics on abdominal ultrasound examination. Ovarian cysts were located at one side of the bladder, round-shaped and observed in female fetuses; choledochal cysts were located in the hilar, were oblong- or oval-shaped and connected to the bile duct; intestinal duplication was located in the middle of abdomen, close to the intestine, and presented as an intestinal wall-like structure; mesenteric cysts were round-shaped with thin tensionless wall, presented with multiple chambers, and were easily deformable on compression. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a comprehensive analysis of the association between the cyst and its adjacent location, shape, wall thickness, motility and other aspects of dynamic changes via ultrasonography may provide a differential diagnosis of different types of fetal abdominal cysts. PMID:28123506

  10. Ultrasound and differential diagnosis of fetal abdominal cysts.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the use of ultrasound and differential diagnosis to diagnose a fetal abdominal cyst. A retrospective analysis of 41 cases of fetal abdominal cyst, which included ovarian cysts, choledochal cysts, intestinal duplication and mesenteric cysts, was performed. Imaging characteristics of various types of cysts were summarized, compared and discussed. Among 41 fetal abdominal cyst cases, there were 21 cases of ovarian cysts, 11 cases of bile duct cyst, six cases of intestinal duplication and three cases of mesenteric cyst. Each type of fetal cyst had its own distinctive characteristics on abdominal ultrasound examination. Ovarian cysts were located at one side of the bladder, round-shaped and observed in female fetuses; choledochal cysts were located in the hilar, were oblong- or oval-shaped and connected to the bile duct; intestinal duplication was located in the middle of abdomen, close to the intestine, and presented as an intestinal wall-like structure; mesenteric cysts were round-shaped with thin tensionless wall, presented with multiple chambers, and were easily deformable on compression. The findings of the present study demonstrated that a comprehensive analysis of the association between the cyst and its adjacent location, shape, wall thickness, motility and other aspects of dynamic changes via ultrasonography may provide a differential diagnosis of different types of fetal abdominal cysts.

  11. Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma with metastatic encasement of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael R; Gibson, Donald P; Bloom, David A

    2011-08-01

    Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy in children and adolescents. Prognosis is related to initial tumor resectability as well as staging of the disease based on tumor invasiveness, tumor bulk, nodal disease and metastases. We report the unusual presentation of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma with metastatic extension through the inguinal canal and encasement of the abdominal aorta. These features portend a poor prognosis given their association with a greater stage of disease and unresectable nature at presentation. Delayed surgical resection follows a regimen of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in such cases of extensive disease. Encasement of the abdominal aorta has been shown to increase presurgical risk for intraoperative vascular injury when related to other malignancies, but its role in relation to metastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma has not been investigated. Also, rhabdomyosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of tumors that demonstrate encasement of the abdominal aorta.

  12. Structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis as visualized through radiographs

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Several agents show an effect on reducing radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis. It is tempting to retrospectively compare the effects of these agents on radiographic progression across clinical trials. However, there are several limitations in interpreting and comparing radiographic results across clinical trials. These limitations, including study designs, patient characteristics, durations of follow-up, scoring methodologies, reader reliability, radiograph sequence, handling of missing data, and data presentation, will be discussed. The consequences are illustrated with several examples of recent clinical trials that show an effect on radiographic progression. A guide in the interpretation and clinical relevance of radiographic results is presented, with the Anti-TNF Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy used as an example. PMID:12110155

  13. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  14. MRI visualisation by digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrurier, Antoine; Bönsch, Andrea; Lau, Robert; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Visualising volumetric medical images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) clients is often achieved by image browsing in sagittal, coronal or axial views or three-dimensional (3D) rendering. This latter technique requires fine thresholding for MRI. On the other hand, computing virtual radiograph images, also referred to as digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR), provides in a single two-dimensional (2D) image a complete overview of the 3D data. It appears therefore as a powerful alternative for MRI visualisation and preview in PACS. This study describes a method to compute DRR from T1-weighted MRI. After segmentation of the background, a histogram distribution analysis is performed and each foreground MRI voxel is labeled as one of three tissues: cortical bone, also known as principal absorber of the X-rays, muscle and fat. An intensity level is attributed to each voxel according to the Hounsfield scale, linearly related to the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Each DRR pixel is computed as the accumulation of the new intensities of the MRI dataset along the corresponding X-ray. The method has been tested on 16 T1-weighted MRI sets. Anterior-posterior and lateral DRR have been computed with reasonable qualities and avoiding any manual tissue segmentations. This proof-of-concept holds for research application for use in clinical PACS.

  15. Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

    2011-01-15

    The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

  16. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  17. Modified axillary radiograph of the shoulder: a new position.

    PubMed

    Senna, Luís Filipe; Pires E Albuquerque, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining axillary radiographs of the shoulder in acute trauma is not always feasible. The authors present a new modification of this radiographic view, in order to assess the anatomic relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity. The incidence is performed with the patient sitting on X-ray table, with the affected limb supported thereon. The authors describe the case of a 28-year-old male who suffered an anterior glenohumeral dislocation that was clearly evidenced by this modified radiograph. The concentric relationship between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity was also easily confirmed by obtaining such radiograph after the reduction maneuver.

  18. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of occlusal caries: effect of training and experience.

    PubMed

    Lazarchik, D A; Firestone, A R; Heaven, T J; Filler, S J; Lussi, A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect differing levels of didactic education and clinical experience have on the ability to diagnose occlusal caries from radiographs. Freshman and senior dental students and dental school faculty were asked to evaluate bitewing radiographs for the presence of occlusal caries and for a recommendation for restorative treatment. The agreement between histologic and radiographic diagnosis was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interexaminer agreement. It was concluded that dental students and faculty did differ in their abilities to evaluate radiographs for occlusal caries, and that education and clinical experience especially affected interexaminer agreement.

  20. Intrarenal artery pseudoaneurysm after blunt abdominal trauma: a case report of successful superselective angioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Lopes, T; Pinto, R; Morgado, P; Madaleno, P; Silva, J; Silva, C; Cruz, F

    2014-01-01

    Renal artery pseudoaneurysm is a very rare complication after blunt trauma injury. We report on a case of a 54-year-old man admitted to our hospital for right flank pain and gross hematuria, 5 days after blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnosis of interlobar renal pseudoaneurysm was established by a computed tomography scan and confirmed by angiography. Successful superselective angioembolization was performed. This radiographic intervention is an effective and minimally invasive technique to stop active bleeding from renal artery pseudoaneurysms, when patients are hemodynamically stable and where technically feasible. A review of the literature was carried out. PMID:24809039

  1. COMPARISON OF THE RADIOGRAPHIC AND TRACHEOSCOPIC APPEARANCE OF THE DORSAL TRACHEAL MEMBRANE IN LARGE AND SMALL BREED DOGS.

    PubMed

    Lindl Bylicki, Britany J; Johnson, Lynelle R; Pollard, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and clinical significance of increased radiographic opacity along the dorsal margin of the tracheal lumen has long been debated. Most often, this opacity is attributed to redundancy of the dorsal tracheal membrane (DTM), a condition that occurs with tracheal collapse. We hypothesized that the underlying etiology of this radiographic opacity differs between small breed dogs with tracheal collapse and small or large breed dogs without tracheal collapse. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to compare the radiographic appearance of an increased opacity within the trachea to tracheoscopy findings in a group of small and large breed dogs. A total of 17 small breed dogs and 16 large breed dogs were included. Of these, only one did not have a radiographically visible DTM. Small breed dogs were divided into groups with tracheal collapse (n = 8) and those without (n = 9) based on tracheoscopy. Tracheal collapse was absent in larger breed dogs, however both large and small breed dogs demonstrated inward invagination of the DTM. In dogs with tracheal collapse, the DTM occupied a larger percentage of the tracheal luminal height on radiographs and a larger percentage of tracheal circumference on tracheoscopy vs. dogs with an invaginated DTM on tracheoscopy and dogs with no collapse and no invagination of the DTM. Findings supported the hypothesis that increased radiographic opacity along the dorsal margin of the trachea arises from different etiologies in dogs with and without tracheal collapse.

  2. A Case of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis with Involvement of the Abdominal Muscle in a 9-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ah-Rum; Lee, Hae-Ran; Lee, Kwan-Sub; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, many people enjoy eating raw or underkooked freshwater crayfish and crabs which unfortunately may cause paragonimiasis. Here, we describe a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a 9-year-old girl, who presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, especially in the right flank and the right inguinal area, with anorexia. A chest radiograph revealed pleural effusion in both lungs, and her abdominal sonography indicated an inflammatory lesion in the right psoas muscle. Peripheral blood analysis of the patient showed hypereosinophilia (66.0%) and an elevated total serum IgE level (>2,500 IU/ml). The pleural effusion tested by ELISA were also positive for antibodies against paragonimiasis. Her dietary history stated that she had ingested raw freshwater crab, 4 months previously. The diagnosis was pulmonary paragonimiasis accompanied by abdominal muscle involvement. She was improved after 5 cycles of praziquantel treatment and 2 times of pleural effusion drainage. In conclusion, herein, we report a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a girl who presented with abdominal pain and tenderness in the inguinal area. PMID:22355209

  3. Unexplained lower abdominal pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man presented with chronic lower back pain and unexplained lower abdominal pain. Both patients had groin tenderness at the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine. The results of radiographical and physical examinations suggested sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint injection relieved their symptoms, including groin tenderness. In our experience, groin tenderness is highly specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We speculate that spasm of the iliac muscle can cause groin pain and tenderness. Groin pain and a history of unexplained abdominal pain, with lower back pain, are symptoms that suggest sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Additionally, compression of the iliac muscle is a simple and useful maneuver; therefore, it can be used as a screening test for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, alongside other provocation tests.

  4. Incentive spirometry versus routine chest physiotherapy for prevention of pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hall, J C; Tarala, R; Harris, J; Tapper, J; Christiansen, K

    1991-04-20

    We entered 876 patients into a clinical trial aimed at preventing pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery. Patients either received conventional chest physiotherapy or were encouraged to perform maximal inspiratory manoeuvres for 5 min during each hour while awake, using an incentive spirometer. The incidence of pulmonary complications did not differ significantly between the groups: incentive spirometry 68 of 431 (15.8%, 95% CI 14.0-17.6%), and chest physiotherapy 68 of 445 (15.3%, CI 13.6-17.0%). Nor was there a difference between the groups in the incidence of positive clinical signs, pyrexia, abnormal chest radiographs, pathogens in sputum, respiratory failure (PO2 less than 60 mm Hg), or length of stay in hospital. We conclude that prophylactic incentive spirometry and chest physiotherapy are of equivalent clinical efficacy in the general management of patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  5. Morphometric Comparison of Clavicle Outlines from 3D Bone Scans and 2D Chest Radiographs: A Short-listing Tool to Assist Radiographic Identification of Human Skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Carl N.; Amidan, Brett G.; Trease, Harold E.; Guyomarch, Pierre; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Byrd, John E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a computerized clavicle identification system, primarily designed to resolve the identities of unaccounted for US soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Elliptical Fourier analysis is used to quantify the clavicle outline shape from skeletons and postero-anterior antemortem chest radiographs to rank individuals in terms of metric distance. Similar to leading fingerprint identification systems, shortlists of the top matching candidates are extracted for subsequent human visual assessment. Two independent tests of the computerized system using 17 field-recovered skeletons and 409 chest radiographs demonstrate that true positive matches are captured within the top 5% of the sample 75% of the time. These results are outstanding given the eroded state of some field-recovered skeletons and the faintness of the 1950’s photoflurographs. These methods enhance the capability to resolve several hundred cold cases for which little circumstantial information exists and current DNA and dental record technologies cannot be applied.

