Science.gov

Sample records for abdominal sagittal diameter

  1. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H. S.; Rissanen, H.; Bullard, K. M.; Knekt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; ‘abdominal height’ measured in supine position) may improve upon conventional anthropometry for predicting incident cardiometabolic diseases. However, the SAD is used infrequently by practitioners and epidemiologists. A representative survey of Finnish adults in 2000–2001 collected body measurements including SAD (by sliding-beam calliper) using standardized protocols. Sampled non-pregnant adults (ages 30+ years; 79% participation) provided 6123 SAD measurements from 80 health centre districts. Through stratified, complex survey design, these data represented 2.86 million adults at ages 30+ years. SAD ranged from 13.5 to 38.0 cm, with a population mean (standard error) of 21.7 (0.05) cm and median (interquartile range) of 21.0 (19.1–23.4). Median SAD was higher at ages 50+ years compared with ages 30–49 both for men (22.4 [20.5–24.6] vs. 20.8 [19.3–22.7]) and women (21.7 [19.6–23.9] vs. 19.4 [17.8–21.4]). The SAD/height ratio was similar (0.118) for both sexes at 30–39 years, rising more steeply with age for women than men. Attaining only a basic education, compared with a high level, was associated with increased mean (95% confidence interval) SADs for men (22.6 [22.3–22.8] vs. 22.0 [21.7–22.2]) and women (21.8 [21.5–22.0] vs. 20.6 [20.4–20.8]). Finland’s early experience with nationally representative SAD measurements provides normative reference values and physiological insights useful for investigations of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25826163

  2. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population—Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta S. L.; Forti, Adriana C. e; Vilela, Brunna S.; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. Methods A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. Results After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population. PMID:25951458

  3. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r = 0.144, p = 0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.172, p = 0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.130, p = 0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.147, p = 0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r = 0.184, p = 0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p = 0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23536999

  4. The sagittal diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal in normal adult Nigerians.

    PubMed Central

    Amonoo-Kuofi, H S

    1985-01-01

    An osteometric study of the anteroposterior diameter of the lumbar vertebral canal and intervertebral foramina of normal adult Nigerians is reported. The results show that the midsagittal diameter of the canal is subject to racial variations, and is determined primarily by the thickness and orientation of the lamina and to a lesser extent by the height of the pedicle. The significance of the findings is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:4066472

  5. Evaluation of different screw fixation techniques and screw diameters in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: finite element analysis method.

    PubMed

    Sindel, A; Demiralp, S; Colok, G

    2014-09-01

    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is used for correction of numerous congenital or acquired deformities in facial region. Several techniques have been developed and used to maintain fixation and stabilisation following SSRO application. In this study, the effects of the insertion formations of the bicortical different sized screws to the stresses generated by forces were studied. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis (FEA) and static linear analysis methods were used to investigate difference which would occur in terms of forces effecting onto the screws and transmitted to bone between different application areas. No significant difference was found between 1·5- and 2-mm screws used in SSRO fixation. Besides, it was found that 'inverted L' application was more successful compared to the others and that was followed by 'L' and 'linear' formations which showed close rates to each other. Few studies have investigated the effect of thickness and application areas of bicortical screws. This study was performed on both advanced and regressed jaws positions.

  6. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  7. Abdominal Aortic Diameter and Vascular Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Gail A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Jensky, Nicole; Aboyans, Victor; Wong, Nathan D.; Detrano, Robert; Criqui, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into early mechanisms of aortic widening, we examined associations between the diameter of the abdominal aorta (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and biomarkers, as well as measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, in a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional cohort Methods A total of 1926 participants (mean age 62, 50% women) underwent chest and abdomen scanning by computed tomography, ultrasound of the carotid arteries, and CVD risk factor assessment. AD was measured 5 cm above and at the bifurcation. Results In a model containing traditional CVD risk factors, biomarkers and ethnicity, only age (standardized β=0.97), male sex (β=1.88), body surface area (standardized β=0.92), current smoking (β=0.42), D-dimer levels (β=0.19) and hypertension (β=0.53) were independently and significantly associated with increasing AD (in mm) at the bifurcation; use of cholesterol-lowering medications predicted smaller AD (β=-0.70) (P<.01 for all). These findings were similar for AD 5 cm above the bifurcation with one exception: compared to Caucasian-Americans, Americans of Chinese, African and Hispanic descent had significantly smaller AD 5 cm above the bifurcation (β's= -0.59, -0.49, and -0.52, respectively, all P<.01), whereas AD at the bifurcation did not differ by ethnicity. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, diabetes and levels of IL-6, CRP and homocysteine were not independently associated with AD. Higher aortic and coronary artery calcium burden, but not common carotid artery intima-media thickness, were independently, but modestly (β=0.11 to 0.19), associated with larger AD. Conclusions Incremental widening of the aortic diameter shared some, but not all, risk factors for occlusive vascular disease. PMID:21236707

  8. Automated pediatric abdominal effective diameter measurements versus age-predicted body size for normalization of CT dose.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Phillip M; Vachon, Linda A; Duddalwar, Vinay A

    2013-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in adjusting CT radiation dose data for patient body size. A method for automated computation of the abdominal effective diameter of a patient from a CT image has previously only been tested in adult patients. In this work, we tested the method on a set of 128 pediatric patients aged 0.8 to 12.9 years (average 8.0 years, SD = 3.7 years) who had CT abdomen/pelvis exams performed on a Toshiba Aquilion 64 scanner. For this set of patients, age-predicted abdominal effective diameter extrapolated based on data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements was a relatively poor predictor of measured effective diameter. The mean absolute percentage error between the CTDI normalization coefficient calculated from a manually measured effective diameter and the coefficient determined by age-predicted effective diameter was 12.3 % with respect to a 32 cm phantom (range 0.0-52.8 %, SD 8.7 %) and 12.9 % with respect to a 16 cm phantom (range 0.0-56.4 %, SD 9.2 %). In contrast, there is a close correspondence between the automated and manually measured patient effective diameters, with a mean absolute error of 0.6 cm (error range 0.2-1.3 cm). This correspondence translates into a high degree of correspondence between normalization coefficients determined by automated and manual measurements; the mean absolute percentage error was 2.1 % with respect to a 32 cm phantom (range 0.0-8.1 %, SD = 1.4 %) and 2.3 % with respect to a 16 cm phantom (range 0.0-9.3 %, SD = 1.6 %).

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging with 3-D ultrasound: 3-D-based maximum diameter measurement and volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Long, A; Rouet, L; Debreuve, A; Ardon, R; Barbe, C; Becquemin, J P; Allaire, E

    2013-08-01

    The clinical reliability of 3-D ultrasound imaging (3-DUS) in quantification of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was evaluated. B-mode and 3-DUS images of AAAs were acquired for 42 patients. AAAs were segmented. A 3-D-based maximum diameter (Max3-D) and partial volume (Vol30) were defined and quantified. Comparisons between 2-D (Max2-D) and 3-D diameters and between orthogonal acquisitions were performed. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was evaluated. Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were less than 5.18 mm for Max3-D. Intra-observer and inter-observer CRs were respectively less than 6.16 and 8.71 mL for Vol30. The mean of normalized errors of Vol30 was around 7%. Correlation between Max2-D and Max3-D was 0.988 (p < 0.0001). Max3-D and Vol30 were not influenced by a probe rotation of 90°. Use of 3-DUS to quantify AAA is a new approach in clinical practice. The present study proposed and evaluated dedicated parameters. Their reproducibility makes the technique clinically reliable.

  10. New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

    2013-09-01

    In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

  11. Changes in abdominal aortic diameter in response to the cold pressor test and nitroglycerin: a new noninvasive model for the assessment of endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, Premindra Anthony N; Wijegunaratne, Kanishka; Farag, Kameel F; Nimalasuriya, Anoshie R; Mathews, Sajen J

    2009-11-01

    Coronary vascular responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) have been shown to parallel changes caused by infusion of acetylcholine. Whereas the CPT is a method of assessing endothelial-dependent vasodilation, nitroglycerin produces endothelial-independent vasodilation. We performed histological studies on autopsy specimens of abdominal aorta and demonstrated that it is predominantly muscular artery. To test the hypothesis that vasodilatory responses of the abdominal aorta to interventions would parallel those of peripheral vessels, 33 normal males without hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, and 10 younger male smokers had ultrasound imaging of the abdominal aorta conducted in the control state, 2 minutes after immersion of the hand in cold water and 10 minutes after rewarming the hand (i.e., cold pressor test). The internal diameter of the abdominal aorta at the onset of the QRS complex was determined for each intervention by averaging 4 beats. It was found that the cold pressor test and nitroglycerin resulted in similar degrees of dilation of the abdominal aorta in nonsmoking subjects, and that these responses were attenuated in smokers. Thus, both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular relaxation were impaired in smokers.

  12. Sagittal osteotomy of the patella after Morscher

    PubMed Central

    Pećina, Marko; Hudetz, Damir; Smoljanović, Tomislav; Janković, Saša

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present long-term results of sagittal osteotomy of the patella after Morscher. The study included 70 patients treated for patellar dysplasia with a postoperative follow-up from nine to 20 years. There were 59 females and 11 males with an average age of 21 years at the time of operation. Results were evaluated for the entire group of 70 patients and then presented separately for the 30 patients in whom sagittal osteotomy of the patella was performed as a single procedure and 40 patients in whom, in addition to sagittal osteotomy of the patella, medialisation and ventralisation or distalisation of the tibial tuberosity were also performed. The mean value of the Wiberg patellar angle was 112 degrees preoperatively and 140 degrees postoperatively. In the whole group of patients excellent results were obtained in 24 (35%), good results in 30 (42%), fair results in 13 (19%) and poor results in three (4%) patients. In 30 patients with sagittal osteotomy as a single operation excellent results were obtained in 13 (43%), good results in 14 (47%) and fair results in three (10%) patients, while in the 40 patients with sagittal osteotomy and additional surgical procedures, 11 (27%) were excellent, 16 (40%) good, ten (25%) fair and three (8%) had poor results. Sagittal osteotomy of the patella after Morscher is an enrichment of the spectrum of the secondary-causal and preventive procedures for the treatment of patello-femoral disorders. PMID:19998034

  13. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  14. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  15. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  16. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  17. Sagittal Balance in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xi-Ming; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Bai, Yu-Shu; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and pelvic parameters is well known in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, few studies have reported the sagittal spinopelvic relationship after selective posterior fusion of thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves. We evaluated the relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and the pelvis, and analyzed how the pelvic sagittal state is adjusted in Lenke type 5C patients. We conducted a retrospective study of 36 patients with Lenke type 5C curves who received selective posterior TL/L curve fusion. Coronal and spinopelvic sagittal parameters were pre and postoperatively compared. Pearson coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between all spinopelvic sagittal parameters before and after surgery. We also evaluated 3 pelvic morphologies (anteverted, normal, and retroverted) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, the mean pelvic incidence was 46.0°, with a pelvic tilt and sacral slope (SS) of 8.2° and 37.8°, respectively, and 25% (9/36) of patients had an anteverted pelvis, whereas the other 75% had a normal pelvis. Postoperatively, 42% (15/36) of patients had a retroverted pelvis, 53% (19/36) had a normal pelvis, and 2 patients had an anteverted pelvis. Logistic regression analyses yielded 2 factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a postoperative unrecovered anteverted pelvis, including increased lumbar lordosis (LL) (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, P = 0.029) and increased SS (OR 5.6, P = 0.018). Four factors were significantly associated with the risk of a postoperative newly anteverted pelvis, including LL at the final follow-up (OR 6.9, P = 0.009), increased LL (OR 8.9, P = 0.003), LL below fusion (OR 9.4, P = 0.002), and increased SS (OR 11.5, P = 0.001). The pelvic state may be adjusted after selective posterior TL/L curve fusion in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. It is difficult to improve an anteverted pelvis in patients who have

  18. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome with Sagittal Craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew S; Weathers, William M; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Bollo, Robert J; Hollier, Larry H; Buchanan, Edward P

    2015-06-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) is a rare disorder (the incidence is estimated at around 7/1,000,000) characterized by the clinical tetrad of chondrodystrophy, polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cardiac anomalies. Sagittal synostosis is characterized by a dolichocephalic head shape resulting from premature fusion of the sagittal suture. Both are rare disorders, which have never been reported together. We present a case of EVC and sagittal synostosis. We report the clinical features of a Hispanic boy with EVC and sagittal craniosynostosis who underwent cranial vault remodeling. The presentation of this patient is gone over in detail. A never before reported case of EVC and sagittal synostosis is presented in detail.

  19. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  20. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  1. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  2. CSF hydrodynamics in superior sagittal sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Markgren, P; Ekstedt, J

    1992-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method in patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations up to 15 years after the onset of the disease. A total of 70 CSF hydrodynamic examinations were performed. A clear increase in intracranial pressure due to raised pressure in the major dural sinus was seen in all patients. A striking feature was the persistent intracranial pressure increase that declined only gradually. This had no obvious clinical impact. Change in CSF resorption facility played only a minor role in the intracranial pressure elevation. None of the patients developed hydrocephalus. PMID:1583513

  3. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  4. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  5. Monitoring the Foetal Phase of Gestation in the Queen With a 12.5-MHz Ultrasound Probe and Prediction of the Parturition by Combining the Measurements of Head and Abdominal Diameters.

    PubMed

    Topie, E; Bencharif, D; Briand, L; Tainturier, D

    2015-08-01

    Ten gestations in six domestic shorthair cats (Europeans) were monitored daily during the foetal phase of gestation, from the 28th day after the first mating until parturition, using ultrasound with a 12.5-MHz probe. The development of the various organs over this period was recorded. The diameters of the head (HD) and abdomen (AD) were measured. Skeletal calcification visible on ultrasound occurred in a defined order between the 34th and 40th day of gestation. During the last 30 days of gestation, there was a significant correlation between HD and days before parturition (DBP) (r(2)  = 0.99) and between AD and DBP (r(2)  = 0.98). The following equations were obtained: DBP = -2.10*HD (mm) + 50.74; DBP = -1.01*AD (mm) + 42.19. The confidence intervals were stable over the last 30 days of gestation. For the HD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 53% of cases and ±2 days in 85% of cases. For the AD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 45% of cases and ±2 days in 77% of cases. A table obtained by combining the HD and AD measurements made it possible to estimate the date of parturition within 2 days with a reliability of over 85%.

  6. Sagittal Balance Correction in Lateral Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Gallizzi, Michael A.; Sheets, Charles; Smith, Benjamin T.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Eure, Megan; Brown, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sagittal balance restoration has been shown to be an important determinant of outcomes in corrective surgery for degenerative scoliosis. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is a less-invasive technique which permits the placement of a high lordosis interbody cage without risks associated with traditional anterior or transforaminal interbody techniques. Studies have shown improvement in lumbar lordosis following LIF, but only one other study has assessed sagittal balance in this population. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of LIF to restore sagittal balance in degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Methods Thirty-five patients who underwent LIF for degenerative thoracolumbar scoliosis from July 2013 to March 2014 by a single surgeon were included. Outcome measures included sagittal balance, lumbar lordosis, Cobb Angle, and segmental lordosis. Measures were evaluated pre-operative, immediately post-operatively, and at their last clinical follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess the differences between pre-operative, first postoperative, and a follow-up visit. Results The average sagittal balance correction was not significantly different: 1.06cm from 5.79cm to 4.74cm forward. The average Cobb angle correction was 14.1 degrees from 21.6 to 5.5 degrees. The average change in global lumbar lordosis was found to be significantly different: 6.3 degrees from 28.9 to 35.2 degrees. Conclusions This study demonstrates that LIF reliably restores lordosis, but does not significantly improve sagittal balance. Despite this, patients had reliable improvement in pain and functionality suggesting that sagittal balance correction may not be as critical in scoliosis correction as previous studies have indicated. Clinical Relevance LIF does not significantly change sagittal balance; however, clinical improvement does not seem to be contingent upon sagittal balance correction in the degenerative scoliosis population. The DUHS IRB has determined this

  7. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  8. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Developmental Instability in Sagittal Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Valerie Burke; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether premature sagittal craniosynostosis is associated with developmental instability in the skull by analyzing fluctuating asymmetry in skull shape. Design: Cranial shape was quantified by collecting coordinate data from landmarks located on three-dimensional reconstructions of preoperative computed tomography (CT) images of 22 children with sagittal craniosynostosis and 22 age-matched controls. A fluctuating asymmetry application of Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA) was used to quantify and compare asymmetry in cranial shape using these landmark data. Results: In contrast to expectations, the sagittal craniosynostosis group did not show a statistically significant increase in the overall level of fluctuating asymmetry relative to the control group. However, we discerned statistically significant localized increases in fluctuating asymmetry in the sagittal craniosynostosis group at pterion and the anterior clinoid processes (α = .05). We also determined a significant correlation of fluctuating asymmetry values between the two groups (r = .71). Conclusions: We conclude that there is no evidence of a role for system-wide developmental instability in the etiology of nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis. However, the localized evidence of asymmetry at the anterior clinoid processes in the sagittal synostosis group suggests an association with the tracts of dura mater that attach there. PMID:19254065

  9. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after neck injury.

    PubMed

    Beltsios, Michail; Savvidou, Olga; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kaspiris, Angelos; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-07-01

    The normal sagittal alignment of the cervical spine is lordotic and is affected by the posture of the head and neck. The question of whether loss of cervical lordosis is the result of muscle spasm after injury or a normal variation, and the clinical significance of such changes in sagittal profile of the cervical spine has been an issue of several studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the incidence of normal cervical lordosis and its changes after neck injury compared to the healthy population. We studied the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of 60 patients with neck injury compared to 100 patients without a neck injury. Lateral radiographs were obtained in the standing or sitting position, and the curvature of the cervical spine was measured using the angle formed between the inferior end plates of the C2 and C7 vertebrae. In the patients without neck injury, lordotic and straight cervical spine sagittal alignment was observed in 36.5% each, double curvature in 17%, and kyphotic in 10%. In the patients with neck injury, lordotic sagittal alignment was observed in 36%, straight in 34%, double curvature in 26% and kyphotic in 4%. No significant difference between the two groups regarding all types of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was found (p > 0.100). The alterations in normal cervical lordosis in patients with neck injury must be considered coincidental. These alterations should not be associated with muscle spasm caused by neck pain.

  10. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  11. Aneurysmal sizing after endovascular repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm: interobserver variability of various measurement protocols and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Abada, Hicham T; Sapoval, Marc R; Paul, Jean-François; de Maertelaer, Viviane; Mousseaux, Elie; Gaux, Jean-Claude

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the variability of various measurement protocols for measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the clinical relevance of variability. Three radiologists performed computed tomographic angiography measurements of both the aorta and the largest portion of the aneurysm on selected axial slices. Then measurements of the largest portion of the aneurysm were performed on unselected axial slices, sagittal and coronal reformatted. Finally, aortic volume was calculated. Measurements and volume calculation were performed before and after endovascular repair and assessed: Part 1: interobserver variability for maximum anteroposterior (MAP) and maximum transverse (MTR) diameters on selected slices; part 2: interobserver variability for unselected slices considering MAP and MTR; part 3: interobserver variability considering maximum diameter in any direction (MAD); part 4: interobserver variability for sagittal (SAG) and coronal (COR) free curved multiplanar reformation (MPR); and part 5: volume calculations. We then determined which technique of measurement was the most clinically relevant for detecting changes in aneurysm size or aortic volume. Parts 1 and 2: interobserver variability was 4.1 mm for both MAP and MTR; part 3: interobserver variability was 7 mm for MAD; part 4: interobserver variability was 5.5 mm (COR) and 4.9 mm (SAG); part 5: interobserver variability for volume was 5.5 ml. A combination of MAP and MTR was the most useful for detecting aortic modification. Volume calculation was needed in only a few cases. We recommend avoiding MAD and MPR measurements and suggest instead measuring both maximum anteroposterior and maximum transverse diameters. If aneurysm size remains stable after endovascular repair, aneurysm volume should be measured.

  12. Sagittal plane balancing in the total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Manson, Theodore T; Khanuja, Harpal S; Jacobs, Michael A; Hungerford, Marc W

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative stiffness or instability may result from a total knee arthroplasty imbalanced in the sagittal plane. Total knee arthroplasty instrumentation systems differ in the basic strategies used to assure this balance. In an anterior referencing system, changes in femoral size affect flexion gap tightness, and femoral size selection is paramount to assure sagittal plane balance. Conversely, in posterior referencing systems, femoral size changes do not affect the flexion gap but, rather, influence femoral component-patella articulation. Flexion/extension gap systems use calibrated spacer blocks to ensure gap balance but do not guarantee midrange stability; if used incorrectly, they may cause component malposition and joint line elevation. The authors reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of system types and provided system-specific troubleshooting guidelines for clinicians addressing intraoperative sagittal plane imbalance.

  13. Surgical Correction of Nonsyndromic Sagittal Craniosynostosis: Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew; Wong, Alison L; Bezuhly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sagittal craniosynostosis remains the most common type of isolated craniosynostosis, accounting for nearly half of all nonsyndromic cases. The clinical diagnosis is typically made on the basis of a scaphocephalic head shape and is confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The current review examines the major surgical options for correction of isolated sagittal craniosynostosis, including their complications and short- and long-term outcomes. Reconstructive techniques have benefited from advances in perioperative anesthesia monitoring and improved safety of blood transfusion. Although extensive calvarial remodeling is considered safe and may confer greater long-term skull shape correction and decreased neuropsychological sequelae, minimally invasive techniques, such as device-assisted expansion of the cranium continue to increase in popularity. This review underscores the need for additional prospective studies comparing different techniques to determine the optimal reconstructive approach for correction of sagittal craniosynostosis.

  14. Diffraction crystals for sagittally focusing x-rays

    DOEpatents

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1982-06-07

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  15. Diffraction crystal for sagittally focusing x-rays

    DOEpatents

    Ice, Gene E.; Sparks, Jr., Cullie J.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

  16. Percutaneous sagittal plane closing wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-02-01

    Osteotomy of the first metatarsal in the sagittal plane is useful in correction of numerous deformity of the foot. Plantarflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal can be used to treat hallux rigidus, hallux limitus, forefoot varus in flatfoot deformity and iatrogenic metatarsus primus elevates. Dorsiflexion osteotomy of the first metatarsal is an important component in surgical correction of pes cavus. It is also indicated in recalcitrant diabetic neuropathic ulcers at the first metatarsal head. We described a minimally invasive technique of sagittal plane corrective osteotomy of the first metatarsal, which can be either a plantarflexion or dorsiflexion one.

  17. Global sagittal axis: a step toward full-body assessment of sagittal plane deformity in the human body.

    PubMed

    Diebo, Bassel G; Oren, Jonathan H; Challier, Vincent; Lafage, Renaud; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Liu, Shian; Vira, Shaleen; Spiegel, Matthew Adam; Harris, Bradley Yates; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Henry, Jensen K; Errico, Thomas J; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Sagittal malalignment requires higher energy expenditure to maintain an erect posture. Because the clinical impact of sagittal alignment is affected by both the severity of the deformity and recruitment of compensatory mechanisms, it is important to investigate new parameters that reflect both disability level and compensatory mechanisms for all patients. This study investigated the clinical relevance of the global sagittal axis (GSA), a novel measure to evaluate the standing axis of the human body. METHODS This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent full-body radiographs and completed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society-22, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the visual analog scale for back and leg pain. The GSA was defined as the angle formed by a line from the midpoint of the femoral condyles to the center of C-7, and a line from the midpoint between the femoral condyles to the posterior superior corner of the S-1 sacral endplate. After evaluating the correlation of GSA/HRQOL with sagittal parameters, linear regression models were generated to investigate how ODI and GSA related to radiographic parameters (T-1 pelvic angle, pelvic retroversion, knee flexion, and pelvic posterior translation). RESULTS One hundred forty-three patients (mean age 44 years) were included. The GSA correlated significantly with all HRQOL (up to r = 0.6 with EQ-5D) and radiographic parameters (up to r = 0.962 with sagittal vertical axis). Regression between ODI and sagittal radiographic parameters identified the GSA as an independent predictor (r = 0.517, r(2) = 0.267; p < 0.001). Analysis of standardized coefficients revealed that when controlling for deformity, the GSA increased with a concurrent decrease in pelvic retroversion (-0.837) and increases in knee flexion (+0.287) and pelvic posterior translation (+0.193). CONCLUSIONS The GSA is a simple, novel measure to assess the standing axis of

  18. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  19. ARTICULATOR-RELATED REGISTRATION AND ANALYSIS OF SAGITTAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION.

    PubMed

    Cimić, Samir; Simunković, Sonja Kraljević; Suncana Simonić Kocijan; Matijević, Jurica; Dulcić, Niksa; Catić, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study sagittal condylar inclination values within a uniform sample (Angle class I occlusion) using 'articulator-related registration' and Camper's plane as a reference plane. The study was performed on a sample of 58 Angle class I subjects (mean age 25.1, SD 3.1). Measurements were performed with an ultrasonic jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. After a paraocclusal tray was fixed in the mouth, each subject had to make three protrusive movements and three right and left laterotrusive movements. From protrusive movements the software of the device automatically calculated the left and the right sagittal condylar inclination values used for setting of the articulator. The mean sagittal condylar inclinationvalue was 41.0° (SD 10.5) for the right joint and 40.7° (SD 9.8) for the left joint. The maximum value was 65.0° for the right and 68.6° for the left joint, and the minimum value was 13.7° for the right and 21.7° for the left joint. The results of this study suggested the average articulator setting for sagittal condylar inclination for fully dentate adult subjects to be 40° in relation to Camper's plane. This is especially important for the articulators that are set up in relation to Camper's plane.

  20. Gravitational forces and sagittal shape of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Duval-Beaupere, G.

    2007-01-01

    The sagittal morphology of the pelvis determines the amount of lordosis needed for each individual. The proper harmony of the sagittal spinal curves allows a stable balance, economical in terms of mechanical effects and muscular energy. A previous barycentremetrical laboratory study allowed us to demonstrate that the axis of gravity of the upper body segment was located behind the lumbar vertebrae and the femoral heads, thus ensuring economy and stability. The determination of the anatomical connection of the individual gravity is thus of primary importance for the evaluation of sagittal balance. Data for 42 patients without spinal pathology, previously evaluated by barycentremetry, were used to establish a predictive equation for the application point of the gravity at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3). This equation, using anthropometric and radiographic pelvic and spinal parameters, was integrated into a software program called Similibary. It was applied to the same 42 subjects. These results were compared in order to validate the method. No significant difference was observed between the two techniques. This easy-to-use tool allows a personalised evaluation of the sagittal balance of the spine, both through the evaluation of the harmonious relationship between the spinal curves and the pelvis, and through the location of gravity supported by the vertebral structures in L3. PMID:17653545

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  3. Influence of metopic suture fusion associated with sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Domeshek, Leahthan F; Das, Rajesh R; Van Aalst, John A; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2011-01-01

    Some patients with sagittal synostosis present with a fused metopic suture. We hypothesize that premature metopic suture fusion consistently and identifiably alters form associated with sagittal synostosis. We previously validated three-dimensional vector analysis as a tool for the study of cranial morphology and used it herein to distinguish between dysmorphologies of isolated sagittal synostosis (ISS) and combined sagittal-metopic synostosis (CSM). Preoperative computed tomographic scans for patients with ISS and CSM were compared with matched normative counterparts. Premature metopic suture fusion was defined by established radiographic criteria. Color-coded point clouds were created for each scan, with color gradient based on patient deviation from normal across the dysmorphic skull. Standard deviation data were evaluated in 7 cranial regions and compared between ISS and CSM. Mean ISS and CSM point clouds were evaluated. Using three-dimensional vector analysis, standard anthropometric data/indices were determined and compared between the 2 groups. Differences in ISS and CSM regional deviations and index measurements were not statistically significant. Mean ISS and CSM representations depicted similar overall morphology. Using accepted criteria for identification of metopic synostosis in CSM, only subtle differences appear between the 2 populations on average. Expected morphologic changes associated with metopic synostosis are present in only a small number of patients with CSM, arguing against our hypothesis, and calling into question the criteria used to identify premature metopic suture fusion. Normal metopic suture fusion occurs for a continuum of time. Our findings suggest that the normal continuum may begin earlier than the literature suggests. In the setting of sagittal synostosis, the influence of metopic suture fusion and treatment is best determined by individual morphologic analysis.

  4. Unilateral coronal synostosis: can we trust the sagittal suture as a landmark for the underlying superior sagittal sinus?

    PubMed

    Protzenko Cervante, Tatiana; Arnaud, Eric; Brunelle, Francis; Di Rocco, Federico

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The sagittal suture is usually considered an external anatomical landmark, indicating the location of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) for surgical approaches. Children with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) often present with an important deviation of the sagittal suture. Because these patients usually undergo frontal reconstruction or even endoscope-assisted minimally invasive procedures, it is imperative to know the location of the SSS. The aim of this investigation was to study the anatomical relationship between the SSS and the sagittal suture in children with anterior plagiocephaly. METHODS The authors retrospectively studied the relationship between the sagittal sinus and the sagittal suture at 5 points: nasion, midpoint nasion-bregma, bregma, midpoint bregma-lambda, and lambda. The study analyzed CT scans of 50 children with UCS admitted to the craniofacial unit of Necker Enfants Malades Hospital between March 2006 and March 2013 and compared them with 50 control children with no evidence of craniosynostosis, bone disease, or genetic syndromes. The authors also analyzed the presence of extracerebral fluid collection and ventricular asymmetry in children with UCS. RESULTS Fifty-six percent of patients had anterior right UCS and 44% had left-sided UCS. Type I UCS was seen in 1 patient, Type IIA in 20 patients, Type IIB in 20 patients, and Type III in 9 patients. The authors found that the nasion is usually deviated to the ipsilateral side of the synostosis, the bregma contralaterally, and the lambda ipsilaterally. The gap distances between the reference point and the SSS were 0-7.3 mm (mean 1.4 mm) at the nasion; 0-16.7 mm (mean 3.8 mm) at the midpoint nasion-bregma; 0-12 mm (mean 5.8 mm) at the bregma; 0-9.5 mm (mean 3 mm) at the midpoint bregma-lambda; and 0-11.6 mm (mean 5.5 mm) at the lambda. Conversely, a discrepancy of more than 1 mm between the SSS and the position of the suture was found only in 7 control cases (14%). Of patients with UCS

  5. Solar Diameter Latitude Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Laclare, F.

    The observing programs of the Sun for determining the fundamental system of reference enable, as a by-product, to measure the apparent solar diameter (Poppe, P.C.R. et al. 1996; Leister et al. 1996; Laclare et al. 1991). The diameter obtained at the Calern Observatory (φ = 43-circ 44' 55''.9; λ = -0h 27m 42s.44) and at Abrahao de Moraes Observatory (OAM) (φ = -23-circ 00'6''.0; λ = 3h 07m 52s.22) was analyzed searching for periodicity evidences. For this we utilized the temporal methods CLEAN and CLEANEST. The analysis in function of heliographic latitude shows a dependence that may be correlated to mode of pulsation non-radial gravity. A discussion is made in terms of physical parameters like temperature luminosity and magnetic field involving the solar radius (Emilio M. 1997; Laclare et al. 1996).