  6. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  7. A digitally reconstructed radiograph algorithm calculated from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, David; Murphy, Martin J.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm for computing realistic digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) that match real cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections with no artificial adjustments. Methods: The authors used measured attenuation data from cone-beam CT projection radiographs of different materials to obtain a function to convert CT number to linear attenuation coefficient (LAC). The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were first removed from the attenuation data. Using this conversion function the authors calculated the line integral of LAC through a CT along rays connecting the radiation source and detector pixels with a ray-tracing algorithm, producing raw DRRs. The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were then included in the DRRs through postprocessing. Results: The authors compared actual CBCT projections to DRRs produced with all corrections (scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare) and to uncorrected DRRs. Algorithm accuracy was assessed through visual comparison of projections and DRRs, pixel intensity comparisons, intensity histogram comparisons, and correlation plots of DRR-to-projection pixel intensities. In general, the fully corrected algorithm provided a small but nontrivial improvement in accuracy over the uncorrected algorithm. The authors also investigated both measurement- and computation-based methods for determining the beam hardening correction, and found the computation-based method to be superior, as it accounted for nonuniform bowtie filter thickness. The authors benchmarked the algorithm for speed and found that it produced DRRs in about 0.35 s for full detector and CT resolution at a ray step-size of 0.5 mm. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated a DRR algorithm calculated from first principles that accounts for scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare in order to produce accurate DRRs. The algorithm is computationally efficient, making it a good candidate for iterative CT reconstruction techniques

  8. A digitally reconstructed radiograph algorithm calculated from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Staub, David; Murphy, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm for computing realistic digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) that match real cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections with no artificial adjustments. Methods: The authors used measured attenuation data from cone-beam CT projection radiographs of different materials to obtain a function to convert CT number to linear attenuation coefficient (LAC). The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were first removed from the attenuation data. Using this conversion function the authors calculated the line integral of LAC through a CT along rays connecting the radiation source and detector pixels with a ray-tracing algorithm, producing raw DRRs. The effects of scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare were then included in the DRRs through postprocessing. Results: The authors compared actual CBCT projections to DRRs produced with all corrections (scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare) and to uncorrected DRRs. Algorithm accuracy was assessed through visual comparison of projections and DRRs, pixel intensity comparisons, intensity histogram comparisons, and correlation plots of DRR-to-projection pixel intensities. In general, the fully corrected algorithm provided a small but nontrivial improvement in accuracy over the uncorrected algorithm. The authors also investigated both measurement- and computation-based methods for determining the beam hardening correction, and found the computation-based method to be superior, as it accounted for nonuniform bowtie filter thickness. The authors benchmarked the algorithm for speed and found that it produced DRRs in about 0.35 s for full detector and CT resolution at a ray step-size of 0.5 mm. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated a DRR algorithm calculated from first principles that accounts for scatter, beam hardening, and veiling glare in order to produce accurate DRRs. The algorithm is computationally efficient, making it a good candidate for iterative CT reconstruction techniques

  9. Temporal radiographic texture analysis in the detection of periprosthetic osteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, Joel R.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Chinander, Michael R.; Engh, Charles A. Sr.; Hopper, Robert H. Jr.; Martell, John M.

    2008-01-15

    Periprosthetic osteolysis is one of the most serious long-term problems in total hip arthroplasty. It has been primarily attributed to the body's inflammatory response to submicron polyethylene particles worn from the hip implant, and it leads to bone loss and structural deterioration in the surrounding bone. It was previously demonstrated that radiographic texture analysis (RTA) has the ability to distinguish between osteolysis and normal cases at the time of clinical detection of the disease; however, that analysis did not take into account the changes in texture over time. The goal of this preliminary analysis, however, is to assess the ability of temporal radiographic texture analysis (tRTA) to distinguish between patients who develop osteolysis and normal cases. Two tRTA methods were used in the study: the RTA feature change from baseline at various follow-up intervals and the slope of the best-fit line to the RTA data series. These tRTA methods included Fourier-based and fractal-based features calculated from digitized images of 202 total hip replacement cases, including 70 that developed osteolysis. Results show that separation between the osteolysis and normal groups increased over time for the feature difference method, as the disease progressed, with area under the curve (AUC) values from receiver operating characteristic analysis of 0.65 to 0.72 at 15 years postsurgery. Separation for the slope method was also evident, with AUC values ranging from 0.65 to 0.76 for the task of distinguishing between osteolysis and normal cases. The results suggest that tRTA methods have the ability to measure changes in trabecular structure, and may be useful in the early detection of periprosthetic osteolysis.

  10. Accuracy of the new radiographic sign of fecal loading in the cecum for differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in comparison with other inflammatory diseases of right abdomen: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Petroianu, A; Alberti, LR

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: To assess the importance of the new radiographic sign of faecal loading in the cecum for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in comparison with other inflammatory diseases, and to verify the maintenance of this radiographic sign after surgical treatment of appendicitis. Methods: 470 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital due to acute abdomen were prospectively studied: Group 1 [n=170] – diagnosed with acute appendicitis, subdivided into: Subgroup 1A – [n=100] – submitted to an abdominal radiographic study before surgical treatment, Subgroup 1B – [n=70] – patients who had plain abdominal X-rays done before the surgical procedure and also the following day; Group 2 [n=100] – right nephrolithiasis; Group 3 [n=100] – right acute inflammatory pelvic disease; Group 4 [n=100] – acute cholecystitis. The patients of Groups 2,3 and 4 were submitted to abdominal radiography during the pain episode. Results: The sign of faecal loading in the cecum, characterized by hypo transparency interspersed with multiple small foci of hyper transparent images, was present in 97 patients of Subgroup 1A, in 68 patients of Subgroup 1B, in 19 patients of Group 2, in 12 patients of Group 3 and in 13 patients of Group 4. During the postoperative period the radiographic sign disappeared in 66 of the 68 cases that had presented with the sign. The sensitivity of the radiographic sign for acute appendicitis was 97.05% and its specificity was 85.33%. The positive predictive value for acute appendicitis was 78.94% and its negative predictive value was 98. 08%. Discussion: The radiographic image of faecal loading in the cecum is associated with acute appendicitis and disappears after appendectomy. This sign is uncommon in other acute inflammatory diseases of the right side of the abdomen. PMID:22574093

  11. A Simple Radiographic Sign of Vertical Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tunnel Placement.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Lutul Dashaun; Morris, Parisa M; Huston, Kellen L; Hall, Evan Tyler; Kaar, Scott

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a novel radiographic sign indicative of vertical tunnel placement following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We reviewed 190 consecutive ACL reconstructions. Operative records, patient charts, arthroscopic images, and preoperative and postoperative orthogonal plain radiographic images were reviewed. We made special note of the operative technique. Note was made of tunnel position and whether the posterior (proximal) aspect of Blumensaat line was violated on standard lateral knee radiographic images. Of 190 patients, 17 patients did not have postoperative imaging and were excluded. Of the 173 remaining knees, 163 were primary ACL reconstructions and 10 were revision ACL reconstructions. We found that no anatomically placed ACL femoral tunnel violated Blumensaat line. In all revision cases exhibiting violation of Blumensaat line, a new femoral tunnel was able to be drilled while completely avoiding the previously placed, nonanatomic ACL femoral tunnel. The principal findings of our study demonstrate that violation of Blumensaat line following ACL reconstruction is an indicator of vertical, nonanatomic femoral tunnel placement. Furthermore, presence of this radiographic sign indicates that an anatomically placed femoral tunnel may be drilled while completely avoiding the existing femoral tunnel during cases of revision ACL reconstruction.

  12. Radiographic Findings in Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Carolina Arrabal; Curra, Cláudia; Fernandes, Luciana Maria Paes da Silva Ramos; Franzolin, Solange de Oliveira Braga; Júnior, Joel Santiago Ferreira; De Antoni, Carlos César; Curi, Marcos Martins

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the records and panoramic radiographs of 35 patients treated with bisphosphonates (BP) and diagnosed with MRONJ. Panoramic radiography was used for evaluation, by two examiners, the following findings were subject of search: osteolysis (OT), cortical bone erosion (EC), bone sclerosis focal (FS) and diffuse (DS), bone sequestration (BS), thickening of lamina dura (TD), prominence of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN), persisting alveolar sockets (SK), and the presence of a pathological fracture (PF). Medical information and staging were also recorded in order to correlate with radiographic findings. Bone sclerosis was the most frequent alteration, followed by OT and TD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. There was no significant difference between genders or significant correlation between the number of injuries with age and duration of BP usage. Considering the association between the radiographic findings and MRONJ staging, EC was predominant in stage 3 and DS in stage 2. IAN and PF demonstrated greater association with stage 3. In conclusion, the higher the clinical staging, the greater the severity of the bone alteration. Panoramic radiographic examination is a useful screening tool in patients submitted to antiresorptive therapy. PMID:28352284

  13. Radiographer perceptions of managerial transformational leadership levels.

    PubMed

    Legg, Jeffrey S; Akroyd, Duane; Jackowski, Melissa B

    2010-01-01

    Transformational leadership focuses on the ability of a leader to impact employees by inspiring employees to broaden interests in work as well as to be innovative and creative. It is positively associated with employee satisfaction and commitment to the organization. Characteristics of transformational leaders include confidence, ability to mange and deal with complexity, and belief in their employees and organizations. Considering the importance of leadership skills in radiology departments, this paper addresses directly the empirical evidence concerning radiographer's perception of their radiology managers and supervisors transformational leadership levels in the United States. Leadership can be taught, and we as a profession must begin to implement leadership training programs for our current and future leaders.

  14. Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R; Gregor, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Use of a coded source facilitates high-resolution neutron imaging through magnifications but requires that the radiographic data be deconvolved. A comparison of direct deconvolution with two different iterative algorithms has been performed. One iterative algorithm is based on a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-like framework and the second is based on a geometric model of the neutron beam within a least squares formulation of the inverse imaging problem. Simulated data for both uniform and Gaussian shaped source distributions was used for testing to understand the impact of non-uniformities present in neutron beam distributions on the reconstructed images. Results indicate that the model based reconstruction method will match resolution and improve on contrast over convolution methods in the presence of non-uniform sources. Additionally, the model based iterative algorithm provides direct calculation of quantitative transmission values while the convolution based methods must be normalized base on known values.

  15. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  16. Model-based segmentation of hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Frank; Vogelsang, Frank

    1998-06-01

    An important procedure in pediatrics is to determine the skeletal maturity of a patient from radiographs of the hand. There is great interest in the automation of this tedious and time-consuming task. We present a new method for the segmentation of the bones of the hand, which allows the assessment of the skeletal maturity with an appropriate database of reference bones, similar to the atlas based methods. The proposed algorithm uses an extended active contour model for the segmentation of the hand bones, which incorporates a-priori knowledge of shape and topology of the bones in an additional energy term. This `scene knowledge' is integrated in a complex hierarchical image model, that is used for the image analysis task.

  17. Radiographic apparatus for photographing entire jaws

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, K.

    1985-01-22

    This disclosure relates to a dental radiographic apparatus for photographing the entire jaw designed to control the rotation of a rotary arm such that the film surface of a film holder mounted at one end of the rotary arm may rotate and move substantially at equal speed substantially equidistantly along the dental arch and that the X-ray beams irradiated upon the film surface from an X-ray generator mounted at the other end of the arm may fall on the dental arch at any point thereof at right angles with the arch. The apparatus makes it possible to obtain a very clear tomographic picture of a curved plane of the entire jaws, the picture being free of a double image of the teeth, partial change in enlargement ratio of the image obtained, and partial difference in the shade of the image obtained.

  18. Flexible tubular replicas of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Berry, E; Marsden, A; Dalgarno, K W; Kessel, D; Scott, D J A

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture life-size, flexible, tubular replicas of human abdominal aortic aneurysms and the associated vasculature, suitable for use in a training simulator for endovascular procedures. Selective laser sintering was used to create a geometrically correct master model for each of ten anatomical variations. The masters were used to generate flexible latex replicas. The use of the replicas in the training simulator was demonstrated. In total ten silicone rubber models were produced. When connected into the training simulator and perfused at arterial pressure it was possible to deploy an endovascular stent under fluoroscopic control and to perform angiography. The study has shown that conventional rapid prototyping technology can be used to manufacture flexible, radiolucent replicas which provide a realistic training environment for endovascular procedures.

  19. Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, David J. Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  20. Online kidney position verification using non-contrast radiographs on a linear accelerator with on board KV X-Ray imaging capability.

    PubMed

    Willis, David J; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional "snapshots," but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  1. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  2. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  3. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  4. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  5. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  6. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  7. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  8. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  9. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.41... qualified radiographer or an individual who has at a minimum met the requirements of § 34.43(c). The... the requirements for having two qualified individuals present at locations other than a...

  10. 10 CFR 34.46 - Supervision of radiographers' assistants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of radiographers' assistants. 34.46 Section 34.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.46 Supervision...

  11. Reperfusion edema after thromboendarterectomy: radiographic patterns of disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, W T; Osiason, A W; Langlotz, C P; Palevsky, H I

    1998-07-01

    In patients with chronic pulmonary embolism, pulmonary thromboendarterectomy may result in a unique form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema termed reperfusion edema. This report reviews the authors' experience after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy with particular emphasis on the radiographic manifestations of reperfusion edema. The clinical and radiographic record of 25 patients who underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy at the University of Pennsylvania from 1985 through 1995 were reviewed. The zonal distribution of radiographic opacity, time to maximal opacity, and the time to clearance of reperfusion edema were determined. The relationship of these radiographic manifestations to clinical severity of disease and clinical outcome was examined. Reperfusion edema, characterized by patchy bilateral perihilar alveolar opacities, occurred in all but one patient. There is a lower lung zone predominance of opacities, but in individual cases, striking unilateral or haphazard arrangements of opacities may be seen. In this small sample of patients, no association between preoperative pulmonary arterial pressures and radiographic appearance or clinical outcome was found. However, severity of radiographic opacities, as measured by the extent of involved lung, correlated with disease severity, as measured by time to extubation and time to discharge. Pneumonia, defined as a radiographic opacity that evolves discordantly with the reperfusion edema opacities, occurred in 20% of cases. Reperfusion edema is a common consequence of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. The severity of radiographic manifestations and clinical severity of disease are related. This characteristically appears as perihilar alveolar opacities.