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  7. Sagittal focusing of synchrotron x radiation with curved crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ice, G.E.; Wong, J.; Batterman, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the sagittal focusing of x rays with singly bent crystals that accept the meridian plane divergence from a similar but flat crystal to form a pair in a nondispersive two-crystal Bragg monochromator. Curved crystals can intercept from 5 to 20 times the sagittal divergence of curved mirrors at x-ray energies above 10 keV. Anticlastic (transverse) bending of the crystal is made negligible in the meridian plane with reinforcing ribs cut parallel to the plane of scattering. Results show that at energies of 10, 20, and 30 keV the bent crystal performs efficiently and images the source size at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source.

  8. Temporomandibular joint computed tomography: development of a direct sagittal technique

    SciTech Connect

    van der Kuijl, B.; Vencken, L.M.; de Bont, L.G.; Boering, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Different techniques are used with computed tomography offering simultaneous imaging of bone and soft tissues. It is therefore suited for visualization of the articular disk and may be used in patients with suspected internal derangements and other disorders of the temporomandibular joint. Previous research suggests advantages to direct sagittal scanning, which requires special positioning of the patient and a sophisticated scanning technique. This study describes the development of a new technique of direct sagittal computed tomographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint using a specially designed patient table and internal light visor positioning. No structures other than the patient's head are involved in the imaging process, and misleading artifacts from the arm or the shoulder are eliminated. The use of the scanogram allows precise correction of the condylar axis and selection of exact slice level.

  9. Sagittal plane deformity: an overview of interpretation and management.

    PubMed

    Roussouly, Pierre; Nnadi, Colin

    2010-11-01

    The impact of sagittal plane alignment on the treatment of spinal disorders is of critical importance. A failure to recognise malalignment in this plane can have significant consequences for the patient not only in terms of pain and deformity, but also social interaction due to deficient forward gaze. A good understanding of the principles of sagittal balance is vital to achieve optimum outcomes when treating spinal disorders. Even when addressing problems in the coronal plane, an awareness of sagittal balance is necessary to avoid future complications. The normal spine has lordotic curves in the cephalad and caudal regions with a kyphotic curve in between. Overall, there is a positive correlation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. There are variations on the degree of normal curvature but nevertheless this shape allows equal distribution of forces across the spinal column. It is the disruption of this equilibrium by pathological processes or, as in most cases, ageing that results in deformity. This leads to adaptive changes in the pelvis and lower limbs. The effects of limb alignment on spinal posture are well documented. We now also know that changes in pelvic posture also affect spinal alignment. Sagittal malalignment presents as an exaggeration or deficiency of normal lordosis or kyphosis. Most cases seen in clinical practise are due to kyphotic deformity secondary to inflammatory, degenerative or post-traumatic disorders. They may also be secondary to infection or tumours. There is usually pain and functional disability along with concerns about self-image and social interaction due to inability to maintain a horizontal gaze. The resultant pelvic and lower limb posture is an attempt to restore normal alignment. Addressing this complex problem requires detailed expertise and awareness of the potential pitfalls surrounding its treatment.

  10. Force-Induced Craniosynostosis in the Murine Sagittal Suture

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Rhee, Samuel T.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The etiology of non-syndromic craniosynostosis remains elusive. While compressive forces have been implicated in premature suture fusion, conclusive evidence of force-induced craniosynostosis is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine if cyclical loading of the murine calvarium could induce suture fusion. METHODS Calvarial coupons from post-natal day 21, B6CBA wild-type mice (n = 18) were harvested and cultured. A custom appliance capable of delivering controlled, cyclical, compressive loads was applied perpendicular to the sagittal suture within the coupon in vitro. Nine coupons were subjected to 0.3g of force for 30 minutes each day for a total of 14 days. A control group of nine coupons was clamped in the appliance without loading. Analysis of suture phenotype was performed using alkaline phosphatase and H&E staining techniques, as well as in situ hybridization analysis using Bone Sialoprotein (BSP). RESULTS Control group sagittal sutures—which normally remain patent in mice—showed their customary histological appearance. In contradistinction, sagittal sutures subjected to cyclic loading showed histological evidence of premature fusion (craniosynostosis). In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and BSP expression was observed to be increased in the experimental group when compared to matched controls. CONCLUSIONS An in vitro model of forced-induced craniosynostosis has been devised. Premature fusion of the murine sagittal suture was induced with the application of controlled, cyclical, compressive loads. These results implicate abnormal forces in the development of non-syndromic craniosynostosis, which supports our global hypothesis that epigenetic phenomena have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. PMID:19952640

  11. Sagittal plane deformity: an overview of interpretation and management

    PubMed Central

    Roussouly, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The impact of sagittal plane alignment on the treatment of spinal disorders is of critical importance. A failure to recognise malalignment in this plane can have significant consequences for the patient not only in terms of pain and deformity, but also social interaction due to deficient forward gaze. A good understanding of the principles of sagittal balance is vital to achieve optimum outcomes when treating spinal disorders. Even when addressing problems in the coronal plane, an awareness of sagittal balance is necessary to avoid future complications. The normal spine has lordotic curves in the cephalad and caudal regions with a kyphotic curve in between. Overall, there is a positive correlation between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. There are variations on the degree of normal curvature but nevertheless this shape allows equal distribution of forces across the spinal column. It is the disruption of this equilibrium by pathological processes or, as in most cases, ageing that results in deformity. This leads to adaptive changes in the pelvis and lower limbs. The effects of limb alignment on spinal posture are well documented. We now also know that changes in pelvic posture also affect spinal alignment. Sagittal malalignment presents as an exaggeration or deficiency of normal lordosis or kyphosis. Most cases seen in clinical practise are due to kyphotic deformity secondary to inflammatory, degenerative or post-traumatic disorders. They may also be secondary to infection or tumours. There is usually pain and functional disability along with concerns about self-image and social interaction due to inability to maintain a horizontal gaze. The resultant pelvic and lower limb posture is an attempt to restore normal alignment. Addressing this complex problem requires detailed expertise and awareness of the potential pitfalls surrounding its treatment. PMID:20567858

  12. Reduced artery diameters in Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foresta, C; Caretta, N; Palego, P; Ferlin, A; Zuccarello, D; Lenzi, A; Selice, R

    2012-10-01

    Various epidemiological studies in relatively large cohorts of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) described the increased morbidity and mortality in these subjects. Our aim was to study the structure and function of arteries in different districts to investigate in these subjects possible alterations. A total of 92 patients having non-mosaic KS, diagnosed in Centre for Human Reproduction Pathology at the University of Padova, and 50 age-matched healthy male controls were studied. Klinefelter syndrome subjects and controls evaluation included complete medical history, physical examination, measurement of concentrations of the reproductive hormones, lipidic and glycidic metabolism, AR function and sensitivity, ultrasound examinations (diameters, carotid intima-media thickness and brachial flow-mediated dilation) of brachial, common carotid and common femoral artery and abdominal aorta. Klinefelter syndrome patients showed significantly reduced artery diameters in all districts evaluated. On the contrary no statistically significant difference was found in cIMT and brachial FMD values between KS patients and controls. Furthermore, we found no statistically significant correlation of artery diameters with reproductive hormones, metabolic parameters, anthropometric measures and weighted CAG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study finding a reduced artery diameter in several districts in KS patients compared with that of normal male subjects and overlapping to that of female subjects. We have not an explanation for this phenomenon, even if a possible involvement of genes controlling the development of vascular system might be hypothesized, and further research is required to verify this hypothesis.

  13. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  14. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  15. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  16. Sagittal back contour and craniofacial morphology in preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Carsten; Segatto, Emil; Végh, András; Drerup, Burkhard; Moiseenko, Tatjana; Danesh, Gholamreza

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation ratios between the sagittal back contour (flèche cervicale and lombaire, trunk inclination) and selected parameters of craniofacial morphology in children. The patient sample consisted of 66 healthy children with a mean age of 11.2 years (SD 1.6 years), of which 34 were male (mean age 11.5 years, SD 1.3 years) and 32 were females (mean age 10.9 years, SD 1.9 years). The children were recruited during the preparation of the initial orthodontic treatment records. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed by six angular measurements: facial axis, mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle, lower facial height, facial depth and maxilla position. Rasterstereography was used for reconstruction of the spinal back sagittal profile. From the profile flèche cervicale, flèche lombaire and trunk inclination were determined and the correlations with the craniofacial morphology were calculated (Pearson and Mann-Whitney U test). Significant correlations were found with respect to the inner gonial angle and the flèche cervicale, the mandibular plane angle and the flèche lombaire, the inner gonial angle and the flèche lombaire, and the angular lower facial height and the flèche lombaire, as well as the inner gonial angle and the trunk inclination. The craniofacial vertical growth pattern, presented by mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle and the angular lower facial height, and the correlation to flèche cervicale and lombaire as well as trunk inclination reveal correlations between growth pattern and sagittal back contour.

  17. Sagittal back contour and craniofacial morphology in preadolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Végh, András; Drerup, Burkhard; Moiseenko, Tatjana; Danesh, Gholamreza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation ratios between the sagittal back contour (flèche cervicale and lombaire, trunk inclination) and selected parameters of craniofacial morphology in children. The patient sample consisted of 66 healthy children with a mean age of 11.2 years (SD 1.6 years), of which 34 were male (mean age 11.5 years, SD 1.3 years) and 32 were females (mean age 10.9 years, SD 1.9 years). The children were recruited during the preparation of the initial orthodontic treatment records. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed by six angular measurements: facial axis, mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle, lower facial height, facial depth and maxilla position. Rasterstereography was used for reconstruction of the spinal back sagittal profile. From the profile flèche cervicale, flèche lombaire and trunk inclination were determined and the correlations with the craniofacial morphology were calculated (Pearson and Mann–Whitney U test). Significant correlations were found with respect to the inner gonial angle and the flèche cervicale, the mandibular plane angle and the flèche lombaire, the inner gonial angle and the flèche lombaire, and the angular lower facial height and the flèche lombaire, as well as the inner gonial angle and the trunk inclination. The craniofacial vertical growth pattern, presented by mandibular plane angle, inner gonial angle and the angular lower facial height, and the correlation to flèche cervicale and lombaire as well as trunk inclination reveal correlations between growth pattern and sagittal back contour. PMID:19946733

  18. Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment in Association to Intervertebral Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farid; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Mahdavi, Ali; Saberi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A cross-sectional case-control study was designed to compare the sagittal alignment of lumbosacral regions in two groups of patients suffering from low back pain, one with intervertebral disc pathologies and one without. Purpose To evaluate the correlation between lumbosacral sagittal alignment and disc degeneration. Overview of Literature Changes in lumbar lordosis and pelvic parameters in degenerative disc lesions have been assessed in few studies. Overall, patients with discopathy were shown to have lower lumbar lordosis and more vertical sacral profiles. Methods From patients with intractable low back pain undergoing lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging, 50 subjects with disc degeneration and 50 controls with normal scans were consecutively enrolled. A method was defined with anterior tangent-lines going through anterior bodies of L1 and S1 to measure global lumbosacral angle, incorporating both lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. Global lumbosacral angle using the proposed method and lumbar lordosis using Cobb's method were measured in both groups. Results Lumbar lordosis based on Cobb's method was lower in group with discopathy (20°-67°; mean, 40.48°±9.89°) than control group (30°-62°; mean, 44.96°±7.68°), although it was not statistically significant. The proposed global lumbosacral angle in subject group (53°-103°; mean, 76.5°±11.018°) was less than control group (52°-101°; mean, 80.18°±9.95°), with the difference being statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusions Patients with intervertebral disc lesions seem to have more straightened lumbosacral profiles, but it has not been proven which comes first: disc degeneration or changes in sagittal alignment. Finding an answer to this dilemma demands more comprehensive long-term prospective studies. PMID:25558325

  19. [Sagittal balance of the spine: a therapeutic revolution].

    PubMed

    Faundez, A; Roussouly, P; Le Huec, J C

    2011-12-21

    In humans, the erect position and bipedal walk is possible because of a balance between pelvic and spinal parameters. The most important pelvic parameter is the pelvic incidence which represents the base on which the spine lies. With aging, thoracic kyphosis increases, lumbar lordosis decreases, compromising the spino-pelvic balance. Compensatory phenomenons are possible, but rely mostly on the amplitude of pelvic incidence. Analysis of spino-pelvic parameters and detection of a compensated or uncompensated sagittal imbalance are mandatory before any therapeutic action is undertaken for a degenerative pathology of the spine.

  20. Rondeau Seminars amalgamated mid-sagittal (lateral) cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    The author presents a comprehensive International Association for Orthodontics--Rondeau Seminars Amalgamated Mid-sagittal (Lateral) Cephalometric Analysis. Norms on the Cephalometric Data Sheet are age and gender specific for the Caucasian population and the postings are color coded for visual attraction. If the patient is ofa different ethnic group, the Norms should be adjusted accordingly. This Cephalometric Analysis is comprised often Sections, in alphabetical order and twenty nine Factors. The author expanded Rondeau Seminars Cephalometric Analysis by only six Factors, thus fulfilling the requirement for the case presentation for the Fellow of the IAO and the Diplomate ofthe IBO.

  1. Sagittal Spinal Morphology in Highly Trained Adolescent Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Muyor, José M.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Estefanía; Sanz-Rivas, David; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    Sports with a predominance of forward-bending and extension postures have been associated with alterations in the sagittal spinal curvatures and greater risk of spinal injury. Because, the tennis players adopt these postures, the aims of this study were: 1) to describe spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in male and female highly trained adolescent tennis players during relaxed standing posture and with thoracic spine corrected (in prone lying on the floor); and 2) to determine the frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar hypo/hyper lordosis in these postures. Forty adolescent tennis players (24 male and 16 female) aged 13-18 years, participated voluntarily in this study. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt. The mean values in the relaxed standing posture were 43.83° ± 7.87° (thoracic kyphosis), - 27.58° ± 7.01° (lumbar lordosis), and 13.38° ± 5.57° (pelvic tilt) for male tennis players, respectively; and 36.13° ± 6.69° (thoracic kyphosis), - 32.69° ± 5.06° (lumbar lordosis), 20.94° ± 5.36° (pelvic tilt) for female tennis players (p < 0.05 between genders in all spinal parameters). The male and female tennis players showed a frequency of 62.5% and 93.8% (p = 0.032) for neutral thoracic kyphosis, and 83.3% and 93.8% (p = 0.062) in neutral lumbar lordosis, respectively. In conclusion, due to the high percentage of neutral spinal curvatures in both male and female tennis players, to practice tennis in these levels does not alter sagittal spinal morphology in the relaxed standing posture in adolescent highly trained tennis players. Key Points This study evaluated thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt during several postures in young highly trained tennis players. Female tennis players showed statistically significant greater anterior pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and lower thoracic kyphosis than male tennis players. The high percentage of neutral thoracic kyphosis and lumbar

  2. Automatic recognition of corpus callosum from sagittal brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Unser, Michael A.; Ketter, Terence A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose a new method to find the corpus callosum from sagittal brain MR images automatically. First, we calculate the statistical characteristics of the corpus callosum and obtain shape information. The recognition algorithm consists of two stages: extracting regions satisfying the statistical characteristics (gray level distribtuions) of the corpus callosum, and finding a region matching the shape information. An innovative feature of the algorithm is that we adaptively relax the statistical requirement until we find a region matching the shape information. In order to match the shape information, we propose a new directed window region growing algorithm instead of using conventional contour matching. Experiments show promising results.