  12. 42 CFR 37.41 - Chest radiograph specifications-film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chest radiograph specifications-film. 37.41 Section... specifications—film. (a) Miners must be disrobed from the waist up at the time the radiograph is given. The... single posteroanterior projection at full inspiration on a film being no less than 14 by 17 inches and...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  15. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  18. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section 892.1960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section 892.1960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1960 - Radiographic intensifying screen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic intensifying screen. 892.1960 Section 892.1960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1960 Radiographic intensifying...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1950 - Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1950 Section 892.1950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1950 Radiographic...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  7. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder....

  8. Associations between dietary antioxidants intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 4685 participants were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 in at least one leg. A multivariable logistic analysis model was established to test the relationship between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee OA with adjustment of a number of potential confounding factors. A significant positive association between dietary vitamin C intake (P value for trend was 0.04 in multivariable adjusted analysis) and radiographic knee OA was observed. The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were increased by 0.39 times in the third quintile (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11-1.73), 0.42 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.13-1.79), and 0.33 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.03-1.71). However, radiographic knee OA was not significantly associated with dietary carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium. Among dietary antioxidants, dietary vitamin C intake was positively correlated with the prevalence of radiographic knee OA, while no significant association was found between dietary intake of carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium and the prevalence of radiographic knee OA.

  9. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  10. Are Panoramic Radiographs Reliable to Diagnose Mild Alveolar Bone Resorption?

    PubMed Central

    Semenoff, Larissa; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Volpato, Evaristo Ricci; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    It is extremely important to assess variations between the most used radiographs in dental practice, since minimum distortion on obtained images may change diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis for the patient. For this, the distance between the enamel-cementum junction and the alveolar bone crest was measured on conventional and digitized periapical, bitewing, and panoramic radiographs and compared among them. From a total of 1484 records, 39 sets of radiographs that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study sample were selected. The measurements were grouped according to the intensity of bone loss. Statistically significant difference was found in the averages of the measurements assessed in radiographs with absence of bone loss between conventional panoramic and periapical radiographs, between digitized panoramic and periapical radiographs and between digitized bitewing and panoramic radiographs. By analyzing the results of this work and considering the research protocol used, one can conclude that small losses in height of alveolar bone crest observed in panoramic radiographs should be cautiously evaluated, as they may be overestimated. PMID:21991470

  11. Are panoramic radiographs reliable to diagnose mild alveolar bone resorption?

    PubMed

    Semenoff, Larissa; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Volpato, Evaristo Ricci; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    It is extremely important to assess variations between the most used radiographs in dental practice, since minimum distortion on obtained images may change diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis for the patient. For this, the distance between the enamel-cementum junction and the alveolar bone crest was measured on conventional and digitized periapical, bitewing, and panoramic radiographs and compared among them. From a total of 1484 records, 39 sets of radiographs that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study sample were selected. The measurements were grouped according to the intensity of bone loss. Statistically significant difference was found in the averages of the measurements assessed in radiographs with absence of bone loss between conventional panoramic and periapical radiographs, between digitized panoramic and periapical radiographs and between digitized bitewing and panoramic radiographs. By analyzing the results of this work and considering the research protocol used, one can conclude that small losses in height of alveolar bone crest observed in panoramic radiographs should be cautiously evaluated, as they may be overestimated.

  12. Preoperative ultrasound and gallium-67 evaluation of abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1984-08-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography followed by gallium (Ga)-67 scintigraphy in 21 patients, aged 1 to 14 years, appearing with abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was analyzed. All cases were confirmed by biopsy; in a majority (16 patients), the tissue was obtained from an abdominal mass at the time of laparotomy subsequent to the imaging studies. Nineteen satisfactory abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed; 18 were interpreted as characteristic of NHL. Sixteen of these were of masses involving the gastrointestinal tract. All 21 patients had /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy that demonstrated abnormal radionuclide accumulation in the abdomen. In no instance was the final diagnosis different from the one predicted by the combined imaging studies. Ultrasonography is recommended as the initial test in the evaluation of clinical presentations consistent with abdominal NHL to expedite suitable management and prevent inappropriate surgery.

  13. Radiographic appearance of confirmed pulmonary lymphoma in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Nicole E; Reichle, Jean K; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Williams, Jamie; Goggin, Justin M; Leach, Lesley; Hanson, Jennifer; Hill, Steve; Axam, Tasha

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe the thoracic radiographic appearance of confirmed pulmonary lymphoma. Patients with thoracic radiographs and cytologically or histologically confirmed pulmonary lymphoma were sought by contacting American College of Veterinary Radiology members. Seven cats and 16 dogs met the inclusion criteria, ranging in age from 4 to 15 years. Method of diagnosis was via ultrasound-guided cytology (four), surgical biopsy (two), ultrasound-guided biopsy (one), and necropsy (16). Radiographic findings varied but ranged from normal (one) to alveolar (six) and/or unstructured interstitial infiltrates (11), nodules and/or masses (eight), and bronchial infiltrates (four). Additional thoracic radiographic findings included pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. The results of this evaluation indicate a wide variability in thoracic radiographic abnormalities in cats and dogs with pulmonary lymphoma.

  14. Medullary nephrocalcinosis and pancreatic calcifications demonstrated by ultrasound and CT in infants after treatment with ACTH

    SciTech Connect

    Rausch, H.P.; Hanefield, F.; Kaufmann, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    Thirteen patients who had undergone prolonged adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms or encephalopathy were examined with sonography. Nine patients were seen to have appearances characteristic of medullary nephrocalcinosis. Five patients also showed a homogeneously increased echogenicity of the whole pancreas on sonography, and one of these showed increased density on computed tomography. Density measurements were in the range of calcific arterial within the papillae and pancreatic tissue. On abdominal survey radiographs, even in retrospect, no calcifications could be recognized.

  15. Histological and radiographic evaluations of demineralized bone matrix and coralline hydroxyapatite in the rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    Zhukauskas, Rasa; Dodds, Robert A; Hartill, Caroline; Arola, Travis; Cobb, Ronald R; Fox, Casey

    2010-03-01

    Complex fractures resulting in bone loss or impaired fracture healing remain problematic in trauma and orthopedic surgeries. Many bone graft substitutes have been developed and are commercially available. These products differ in their osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. Differential enhancement of these properties may optimize the performance of these products for various orthopedic and craniofacial applications. The use of bone graft substitutes offers the ability to lessen the possible morbidity of the harvest site in autografts. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of two bone graft substitutes, BioSet RT, an allograft demineralized bone matrix formulation, and ProOsteon 500R, a coralline hydroxyapatite, in a rabbit critical tibial defect model. BioSet RT and ProOsteon 500R were implanted into a unicortical proximal metaphyseal tibial defect and evaluated for new bone formation. Samples were analyzed radiographically and histologically at 1 day, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks post surgery. Both materials were biocompatible and demonstrated significant bone growth and remodeling. At 12 weeks, the BioSet RT implanted sites demonstrated significantly more defect closure and bone remodeling as determined by radiographic analyses with 10 out of 14 defects being completely healed versus 1 out of 14 being completely healed in the ProOsteon 500R implanted sites. At 24 weeks, both materials demonstrated complete closure of the defect as determined histologically. There were no statistical differences in radiographic scores between the two implanted materials. However, there was an observable trend that the BioSet RT material generated higher histological and radiographic scores, although not statistically significant. This study provides evidence that both BioSet RT and ProOsteon 500R are biocompatible and able to induce new bone formation as measured in this rabbit model. In addition, this in vivo study demonstrates the ability of

  16. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  17. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  18. Reader characteristics linked to detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs: ROC vs. JAFROC analyses of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Akshay; Robinson, John W.; Ryan, John; McEntee, Mark F.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether reader characteristics are linked to heightened levels of diagnostic performance in chest radiology using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and jackknife free response ROC (JAFROC) methodologies. A set of 40 postero-anterior chest radiographs was developed, of which 20 were abnormal containing one or more simulated nodules, of varying subtlety. Images were independently reviewed by 12 boardcertified radiologists including six chest specialists. The observer performance was measured in terms of ROC and JAFROC scores. For the ROC analysis, readers were asked to rate their degree of suspicion for the presence of nodules by using a confidence rating scale (1-6). JAFROC analysis required the readers to locate and rate as many suspicious areas as they wished using the same scale and resultant data were used to generate Az and FOM scores for ROC and JAFROC analyses respectively. Using Pearson methods, scores of performance were correlated with 7 reader characteristics recorded using a questionnaire. JAFROC analysis showed that improved reader performance was significantly (p<=0.05) linked with chest specialty (p<0.03), hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.03) and chest readings per year (p<0.04). ROC analyses demonstrated only one significant relationship, hours per week reading chest radiographs (p<0.02).The results of this study have shown that radiologist's performance in the detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs is significantly linked to chest specialty, hours reading per week and number of radiographs read per year. Also, JAFROC is a more powerful predictor of performance as compared to ROC.

  19. Radiographic Evidence of Occult Intracranial Hypertension in Patients with Ménière's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Stevens, Shawn M; Mihal, David; Costello, Mark S; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Samy, Ravi N; Pensak, Myles L

    2017-03-01

    Objectives (1) Describe the prevalence of radiographic signs of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in Ménière's disease (MD) and (2) compare the prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH in MD patients managed medically to those managed surgically. Study Design Case-control study. Setting Academic neurotologic practice. Subjects and Methods Adult MD patients (aged ≥17 years) treated from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion required magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and follow-up >6 months. Patients with intracranial tumors, mass effect, trauma, previous intracranial surgery, and glaucoma were excluded. MD patients were separated by administered treatment into medical and surgical subgroups. Cochlear implant (CI) recipients served as radiographic controls. Eighty-four MD patients (46 surgical, 38 medical) and 37 CI controls were assessed. MRI measurements assessed for empty/partial sella (ES/PS), dilated/tortuous optic nerve sheath (ONS), and posterior globe flattening (PGF). Results Mean age was 53.8 ± 1.3 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 28.2 kg/m(2). Of the patients, 64% were female and 92% were white. MRI findings in the MD cohort were as follows: ES/PS, 46.4%; ONS change, 42.8%; and PGF, 8.3%. The prevalence of ONS change was higher in MD patients than in controls (42.8% vs 13.5%, P = .003). The surgical MD group had higher prevalence of ONS change (52%) compared with the medical group (31.5%, P = .05) and controls (13.5%, P = .0004). The surgical group had a higher prevalence of ≥2 simultaneous MRI findings compared with medical MD patients (39% vs 10%, P = .01) and controls (14%, P = .01). Conclusion MD patients demonstrate a high prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH. MD patients who required surgery had a greater prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH compared with non-MD patients and medically managed MD patients.

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  1. Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001

  2. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  3. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  4. [Living with a chronic abdominal wound--the patients' perspective].

    PubMed

    Rüeger-Schaad, Elisabeth; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Viehl, Carsten T; Spirig, Rebecca

    2008-08-01

    Chronic abdominal wounds lead to prolonged hospital stays. However, no data exist that describe the experience of persons living with a chronic abdominal wound. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experience of persons living with chronic abdominal wounds and elicit their expectations in health professionals. Narrative interviews were conducted with five women and four men. Using content analysis techniques, five categories with one to four subcategories emerged from the data. "Returning to everyday life without a wound" represents the main goal of the participants and is driven by their hope to achieve this outcome. "Everyday life with the wound" illustrates the reality of participants' lives, which is affected by suffering. "The patients' work" demonstrates the component that patients contribute to managing their wound. "The work of primary support persons" shows the importance of the work of people close to the patient. "The work of professionals" includes the expectations that patients have in their caregivers. Teamwork between professionals, patients and primary support persons seems to be an essential condition for the successful healing of an abdominal wound.