  3. Sagittal spine movements of small therian mammals during asymmetrical gaits.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Nadja; Hackert, Rémi

    2006-10-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the use of asymmetrical gaits associated with extensive flexions and extensions of the body axis. Although the impact of sagittal spine movements on locomotion is well known, little information is available on the kinematics of spinal motion. Intervertebral joint movements were studied in two metatherian and three eutherian species during the gallop and halfbound using high-speed cineradiography. Fast-Fourier transformation was used to filter out high frequency digitizing errors and keep the lower frequency sinusoid oscillations that characterize the intervertebral angular movements. Independent of their regional classification as thoracic or lumbar vertebrae, 7+/-1 presacral intervertebral joints were involved in sagittal bending movements. In only one species, no more than five intervertebral joints contributed to the resulting 'pelvic movement'. In general, the trunk region involved in sagittal bending during locomotion did not correspond to the traditional subdivisions of the vertebral column (e.g. as thoracic and lumbar or pre- and postdiaphragmatic region). Therefore, these classifications do not predict the regions involved in spinal oscillations during locomotion. Independent of the gait, maximum flexion of the spine was observed in the interval between the last third of the swing phase and touch-down. This results in a retraction of the pelvis and hindlimbs before touch-down and, we hypothesize, enhances the stability of the system. Maximum extension occurred during the first third of the swing phase (i.e. after lift-off) in all species. In general, the observed timing of dorsoventral oscillations of the spine are in accordance with that observed in other mammals and with activity data of respiratory and epaxial back muscles. Although no strict craniocaudal pattern was observable, the more cranial intervertebral joints tend to flex and extend earlier than the more caudal ones. This is in accordance with the

  4. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.

  5. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  6. Distribution of sagittal occlusal relationships in different stages of dentition.

    PubMed

    Emine, Kaygisiz; Lale, Taner; Kahraman, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of sagittal occlusal relationships in different dentition periods in a Turkish sample group. In total, 1,110 patients (561 females, 549 males) aged 4.6-23 years were randomly chosen after intraoral clinical examination. The subjects were classified according to their sagittal occlusal relationships and four dentition stages -deciduous, early mixed, late mixed, and permanent dentition. The statistical significance of the occurrence of malocclusion types in dentition stages was evaluated by Chi-square and Fischer's exact tests. Class I malocclusion was observed at the highest rate in all dentition stages. Class III malocclusion was observed at the highest rate in the permanent dentition, whereas Class II malocclusion was observed at the highest rate in the late mixed dentition. The rates of Class I, II, and III malocclusions were similar in males and females. Our study reveals that the prevalence of malocclusion and need for orthodontic treatment has increased in the population towards the permanent dentition.

  7. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  8. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  9. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  10. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  11. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  13. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  14. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  15. Reconstruction of small diameter arteries using decellularized vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio; Fujisato, Toshia; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Although artificial vessels are available for large diameter arteries, there are no artificial vessels for small diameter arteries of < 4 mm. We created a decellularized vascular scaffold (length, 10 mm; outer diameter, 1.5 mm; inner diameter, 1.3 mm) from rat abdominal arteries. We measured the biomechanical characteristics of the scaffolds, implanted them to defects made in rat carotid arteries, and evaluated their patency and the endothelial cell linings. Silastic grafts were implanted as controls. The decellularized scaffolds demonstrated similar mechanical characteristics to normal arteries. All of the control grafts were occluded. Fibroblast-like cells were discovered in the thrombus, and fibrous organization was apparent. In contrast, patency of the grafts in 10 of 12 animals was observed 4 weeks after implantation. The internal cavity of the patent scaffold was completely lined by endotheliallike cells. Thus, the possibility of small artery reconstruction using decellularized scaffolds was demonstrated.

  16. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  17. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  18. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters in 2-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huan; Ma, Lei; Liu, Feng-Yu; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of our study is to evaluate sagittal parameters in 2-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) (TLDS). A total of 15 patients with TLDS, 40 patients with single-level DS (SLDS), and 30 normal volunteers as control were included in our study. All subjects performed on full spine X-ray. Two categorized data were analyzed: patient characteristics—age, sex, body mass index, radiographic parameters-pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope (SS), PI–LL, Cobb between the fifth thoracic vertebral and 12th thoracic vertebral (T5–T12), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) Cobb angle of spondylolisthesis level (CSL), ratio of PT to SS (PT/SS), CSL/LL, variation trend of SS over PI, and LL over PI. The PI (73.1° vs 52.9°), SS (50.8° vs 32.2°), LL (53.1° vs 46.9°), SVA (66.1 vs 22.0 mm), PI–LL (20.0° vs 6.0°), and CSL (23.6° vs 20.0°) in TLDS were significantly larger than these in SLDS. The PI (73.1° vs 40.6°), PT (22.3° vs 17.1°), SS (50.8° vs 23.5°), LL (53.1° vs 32.5°), PI–LL (20.0° vs 8.1°), and SVA (66.1 vs 17.0 mm) in TLDS were significantly larger than those in the normal group (NG). The PI (52.9° vs 40.6°), PT (21.0° vs 17.1°), SS (32.2° vs 23.5°), LL (46.9° vs 32.5°), and SVA (22.0 vs 17.0 mm) in SLDS were significantly higher than those in NG. However, PT/SS (44.0%), LL over PI (y = 0.39x + 24.25), SS over PI (y = 10.79 + 0.55x) were lower in TLDS than these in SLDS (63.8%, y = 0.41x + 25, y = 0.65x − 2.09, respectively), and the similar tend between SLDS and NG (74.0%, y = 0.49x + 13.09, y = 0.67x − 3.9, respectively). Our results showed that 2-level lumbar DS, which was caused by multiple-factors, has a severe sagittal imbalance, but single-level has not any. When we plan for surgical selection for 2-level lumbar DS, global sagittal balance must be considered. PMID:27977581

  19. Sagittal laser optical tomography for imaging of rheumatoid finger joints.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Andreas H; Klose, Alexander D; Scheel, Alexander K; Moa-Anderson, Bryte; Backhaus, Marina; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen

    2004-04-07

    We present a novel optical tomographic imaging system that was designed to determine two-dimensional spatial distribution of optical properties in a sagittal plane through finger joints. The system incorporates a single laser diode and a single silicon photodetector into a scanning device that records spatially resolved light intensities as they are transmitted through a finger. These data are input to a model-based iterative image reconstruction (MOBIIR) scheme, which uses the equation of radiative transfer (ERT) as a forward model for light propagation through tissue. We have used this system to obtain tomographic images of six proximal interphalangeal finger joints from two patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The optical images were compared to clinical symptoms and ultrasound images.

  20. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  1. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  2. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  3. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  4. A kinematic comparison of four abdominal training devices and a traditional abdominal crunch.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R

    2002-02-01

    Abdominal exercises are often performed on roller or rocker mechanisms, which have been aggressively promoted through the television and print media. However, justifications are lacking as to why these devices are superior to traditional abdominal exercises such as crunches. This study sought to describe and compare the range of motion (ROM) of several joints during crunches performed on 4 different abdominal conditioning devices (2 roller and 2 pivot types) and a traditional crunch exercise. Ten men (29 +/- 5.87 years, 177.5 +/- 6.46 cm, 80.96 +/- 11.72 kg) and 10 women (33.4 +/- 10.16 years, 162.23 +/- 3.83 cm, 56.99 +/- 7.36 kg) subjects agreed to participate in the study. Subjects were videotaped in the sagittal plane (60 Hz) using standard kinematic methods. Reflective markers were placed on the right temple, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, heel, toe, and 2 sternum markers placed on a foam piece strapped to the subject's chest. The videotaped movements were automatically digitized (PEAK5 2-D) and the data smoothed using a Butterworth filter. Relative angular ROMs of the head (temple, auditory meatus, shoulder); neck (auditory meatus, shoulder, hip); trunk (near sternum, shoulder, hip); hip (shoulder, hip, knee); sternum/head (sternum near and sternum far with temple and auditory meatus); sternum/trunk (sternum near and sternum far with shoulder and hip); and a sum of 4 angles (head, neck, trunk, hip) were calculated. Sex by equipment repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were calculated on the angles of the 5 exercises. When no main effect for sex was found, the data were collapsed across sex and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was calculated on the resulting data. Post hoc analyses of pairwise differences were calculated using Tukey's honestly significant difference statistic. Results showed that crunches performed with the abdominal devices resulted in less ROM in all angles measured when compared with a traditional crunch. The

  5. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of intra-abdominal cyst in heifer using the computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Otomaru, Konosuke; Fujikawa, Takuro; Saito, Yasuo; Ando, Takaaki; Obi, Takeshi; Miura, Naoki; Kubota, Chikara

    2015-09-01

    A 10-month-old Japanese black heifer was diagnosed as having an intra-abdominal cyst using computed tomography (CT). Through a posterior ventral midline incision, the cyst was removed, and the heifer completely recovered after the surgery. CT scans enabled detection of the intra-abdominal cyst and measurements of the diameter of the cyst before the surgery.

  7. Association between CYP19A1 genotype and pubertal sagittal jaw growth

    PubMed Central

    He, Shushu; Hartsfield, James K.; Guo, Yujiao; Cao, Yang; Wang, Si; Chen, Song

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sagittal jaw growth is influenced during puberty by a ratio of androgens and estrogens. The CYP19A1 (formerly CYP19) gene encodes the cytochrome P450 enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthetase), which converts testosterone to estrogen. Genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms might regulate CYP19A1 gene expression or the function of the aromatase protein and thus influence sagittal jaw growth. Methods The annual sagittal jaw growth in 92 pubertal orthodontic patients was determined by using pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs. Single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2470144 and rs2445761 were genotyped and haplotypes constructed. Associations between genotypes or haplotypes and the annual sagittal growth were estimated by using JMP (version 9.0; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with average differences in annual sagittal jaw growth in boys. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that haplotypes Trs2470144Trs2445761 and Crs2470144Trs2445761 had significant effects on annual sagittal maxillary growth and on mandibular growth in boys. No association was found in girls. Conclusions A quantitative trait locus that influences male pubertal sagittal jaw growth might exist in the CYP19A1 gene, and single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2470144 and rs2445761 might be inside this quantitative trait locus or be linked to it. PMID:23116507

  8. Fiber diameter control in electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyan, R.; Subbotin, A.; Cuperus, L.; Boonen, P.; Dorschu, M.; Oosterlinck, F.; Bulters, M.

    2014-10-01

    A simple model is proposed to predict the fiber diameter in electrospinning. We show that the terminal diameter is determined by the kinetics of the jet elongation—under the influence of the electric and viscous forces—and the solvent evaporation. Numerical and simple scaling analyses are performed, predicting the fiber diameter to scale as a power 1/3 of viscosity and 2/3 of polymer solution throughput divided by electrical current. Model predictions show a good agreement to our own electrospinning experiments on polyamide-6 solutions as well as to the data available in the literature.

  9. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  10. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  11. Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.

  12. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-09-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it makes a good illustration of how reasoning in physics can lead to a result that is useful outside the classroom.

  13. Human foot placement and balance in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Millard, Matthew; Wight, Derek; McPhee, John; Kubica, Eric; Wang, David

    2009-12-01

    Foot placement has long been recognized as the primary mechanism that humans use to restore balance. Many biomechanists have examined where humans place their feet during gait, perturbations, and athletic events. Roboticists have also used foot placement as a means of control but with limited success. Recently, Wight et al. (2008, "Introduction of the Foot Placement Estimator: A Dynamic Measure of Balance for Bipedal Robotics," ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 3, p. 011009) introduced a planar foot placement estimator (FPE) algorithm that will restore balance to a simplified biped that is falling. This study tested the FPE as a candidate function for sagittal plane human-foot-placement (HFP) by recording the kinematics of 14 healthy subjects while they performed ten walking trials at three speeds. The FPE was highly correlated with HFP (rho>or=0.997) and its accuracy varied linearly from 2.6 cm to -8.3 cm as walking speed increased. A sensitivity analysis revealed that assumption violations of the FPE cannot account for the velocity-dependent changes in FPE-HFP error suggesting that this behavior is volitional.

  14. Sagittal sinus thrombosis due to L-asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Nisar A.; Kosar, Tasleem; Pala, Nazir A.; Qureshi, Umar A.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT) is a serious complication of L-asparaginase chemotherapy for leukemia in children. Clinical features of headache, altered consciousness, focal neurological deficit, and seizures developing during or immediately after treatment with L-asparaginase should alert the treating physician to the possibility of CSVT. Immediate imaging of the brain should be done using CT and MRI and the veins should be visualized noninvasively by CT and MR venography. We report two children on induction therapy for acute leukemia who presented with seizures, headache, and altered consciousness. Venous infarcts with and without hemorrhage were seen on CT in one patient and the empty delta sign was seen after contrast injection; however, the early changes were missed by CT. MRI detected dural sinus thrombosis relatively earlier in another patient, while the CT findings were equivocal; in this patient, contrast-enhanced MRI showed the empty delta sign and MR venography confirmed absent flow in the superior sagittal sinus, which was diagnostic of sinus thrombosis. Rapid anticoagulation was started with heparin and maintained with warfarin. The child with a unilateral small nonhemorrhagic infarct made a complete recovery while the other, with bilateral hemorrhagic infarcts, did not survive. We stress the importance of early diagnosis of CSVT using CT and MRI in children with leukemia being treated with L-asparaginase; this will permit timely treatment. PMID:21042505

  15. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  16. Stellar diameters and temperatures. IV. Predicting stellar angular diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Van Belle, Gerard; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2014-03-01

    The number of stellar angular diameter measurements has greatly increased over the past few years due to innovations and developments in the field of long baseline optical interferometry. We use a collection of high-precision angular diameter measurements for nearby, main-sequence stars to develop empirical relations that allow the prediction of stellar angular sizes as a function of observed photometric color. These relations are presented for a combination of 48 broadband color indices. We empirically show for the first time a dependence on metallicity of these relations using Johnson (B – V) and Sloan (g – r) colors. Our relations are capable of predicting diameters with a random error of less than 5% and represent the most robust and empirical determinations of stellar angular sizes to date.

  17. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  18. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  19. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  20. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  1. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  2. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  3. Functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

    2005-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

  4. Abdominal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chaeyoun; Youn, Joong Kee; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric patients has been steadily increasing in recent years. However, its use for diagnosing and treating abdominal tumors in children is still limited compared with adults, especially when malignancy is a matter of debate. Here, we describe the experience at our center with pediatric abdominal tumors to show the safety and feasibility of MIS. Based on a retrospective review of patient records, we selected for study those pediatric patients who had undergone diagnostic exploration or curative resection for abdominal tumors at a single center from January 2010 through August 2015. Diagnostic exploration for abdominal tumors was performed in 32 cases and curative resection in 173 cases (205 operations). MIS was performed in 11 cases of diagnostic exploration (34.4%) and 38 cases of curative resection (21.9%). The mean age of the children who underwent MIS was 6.09 ± 5.2 years. With regard to diagnostic exploration, patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were found to be similar for MIS and open surgery. With regard to curative resection, however, the mean age was significantly lower among the patients who underwent open surgery (4.21 ± 4.20 vs 6.02 ± 4.99 for MIS, P = 0.047), and the proportion of malignancies was significantly higher (80% vs 39.4% for MIS, P < 0.001). MIS compared favorably with open surgery with respect to the rate of recurrence (6.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.035), the rate of intraoperative transfusions (34.2% vs 58.5%, P = 0.01), the median amount of blood transfused (14 vs 22 mL/kg, P = 0.001), and the mean number of hospital days (4.66 ± 2.36 vs 7.21 ± 5.09, P < 0.001). Complication rates did not differ significantly between the MIS and open surgery groups. The operation was converted to open surgery in 3 cases (27.2%) of diagnostic MIS and in 5 cases (13.1%) of curative MIS. MIS was found to be both feasible and effective for the

  5. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  6. Measurement of spinal sagittal curvatures using the laser triangulation method.