  5. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  6. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  7. Static rearfoot alignment: a comparison of clinical and radiographic measures.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bradley M; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2005-01-01

    Foot structure is typically evaluated using static clinical and radiographic measures. To date, the literature is devoid of a correlation between rearfoot frontal plane radiographic parameters and clinical measures of alignment. In a repeated-measures study comparing radiographic and clinical rearfoot alignment in 24 healthy subjects, radiographic angular measurements were made from standard weightbearing anteroposterior, lateral, long leg calcaneal axial, and rearfoot alignment views. Clinical measurements were made using a jig and scanner to assess the malleolar valgus index and a goniometer to evaluate the resting and neutral calcaneal stance positions. There was a significant correlation between frontal plane radiographic angles (long leg calcaneal axial and rearfoot alignment views) (r = 0.814). Similarly, there was a significant correlation between clinical measures (resting calcaneal stance position and malleolar valgus index) (r = 0.714). A multivariate stepwise regression showed that resting calcaneal stance position can be accurately predicted from 3 of the 15 clinical and radiographic measurements collected: malleolar valgus index, rearfoot alignment view, and long leg calcaneal axial view (r = 0.829). In summary, a commonly used clinical measure of static rearfoot alignment, resting calcaneal stance position, was correlated closely with the malleolar valgus index and both frontal plane radiographic parameters.

  8. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  9. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout. PMID:22253352

  10. Tofacitinib prevents radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Wan; Choi, In Ah; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Yeong Wook; Lee, Eun Bong

    2013-08-01

    Tofacitinib, a novel Janus kinase inhibitor, may prevent structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this cohort study, we compared radiographic progression of hand joints between 21 RA patients who took tofacitinb for 18 months in a phase IIb and its extension study and 42 patients who took conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), using simple erosion narrowing score. For tofacitinib group, changes before and after the treatment were also compared. The changes of erosion and sum scores were significantly less in tofacitinib than DMARDs group (for erosion, -0.60 ± 1.83 vs 0.51 ± 1.77, P = 0.038; for sum, -0.50 ± 1.72 vs 1.57 ± 4.13, P = 0.012). Joint space narrowing score (JSN) was also less in tofacitinib group (0.095 ± 0.58 vs 1.06 ± 2.60, P = 0.055). In tofacitinib group, yearly rates of both erosion and JSN were significantly decreased after administration of tofacitinib (For erosion, 0.62 ± 0.93 to -0.14 ± 0.48, P = 0.009; for JSN, 0.47 ± 0.64 to 0.03 ± 0.40, P = 0.032), as was change of sum score (1.09 ± 1.27 to -0.10 ± 0.63, P < 0.001). In conclusion, tofacitinib may prevent structural damage caused by RA.

  11. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C

    2012-09-01

    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout.

  12. Ontario dentists: 3. Radiographs prescribed in general practice.

    PubMed

    Swan, E S; Lewis, D W

    1993-01-01

    In February 1991, a mail survey was used to poll a sample consisting of about 10 per cent of Ontario's general dentists. The data obtained provided information about the radiographs prescribed by dentists for five different patient types, which were described to the respondents. The per cent agreement between the radiographic procedures prescribed by Ontario dentists and the ADA-approved Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) guidelines ranged from three per cent to 79 per cent, depending on patient type and disease risk. For each patient and risk type, there was considerable variation in the radiographs prescribed.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy for Thrombocytopenia after Surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Daichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Date, Kazuma; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be rarely accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We report a case of AAA with DIC. An 81-year-old man with abdominal pain referred to our hospital. Computed tomography demonstrated an AAA (maximum diameter: 90 mm). The patient underwent a laparotomy, and an abdominal aorta replacement was performed. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment for 1 week. After treatment, the platelet count dramatically increased. The mechanism by which H. pylori eradication therapy improves hematological parameters has not been elucidated; however, this noninvasive treatment effectively resolved DIC associated with AAA. PMID:28018509

  14. 3D-2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-03-01

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely ‘LevelCheck’) to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of

  15. 3D–2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-07

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely 'LevelCheck') to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of the surgical product

  16. 3D–2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    An image-based 3D–2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely ‘LevelCheck’) to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior–anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of the surgical

  17. Correlating the clinical assessment of impacted mandibular third molars with panoramic radiograph and intraoral periapical radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Vani; Nasyam, Fazil A.; Ramprasad, M.; Penumatsa, Narendra V.; Akifuddin, Syed; Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aims And Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the clinical assessment of impacted third molars of mandible with panaromic radiograph (OPG) and intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) and to assess the efficacy of IOPA and. Moreover, we corroborated the OPG and IOPA findings of impacted mandiblar third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with pericoronitis were examined who were indicated for surgical extraction, among which 50 patients were selected for the study. All the patients underwent a radiographic survey with a digital OPG and IOPA of impacted mandibular third molars, along with clinical survey for anatomic relationship, type of impaction, space available, position in relation to second molar, number of roots, root curvature, and proximity of nerve canal. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 4.0.1 software was used for analyzing the collected data. Results: The study revealed that IOPA was more accurate in determining a majority of the factors affecting the third molar surgery, including relationship of the external oblique ridge (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%), anteroposterior relation with ramus (IOPA vs OPG = 70%:66%), vertical depth of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 72%:68%), number of roots (P = 0.013), morphology of roots (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%); however, OPG was found to be accurate in evaluating the type of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 88%:94%), canal relation, along with root of impacted molar (IOPA vs OPG = 74%:86%). Conclusion: To conclude, although IOPA has a marginal angle over OPG in assessing various parameters, only the number of roots have a greater accuracy (P < 0.0013) in IOPA than with OPG. However, the OPG is the better choice to be considered when the patient is associated with trismus. PMID:28217540

  18. Explaining the Effect of a Grid by Using an Optical Analog to an X-ray Radiographic Imaging System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honnicke, M. G.; Gavinho, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Compton scattering and diffuse scattering degenerate the contrast in radiographic images. To avoid such scattering effects, a grid, between the patient and the film is currently used to improve the image quality. Teaching this topic to medical physics students requires demonstration experiments. In this paper, an optical analog to an x-ray…

  19. Radiographic parenchymal opacity, matching perfusion defect, and normal ventilation: a sign of pulmonary embolism. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, E.B.; Sostman, H.D.; Gottschalk, A.

    1987-05-01

    By conventional criteria, perfusion defects that correspond to radiographic parenchymal opacities of similar size have less diagnostic significance for pulmonary embolism (PE) than perfusion defects in areas that are radiographically clear, regardless of the findings on ventilation scan. It was proposed that the demonstration of normal ventilation in areas with matched radiographic opacity and perfusion defects does support the diagnosis of PE. To test this hypothesis, a retrospective review was done of selected cases from a consecutive series of 85 pulmonary angiography studies. Cases were reviewed if the following criteria were met: chest radiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and angiography of the relevant regions had all been performed within 24 hours of one another, and there was a radiographic opacity corresponding to the perfusion defect. Sixteen cases fulfilled these criteria. Six patients had normal ventilation in the regions of the radiographic infiltrate and perfusion defect, and all had PE. No patient had an area of opacity and perfusion defect and normal ventilation without PE.

  20. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  1. Towards the mechanical characterization of abdominal wall by inverse analysis.

    PubMed

    Simón-Allué, R; Calvo, B; Oberai, A A; Barbone, P E

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the passive mechanical behaviour of abdominal wall in vivo in an animal model using only external cameras and numerical analysis. The main objective lies in defining a methodology that provides in vivo information of a specific patient without altering mechanical properties. It is demonstrated in the mechanical study of abdomen for hernia purposes. Mechanical tests consisted on pneumoperitoneum tests performed on New Zealand rabbits, where inner pressure was varied from 0mmHg to 12mmHg. Changes in the external abdominal surface were recorded and several points were tracked. Based on their coordinates we reconstructed a 3D finite element model of the abdominal wall, considering an incompressible hyperelastic material model defined by two parameters. The spatial distributions of these parameters (shear modulus and non linear parameter) were calculated by inverse analysis, using two different types of regularization: Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) and Tikhonov (H(1)). After solving the inverse problem, the distribution of the material parameters were obtained along the abdominal surface. Accuracy of the results was evaluated for the last level of pressure. Results revealed a higher value of the shear modulus in a wide stripe along the craneo-caudal direction, associated with the presence of linea alba in conjunction with fascias and rectus abdominis. Non linear parameter distribution was smoother and the location of higher values varied with the regularization type. Both regularizations proved to yield in an accurate predicted displacement field, but H(1) obtained a smoother material parameter distribution while TVD included some discontinuities. The methodology here presented was able to characterize in vivo the passive non linear mechanical response of the abdominal wall.

  2. Ruptured pediatric cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst: a case report detailing radiographic evolution and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhe; Hollon, Todd; Bentley, J Nicole; Garton, Hugh J L

    2015-08-21

    Epidermoid cysts (ECs) are uncommon pediatric tumors that often occur in the cerebellopontine angle. Although cyst rupture is a recognized complication, the radiographic evolution of an EC following rupture and the resultant parenchymal brainstem edema have not been reported. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old female with a newly diagnosed cerebellopontine angle EC who presented with worsening headaches, photophobia, and emesis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated significant pericystic brainstem edema and mass effect with effacement of the fourth ventricle. Refractory symptoms prompted repeat imaging, revealing cyst enlargement and dense rim enhancement. Resection of the EC resolved both her symptoms and the brainstem edema. This case documents the radiographic evolution of EC rupture and subsequent clinical course.

  3. Unusual radiographic appearance of ossifying fibroma in the left mandibular angle

    PubMed Central

    Araki, M; Matsumoto, K; Matsumoto, N; Honda, K; Ohki, H; Komiyama, K

    2010-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma is usually a unilocular lesion with a well-defined, thinly corticated margin radiographically, although various patterns have been noted. The patient was a 27-year-old woman with a painless radiolucent lesion demonstrated on panoramic radiography to involve the root-apex area of the left lower second and third molars. Radiographically, the lesion had some features of a benign tumour, such as an odontogenic myxoma. However, the deep invaginations towards the interalveolar septa suggested a simple bone cyst, whereas the irregular margin and lack of expansion or mandibular canal displacement were consistent with a malignant lesion. A hard tissue component was confirmed only by soft-tissue mode CT. Although this lesion was histopathologically diagnosed as ossifying fibroma, the conflicting imaging findings were challenging and very intriguing. PMID:20587656

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  5. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality.

    PubMed

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-10-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme specifically designed to serve the best quality of clinical images. Radiographers who understand technological shift of the CR from conventional method can employ optimization of CR images. Proper anatomic collimation and exposure techniques for each radiographic projection are crucial steps in producing quality digital images. Matching image processing with specific anatomy is also important factor that radiographers should realise. Successful shift from conventional to fully digitised radiology department requires skilful radiographers who utilise the technology and a successful quality control program from teamwork in the department.

  6. A proposed benchmark for simulation in radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Deresch, A.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Guerin, P.

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of this benchmark study is to compare simulation results predicted by various models of radiographic testing, in particular those that are capable of separately predicting primary and scatter radiation for specimens of arbitrary geometry.

  7. Dental Identification Through Endodontic Radiographic Records: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Ademir; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective of work The present study aims to report a case of successful human identification based on the comparison of ante-mortem and post-mortem records of endodontic treatment. Based on these, the legal value of storing and updating clinical records is highlighted throughout the text. Case report An unknown body was recovered from a traffic accident site. Forensic examination was conducted in order to establish the identity of the victim. Based on the absence of ante-mortem fingerprint registration in the national database, the search for AM data was performed using periapical radiographic records from private dental clinics. A positive dental identification was achieved analyzing evidence of endodontic treatment. Conclusion Dental radiographs play a valuable role as legal tools supporting the criminal demands on the daily forensic practice. Specifically in endodontics, periapical radiographs are essential for a proper treatment. In forensics, these radiographs represent a solid source of ante-mortem data for human identifications. PMID:27688359

  8. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures. PMID:24614612

  9. Radiographic visualization of magma dynamics in an erupting volcano.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K M; Kusagaya, Taro; Shinohara, Hiroshi

    2014-03-10

    Radiographic imaging of magma dynamics in a volcanic conduit provides detailed information about ascent and descent of magma, the magma flow rate, the conduit diameter and inflation and deflation of magma due to volatile expansion and release. Here we report the first radiographic observation of the ascent and descent of magma along a conduit utilizing atmospheric (cosmic ray) muons (muography) with dynamic radiographic imaging. Time sequential radiographic images show that the top of the magma column ascends right beneath the crater floor through which the eruption column was observed. In addition to the visualization of this magma inflation, we report a sequence of images that show magma descending. We further propose that the monitoring of temporal variations in the gas volume fraction of magma as well as its position in a conduit can be used to support existing eruption prediction procedures.

  10. Interobserver reproducibility of radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability

    PubMed Central

    Segundo, Saulo de Tarso de Sá Pereira; Valesin, Edgar Santiago; Lenza, Mario; Santos, Durval do Carmo Barros; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto; Ferretti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the interobserver reproducibility of the radiographic evaluation of lumbar spine instability. Methods: Measurements of the dynamic radiographs of the lumbar spine in lateral view were performed, evaluating the anterior translation and the angulation among the vertebral bodies. The tests were evaluated at workstations of the organization, through the Carestream Health Vue RIS (PACS), version 11.0.12.14 Inc. 2009© system. Results: Agreement in detecting cases of radiographic instability among the observers varied from 88.1 to 94.4%, and the agreement coefficients AC1 were all above 0.8, indicating excellent agreement. Conclusion: The interobserver analysis performed among orthopedic surgeons with different levels of training in dynamic radiographs of the spine obtained high reproducibility and agreement. However, some factors, such as the manual method of measurement and the presence of vertebral osteophytes, might have generated a few less accurate results in this comparative evaluation of measurements. PMID:27759827

  11. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  12. Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of uterine neoplasms in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Patsikas, Michail; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Papaioannou, Nikolaos G; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi L; Soultani, Christina B; Chryssogonidis, Ioannis A; Kouskouras, Konstantinos A; Tziris, Nikolaos E; Charitanti, Afroditi A

    2014-01-01

    The records of nine female intact dogs with histologically confirmed uterine tumors were reviewed retrospectively, and the related radiographic and ultrasonographic signs of the lesions detected were recorded. Radiography revealed a soft-tissue opacity between the urinary bladder and colon in six of seven dogs with uterine body and/or cervical tumors, and a soft-tissue opacity in the midventral abdomen in two dogs with uterine horn tumors. Ultrasonography revealed masses in all dogs with uterine body/cervical tumors and could delineate the origin of the mass in one of two dogs with uterine horn tumors. The mass was characterized ultrasonographically as solid in three dogs (all leiomyomas), solid with cystic component in four dogs (two adenocarcinomas, one leiomyoma, and one fibroleiomyoma), and cystic in two (both leiomyomas). Hyperechoic foci in the mass were observed in three dogs. Ultrasonography was a useful method for demonstrating uterine body and/or cervical tumors. However, it was not possible to ascertain sonographically that a mass originated in a uterine horn unless there was associated evidence of uterine horn to which the mass could be traced. The ultrasonographic appearance of uterine tumors was variable, and the type of neoplasm could only be determined by taking biopsies of the mass.

  13. An automatic and effective tooth isolation method for dental radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.-L.; Huang, P.-W.; Cho, Y. S.; Kuo, C.-H.

    2013-03-01

    Tooth isolation is a very important step for both computer-aided dental diagnosis and automatic dental identification systems, because it will directly affect the accuracy of feature extraction and, thereby, the final results of both types of systems. This paper presents an effective and fully automatic tooth isolation method for dental X-ray images, which contains up-per-lower jaw separation, single tooth isolation, over-segmentation verification, and under-segmentation detection. The upper-lower jaw separation mechanism is based on a gray-scale integral projection to avoid possible information loss and incorporates with the angle adjustment to handle skewed images. In a single tooth isolation, an adaptive windowing scheme for locating gap valleys is proposed to improve the accuracy. In over-segmentation, an isolation-curve verification scheme is proposed to remove excessive curves; and in under-segmentation, a missing-teeth detection scheme is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves the accuracy rates of 95.63% and 98.71% for the upper and lower jaw images, respectively, from the test database of 60 bitewing dental radiographs, and performs better for images with severe teeth occlusion, excessive dental works, and uneven illumination than that of Nomir and Abdel-Mottaleb's method. The method without upper-lower jaw separation step also works well for panoramic and periapical images.

  14. Cigarette smoking and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Finckh, A; Dehler, S; Costenbader, K H; Gabay, C

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well‐established environmental risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains unclear whether smoking influences RA disease progression and whether smokers have more radiographic damage progression than non‐smokers over time. Objective To compare the rates of radiographic damage progression in current smokers and non‐smokers in a large prospective RA cohort. Methods The SCQM‐RA is a population‐based registry monitoring disease activity, radiographic damage and symptoms at regular intervals. All patients in the SCQM‐RA database with sequential plain radiographs were included. Joint erosions were assessed in 38 hand and foot joints with a validated scoring method. The rate of erosion progression was analysed using multivariate longitudinal regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results 2004 RA patients with a mean of 3.6 sequential radiographs and 3.1 years of follow‐up were included. The 545 (27%) current smokers smoked on average 16 cigarettes per day and had a mean past smoking exposure of 20.6 pack‐years. Radiographic joint damage progressed at a similar rate in current smokers and non‐smokers (p = 0.26). However, smoking intensity was associated with a significant inverse dose–response; heavy smokers (>1 pack‐day) progressed significantly less than non‐smokers or moderate smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion Radiographic joint damage progressed at an equivalent rate in smokers and non‐smokers. Furthermore, a significant trend was observed for reduced radiographic progression and generally more favourable functional scores among heavy smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke does not accelerate RA disease progression. PMID:17237117

  15. Alcohol and radiographs in the accident and emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Rust, P; Hunt, I; Wallis, D; Jowett, A; Rottenberg, G

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the contribution of alcohol ingestion to the radiological workload of an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department. Methods—A prospective survey of patients presenting to A&E who required radiographs was performed over a seven day period. The A&E clinician questioned patients about alcohol intake during the six hours before the onset of the presenting complaint or injury, and made an objective assessment of signs of alcohol ingestion or intoxication. An assessment was made also of the relative contribution of alcohol as a cause of patients' injuries. Results—A total of 419 patients who had radiography fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and a questionnaire was completed for 351 (84%). Forty (11%) of 351 were found to have ingested alcohol. Thirty five (87%) of 40 patients who had ingested alcohol were radiographed for trauma, as compared with 171 (55%) of the 311 who had not (p<0.001). Alcohol was considered to have been causative of injury in 30% and a contributory factor in an additional 58%. Radiographs of the skull, face and jaw accounted for 18 (33%) of 55 radiographs from trauma patients who had ingested alcohol compared with 20 (9%) of 212 radiographs from those who had not (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of abnormal radiographs between these two groups (27% of radiographs from trauma patients who had ingested alcohol compared with 23% of radiographs from those who had not, p>0.2). Conclusion—Patients with alcohol related injuries requiring radiography have a significant impact on the radiological workload of an A&E department, although the prevalence of alcohol ingestion detected in this study was less than expected from previous studies. PMID:11696496

  16. Pulmonary embolism findings on chest radiographs and multislice spiral CT.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Verschuren, Franck; Hainaut, Philippe; Goncette, Louis

    2004-07-01

    Multislice spiral CT is becoming an increasingly important tool for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. However, in many instances, a chest radiograph is usually performed as a first-line examination. Many parenchymal, vascular, and other ancillary findings may be observed on both imaging modalities with a highly detailed depiction of abnormalities on multislice CT. A comprehensive review of chest radiograph findings is presented with side-by-side correlations of CT images reformatted mainly in the frontal plane.

  17. Automatic detection of scoliotic curves in posteroanterior radiographs.

    PubMed

    Duong, Luc; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Spinal deformities are diagnosed using posteroanterior (PA) radiographs. Automatic detection of the spine on conventional radiographs would be of interest to quantify curve severity, would help reduce observer variability and would allow large-scale retrospective studies on radiographic databases. The goal of this paper is to present a new method for automatic detection of spinal curves from a PA radiograph. A region of interest (ROI) is first extracted according to the 2-D shape variability of the spine obtained from a set of PA radiographs of scoliotic patients. This region includes 17 bounding boxes delimiting each vertebral level from T1 to L5. An adaptive filter combining shock with complex diffusion is used to individually restore the image of each vertebral level. Then, texture descriptors of small block elements are computed and submitted for training to support vector machines (SVM). Vertebral body's locations are thereby inferred for a particular vertebral level. The classifications of block elements for all 17 SVMs are identified in the image and a voting system is introduced to cumulate correctly predicted blocks. A spline curve is then fitted through the centers of the predicted vertebral regions and compared to a manual identification using a Student t-test. A clinical validation is performed using 100 radiographs of scoliotic patients (not used for training) and the detected spinal curve is found to be statistically similar (p < 0.05) in 93% of cases to the manually identified curve.

  18. Radiographic measurement of internal organs in Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    PubMed

    Rettmer, Helen; Deb, Amrita; Watson, Ryan; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2011-12-01

    Radiology is an important diagnostic instrument in avian medicine, but standard measurement ranges for the objective evaluation of radiographs of birds are rare. To establish radiographic reference ranges for the critically endangered Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), we measured radiographic silhouettes of the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, proventriculus, and keel of the sternum on 29 radiographs taken under standardized conditions in adult and juvenile, clinically healthy birds. Ratios were determined for the proventricular diameter-to-keel height, the width of the heart to the width of the thorax, and for the "hourglass shape" (ratio of the width of the heart to the width of the liver). No significant differences were found between the sexes among the adult birds. Compared with adult birds, juvenile females had a significantly larger heart width (19.8 +/- 1.4 mm versus 21.2 +/- 0.7 mm), ratio of the heart width to the thorax width (0.86 +/- 0.08 versus 0.94 +/- 0.09), and horizontal width of the spleen (7.7 +/- 0.6 mm versus 8.5 +/- 0.4 mm). Results of radiographic measurements in the Spix's macaws were comparable to those published from other psittacine species. These reference ranges will facilitate a more objective radiographic evaluation of captive Spix's macaws.

  19. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Kummer, M; Lischer, C; Ohlerth, S; Vargas, J; Auer, J

    2004-11-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PX, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually.

  20. Segmentation and determination of joint space width in foot radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, O.; de Muinck Keizer, D. M.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Slump, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is frequently assessed using radiographs of hands and feet. Evaluation includes measurements of the joint space width (JSW) and detection of erosions. Current visual scoring methods are timeconsuming and subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Automated measurement methods avoid these limitations and have been fairly successful in hand radiographs. This contribution aims at foot radiographs. Starting from an earlier proposed automated segmentation method we have developed a novel model based image analysis algorithm for JSW measurements. This method uses active appearance and active shape models to identify individual bones. The model compiles ten submodels, each representing a specific bone of the foot (metatarsals 1-5, proximal phalanges 1-5). We have performed segmentation experiments using 24 foot radiographs, randomly selected from a large database from the rheumatology department of a local hospital: 10 for training and 14 for testing. Segmentation was considered successful if the joint locations are correctly determined. Segmentation was successful in only 14%. To improve results a step-by-step analysis will be performed. We performed JSW measurements on 14 randomly selected radiographs. JSW was successfully measured in 75%, mean and standard deviation are 2.30+/-0.36mm. This is a first step towards automated determination of progression of RA and therapy response in feet using radiographs.

  1. Radiographic appearance of nosocomial legionnaires' disease after erythromycin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, C; Roig, J; Planas, F; Bechini, J; Tenesa, M; Morera, J

    1991-01-01

    Radiographic features of 71 patients (48 men, 23 women) with nosocomial Legionella pneumophila pneumonia were assessed and compared with those of other nosocomial series of L pneumophila pneumonia. Sixteen patients were assessed retrospectively and 55 prospectively. Chest radiographs were assessed at the onset of the illness, 10 days later, and at 3 months. Erythromycin was given to 67 patients at the time of the diagnosis and to the remaining four at a later stage. Forty eight patients were over the age of 60. On the initial chest radiograph 53 of the 71 patients had unilateral shadowing (23 of them in the right lung); 35 had unilobar shadowing and the remaining 36 had more than one affected lobe. Pleural effusion was present in 24 cases and cavitation in 2. One patient had evidence of a pericardial effusion. At 10 days 21 patients had evidence of radiographic progression (14 ipsilateral), but 28 had improved. At 3 months 36 patients had an abnormal radiograph, 30 showing residual scarring, 15 loss of volume, six pleural shadows and two cavitation. Our series shows a lesser incidence of unilateral shadowing and pleural effusion than other nosocomial series and a lesser tendency to progression, but more patients had radiographic abnormalities at long term follow up. PMID:1948796

  2. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Rayyan Abdulhamid

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86), respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area. PMID:27843885

  3. Pancreatic injury revealed in abdominal ultrasound: a case report.

    PubMed

    Papadoliopoulos, Ioannis; Bourikos, Panagiotis; Chloptsios, Christos; Ilias, Georgios; Moustakis, Elias; Karanasiou, Vasilissa; Stamatiou, Kostantinos

    2009-07-01

    Pancreatic laceration due to blunt trauma is relatively uncommon and it is less likely to accompany injury of a retroperitoneal organ. While renal injuries are easily detectable in both clinical and radiographic imaging examination, pancreatic injuries are difficult to diagnose clinically and in several cases remain occult. Although ultrasonography is not generally recommended for initial assessment of the trauma patient and its role is limited in the follow-up of contained intra- or perihepatic bilomas that are treated conservatively, it was demonstrated to be capable for exploration of pancreatic injuries as well. We present a case of a 23-year-old male with pancreatic injury found in ultrasonography.