    PubMed

    Celan, Dusan; Palfy, Miroslav; Bracun, Drago; Turk, Zmago; Mozina, Janez; Komadina, Radko

    2012-03-01

    nourishment influence the size of the sagittal spinal angles. In the observed sample the effect of age was not confirmed.

  7. Correlations of Cervical Sagittal Alignment before and after Occipitocervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Takachika; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Oshima, Yasushi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective radiographic study. Objective To investigate changes and correlations of cervical sagittal alignment including T1 slope before and after occipitocervical corrective surgery. We also investigated the relevance for preoperative planning. Methods We conducted a retrospective radiographic analysis of 27 patients who underwent surgery for occipitocervical deformity. There were 7 men and 20 women with a mean age of 56.0 years. Mean follow-up was 68.0 months (range 24 to 120). The radiographic parameters measured before surgery and at final follow-up included McGregor slope, T1 slope, occipito (O)–C2 angle, O–C7 angle, and C2–C7 angle. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the radiographic parameters. Results There was a stronger positive correlation between the T1 slope and the O–C7 angle both preoperatively and postoperatively (r = 0.72 and r = 0.83, respectively) than between the T1 slope and the C2–C7 angle (r = 0.60 and r = 0.76, respectively). The O–C2 angle and C2–C7 angle had inverse correlations to each other both pre- and postoperatively (r =  − 0.50 and −0.45). McGregor slope and T1 slope did not significantly change postoperatively at final follow-up. Increase in O–C2 angle after surgery (mean change, 10.7 degrees) inversely correlated with decrease in postoperative C2–C7 angle (mean change, 12.2 degrees). As result of these complementary changes, O–C7 angle did not statistically change. Conclusions Our results suggest that the O–C7 angle is regulated by T1 slope and the corresponding O–C7 angle is divided into the O–C2 and C2–C7 angles, which have inverse correlation to each other and then maintain McGregor slope (horizontal gaze). PMID:27190739

  8. Normalization of brain morphology after surgery in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eric D; Yang, Jenny; Beckett, Joel S; Lacadie, Cheryl; Scheinost, Dustin; Persing, Sarah; Zellner, Elizabeth G; Oosting, Devon; Keifer, Cara; Friedman, Hannah E; Wyk, Brent Vander; Jou, Roger J; Sun, Haosi; Gary, Cyril; Duncan, Charles C; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) is associated with significant learning disability later in life. Surgical reconstruction is typically performed before 1 year of age to correct the cranial vault morphology and to allow for normalized brain growth with the goal of improving cognitive function. Yet, no studies have assessed to what extent normalized brain growth is actually achieved. Recent advances in MRI have allowed for automated methods of objectively assessing subtle and pronounced brain morphological differences. The authors used one such technique, deformation-based morphometry (DBM) Jacobian mapping, to determine how previously treated adolescents with sagittal NSC (sNSC) significantly differ in brain anatomy compared with healthy matched controls up to 11.5 years after surgery. METHODS Eight adolescent patients with sNSC, previously treated via whole-vault cranioplasty at a mean age of 7 months, and 8 age- and IQ-matched control subjects without craniosynostosis (mean age for both groups = 12.3 years), underwent functional 3-T MRI. Statistically significant group tissue-volume differences were assessed using DBM, a whole-brain technique that estimates morphological differences between 2 groups at each voxel (p < 0.01). Group-wise Jacobian volume maps were generated using a spacing of 1.5 mm and a resolution of 1.05 × 1.05 × 1.05 mm(3). RESULTS There were no significant areas of volume reduction or expansion in any brain areas in adolescents with sNSC compared with controls at a significance level of p < 0.01. At the more liberal threshold of p < 0.05, two areas of brain expansion extending anteroposteriorly in the right temporooccipital and left frontoparietal regions appeared in patients with sNSC compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Compared with previous reports on untreated infants with sNSC, adolescents with sNSC in this cohort had few areas of brain dysmorphology many years after surgery. This result suggests that comprehensive cranioplasty

  9. Cervical vertebrae maturation index estimates on cone beam CT: 3D reconstructions vs sagittal sections

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Marco A E; Costa, André L F; Ximenez, Michel E L; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio A; Ferreira-Santos, Rívea I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of CBCT three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and sagittal sections for estimates of cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI). Methods: The sample consisted of 72 CBCT examinations from patients aged 8–16 years (45 females and 27 males) selected from the archives of two private clinics. Two calibrated observers (kappa scores: ≥0.901) interpreted the CBCT settings twice. Intra- and interobserver agreement for both imaging exhibition modes was analyzed by kappa statistics, which was also used to analyze the agreement between 3D reconstructions and sagittal sections. Correlations between cervical vertebrae maturation estimates and chronological age, as well as between the assessments by 3D reconstructions and sagittal sections, were analyzed using gamma Goodman–Kruskal coefficients (α = 0.05). Results: The kappa scores evidenced almost perfect agreement between the first and second assessments of the cervical vertebrae by 3D reconstructions (0.933–0.983) and sagittal sections (0.983–1.000). Similarly, the agreement between 3D reconstructions and sagittal sections was almost perfect (kappa index: 0.983). In most divergent cases, the difference between 3D reconstructions and sagittal sections was one stage of CVMI. Strongly positive correlations (>0.8, p < 0.001) were found not only between chronological age and CVMI but also between the estimates by 3D reconstructions and sagittal sections (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although CBCT imaging must not be used exclusively for this purpose, it may be suitable for skeletal maturity assessments. PMID:26509559

  10. Sagittal plane alignment of the spine and gravity: a radiological and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Legaye, Jean; Duval-Beaupère, Ginette

    2005-04-01

    Analysis of the sagittal balance of the spine includes the study of the spinal curves and of the pelvis in the sagittal plane. It therefore requires full-spine lateral radiographs. The sagittal balance of the spine was studied in forty-nine young adults. Strong correlations were observed between parameters related to the pelvis ("pelvic incidence angle", "sacral slope" and "pelvic tilting"), and the sagittal spinal curves ("lordosis" and "kyphosis"). We therefore propose to begin the evaluation of the sagittal plane alignment of the spine in clinical practice with measurement of the pelvic incidence angle. The relationship between the pelvic incidence angle and the sacral slope, as well as between the sacral slope and lordosis, is then assessed, and these are related to each other. The use of a graphic abacus facilitates assessment of the physiological comparison of the measured values and of the relationship between pelvic and spinal parameters, within their range of physiological variability. This analysis of the sagittal alignment of the spine also considers its dynamic aspect and the importance of gravity load and of muscular contraction on the lumbar structures. These data have been published previously and are recalled here. Three basic patterns of disruption of the relations between parameters may be encountered: a sacral slope angle exceeding the value expected considering the measured pelvic incidence angle (owing to fixed flexion contracture of the hips), excessive lordosis with regard to the observed sacral slope angle (with hyperkyphosis at the thoracic level) and stiff hypolordosis with pelvic retroversion. These three conditions are analysed in the light of the repercussions of the gravity load on the lumbar structures. A convenient method is thus available for functional analysis of the sagittal balance of the spine.

  11. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  12. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  13. Recurrent pneumothorax following abdominal paracentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    A 62 year old man presented with abdominal ascites, without pleural effusion, due to peritoneal mesothelioma. He had chronic obstructive airways disease and a past history of right upper lobectomy for tuberculosis. On two occasions abdominal paracentesis was followed within 72 hours by pneumothorax. This previously unreported complication of abdominal paracentesis may be due to increased diaphragmatic excursion following the procedure and should be considered in patients with preexisting lung disease. PMID:2385561

  14. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  15. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  16. Large-diameter astromast development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The 15-m-long by 0.75-diameter deployable supermast was delivered. The performance characteristics, design parameters, and developmental work associated with this mast are described. The main differences, besides the length of these two mast sections, are a change in the longeron material (the principal structural member) to a circular cross section and the incorporation of a lanyard-bridle system which makes unaided deployment and retraction possible in zero gravity.

  17. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® pulsatile abdominal mass, suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ≥50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  19. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  20. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G; Doyle, M; Barrett, T; Byrne, P; De Mello, M; Harrison, R F

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the morbidity and pregnancy outcome of myomectomy in infertile women with uterine fibroids. This was a cross-sectional study. Records were reviewed for 100 consecutive women in the Rotunda Hospital who underwent myomectomy in the years 1995-1996. A questionnaire regarding subsequent fertility was sent. The study was carried out in the infertility unit at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Seventy-five women responded. Multiple myomectomy was performed in 52 (70%). Mean fibroid size was 6.8 cm (range 2-14.5 cm). Nine women (12%) developed complications; five had menstrual problems, two had wound discomfort and two had abdominal discomfort. Twenty-five women (33%) became pregnant. Seven (28%) were IVF pregnancies. Overall six (24%) miscarried. In 19 of 25, pregnancy occurred where fibroids were the only identifiable cause of infertility. We conclude that abdominal myomectomy is associated with a favourable outcome in infertile women particularly if no other confounding variable is present.

  1. [Intra-abdominal mycoses].

    PubMed

    Boos, C; Kujath, P; Bruch, H-P

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of invasive mycoses in patients undergoing abdominal surgery amounts to approximately 8% and shows an upward trend in epidemiological studies. The lethality of these systemic mycoses, which are mostly based on Candida infections constitutes up to 60%. The development of a sytemic mycosis is marked by exogenic, endogenic and iatrogenic risk factors and typically displays tissue invasion after an initial fungal contamination or systemic dissemination via fungal sepsis. Fungal peritonitis is generally a monoinfection with Candida spp., where Candida albicans outweighs in 70% of cases. Aspergillus spp. are only detected abdominally in rare cases. The histological verification of a fungal invasion is regarded as proof of the existence of an invasive mycosis, but typical macroscopic findings with corresponding cultural findings can also confirm the diagnosis. Systemic mycosis requires an early initiation of a consistent antimycotic therapy as well as definitive surgical eradication of the focus in order to reduce high lethal rate. Resistances or incorrect dosages can be validated objectively by means of histological monitoring of the antimycotic therapy, thus affording early recognition of the need to change the substance class.

  2. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  3. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  4. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  5. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  10. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  11. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: assessment with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Even-Sapir, E.; Feinsud, M.

    1986-02-01

    The diagnostic value of scintigraphy with technetium-99m labeled red blood cells (Tc-RBC) was assessed in 19 patients with clinical suggestion of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST). Comparison of Tc-RBC static images with dynamic flow studies in the brain showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86%, and accuracy of 94% for static studies and values of 87%, 20%, and 61%, respectively, for the flow studies. Tc-RBC scintigraphy enables direct visualization of the integrity of the superior sagittal sinus, whereas CT scanning shows various but nonspecific changes in the brain associated with SSST. Single-photon emission CT study using Tc-RBC, performed in six patients, appears to have potential in the diagnosis of SSST, allowing separation of vascular structures that are superimposed on the superior sagittal sinus in planar scintigraphy study.

  12. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  13. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  14. Correlation Between Dental Arch Width and Sagittal Dento-Skeletal Morphology in Untreated Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Etezadi, Tahura

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dental arch form is one of the most important characteristics of dentition. However, this dimension usually receives less attention in diagnosis or treatment planning and orthodontic patients are traditionally classified with regard to their sagittal characteristics. The objectives of this study were to investigate if a relationship exists between the dental arch width (transverse dimension) and sagittal skeletal and dental parameters in orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: Dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 108 consecutive untreated Iranian patients (47 males and 61 females) between 16 and 31 years of age were evaluated. Arch width (AW) parameters including upper and lower inter-molar width (UIMW and LIMW) and upper and lower inter-canine width (UICW and LICW) were measured by a digital caliper. Sagittal parameters included SNA and SNB angle and Wits’ appraisal obtained from lateral cephalograms in addition to upper and lower arch length (UAL and LAL) obtained from dental casts. The correlation between the aforementioned parameters was evaluated applying Pearson correlation coefficients. Molar and canine relationship according to Angle’s classification was also recorded and the means of all parameters were compared between three occlusal relationship classes and two gender groups by means of two-way ANOVA. Results: According to statistical analysis a significant positive correlation between sagittal parameters and arch width measures exists between SNA and UICW and between LICW and LAL. Upper and lower ICW were significantly correlated, the relationship between upper and lower IMW and between UAL and LAL were significant. Among sagittal measures, both UAL and LAL were correlated with the ANB angle. The means of arch width parameters in three occlusal classes were not significantly different. Conclusion: The only significant correlation between arch width and sagittal parameters existed between UICW and SNA angle and between LICW and

  15. A Combination of Thoracic and Abdominal Stent-Grafts to Treat An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Hostile Proximal Neck.

    PubMed

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) actually represents the treatment of choice for most patients affected by abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the feasibility of EVAR depends on anatomical characteristics of abdominal aorta and iliofemoral axis. We present the case of an 82-year-old man affected by severe left hydronephrosis, kidney tumor, and ureteral tumor requiring nephrectomy, who also presented a very voluminous AAA with a large diameter (96 mm), and a large proximal neck (39 mm) with severe angulation of the proximal neck (>60°). The patient was considered unfit for traditional EVAR and open surgery. Possible alternatives such as fenestrated endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and chimney technique were excluded; therefore he was treated combining Valiant Captivia endoprosthesis with the AFX unibody, with a good final result. However, this particular alternative adopted for hostile proximal neck needs long-term follow-up.

  16. [The theoretical substantiation of myofunctional correction of sagittal occlusion abnormalities and temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Danilova, M A; Ishmurzin, P V; Zakharov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Simulation in 3D-model of skeletal forms of sagittal malocclusion revealed tendency in tonus' modification of muscles of mastication in formation of distal and mesial occlusion. It's shown that distal occlusion is characterized by hypotonic condition of muscles of mastication, except posterior fibers of temporal muscle. Mesial occlusion is characterized by complex combination of muscle tone with prevalence of hypotonic condition of anterior fibers of temporal muscle, superficial portion of masseter muscle and medial pterygoid muscle. We have detected that using of myofunctional devices in treatment of sagittal malocclusion, temporomandibular joint dysfunction promotes of tone increasing of muscles of mastication.

  17. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  18. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  19. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  20. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  1. [Penetrating abdominal injuries].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, A; Pillgram-Larsen, J; Naess, F; Gerner, T; Solheim, K; Stadaas, J O; Gjøra, O

    1990-02-28

    We have reviewed the medical records of 111 patients treated for abdominal stab wounds during the period 1980-87. Our two hospitals serve a catchment area of about 450,000 people. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 89 patients with suspected peritoneal penetration. In 16 patients the laparotomy was negative, and in 15 patients only minor injuries were noted. There were no serious complications in these 31 patients. Twenty-seven patients had thoracic wounds below the fourth intercostal space, 15 with intraabdominal injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations of the liver, the small bowel and the diaphragm. The mortality in the series was 2%. Stab wounds are infrequent in Norway, and most surgeons have limited experience of such injuries. We discuss whether to employ immediate exploratory laparotomy or selective management when the peritoneum has been penetrated. When there is no evidence of evisceration or omental protrusion, local exploration of the wound should be performed in order to confirm or exclude peritoneal penetration. Injury to the diaphragm and intraabdominal viscera should always be suspected in thoracic stab wounds below the fourth intercostal space.