  4. Readability of cervical spine imaging: digital versus film/screen radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, D L; Silver, D I; Tarver, R D; Braunstein, E M

    1990-01-01

    In 109 trauma patients, both film/screen and digital lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained. These films were compared for adequate visualization ("readability") of bone, soft tissue, and airway, and lowest visualized cervical vertebra. With viewbox alone, digital adequately demonstrated bone, soft tissue, and airway more often than film/screen. With a hotlight, there was no significant difference between digital and film/screen in adequately demonstrating bone, but for soft tissue and airway definition, digital was significantly better. There was less interobserver and intraobserver variation on digital than in film/screen. There was no significant difference in lowest vertebra identified.

  5. 42 CFR 37.60 - Submitting required chest radiograph classification and miner identification documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Submitting required chest radiograph classification... OF COAL MINERS Chest Radiographic Examinations Specifications for Interpretation, Classification, and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.60 Submitting required chest radiograph classification and...

  6. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  7. The prognosis of childhood abdominal migraine

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, F; Abu-Arafeh, I; Russell, G

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the clinical course of childhood abdominal migraine, seven to 10 years after the diagnosis.
METHODS—A total of 54 children with abdominal migraine were studied; 35 were identified from a population survey carried out on Aberdeen schoolchildren between 1991 and 1993, and 19 from outpatient records of children in the same age group who had attended the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital. Controls were 54 children who did not have abdominal pain in childhood, matched for age and sex, obtained from either the population survey or the patient administration system. Main outcome measures were presence or resolution of abdominal migraine and past or present history of headache fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for the diagnosis of migraine.
RESULTS—Abdominal migraine had resolved in 31 cases (61%). Seventy per cent of cases with abdominal migraine were either current (52%) or previous (18%) sufferers from headaches that fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine, compared to 20% of the controls.
CONCLUSIONS—These results support the concept of abdominal migraine as a migraine prodrome, and suggest that our diagnostic criteria for the condition are robust.

 PMID:11316687

  8. Radiographic diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia: review of 60 cases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbaig

    2004-06-01

    Sixty cases of diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats were radiologically reviewed and categorized by their characteristic radiographic signs. Any particular predilection for age, sex, or breed was not observed. Liver, stomach and small intestine were more commonly herniated. At least two radiographs, at different angles, were required for a valid diagnosis, because some radiographic signs were not visible in a single radiographic view and more clearly detectable in two radiographic views. In addition to previously reported radiographic signs for diaphragmatic hernia, we found that the location of the stomach axis and the displacement of tracheal and bronchial segments were also useful radiographic signs.

  9. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  10. Rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis: Part I. Histologic and radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, N M; Mehrara, B J; Dudziak, M E; Steinbreck, D S; Mackool, R J; Gittes, G K; McCarthy, J G; Longaker, M T

    1998-11-01

    The application of distraction osteogenesis to craniofacial surgery has altered the approach and treatment of congenital and acquired craniofacial defects. Although the histologic and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been described extensively, relatively little is known about the molecular regulation of this process. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of distraction osteogenesis has important clinical implications because it may facilitate the use of recombinant proteins or gene therapy to accelerate bone regeneration. Molecular analysis of distraction osteogenesis has been hindered by the use of large animal models in which only limited genetic information is available. In this study, a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis is described. This report includes a pilot study (n = 50) to develop an appropriate distraction device and to determine the optimal placement of the osteotomy. The study subsequently included 80 animals, 35 of which were distracted at a rate of 0.25 mm per day for 6 days (1.5 mm total) and 35 that were distracted at a rate of 0.25 mm twice per day (3.0 mm total). These animals were killed at various time points (after latency and during the distraction and consolidation periods) and displayed histologic and radiographic findings of membranous bone distraction osteogenesis that were consistent with those in large ,animal and clinical models. In addition, five animals each were acutely lengthened 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm and demonstrated a fibrous nonunion. Furthermore, the utility of this model is demonstrated in the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of distraction osteogenesis by applying the polymerase chain reaction to total cellular RNA isolated from normal and distracted rat mandibles. In conclusion, it is believed that the rat model of distraction osteogenesis has significant advantages over traditional models, including decreased costs and facilitation of molecular analysis.

  11. Advances in abdominal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, J T

    1998-01-01

    Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve

  12. Radiographic Follow-Up during Orthodontic Treatment for Early Diagnosis of Sequential Supernumerary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga

    2016-01-01

    Most supernumerary teeth are impacted and asymptomatic. Objective. The aim of this paper is to describe two cases of sequential development of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular premolar region, identified during orthodontic treatment. Reports. The first case describes the radiographic follow-up of a female patient that presented a supernumerary tooth at the age of 9 years and 10 months in the right mandibular premolar region, followed by a further supernumerary tooth in the left mandibular premolar region identified at the age of 11 years and 3 months. In the second case, the radiographic follow-up of a male patient demonstrated 3 supernumerary teeth in the premolar region at the age of 16 years. During orthognathic surgery planning at the age of 20 years and 5 months, a supplemental supernumerary tooth was found in the left mandibular region. Conclusion. Considering the late developing of supernumerary premolars, appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs of patients with previous experience of supernumerary teeth is essential for early diagnosis of supplemental premolars to prevent possible complications. PMID:27313911

  13. Technical Note: Confirming the prescribed angle of CT localizer radiographs and c-arm projection acquisitions

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Labby, Zacariah E.; Wallace, Charles; Rubert, Nicholas

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate CT radiograph angle is not usually important in diagnostic CT. However, there are applications in radiation oncology and interventional radiology in which the orientation of the x-ray source and detector with respect to the patient is clinically important. The authors present a method for measuring the accuracy of the tube/detector assembly with respect to the prescribed tube/detector position for CT localizer, fluoroscopic, and general radiograph imaging using diagnostic, mobile, and c-arm based CT systems. Methods: A mathematical expression relating the x-ray projection of two metal BBs is related to gantry angle. Measurement of the BBs at a prescribed gantry (i.e., c-arm) angle can be obtained and using this relation the prescribed versus actual gantry angle compared. No special service mode or proprietary information is required, only access to projection images is required. Projection images are available in CT via CT localizer radiographs and in the interventional setting via fluorography. Results: The technique was demonstrated on two systems, a mobile CT scanner and a diagnostic CT scanner. The results confirmed a known issue with the mobile scanner and accurately described the CT localizer angle of the diagnostic system tested. Conclusions: This method can be used to quantify gantry angle, which is important when projection images are used for procedure guidance, such as in brachytherapy and interventional radiology applications.

  14. Treatment of painful pediatric flatfoot with Maxwell-Brancheau subtalar arthroereisis implant a retrospective radiographic review.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Brandon M; Black, Brian E; Sockrider, Nathan

    2010-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the outcome of pediatric patients who have undergone Maxwell-Brancheau arthroereisis (MBA) subtalar implants for the treatment of painful pediatric flatfoot deformities. In a retrospective study, 39 patients (68 feet) were evaluated clinically and radiographically. The mean age of the patients was 12 years (range, 6-16 years). The mean period of follow-up was 24 months (range, 6-61 months). Statistical evaluation was performed on all radiographic measurements. Additional surgical procedures (gastrocnemius recession, Achilles tendon lengthening, Kidner posterior tibial tendon advancement) were performed in 22 of 68 feet. There were 10 (15%) complications, which consisted of 10 reoperations in 10 feet. Implants were exchanged in 9 feet because of implant migration, undercorrection, and overcorrection. There was 1 reoperation (in 1 foot) for implant removal because of persistent sinus tarsi pain. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated an improvement of all parameters determined. The parameters that were evaluated include talonavicular joint coverage, as well as lateral and anterior-posterior talocalcaneal angles. There were significant changes noted in pre- and postoperative measurements (P < .001). The MBA implant is effective for the correction of painful, flexible flatfoot deformity in children in short-term follow-up. However, this is a multiplanar deformity, and additional procedures may be needed in addition to the MBA.

  15. Effect of cigarette smoking on the detection of small radiographic opacities in inorganic dust diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Gamsu, G.

    1988-10-01

    Whether cigarette smoking can cause radiographic opacities indistinguishable from those due to pneumoconiosis remains controversial. The situation becomes clearer when one limits the abnormalities to those that can be standardized under the International Labour Office (ILO) classification system. The bulk of the evidence indicates that, using the ILO system, cigarette smoking alone is not associated with radiographic opacities that would be mistaken for pneumoconiosis with sufficient frequency to be of any practical importance. The effects of cigarette smoking, as a cofactor, in conjunction with occupational dust exposure depend on the type of dust. No relationship has been convincingly demonstrated for coal dust or silica. Only with asbestos exposure does there appear to be a significant cigarette smoking-associated increase in the frequency of irregular radiographic opacities. This increase does not appear to translate into a restrictive impairment in pulmonary function. The limited information available indicates that the features of asbestosis on high-resolution computed tomography are not similarly related to cigarette smoking. Additional research is needed to substantiate the relationship between smoking and occupational exposure to dust of many types, and also the possible imaging and pathophysiologic significance of their interactions. 47 references.

  16. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  17. [Laparoscopic abdominal drainage by sterile destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L

    2009-01-01

    90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.

  18. Soft tissue coverage in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal wall defects requiring soft tissue coverage can be either partial-thickness defects or full-thickness composite defects. Soft tissue flap reconstruction offers significant advantages in defects that cannot be closed primarily. Flap reconstruction is performed in a single-stage procedure obviating chronic wound management. If the defect size exceeds the availability of local soft tissue for coverage, regional pedicled flaps can be delivered into the abdominal wall while maintaining blood supply from their donor site. Microsurgical free tissue transfer increases the capacity to provide soft tissue coverage for abdominal wall defects that are not amenable to either local or regional flap coverage.

  19. Intra-abdominal bleeding in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S

    1991-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.

  20. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  1. The cost of screening radiographs after stable fracture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Tufescu, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently up to 58% of Canadian surgeons would forego screening radiographs after stable fracture fixation. It is therefore expected that reducing screening radiographs will be well accepted, provided that patient safety is not compromised, resulting in a cost reduction. The study objective was to measure the savings of a simplified radiographic protocol for well-fixed fractures and establish feasibility for a noninferiority trial that proves patient safety. Methods Patients were randomized after fixation. The control group received screening radiographs immediately after fixation and at 2 weeks. The experimental group received radiographs only when clinically indicated. At 6 weeks all patients received radiographs. The cost of imaging, time spent in clinic and patient satisfaction was measured. A blinded reviewer documented adverse events, either detected or missed. Results Of the 90 patients screened, 39 were randomized and 26 had complete follow-up. The mean cost of radiographs over the first 6 weeks was $44.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 38.64–50.38) per patient in the experimental group, and $129.23 (95% CI 120.23–138.23) in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean time spent in clinic at 2 weeks was 46 min (95% CI 32–60) per patient for the experimental group and 68 min (95% CI 55–81) for the control group (p = 0.018). Two complications occurred in the experimental group. Both were detected clinically and did not qualify as missed events. Conclusion Implementing a simplified radiography protocol after stable fracture fixation saves time and money. Additionally, no adverse events were missed with the study protocol. Recommendations are made toward a noninferiority trial to establish protocol safety. PMID:28234590

  2. Radiographic dental implants recognition for geographic evaluation in human identification.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lusito, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2008-06-01

    Dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation with fixed crown or mobile partial/total dentures is a very common oral treatment among the population in Italy as elsewhere. There is a great number of implant systems of different designs. However, a catalogue of radiographic images and a description of the dental implants available in Italy would be useful in order to identify the manufacturer and the type of implant encountered in forensic casework. When an unidentified body is found with one or more implants in the jaws, and no dental record is available, clues gleaned from the type of implants used could give direction to the investigation. In this study Italian implant manufactures were contacted and asked to provide specimen implants. Digital radiographs were taken of all the implants donated at 0º, 30º, and 60º horizontal rotation, combined with -20º, -10º, 0º, +10º, and +20º vertical inclination relative to the radiographic beam and the X-ray sensor. A total of 15 images per implant were taken and examined to identify consistent, unique features that would aid in implant recognition. Only those observations made from radiographs between -10º and +10º vertical inclination would ever be used for definite identification of any implant. The information from this study should be considered a survey of the commercial distribution of dental implants in Italy through their digital radiographic images. It is also a starting point for a wider geographical evaluation of different manufacturers in other countries and continents. The radiographic images provided should help both the forensic odontologist and the prosthodontist to identify pre-existing implants which they may discover from their radiographic images.