  2. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  3. Technique and Early Results of Percutaneous Reduction of Sagittally Unstable Intertrochateric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Young Soo; Oh, Hyunsup; Cho, Yoon Je

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper introduces a percutaneous reduction technique using one or two Steinman pin(s) to reduce sagittally unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Methods A fracture was defined as a sagittally unstable intertrochanteric fracture when posterior sagging of a distal fragment and flexion of the proximal fragment worsens after usual maneuvers for a closed reduction. Of 119 intertrochanteric fractures treated from June 2007 to December 2008, twenty-one hips showed sagittal instability. The sagittal displacement was reduced using a Steinmann pin as a joystick, and stabilized with a nail device. Nineteen hips were followed up for more than one year. The clinical and radiological results were reviewed in 19 hips and compared with those of the remaining cases. Results The demographics were similar in both groups. The mean anesthetic time did not differ. Although the pre-injury and final activity levels were significantly lower in the study group, the degree of recovery was the same. No clinical complications related to this technique were encountered. Radiologically, the reduction was good in all hips in both groups. Union was obtained in all cases without any time differences. Conclusions This less invasive reduction technique is simple and safe to use for this type of difficult fracture. PMID:21909469

  4. Walking in simulated Martian gravity: Influence of added weight on sagittal dynamic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Layne, Charles S.; Josić, Krešimir; Kurz, Max J.

    2010-05-01

    With human exploration of the Moon and Mars on the horizon, research considerations for space suit redesign have surfaced. Review of Apollo mission videos revealed repeated instance of falling during extravehicular activities. A better understanding of how suit weight influences the sagittal dynamic stability of the gait pattern may provide insight for new suit design such that space missions may have more productive extravehicular activities and smaller risk of falls that may cause injuries and damage equipment. Participants walked for 4 min in simulated Martian gravity with additional loads of 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% of their body weight. Floquet and Lyapunov analysis techniques were used to quantify the dynamic stability of the sagittal plane gait pattern. Additionally, sagittal plane joint kinematics were evaluated to determine if any modification occurred. Results indicated that weight (i.e., added load) had little effect on the sagittal dynamic stability or joint kinematics while in simulated Martian gravity. Potentially, suit weight may not be a priority for space suit redesign.

  5. Gravitational forces and sagittal shape of the spine. Clinical estimation of their relations.

    PubMed

    Legaye, J; Duval-Beaupere, G

    2008-12-01

    The sagittal morphology of the pelvis determines the amount of lordosis needed for each individual. The proper harmony of the sagittal spinal curves allows a stable balance, economical in terms of mechanical effects and muscular energy. A previous barycentremetrical laboratory study allowed us to demonstrate that the axis of gravity of the upper body segment was located behind the lumbar vertebrae and the femoral heads, thus ensuring economy and stability. The determination of the anatomical connection of the individual gravity is thus of primary importance for the evaluation of sagittal balance. Data for 42 patients without spinal pathology, previously evaluated by barycentremetry, were used to establish a predictive equation for the application point of the gravity at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3). This equation, using anthropometric and radiographic pelvic and spinal parameters, was integrated into a software program called Similibary. It was applied to the same 42 subjects. These results were compared in order to validate the method. No significant difference was observed between the two techniques. This easy-to-use tool allows a personalised evaluation of the sagittal balance of the spine, both through the evaluation of the harmonious relationship between the spinal curves and the pelvis, and through the location of gravity supported by the vertebral structures in L3.

  6. Sagittal deformities of the spine: factors influencing the outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Diebo, Bassel G; Henry, Jensen; Lafage, Virginie; Berjano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative changes have the potential to greatly disrupt the normal curvature of the spine, leading to sagittal malalignment. This phenomenon is often treated with operative modalities, such as osteotomies, though even with surgery, only one-third of patients may reach neutral alignment. Improvement in surgical outcomes may be achieved through better understanding of radiographic spino-pelvic parameters and their association with deformity. Methodical surgical planning, including selection of levels of instrumentation and site of the osteotomy, is crucial in determining the optimal plan for a patient's specific pathology and may minimize risk of developing postoperative proximal junctional kyphosis/failure. While sagittal alignment is essential in operative strategy, the coronal plane should not be overlooked, as it may affect the osteotomy technique. The concepts of sagittal balance and alignment are further complicated in patients with neuromuscular diseases such as Parkinson's disease, and appreciation of the interplay between anatomic and postural deformities is necessary to properly treat these patients. Finally, given the importance of sagittal alignment and the role of osteotomies in treatment for deformity, the need for future research becomes apparent. Novel intraoperative measurement techniques and three-dimensional analysis of the spine may allow for vastly improved operative correction. Furthermore, awareness of the relationship between alignment and balance, the soft tissue envelope, and compensatory mechanisms will provide a more comprehensive conception of the nature of spinal deformity and the modalities with which it is treated.

  7. Sagittal alignment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint after arthrodesis for rheumatoid forefoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Akihiko; Majima, Tokifumi; Onodera, Tomohiro; Sawaguchi, Naohiro; Watanabe, Takuya; Kasahara, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the midterm results of reconstruction for rheumatoid forefoot deformity with arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, scarf osteotomy, resection arthroplasty of the metatarsal head of the lesser toes, and surgical repair of hammertoe deformity (arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint). Special focus was placed on the sagittal alignment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint after arthrodesis. We retrospectively evaluated the postoperative clinical outcomes and radiographic findings for 16 consecutive female patients (20 feet) with symptomatic rheumatoid forefoot deformities. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.9 (range 4 to 13) years. All first MTP joints and first metatarsal bones were fused successfully. The mean value of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Japanese Society for Foot Surgery clinical scores significantly improved overall, except for 2 patients (10%), who complained of first toe pain at the final follow-up visit owing to sagittal misalignment of the fused first MTP joint. Sagittal alignment of the first metatarsal varies greatly because of the rheumatoid midfoot and hindfoot deformities. Therefore, inclination of the first metatarsal should be considered when determining the first MTP joint sagittal fusion angle.

  8. Sagittal alignment of the spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. J.; Liu, F.; Zhu, Y.W.; Sun, M.H.; Qiu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Normal sagittal spine-pelvis-lower extremity alignment is crucial in humans for maintaining an ergonomic upright standing posture, and pathogenesis in any segment leads to poor balance. The present study aimed to investigate how this sagittal alignment can be affected by severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and whether associated changes corresponded with symptoms of lower back pain (LBP) in this patient population. Methods Lateral radiograph films in an upright standing position were obtained from 59 patients with severe KOA and 58 asymptomatic controls free from KOA. Sagittal alignment of the spine, pelvis, hip and proximal femur was quantified by measuring several radiographic parameters. Global balance was accessed according to the relative position of the C7 plumb line to the sacrum and femoral heads. The presence of chronic LBP was documented. Comparisons between the two groups were carried by independent samples t-tests or chi-squared test. Results Patients with severe KOA showed significant backward femoral inclination (FI), hip flexion, forward spinal inclination, and higher prevalence of global imbalance (27.1% versus 3.4%, p < 0.001) compared with controls. In addition, patients with FI of 10° (n = 23) showed reduced lumbar lordosis and significant forward spinal inclination compared with controls, whereas those with FI > 10° (n = 36) presented with significant pelvic anteversion and hip flexion. A total of 39 patients with KOA (66.1%) suffered from LBP. There was no significant difference in sagittal alignment between KOA patients with and without LBP. Conclusions The sagittal alignment of spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis was significantly influenced by severe KOA. The lumbar spine served as the primary source of compensation, while hip flexion and pelvic anteversion increased for further compensation. Changes in sagittal alignment may not be involved in the pathogenesis of LBP in this patient population. Cite this article: W. J. Wang, F. Liu

  9. Post-mortem imaging of the infant and perinatal dura mater and superior sagittal sinus using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Joseph, Shiju; Adnan, Asif; Adlam, David; Rutty, Guy N

    2017-04-07

    Infants and young children are likely to present with subdural haemorrhage (SDH) if they are the victims of abusive head trauma. In these cases, the most accepted theory for the source of bleeding is the bridging veins traversing from the surface of the brain to the dura mater. However, some have suggested that SDH may result from leakage of blood from a dural vascular plexus. As post-mortem examination of the bridging veins and dura is challenging, and imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography do not have the resolution capabilities to image small blood vessels, we have trialled the use of intravascular and benchtop optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems for imaging from within the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and through the dura during five infant/perinatal autopsies. Numerous vessel-like structures were identified using both OCT systems. Measurements taken with the intravascular rotational system indicate that the approximate median diameters of blood vessels entering anterior and posterior segments of the SSS were 110 μm (range 70 to 670 μm, n = 21) and 125 μm (range 70 to 740 μm, n = 23), respectively. For blood vessels close to the wall of the SSS, the median diameters for anterior and posterior segments of the SSS were 80 μm (range 40 to 170 μm, n = 25) and 90 μm (range 30 to 150 μm), respectively. Detailed characterisation of the dural vasculature is important to aid understanding of the source of SDH. High resolution 3-dimensional reconstructions of the infant dural vasculature may be possible with further development of OCT systems.

  10. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  12. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy for Thrombocytopenia after Surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Daichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Date, Kazuma; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be rarely accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We report a case of AAA with DIC. An 81-year-old man with abdominal pain referred to our hospital. Computed tomography demonstrated an AAA (maximum diameter: 90 mm). The patient underwent a laparotomy, and an abdominal aorta replacement was performed. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment for 1 week. After treatment, the platelet count dramatically increased. The mechanism by which H. pylori eradication therapy improves hematological parameters has not been elucidated; however, this noninvasive treatment effectively resolved DIC associated with AAA. PMID:28018509

  14. [Prosthetic evaluation of the sagittal curve of the edentulous mandibular ridge].

    PubMed

    Fejérdy, Pál; Esztári, Imre; Kaán, Miklós

    2003-10-01

    The literature lacks reports on measurement-based investigations of the sagittal curve of the mandibular ridge. The prosthetic significance of that curve is a debated issue even today. Our investigations have been carried out on functional samples of randomly selected edentulous patients (55 females and 17 males) treated at the Department of Prosthodontics of the Semmelweis University, Budapest. We made photographs using a Polaroid MACRO 5 SLR camera on a squared factory-made film, under standard circumstances, from both right and left directions. The photographs were then scanned with 600 dpi resolution and saved as non-compressed tif files (Tag Image File Format). The evaluation of the digitalized photographs has been carried out using a specifically developed computer program. On the four-times enlarged pictures, we made three measurements at each point; the arithmetical means of those sets of three figures served as a basis for statistical analysis. The data were analysed by gender and by side, using the SPSS program package (t-test). Our measurements showed that the sagittal curve is characteristic of the edentulous mandibular ridge as well. However, it does not exhibit significant differences by gender, individual, or side. The average value of the lowest point of the sagittal curve was 5.78 mm, s +/- 1.96 mm, minimum = 1.83 mm, maximum = 11.12 mm. It was concluded from our measurements and comparative anatomical data--clinical observations, as well as measurement-based investigations--that the Spee-curve of the healthy dentition and the sagittal curve of the edentulous mandibular ridge are formed by the same forces. If, in everyday practice, sagittal curves of the occlusion surfaces of complete lower dentures are set parallel with the mandibular edge, this is the most preferable solution with respect to both the stability of complete lower dentures and the optimal functioning of constrictor muscles.

  15. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  16. Clinical anatomy of the inferior epigastric artery with special relevance to invasive procedures of the anterior abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Praisy; Prithishkumar, Ivan James; Isaac, Bina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Injury to the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) has been reported following lower abdominal wall surgical incisions, abdominal peritoneocentesis and trocar placements at laparoscopic port sites, resulting in the formation of abdominal wall haematomas that may expand considerably due to lack of tissue resistance. The aim of this study was to localise its course in relation to standard anatomic landmarks and suggest safe areas for performance of invasive procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty IEAs of 30 adult cadavers (male = 19; female = 11) were dissected and the course of the IEA noted in relation to the mid-inguinal point, anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and umbilicus. RESULTS: The mean distance of the IEA from the midline was 4.45 ± 1.42 cm at the level of the mid-inguinal point, 4.10 ± 1.15 cm at the level of ASIS and 4.49 ± 1.15 cm at the level of umbilicus. There was an average of 3.3 branches per IEA with more branches arising from its lateral aspect. The IEA was situated within one-third (32%) of the distance between the midline and the sagittal plane through ASIS at all levels. CONCLUSION: To avoid injury to IEA, trocars can be safely inserted 5.5 cm [mean + 1 standard deviation (SD)] away from the midline (or) slightly more than one-third of the distance between the midline and a sagittal plane running through ASIS. These findings may be useful not only for laparoscopic procedures but also for image-guided biopsy, abdominal paracentesis, and placement of abdominal drains. PMID:27251822

  17. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  18. Visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography due to abdominal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Bhatia, Anmol; Malik, Sarthak; Singh, Navjeet; Rana, Surinder S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Scalloping of visceral organs is described in pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, among other conditions, but not tuberculosis. Methods: We report findings from a retrospective study of patients with abdominal tuberculosis who had visceral scalloping on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was made on the basis of combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and microbiological criteria. The clinical data, hematological and biochemical parameters, and findings of chest X-ray, CT, Mantoux test, and HIV serology were recorded. Results: Of 72 patients with abdominal tuberculosis whose CT scans were included, seven patients had visceral scalloping. The mean age of these patients was 32.14 ± 8.43 years and four were men. While six patients had scalloping of liver, one had splenic scalloping. The patients presented with abdominal pain (all), abdominal distension (five patients), loss of weight or appetite (all), and fever (four patients). Mantoux test was positive in five, while none had HIV infection. The diagnosis was based on fluid (ascitic or collections) evaluation in four patients, ileo-cecal biopsy in one patient, fine needle aspiration from omental thickening in one patient, and sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in one patient. On CT examination, four patients had ascites, five had collections, one had lymphadenopathy, four had peritoneal involvement, three had pleural effusion, and two had ileo-cecal thickening. All except one patient received standard ATT for 6 months or 9 months (one patient). Pigtail drainage for collections was needed for two patients. Discussion: This report is the first description of visceral scalloping of liver and spleen in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Previously, this finding has been reported primarily with pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Conclusion: Visceral scalloping may not conclusively distinguish peritoneal

  19. 7 CFR 51.2656 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2656 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from the stem to the blossom end of the cherry....

  20. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means... lowest outer branch to the base....

  1. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means... lowest outer branch to the base....

  2. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the stalk measured at a point 2 inches above the point of attachment of the lowest outer branch to the base....

  3. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.587 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the stalk measured at a point 2 inches above the point of attachment of the lowest outer branch to the base....

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Judy; Martufi, Giampaolo; Di Martino, Elena; Washington, Christopher B.; Grisafi, Joseph; Muluk, Satish C.; Finol, Ender A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A non-invasive, image-based evaluation of AAA shape was implemented on a retrospective study of 10 ruptured and 66 unruptured aneurysms. Three-dimensional models were generated from segmented, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Geometric indices and regional variations in wall thickness were estimated based on novel segmentation algorithms. A model was created using a J48 decision tree algorithm and its performance was assessed using ten-fold cross validation. Feature selection was performed using the χ2-test. The model correctly classified 65 datasets and had an average prediction accuracy of 86.6% (κ = 0.37). The highest ranked features were sac length, sac height, volume, surface area, maximum diameter, bulge height, and intra-luminal thrombus volume. Given that individual AAAs have complex shapes with local changes in surface curvature and wall thickness, the assessment of AAA rupture risk should be based on the accurate quantification of aneurysmal sac shape and size. PMID:20890661

  5. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  6. High-resolution sagittal and coronal reformatted CT images of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Johnson, G.A.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-04-01

    Computed tomography has become the major technique for evaluation of patients with laryngeal corcinoma and trauma to the larynx. The routine examination usually consists of 5 mm contiguous selection through the larynx in quiet respiration. Reformatted images obtained from these sections have not been of clinical value, in part because of the poor resolution of these images. In the past, thin-section scanning (1.5 mm collimation) has been impractical because of the significant time required to scan the entire larynx. By using the technique of rapid sequential scanning with automated table incrementation this logistic difficulty can be overcome, and the total thin-section examination may be performed in less than 9 min. Sophisticated computer software allows rapid reformatting of transaxial images in sagittal and coronal planes. This report illustates the normal and abnormal appearance of the larynx on coronal and sagittal reformatted images and compares reformatted images using the routine technique to those using the thin-section technique.