  3. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    PubMed Central

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; e Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assunção; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. Materials and Methods This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. Results The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of alveolar domes between the maxillary first and second molars. Considering the maxillary first and second molars, it was observed that the palatal root presented a lower prevalence of alveolar domes when compared to the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study coined the term 'alveolar dome', referring to the anatomical projection of the root into the floor of the maxillary sinus. The maxillary first and second molars presented a greater prevalence of alveolar domes, especially in the buccal roots, followed by the third molars and second pre-molars. Although the periapical radiograph is a two-dimensional method, it can provide dentists with the auxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment. PMID:27672614

  4. Should axial spondyloarthritis without radiographic changes be treated with anti-TNF agents?

    PubMed

    Keat, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander N; Gaffney, Karl; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Sengupta, Raj; Everiss, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    A spectrum of disease extends beyond the rigid confines of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) encompasses non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA) in individuals without established radiographic changes but with other clinical/imaging axSpA features and AS in those with definite sacroiliac joint changes on pelvic X-rays. A broad consensus about the management of nr-axSpA is emerging among clinicians, but the evidence base remains open to question. To explore whether nr-axSpA and AS should be treated similarly, we examined the literature on their prevalence, natural history, disease burden, and treatment. There is strong evidence that nr-axSpA and AS are expressions of the same disease. Approximately 10% of patients with nr-axSpA will develop radiographic disease over 2 years; after >20 years, the figure may exceed 80%. Nr-axSpA patients have lower CRP and less spinal inflammation on MRI than AS patients but similar disease activity, pain, and quality-of-life impairment. Most patients with nr-axSpA manage well with conservative treatment, but a minority has severe disabling symptoms. Anti-TNF therapy has demonstrated similar efficacy and safety in nr-axSpA and AS. Current evidence does not clearly indicate that anti-TNF treatment can inhibit or limit bony progression of AS, the basis of conservative and anti-TNF treatment is control of symptoms and function. For some patients with nr-axSpA, the need for powerful treatments is as great as in some with AS; thus, treatment of axSpA should be consistent across the axSpA spectrum with anti-TNF agents being available, irrespective of radiographic change, according to the same criteria as those applied to AS.

  5. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a disorder linked to the chromosome X long arm (Xq27.3), which is identified by a constriction named fragile site. It determines various changes, such as behavioral or emotional problems, learning difficulties, and intellectual disabilities. Craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated and narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, large and prominent ear pavilions, strabismus, and myopia are frequent characteristics. Regarding the oral aspects, deep and high-arched palate, mandibular prognathism, and malocclusion are also observed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: The patients were in the range of 6–17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. Results: The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05). In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%), giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%), and partial anodontia (1.82%) were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals. PMID:27812623

  6. Modulation of ADPase and t-PA release by radiographic contrast media in bovine aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Togna, A R; Zappacosta, B; Giardina, B; Togna, G

    1997-05-01

    Vascular endothelial injuries induced by intravascular administration of radiographic contrast agents may be clinically relevant to the development of thrombosis and platelet activation. In this connection, we investigated the in vitro effects induced by iodamide, iopamidol, and ioxaglate on vascular endothelial ADPase activity and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in bovine aortic endothelium, in order to extend knowledge required to evaluate endothelial compatibility of radiographic contrast media. Undiluted and Tris-diluted contrast agent formulations were employed, and mannitol and sucrose hyperosmolar solutions were used as comparison. Results demonstrated that the high-osmolar ionic contrast agent iodamide, and to a lesser extent, the low-osmolar nonionic agent iopamidol, stimulated endothelial ADPase activity of the aortic endothelium; the low-osmolar ionic agent ioxaglate left endothelial ADPase activity unchanged. Furthermore, the diluted formulations of iodamide and iopamidol, as well as high-osmolar mannitol and sucrose solutions, were devoid of activity in ADPase. This suggests that the endothelial ADPase stimulation induced by both radiographic contrast media was a hyperosmolar-independent pharmacodynamic activity. Iopamidol and ioxaglate reduced endogenous t-PA release from bovine aortic endothelium only in undiluted formulation, while iodamide showed this inhibiting action in both diluted and undiluted formulations. No effect was observed when using mannitol solutions at different osmolarity values. Our in vitro findings agree with published data on the different thrombotic tendency attributed to the contrast agents used, suggesting endothelial enzymatic activities (ADPase and t-PA release) as suitable tools for evaluating endothelial vessel wall compatibility with radiographic contrast media.

  7. Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Aortic aneurysm is not common in young patient. When a young patient presents with abdominal aortic aneurysm, there may be an underlying cause. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of a 33-year-old gentleman who presented with flu like illness, chest and abdominal pains following a tooth extraction. A chest X-ray and subsequent computerised tomogram of the chest and abdomen demonstrated lung nodules and an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm was repaired and his serology was positive for Wegener's granulomatosis. A nasal mucosal biopsy confirmed WG. He was treated with oral steroids and cyclophosphamide. His graft leaked and had to be replaced with a synthetic graft. Two months after his re-operation, he remains well. Conclusion Whenever a young patient presents with an abdominal aortic aneurysm, an underlying connective disease should be excluded because early steroid/immunosuppressive treatment may prevent the development of further aneurysms. PMID:20066062

  8. Computer Tomography Imaging Findings of Abdominal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma: A Report of 5 Cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Xin-Ke; Chen, Rui-Ying; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Lv, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a neoplasm that arises from follicular dendritic cells. FDCSs originating in the abdomen are extremely rare. Clinically, they often mimic a wide variety of other abdominal tumors, and correct preoperative diagnosis is often a challenging task. To date, only scattered cases of abdominal FDCS have been reported and few data are available on their radiological features. Here we present the computer tomography imaging findings of 5 patients with surgically and pathologically demonstrated abdominal FDCS. An abdominal FDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis when single or multiple masses with relatively large size, well- or ill-defined borders, complex internal architecture with marked internal necrosis and/or focal calcification, and heterogeneous enhancement with "rapid wash-in and slow wash-out" or "progressive enhancement" enhancement patterns in the solid component are seen.

  9. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  10. Percutaneous Zenith endografting for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Kamaldeep S; Resnick, Scott A; Matsumura, Jon S; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K

    2009-03-01

    A completely percutaneous approach to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endografting has the theoretic benefits of being minimally invasive and more expedient. Our goal was to demonstrate the utility of this approach using a suprarenal fixation device and a suture-mediated closure system. We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent percutaneous AAA repair with the Zenith device between August 2003 and March 2007. Immediate and delayed access-related outcomes were examined over a mean follow-up of 12.1+/-2.0 months. Mean AAA size was 5.6 cm. Immediate arterial closure and technical success rate was 96% (27/28 vessels). One immediate hemostatic failure required open surgical repair. Over follow-up, one vessel required operative repair for new-onset claudication. No other immediate or delayed complications (thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, infection, or deep venous thrombosis) were detected. A percutaneous approach for the treatment of AAA has several advantages over femoral artery cutdown but also has its own unique set of risks in the immediate and late postoperative period. Ultimately, the "preclose technique" can be safely applied for the Zenith device despite its large-bore delivery system.

  11. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D.; Wright, Katherine L.; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) “fingerprinting” technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Results Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). Conclusion A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that

  12. Unexplained heterochromia. Intraocular foreign body demonstrated by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Barr, C C; Vine, A K; Martonyi, C L

    1984-01-01

    Standard radiographic techniques are often inadequate in demonstrating the presence and location of intraocular foreign bodies. Computerized axial tomography was used to confirm the presence of a metallic foreign body in a patient with heterochromia iridis and suspected ocular siderosis in whom no foreign material was found by conventional examination methods.

  13. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of abdominal aneurysms have an excessively thick wall that sometimes involve duodenum, cava or colon by an inflammatory process. Between February 1986 and December 1992, 147 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated surgically and in 13 (8.8%) the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Their mean age was 67.3 years (70.1 years in non inflammatory group) and all were symptomatics initially (abdominal pain in 53%, rupture in 23%, mass in 15%). The operative mortality for elective resection was 37% in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) decreasing to 9% in the AAA group without inflammatory involvement. We conclude that surgery is indicated in these patients to prevent rupture and to hasten the subsidense of inflammatory process ever with postoperative morbi-mortality increased.

  14. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.

  15. Etanercept for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rios Rodriguez, Valeria; Poddubnyy, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Presently, tumor necrosis factor α antagonist therapy is the only effective alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the entire spectrum of axial spondyloarthritis, including non-radiographic and radiographic (=ankylosing spondylitis) forms. Recently, etanercept has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis, increasing the number of available treatment options for this indication. The latest data on etanercept concerning clinical efficacy and safety in short-term and long-term treatment of patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who do not respond to the first-line therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggests good efficacy and safety profiles similar to that observed previously in ankylosing spondylitis. This article reviews recent data on the efficacy and safety of etanercept and is focused on the treatment of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. This article will also discuss the role of etanercept in the context of current and developing treatment options.

  16. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karla K.; Marom, Edith M.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C.; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists’ memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists’ memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists’ memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists’ expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability. PMID:26870748

  17. Radiologists remember mountains better than radiographs, or do they?

    PubMed

    Evans, Karla K; Marom, Edith M; Godoy, Myrna C B; Palacio, Diana; Sagebiel, Tara; Cuellar, Sonia Betancourt; McEntee, Mark; Tian, Charles; Brennan, Patrick C; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-01-01

    Expertise with encoding material has been shown to aid long-term memory for that material. It is not clear how relevant this expertise is for image memorability (e.g., radiologists' memory for radiographs), and how robust over time. In two studies, we tested scene memory using a standard long-term memory paradigm. One compared the performance of radiologists to naïve observers on two image sets, chest radiographs and everyday scenes, and the other radiologists' memory with immediate as opposed to delayed recognition tests using musculoskeletal radiographs and forest scenes. Radiologists' memory was better than novices for images of expertise but no different for everyday scenes. With the heterogeneity of image sets equated, radiologists' expertise with radiographs afforded them better memory for the musculoskeletal radiographs than forest scenes. Enhanced memory for images of expertise disappeared over time, resulting in chance level performance for both image sets after weeks of delay. Expertise with the material is important for visual memorability but not to the same extent as idiosyncratic detail and variability of the image set. Similar memory decline with time for images of expertise as for everyday scenes further suggests that extended familiarity with an image is not a robust factor for visual memorability.

  18. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  19. Selective Nonoperative Management of Abdominal Stab Wounds.

    PubMed

    Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Ashragian, Sogol; Liou, Doug Z; Barmparas, Galinos; Chung, Rex; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Stab wounds (SW) to the abdomen traditionally require urgent exploration when associated with shock, evisceration, or peritonitis. Hemodynamically stable patients without evisceration may benefit from serial exams even with peritonitis. We compared patients taken directly to the operating room with abdominal SWs (ED-OR) to those admitted for serial exams (ADMIT). We retrospectively reviewed hemodynamically stable patients presenting with any abdominal SW between January 2000 and December 2012. Exclusions included evidence of evisceration, systolic blood pressure ≤110 mm Hg, or blood transfusion. NON-THER was defined as abdominal exploration without identification of intra-abdominal injury requiring repair. Of 142 patients included, 104 were ED-OR and 38 were ADMIT. When ED-OR was compared with ADMIT, abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score was higher (2.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.01) and hospital length of stay was longer (4.8 vs 3.3 days; P = 0.04). Incidence of NON-THER was higher in ED-OR cohort (71% vs 13%; P ≤ 0.001). In a regression model, ED-OR was a predictor of NON-THER (adjusted odds ratio 16.6; P < 0.001). One patient from ED-OR expired after complications from NON-THER. There were no deaths in the ADMIT group. For those patients with abdominal SWs who present with systolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg, no blood product transfusion in the emergency department and lacking evisceration, admission for serial abdominal exams may be preferred regardless of abdominal exam.