  7. Evaluation of fractured condylar head along the sagittal plane: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Rajesh Kumar, Bekal Pattathan; Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Shiva Kumar, H R; Upasi, Amarnath P; Shah, Ashwin

    2012-06-01

    There are case reports of sagittal fractures of the condylar head leading to bifid condyle. However bifid condyles maybe found in patients with no history of trauma. A split in the saggital plane of the condyle is not visible with a lateral, oblique or panaromic radiographs but only with anteriorposterior, transorbital projections or CT scan of the temperomandibular joint. The chances of condyle being split in the sagittal plane may be due to the medial pole extending beyond the condylar neck, moreover the condyle is composed of cancellous bone covered by a thin layer of cortical bone. Here we are presenting three case reports of Saggital split condyles and stress the need for inclusion of these type of fractures in the classification of condylar fractures.

  8. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  9. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  10. Clinical Impact of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters on Disc Degeneration in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil

    2015-10-01

    The sagittal balance plays an important role in the determination of shear and compressive forces applied on the anterior (vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs) and posterior (facet joints) elements of the lumbar vertebral column. Many studies have also examined the effect of structural changes in the disc on the biomechanical characteristics of the spinal segment. Nevertheless, the relationship between sagittal balance and the degree of disc degeneration has not been extensively explored. Thus, here we investigated the relationships between various sagittal spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults.A total of 278 young adult male patients were included in this study (age range: 18-24 years old). Multiple sagittal spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral inclination (SI), lumbosacral angle (LSA), and sacral table angle (STA), were measured from standing lateral lumbosacral radiographs. The degree of intervertebral disc degeneration was classified using a modified Pfirrmann scale. To assess the pain intensity of each patient, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for low back pain (LBP) was obtained from all the patients. Finally, the relationships between these spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults were analyzed. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression study.Out of all the spinopelvic parameters measured in this study, a low STA and a low SI were the only significant risk factors that were associated with disc degeneration in young adults. It means that patients with disc degeneration tend to have more severe sacral kyphosis and vertical sacrum.We found that patients with disc degeneration showed a lower SI and lower STA compared with patients without disc degeneration in young adults. Therefore, we suggest that the patients with disc degeneration tend to have more vertical sacrum, more sacral kyphosis

  11. Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy with Involvement of the Superior Sagittal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kimberly A; Choudhri, Asim; Lingo, Ryan; Boop, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare lesion that typically manifests in the first year of life, most commonly involving the facial bones. We present 2 infants with MNTI involving the posterior skull with associated compression of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). A review of the anatomical locations of MNTI is offered, and the implications of SSS involvement are described. This represents the first known description of MNTI with involvement of the posterior SSS.

  12. Sagittal jaw position in relation to body posture in adult humans – a rasterstereographic study

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Danesh, Gholamreza; Schilgen, Markus; Drerup, Burkhard; Hackenberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background The correlations between the sagittal jaw position and the cranio – cervical inclination are described in literature. Only few studies focus on the sagittal jaw position and the body posture using valid and objective orthopaedic examination methods. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with malocclusions reveal significant differences in body posture compared to those without (upper thoracic inclination, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and lower lumbar inclination). Methods Eighty-four healthy adult patients (with a mean age = 25.6 years and ranging from 16.1 to 55.8 years) were examined with informed consent. The orthodontic examination horizontal overjet (distance between upper and lower incisors) was determined by using an orthodontic digital sliding calliper. The subjects were subdivided in respect of the overjet with the following results: 18 revealed a normal overjet (Class I), 38 had an increased overjet (Class II) and 28 had an reversed overjet (Class III). Rasterstereography was used to carry out a three – dimensional back shape analysis. This method is based on photogrammetry. A three-dimensional shape was produced by analysing the distortion of parallel horizontal white light lines projected on the patient's back, followed by mathematical modelling. On the basis of the sagittal profile the upper thoracic inclination, the thoracic angle, the lordotic angle and the pelvic inclination were determined with a reported accuracy of 2.8° and the correlations to the sagittal jaw position were calculated by means of ANOVA, Scheffé and Kruskal-Wallis procedures. Results Between the different overjet groups, no statistically significant differences or correlations regarding the analysed back shape parameters could be obtained. However, comparing males and females there were statistically significant differences in view of the parameters 'lordotic angle' and 'pelvic inclination'. Conclusion No correlations between overjet and

  13. Zebrin II Is Expressed in Sagittal Stripes in the Cerebellum of Dragon Lizards (Ctenophorus sp.).

    PubMed

    Wylie, Douglas R; Hoops, Daniel; Aspden, Joel W; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida. We focused on the central netted dragon (Ctenophorus nuchalis) but also examined cerebellar ZII expression in 5 other dragon species (Ctenophorus spp.). In contrast to what has been observed in snakes and turtles, we found that in these lizards, ZII is heterogeneously expressed. In the posterior part of the cerebellum, on each side of the midline, there were 3 sagittal stripes consisting of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with 2 sagittal stripes with weaker ZII expression (ZIIw). More anteriorly, most of the Purkinje cells were ZII+, except laterally, where the Purkinje cells did not express ZII (ZII-). Finally, all Purkinje cells in the auricle (flocculus) were ZII-. Overall, the parasagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards is similar to that in mammals and birds, and contrasts with the homogenous ZII+ expression seen in snakes and turtles. We suggest that a sagittal heterogeneous expression of ZII represents the ancestral condition in stem reptiles which was lost in snakes and turtles.

  14. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 and June 2008. Reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. Study Selection: Studies were included that evaluated healthy participants for knee flexion angle, sagittal plane knee kinetics, or VGRF after performing a multisession training program. Two individuals reviewed all articles and determined which articles met the selection criteria. Approximately 4% of the articles fulfilled the selection criteria. Data Extraction: Data were extracted regarding each program’s duration, frequency, exercise type, population, supervision, and testing procedures. Means and variability measures were recorded to calculate effect sizes. One reviewer extracted all data and assessed study quality using PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). A second reviewer (blinded) verified all information. Results: There is moderate evidence to indicate that knee flexion angle, external knee flexion moment, and VGRF can be successfully modified by an ACL injury prevention program. Programs utilizing multiple exercises (ie, integrated training) appear to produce the most improvement, in comparison to that of single-exercise programs. Knee flexion angle was improved following integrated training (combined balance and strength exercises or combined plyometric and strength exercises). Similarly, external knee flexion moment was improved following integrated training consisting of balance, plyometric, and strength exercises. VGRF was improved when incorporating supervision with instruction and

  15. Assessment of methods to extract the mid-sagittal plane from brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Leemans, Alexander; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L.

    2013-03-01

    Automatic detection of the mid-sagittal plane, separating both hemispheres of the brain, is useful in various applications. Several methods have been developed in the past years, applying different techniques to estimate the position of the mid-sagittal plane. These methods can be classified into three distinct classes: feature-based, global symmetry based, and local symmetry based methods. Feature-based methods use the shape or intensity of the interhemispheric fissure to extract the mid-sagittal plane. Global symmetry based methods reflect the entire image with respect to the sagittal axes and perform a rigid registration. Local symmetry based methods try to optimize a symmetry-measure in a small band covering the interhemispheric fissure. From each class, one leading method has been implemented. The methods have been evaluated on the same datasets to allow a fair comparison. Manual delineations were made by two experienced human observers. The results show that the examined methods perform similar to human observers. No significant differences were found between errors (defined as the angle and volume between planes) made by the methods and the inter-observer differences. Feature-based and local symmetry based methods have a low computation time of 1.8 and 0.5 seconds, respectively. The global symmetry based method has a higher computation time of 33.6 seconds, caused by the full 3D rigid registration. The largest errors, both by the methods and observers, are made in participants with cerebral atrophy. These participants have a widened interhemispheric fissure, allowing many plane orientations and positions to result in a valid division of the hemispheres.

  16. Reliability of sagittal pelvic position assessments in standing, sitting and during hip flexion using palpation meter.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Daniel Camara; Santos, Henrique; Carneiro, Ricardo Luiz; Andrade, Guilherme Trivellato

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate reliability of assessing sagittal pelvic position using the palpation meter (PALM) in healthy subjects while sitting, standing and while in different hip flexion angles in standing. Twenty healthy subjects were assessed two times by the same examiner, with a 48-h interval between test sessions. Reliability indices of PALM measures (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC) were calculated. ICC values showed excellent intra-rater reliability for measurements of sagittal pelvic position in standing and sitting position and for both standing hip flexion angles (ICC = .89-.96). SEM values ranged from .5° (hip flexion 90°) to 1.5° (sitting position). SDC values ranged from 1.5° (hip flexion 90°) to 4.0° (sitting position). The results of this study showed excellent intra-rater reliability for assessing sagittal pelvic position in standing, sitting and hip flexion in healthy subjects using the PALM.

  17. Sagittal plane spinal mobility is associated with dynamic balance ability of community-dwelling elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yahiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the range of spinal mobility on the sagittal plane and the dynamic balance ability of elderly people living in communities. [Subjects and Methods] The persons studied were 31 healthy elderly people living in the community (16 females and 15 males). The range of mobility of the participants’ spines in the sagittal plane was measured by using a spinal mouse®. Balance ability was evaluated by using Functional reach (FR), Timed up and go (TUG), and Maximum walking speed (MWS). [Results] A significant positive correlation between the flexion range of the lumbar vertebrae and the FR distance was identified, and a significant negative correlation between the extension range of the thoracic vertebrae and the time required for TUG was also identified. In addition, a significant positive correlation between the extension range of the entire spine and MWS, was identified. [Conclusion] The result of this study have clarified that mobility of the spine in the sagittal plane is associated with dynamic balance ability, which is related to falling. PMID:28210054

  18. Knee joint passive stiffness and moment in sagittal and frontal planes markedly increase with compression.

    PubMed

    Marouane, H; Shirazi-Adl, A; Adouni, M

    2015-01-01

    Knee joints are subject to large compression forces in daily activities. Due to artefact moments and instability under large compression loads, biomechanical studies impose additional constraints to circumvent the compression position-dependency in response. To quantify the effect of compression on passive knee moment resistance and stiffness, two validated finite element models of the tibiofemoral (TF) joint, one refined with depth-dependent fibril-reinforced cartilage and the other less refined with homogeneous isotropic cartilage, are used. The unconstrained TF joint response in sagittal and frontal planes is investigated at different flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) up to 1800 N compression preloads. The compression is applied at a novel joint mechanical balance point (MBP) identified as a point at which the compression does not cause any coupled rotations in sagittal and frontal planes. The MBP of the unconstrained joint is located at the lateral plateau in small compressions and shifts medially towards the inter-compartmental area at larger compression forces. The compression force substantially increases the joint moment-bearing capacities and instantaneous angular rigidities in both frontal and sagittal planes. The varus-valgus laxities diminish with compression preloads despite concomitant substantial reductions in collateral ligament forces. While the angular rigidity would enhance the joint stability, the augmented passive moment resistance under compression preloads plays a role in supporting external moments and should as such be considered in the knee joint musculoskeletal models.

  19. A primo vascular system underneath the superior sagittal sinus in the brain of a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Nam, Min-Ho; Lim, Jaekwan; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Sungchul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2012-10-01

    The primo vascular systems (PVS) observed in the central nervous system have been limited to the ones floating in the cerebrospinal fluid. In those experiments, it was difficult to obtain the same results because the PVS was not fixed in a given anatomical position. In the current work, we report a finding of a PVS in a well-defined location, namely, underneath the superior sagittal sinus in the sagittal fissure, so that repetition of the experiments is possible. This provides a cornerstone for PVS research because the lack of reproducible sample-taking hindered a deeper study of the PVS, such as RNA sequencing or RNA microarray. This obstacle can be overcome through the discovery in the current work. This PVS showed characteristics of the PVS observed in other organs. It showed the bundle structure of subvessels, the parallel distributions of F-actins, and the rod-shaped nuclei. Furthermore, it had a primo node in front of the confluence of sinuses above the pineal body. It had branches shooting off from the main primo vessel in the subarachnoid space toward the cerebral hemispheres. The results indicate that this PVS underneath superior sagittal sinus has proper features to function as a flowing channel.

  20. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  1. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    PubMed

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  2. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  3. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  4. Internal morphology of the nonsyndromic prematurely fused sagittal suture in the human skull--A preliminary micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Nowaczewska, W; Ziółkowski, G; Dybała, B

    2015-10-01

    Although nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) of the sagittal suture is a well-known type of craniosynostosis, little is currently known about the internal morphology of this prematurely fused suture in modern humans. Recently, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has been applied as a new tool for the quantitative evaluation of cranial suture morphology. However, so far there are only a small number of reports concerning studies of the internal morphology of prematurely fused sagittal suture in humans using micro-CT. The primary aim of this study was to examine the internal morphology of a completely obliterated sagittal suture in NSC. Two modern human skulls were used in this study: a skull of a child (aged 10 ± 2.5 years) displaying NSC of the sagittal suture and a skull of an adult showing non-prematurely completely obliterated sagittal suture. Quantitative variables of the sagittal sutures were assessed using method proposed by the authors. Porosity, and relative thickness of three bone layers in two examined skulls (inner cortical, diploë and outer cortical) were analysed using micro-CT in three equal sections of the sagittal suture. In the case of the prematurely fused suture, there were statistically significant differences mainly in the mean values of the porosity, thickness and relative thickness of the diploë between the anterior part and the two other parts (central and posterior) of this suture. Significant differences were also observed in some of the analysed variables between the sections of the sagittal suture of the skull with NSC and the normal skull.

  5. ‘Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis’ Is Not Byword for Degenerative Sagittal Imbalance: Time to Replace a Misconception

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Jang, Jee-Soo; Kim, Sung-Min; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flat-back syndrome and is most commonly caused by unique life styles, such as a prolonged crouched posture during agricultural work and performing activities of daily living on the floor. Unfortunately, LDK has been used as a byword for degenerative sagittal imbalance, and this sometimes causes confusion. The aim of this review was to evaluate the exact territory of LDK, and to introduce another appropriate term for degenerative sagittal deformity. Unlike what its name suggests, LDK does not only include sagittal balance disorder of the lumbar spine and kyphosis, but also sagittal balance disorder of the whole spine and little lordosis of the lumbar spine. Moreover, this disease is closely related to the occupation of female farmers and an outdated Asian life style. These reasons necessitate a change in the nomenclature of this disorder to prevent misunderstanding. We suggest the name “primary degenerative sagittal imbalance” (PDSI), which encompasses degenerative sagittal misalignments of unknown origin in the whole spine in older-age patients, and is associated with back muscle wasting. LDK may be regarded as a subgroup of PDSI related to an occupation in agriculture. Conservative treatments such as exercise and physiotherapy are recommended as first-line treatments for patients with PDSI, and surgical treatment is considered only if conservative treatments failed. The measurement of spinopelvic parameters for sagittal balance is important prior to deformity corrective surgery. LDK can be considered a subtype of PDSI that is more likely to occur in female farmers, and hence the use of LDK as a global term for all degenerative sagittal imbalance disorders is better avoided. To avoid confusion, we recommend PDSI as a newer, more accurate diagnostic term instead of LDK. PMID:28264231

  6. Pupil Diameter Tracks Lapses of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small. However, these observations were primarily driven by the joint effects of time-on-task on baseline pupil diameter and task performance. The linear relationships disappeared when we statistically controlled for time-on-task effects and were replaced by consistent inverted U-shaped relationships between baseline pupil diameter and each of the task performance measures, such that most false alarms and the longest and most variable response times occurred when pupil diameter was both relatively small and large. Finally, we observed strong linear relationships between the temporal derivative of pupil diameter and task performance measures, which were largely independent of time-on-task. Our results help to reconcile contradicting findings in the literature on pupil-linked changes in attentional state, and are consistent with the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function. Moreover, they suggest that the derivative of baseline pupil diameter is a potentially useful psychophysiological marker that could be used in the on-line prediction and prevention of attentional lapses. PMID:27768778

  7. Diameter Effect In Initiating Explosives, Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A.; Benterou, J.; Roeske, F.; Roos, E.