  20. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  1. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  2. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sourabh; Qamar, Arman; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Alka

    2011-01-01

    An arterial aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation of a blood vessel with respect to the original artery. The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) increases dramatically in the presence of the following factors: age older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension and Caucasian ethnicity. The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by the aneurysm size, expansion rate, continued smoking and persistent hypertension. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed for other purposes. It can also present with abdominal pain or complications such as thrombosis, embolization and rupture. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic AAAs are discovered as a pulsatile abdominal mass on routine physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography is considered the screening modality of choice for detecting AAAs because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as its safety and relatively lower cost. The decision to screen for AAAs is challenging. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that men between the age of 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked should be screened at least once for AAAs by abdominal ultrasonography. Management options for patients with an asymptomatic AAA include reduction of risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia; medical therapy with beta-blockers; watchful waiting; endovascular stenting; and surgical repair depending on the size and expansion rate of the aneurysm and underlying comorbidities. PMID:21523201

  4. Comparisons of NIF convergent ablation simulations with radiograph data.

    PubMed

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Koch, J A; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    A technique for comparing simulation results directly with radiograph data from backlit capsule implosion experiments will be discussed. Forward Abel transforms are applied to the kappa*rho profiles of the simulation. These provide the transmission ratio (optical depth) profiles of the simulation. Gaussian and top hat blurs are applied to the simulated transmission ratio profiles in order to account for the motion blurring and imaging slit resolution of the experimental measurement. Comparisons between the simulated transmission ratios and the radiograph data lineouts are iterated until a reasonable backlighter profile is obtained. This backlighter profile is combined with the blurred, simulated transmission ratios to obtain simulated intensity profiles that can be directly compared with the radiograph data. Examples will be shown from recent convergent ablation (backlit implosion) experiments at the NIF.

  5. Intelligent segmentation of industrial radiographic images using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Parker, Graham A.

    1994-10-01

    An application of machine vision, incorporating neural networks, which aims to fully automate real-time radiographic inspection in welding process is described. The current methodology adopted comprises two distinct stages - the segmentation of the weld from the background content of the radiographic image, and the segmentation of suspect defect areas inside the weld region itself. In the first stage, a back propagation neural network has been employed to adaptively and accurately segment the weld region from a given image. The training of the network is achieved with a single image showing a typical weld in the run which is to be inspected, coupled with a very simple schematic weld 'template'. The second processing stage utilizes a further backpropagation network which is trained on a test set of image data previously segmented by a conventional adaptive threshold method. It is shown that the two techniques can be combined to fully segment radiographic weld images.

  6. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  7. Registration of dental atlas to radiographs for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Chen, Hong

    2005-03-01

    The human dental atlas contains a detailed description of each tooth in the mouth and their relative positions. Registering a dental radiograph to the dental atlas reveals the position and index of each tooth in the radiograph. This helps in establishing the correspondence of teeth when matching two radiographs for human identification. We propose a hidden Markov model (HMM) as an underlying representation of the dental atlas. In our model, the states representing the available teeth have discrete observations, namely the class of each tooth, and the states representing the missing teeth have continuous observations-the distance between neighboring teeth. To classify the teeth, three support vector machines (SVMs) using different feature sets are combined using the average fusion method. Experimental results show that this registration algorithm is promising.

  8. Cemented total hip prosthesis: Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Aliabadi, P.; Tumeh, S.S.; Weissman, B.N.; McNeil, B.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Conventional radiographs, technetium-99m bone scans, and gallium-67 scans were reviewed in 44 patients who had undergone cemented total hip joint replacement and were imaged because of suspicion of prosthesis loosening or infection. A complete radiolucent line of 2 mm or wider along the bone-cement interface or metal-cement lucency on conventional radiographs was used as the criterion for prosthetic loosening with or without infection and proved to be 54% sensitive and 96% specific. Scintigraphic criteria for prosthetic loosening were increased focal uptake of the radiopharmaceutical for the femoral component and increased focal or diffuse uptake for the acetabular component. For bone scintigraphy, sensitivity was 73% and specificity was 96%. Combining the results of conventional radiographs and bone scans increased sensitivity to 84% and decreased specificity to 92% for the diagnosis of loosening, infection, or both. The study also showed that Ga-67 scintigraphy has a low sensitivity for the detection of infection.

  9. Bone texture analysis on dental radiographic images: results with several angulated radiographs on the same region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouriq, Yves; Guedon, Jeanpierre; Normand, Nicolas; Arlicot, Aurore; Benhdech, Yassine; Weiss, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Bone microarchitecture is the predictor of bone quality or bone disease. It can only be measured on a bone biopsy, which is invasive and not available for all clinical situations. Texture analysis on radiographs is a common way to investigate bone microarchitecture. But relationship between three-dimension histomorphometric parameters and two-dimension texture parameters is not always well known, with poor results. The aim of this study is to performed angulated radiographs of the same region of interest and see if a better relationship between texture analysis on several radiographs and histomorphometric parameters can be developed. Computed radiography images of dog (Beagle) mandible section in molar regions were compared with high-resolution micro-CT (Computed-Tomograph) volumes. Four radiographs with 27° angle (up, down, left, right, using Rinn ring and customized arm positioning system) were performed from initial radiograph position. Bone texture parameters were calculated on all images. Texture parameters were also computed from new images obtained by difference between angulated images. Results of fractal values in different trabecular areas give some caracterisation of bone microarchitecture.

  10. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  11. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). Purpose To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Methods Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Results Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Conclusions Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR. PMID:26229619

  12. Radiographic Outcomes of Volar Locked Plating for Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mignemi, Megan E.; Byram, Ian R.; Wolfe, Carmen C.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koehler, Elizabeth A.; Block, John J.; Jordanov, Martin I.; Watson, Jeffry T.; Weikert, Douglas R.; Lee, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of volar locked plating to achieve and maintain normal radiographic parameters for articular stepoff, volar tilt, radial inclination, ulnar variance, and radial height in distal radius fractures. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 185 distal radius fractures that underwent volar locked plating with a single plate design over a 5-year period. We reviewed radiographs and recorded measurements for volar tilt, radial inclination, ulnar variance, radial height, and articular stepoff. We used logistic regression to determine the association between return to radiographic standard norms and fracture type. Results At the first and final postoperative follow-up visits, we observed articular congruence less than 2 mm in 92% of fractures at both times. Normal volar tilt (11°) was restored in 46% at the first follow-up and 48% at the final one. Radial inclination (22°) was achieved in 44% at the first follow-up and 43% at the final one, and ulnar variance (01 ± 2 mm) was achieved in 53% at the first follow-up and 53% at the final one. In addition, radial height (14 ± 1mm) was restored in 14% at the first follow-up and 12% at the final one. More complex, intra-articular fractures (AO class B and C and Frykman types 3, 4, 7, and 8) were less likely to be restored to normal radiographic parameters. However, because of the small sample size for some fracture types, it was difficult to discover significant associations between fracture type and radiographic outcome. Conclusions Volar locked plating for distal radius fractures achieved articular stepoff less than 2 mm in most fractures but only restored and maintained normal radiographic measurements for volar tilt, radial inclination, and ulnar variance in 50% of fractures. The ability of volar locked plating to restore and maintain ulnar variance and volar tilt decreased with more complex intra-articular fracture types. PMID:23218558

  13. Abdominal wall Type-I complex regional pain syndrome treated effectively with peripheral nerve field stimulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linqiu; Chou, Henry; Holder, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a well-documented complication of abdominal surgery. However, abdominal wall complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare medical condition. We present a case of abdominal wall CRPS and its treatment with peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNfS). A 34-year-old female presented with right periumbilical pain for 2 years. She developed burning, sharp and stabbing pain with allodynia (extremely sensitive to wind and light touch) and erythema or pallor 2 weeks after an exploratory appendectomy. The extensive evaluation ruled out the underlining pathology. After she failed conservative therapies, she underwent a 7-day trial of thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and abdominal wall PNfS. Thoracic SCS failed to provide pain relief; however, PNfS provided significant relief (>90%) of burning sensation. It has now been 5 years since the PNfS was implanted and she continues to demonstrate substantial pain relief. PMID:28044002

  14. Digital image processing of cephalometric radiographs: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P H; Dickson, G C; Birnie, D J

    1985-07-01

    The principles of image capture, image storage and image processing in digital radiology are described. The enhancement of radiographic images using digital image processing techniques and its application to cephalometry is discussed. The results of a pilot study which compared some common cephalometric measurements made from manual point identification with those made by direct digitization of digital radiographic images from video monitors are presented. Although in an early stage of development, the results from the image processing system were comparable with those obtained by traditional methods.

  15. [Clinical radiographic features of basilar impression (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Scotti, G; Redaelli, M R

    1978-09-01

    After a review of the literature and an analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of basilar impression (b.i.) the authors describe 27 personal cases. In 6 b.i. was present in its pure form and in 21 it was associated with other anomalies at the cranio-vertebral junction. Because of the frequent misdiagnosis with multiple sclerosis or other chronic neurologic diseases and because of the possible improvement of symptoms following decompressive occipital craniectomy and cervical laminectomy, the importance of a correct and complete radiographic study of the cranio-vertebral junction in these cases is stressed.

  16. Automated thresholding in radiographic image for welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazid, Haniza; Arof, Hamzah; Yazid, Hafizal

    2012-03-01

    Automated detection of welding defects in radiographic images becomes non-trivial when uneven illumination, contrast and noise are present. In this paper, a new surface thresholding method is introduced to detect defects in radiographic images of welding joints. In the first stage, several image processing techniques namely fuzzy c means clustering, region filling, mean filtering, edge detection, Otsu's thresholding and morphological operations method are utilised to locate the area in which defects might exist. This is followed by the implementation of inverse surface thresholding with partial differential equation to locate isolated areas that represent the defects in the second stage. The proposed method obtained a promising result with high precision.

  17. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  18. Radiographic kidney measurements in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hackendahl, Nicole C; Citino, Scott B

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of chronic renal disease is substantial among captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The purpose of this study was to determine kidney measurements from radiographs of captive cheetahs (n = 15) with normal renal function. The ratio of kidney length to length of the body of the second lumbar vertebrae has been established for domestic cats with normal renal function. The mean ratio of renal length to length of the second lumbar vertebra was 1.81 +/- 0.14 in cheetahs. This baseline data may allow an objective evaluation of radiographic kidney size in cheetahs. However, evaluation of a small number of cheetahs with confirmed renal failure resulted in a similar ratio.

  19. Linear densitometry and digital image processing of proximal femur radiographs: implications for archaeological and forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Macchiarelli, R; Bondioli, L

    1994-01-01

    Age- and sex-related patterns of proximal femur trabecular bone loss have previously been used to establish radiographic reference standards for estimating age at death for human skeletal remains. Such standards are of interest to both anthropologists and forensic scientists. However, osteopenia as a physiological phenomenon is dependent on numerous genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. Thus, while general age- and sex-related trends can be clearly observed for trabecular bone loss, such patterns also demonstrate marked variation among individuals of both sexes at all ages. Moreover, clinical evidence shows that rates of bone loss are not steady but episodic, and that radiographically "normal" (i.e., young adult) patterns of trabecular bone architecture can also exist in femora of older individuals, particularly within samples of African origin. In this study, adult proximal femur radiographs were used to explore patterns of age- and sex-related proximal femur cancellous bone involution among a sample of 66 African-American individuals from the Terry collection (33 males and 33 females), ranging in age from 19 to 71 years. The proximal femur radiographs of these subjects were analyzed by digital image processing (DIP), and the results were compared to those obtained by laser linear densitometric analyses (LDA) previously performed on the same series (Macchiarelli et al., 1987). Results of LDA and DIP analyses indicate (a) more pronounced bone density decrease in females; (b) sex- and site-specific structural patterns of proximal femur trabecular bone loss; (c) a high level of individual variability, in which predicted age deviated from real age by as much as 22.26 (males) and 30.78 years (females); (d) a moderate linear correlation with age for all the variables analyzed; and (e) an average discrepancy between known age and predicted age (measured by root mean squared residual values) of 10.34 (males) and 12.71 years (females) for the most satisfactory DIP

  20. [INFLUENCE OF THE INTRA-ABDOMINAL HYPERTENSION ON THE BLOOD COAGULATION SYSTEM (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY)].

    PubMed

    Turgunov, Y; Matyushko, D; Nurbekov, A; Kaliyeva, D; Alibekov, A

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of the influence of the intra-abdominal hypertension on the blood coagulation system by carrying out an experimental research with laboratory animals is presented in article. After simulating intra-abdominal hypertension with different degree and exposition we made the laboratory research of blood coagulation system (fibrinogen, PTI, SFMC, APTT) and ELISA research on the concentration of the modern marker of thrombozis - D-dimer. The results in article clearly demonstrate that there is a direct linear dependence of level of fibrinogen and SFMC on degree of intra-abdominal hypertension, and the multidirectional changes of indicators with increase of intra-abdominal hypertension duration - towards hypercoagulation for 3-12 hours, and then by 24 o'clock - in the opposite direction towards hypocoagulation. Perhaps, it is explained with development of organ dysfunction and a coagulopathy of consumption. Indicator D-dimer has also direct linear dependence on the intra-abdominal hypertension level with contents peak at 3 hour exposition, and at all intra-abdominal hypertension levels, more than 2-fold rise of D-dimer level is statistically significant.