    2006-02-10

    The ability to safely machine small pieces of HE with the femtosecond laser allows diameter effect experiments to be performed in initiating explosives in order to study the failure diameter, the reduction of the detonation velocity and curvature versus the diameter. The reduced diameter configuration needs to be optimized, so that the detonation products of the first cylinder will not affect the measurement of the detonation velocity of the second cylinder with a streak camera. Different 2D axi-symmetrical configurations have been calculated to identify the best solution using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX16 Pellet with Ls-Dyna.

  8. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child’s mood and emotions, and in turn cause depression and anxiety. Screening/Diagnosis Detailed information regarding the location of abdominal pain, the frequency (number of times per week) and ... about the cause, and will guide further testing. Other important pieces ...

  9. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  10. Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhoenacker, F M; De Backer, A I; Op de, Beeck B; Maes, M; Van Altena, R; Van Beckevoort, D; Kersemans, P; De Schepper, A M

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An early correct diagnosis, however, is important in order to ensure proper treatment and a favorable outcome. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of abdominal TB and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Generally, CT appears to be the imaging modality of choice in the detection and assessment of abdominal tuberculosis, other than gastrointestinal TB. Barium studies remain superior for demonstrating mucosal intestinal lesions. Ultrasound may be used for follow-up to monitor therapy response. The diagnosis of abdominal TB should be considered if suggestive imaging findings are found in patients with a high index of suspicion.

  11. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  12. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  13. Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Ellen; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented. PMID:22229144

  14. Ultrasound guided percutaneous EVAR success is predicted by vessel diameter

    PubMed Central

    Bensley, Rodney P.; Hurks, Rob; Huang, Zhen; Pomposelli, Frank; Hamdan, Allen; Wyers, Mark; Chaikof, Elliot; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound guided access allows for direct visualization of the access artery during percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. We hypothesize that the use of ultrasound guidance allowed us to safely increase the utilization of percutaneous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair to almost all patients and decrease access complications. Methods A retrospective chart review of all elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs, both abdominal and descending thoracic, from 2005-2010 was performed. Patients were identified using ICD9 codes and stratified based on access type: percutaneous vs. cutdown. We examined the success rate of percutaneous access and the cause of failure. Sheath size was large (18-24 Fr) or small (12-16 Fr). Minimum access vessel diameter was also measured. Outcomes were wound complications (infections or clinically significant hematomas that delayed discharge or required transfusion), operative and incision time, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Predictors of percutaneous failure were identified. Results 168 patients (296 arteries) had percutaneous access (P-EVAR) while 131 patients (226 arteries) had femoral cutdown access (C-EVAR). Ultrasound guided access was introduced in 2007. P-EVAR increased from zero cases in 2005 to 92.3% of all elective cases in 2010. The success rate with percutaneous access was 96%. Failures requiring open surgical repair of the artery included 7 for hemorrhage and 6 for flow limiting stenosis or occlusion of the femoral artery. P-EVAR had fewer wound complications (0.7% vs. 7.4%, P = .001) shorter operative time (153.3 vs. 201.5 minutes, P < .001) and larger minimal access vessel diameter (6.7 mm vs. 6.1 mm, P < .01). Patients with failed percutaneous access had smaller minimal access vessel diameters when compared to successful P-EVAR (4.9 mm vs. 6.8 mm, P < .001). More failures occurred in small sheaths than large ones (7.4% vs. 1.9%, P = .02). Access vessel diameter < 5 mm is predictive

  15. Stellar angular diameters from occultation observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, B.-C.

    This paper reviews the history of measuring stellar angular diameters from lunar occultation observations and the techniques of data analysis. Several effects which can affect the results of measurement are discussed. The author finds that there may be systematic errors in angular diameters measured by various observatories for Aldebaran.

  16. Changes in trunk muscle activation and lumbar-pelvic position associated with abdominal hollowing and reach during a simulated manual material handling task.

    PubMed

    Butler, Heather L; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Kozey, John W

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal hollowing (AH) on trunk muscle activation and lumbar-pelvic motion during a controlled lift and replace task. Surface electromyograms were recorded from five abdominal and two back muscle sites. Sagittal lumbar-pelvic motion was recorded by video. Subjects lifted a 3.8 kg load in normal, maximum and extreme reaches, first while performing their preferred lifting style (PLS) and then maintaining an AH technique. The external oblique muscle site activities were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the AH technique (ranging from 7-20% of maximal voluntary activation (MVIC)) than at any of the abdominal sites for the PLS (ranging from 2-10% MVIC). Differences were found among abdominal sites for the AH, but not for the PLS. The back muscle site activities (ranging from 9-30% MVIC) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than for any of the abdominal muscles for all conditions, except for the anterior external oblique for AH. The pelvic and lumbar angles changed significantly (p < 0.05) between normal and maximal reaches and between techniques. The AH technique altered abdominal muscle activation amplitudes, with minimal differences in trunk extensors compared to the PLS. The AH resulted in more posterior pelvic tilt.

  17. Measurement of wire diameter by optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodier, Soraya A.

    2004-02-01

    A combined interference and diffraction pattern, in the form of equidistant interference fringes, resulting from illuminating a vertical metallic wire by a laser beam is analyzed to measure the diameter of four standard wires. The diameters range from 170 to 450 μm. It is found that the error in the diameter measurements increases for small metallic wires and for small distances between the wire and the screen due to scattering effects. The intensity of the incident laser beam was controlled by a pair of sheet polaroids to minimize the scattered radiation. The used technique is highly sensitive, but requires controlled environmental conditions and absence of vibration effects. The expanded uncertainty for k=2 is calculated and found to decrease from U(D)=±1.45 μm for the wire of nominal diameter 170 μm to ±0.57 μm for the diameter 450 μm.

  18. Semi-quantitative measurements of body hair in hirsute women compare well with direct diameter measurements of hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Barth, J H

    1997-07-01

    No standards exist for the evaluation of hair in hirsute women. This study compared the semi-quantitative visual scoring of body hair, using the Ferriman & Gallwey scale, in 88 hirsute women with direct objective measurements of hair shaft diameter and daily linear growth rates of hair growing on the pre-auricular area of the face, the forearm, the anterior abdominal wall and the anterior thigh. There was a significant correlation between the semi-quantitative score and diameter measurements on the forearm, abdominal wall and thigh. There was no relationship between linear growth rates at any of the four sites and the semi-quantitative score. The conclusion of this report is that suitably standardised and controlled semi-quantitative measurement of hair in hirsute women with visual analogue scores would appear to offer information similar to that obtained by direct measurement of hair diameter.

  19. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kunihide; Matsuyama, Masakazu; Endou, Jouji; Nishimura, Masanori; Ishii, Hirohito; Yokota, Atsuko; Ikenoue, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA.

  20. Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Report of Seven Cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA. PMID:24386030

  1. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  2. Serial Measurements of Splanchnic Vein Diameters in Rats Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Bridget M.; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate serial ultrasound imaging in rats as a fully non-invasive method to (1) quantify the diameters of splanchnic veins in real time as an indirect surrogate for the capacitance function of those veins, and (2) assess the effects of drugs on venous dimensions. A 21 MHz probe was used on anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats to collect images containing the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC), and splenic vein (SpV; used as a landmark in timed studies) and the abdominal aorta (AA). Stable landmarks were established that allowed reproducible quantification of cross-sectional diameters within an animal. The average diameters of vessels measured every 5 min over 45 min remained within 0.75 ± 0.15% (PV), 0.2 ± 0.09% (SMV), 0.5 ± 0.12% (IVC), and 0.38 ± 0.06% (AA) of baseline (PV: 2.0 ± 0.12 mm; SMV: 1.7 ± 0.04 mm; IVC: 3.2 ± 0.1 mm; AA: 2.3 ± 0.14 mm). The maximal effects of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) on venous diameters were determined 5 min post SNP bolus; the diameters of all noted veins were significantly increased by SNP, while mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 29 ± 4 mmHg. By contrast, administration of the venoconstrictor sarafotoxin (S6c; 5 ng/kg, i.v. bolus) significantly decreased PV and SpV, but not IVC, SMV, or AA, diameters 5 min post S6c bolus; MAP increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg. In order to determine if resting splanchnic vein diameters were stable over much longer periods of time, vessel diameters were measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Measurements were found to be highly reproducible within animals over this time period. Finally, to evaluate the utility of vein imaging in a chronic condition, images were acquired from 4-week deoxycorticosterone acetate salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive and normotensive (SHAM) control rats. All vessel diameters increased from baseline while MAP increased (67 ± 4 mmHg) in DOCA-salt rats

  3. Effects of extraction treatment on maxillary and mandibular sagittal development in growing patients.

    PubMed

    Kalwitzki, Matthias; Godt, Arnim; Göz, Gernot

    2011-10-01

    This retrospective investigation was designed to assess the effects of extraction treatment on the sagittal dimensions of the maxillary and mandibular skeletal structures of growing patients. The records of 40 patients (17 girls, 23 boys; median age 10 years 11 months) whose orthodontic treatment involved extraction of four premolars were evaluated and compared with a control group of 100 patients (54 girls, 46 boys; median age 10 years 7 months) treated non-extraction. Two lateral cephalograms were obtained of each patient, the first before the extractions, T1, and the second at a later point, T2 (mean difference 59 months). Linear parameters, including S-N, the maxillary/mandibular alveolar process, and maxillary/mandibular base, were measured. The same parameters were determined in the control group at corresponding time points (mean difference 63 months). For analysis, the sagittal dimensions of the alveolar processes and jaw bases were compared with each other. The relationships were also established to a reference line known to be unaffected by extraction treatment (S-N). This procedure was performed for the whole sample and for three subgroups formed according to the Wits appraisal. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Student's t-test. Comparisons of the total sample showed differences between the groups, which were statistically significant for the maxillary alveolar process, the mandibular alveolar process, and the mandibular base. They varied however in the different subgroups. Whenever extraction treatment is considered, it should be borne in mind that the effects on the sagittal dimension of different bony structures may vary.

  4. Is sagittal sinus resection in falcine meningiomas a factor of bad surgical outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Aires, Rogério; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Tahara, Adriana; de Souza Filho, Antonio Marcos; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Ramina, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Meningiomas arising purely from the falx below the longitudinal sinus represents a surgical challenge for the neurosurgeon. The authors discuss the new aspects of surgical details that may avoid complications and determine the prognosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated our surgical experience from June 2004 to January 2010. Seventy patients harboring falcine meningiomas were included and submitted for surgical resection. All historical records, office charts and images were reviewed in order to sample the most important data regarding epidemiology, clinical pictures, radiological findings and surgical results, as well as the main complications. The patients were divided into three main groups: anterior third 32 patients (Group A), middle third 15 patients (Group B), 23 patients in the posterior third of falx (Group C). Results: In Group A, total macroscopic resection was achieved in 31 out of 32 cases (96.87%). Twenty five patients had Rankin 0, five patients had Rankin 1-2, two patients had Rankin 6. In Group B (15 patients), 10 patients had gross resection and Rankin 0, four patients had Rankin 1-2 and one patient had Rankin 6. In Group C (23 patients), 20 patients were absolutely able, Rankin score 0, after six months postoperative period (83.3% had excellent results) and no mortality. Four cases had Rankin score 1 – 2 (16.6%). Ten cases (43.47%) had Simpson I resection and ten cases (43.47%) had Simpson II. Conclusion: Despite larger lesion volumes, Group A meningiomas had a better outcome due to the position they were in, the tumor and surrounding structures. The preoperative preparation and surgical planning can preserve sagittal sinus; but in some cases, this is not possible. Sagittal sinus resection, as proven by this paper, is still a factor of bad surgical outcome. In the middle and posterior third, resection of sagittal sinus is a factor of a bad outcome, due to cerebral infartion. PMID:21125007

  5. Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607

  6. Medical management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Rodionov, Roman N; Mahlmann, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most common arterial aneurysms. Endovascular or open surgical aneurysm repair is indicated in patients with large AAA ≥ 5.5 cm in diameter as this prevents aneurysm rupture. The presence even of small AAAs not in need of immediate repair is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk including myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. This risk by far exceeds the risk of aneurysm rupture. These patients therefore should be considered as high-risk patients and receive optimal medical treatment and life-style modification of their cardiovascular risk factors to improve their prognosis. In addition, these patients should be followed-up for aneurysm growth and receive medical treatment to decrease aneurym progression and rupture rate. Treatment with statins has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in these patients, and also slows the rate of AAA growth. Use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists does not affect AAA growth but may be indicated for comorbidities. Antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin has a small effect on AAA growth, but this effect must be critically weighed against the potential risk of wide-spread use of antibiotics.

  7. On growth measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysms using maximally inscribed spheres

    PubMed Central

    Gharahi, H.; Zambrano, B. A.; Lim, C.; Choi, J.; Lee, W.; Baek, S.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum diameter, total volume of the abdominal aorta, and its growth rate are usually regarded as key factors for making a decision on the therapeutic operation time for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient. There is, however, a debate on what is the best standard method to measure the diameter. Currently, two dominant methods for measuring the maximum diameter are used. One is measured on the planes perpendicular to the aneurism's central line (orthogonal diameter) and the other one is measured on the axial planes (axial diameter). In this paper, another method called ‘inscribed-spherical diameter’ is proposed to measure the diameter. The main idea is to find the diameter of the largest sphere that fits within the aorta. An algorithm is employed to establish a centerline for the AAA geometries obtained from a set of longitudinal scans obtained from South Korea. This centerline, besides being the base of the inscribed spherical method, is used for the determination of orthogonal and axial diameter. The growth rate parameters are calculated in different diameters and the total volume and the correlations between them are studied. Furthermore, an exponential growth pattern is sought for the maximum diameters over time to examine a nonlinear growth pattern of AAA expansion both globally and locally. The results present the similarities and discrepancies of these three methods. We report the shortcomings and the advantages of each method and its performance in the quantification of expansion rates. While the orthogonal diameter measurement has an ability of capturing a realistic diameter, it fluctuated. On the other hand, the inscribed sphere diameter method tends to underestimate the diameter measurement but the growth rate can be bounded in a narrow region for aiding prediction capability. Moreover, expansion rate parameters derived from this measurement exhibit good correlation with each other and with growth rate of volume. In conclusion, although

  8. The association of simple renal cysts with abdominal aortic aneurysms and their impact on renal function after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Rountas, Christos; Saleptsis, Vasileios; Athanasoulas, Athanasios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-04-01

    We validated the association of simple renal cysts with abdominal aortic aneurysm and other cardiovascular factors and assessed simple renal cysts' impact on renal function before and after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Computed tomography angiograms of 100 consecutive male patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (Group 1) were reviewed and compared with 100 computed tomography angiogram of aged-matched male patients without abdominal aortic aneurysm (Group 2). Patients' demographic data, risk factors, abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter, the presence of simple renal cyst and laboratory tests were recorded. No difference was observed between the two groups in respect to other cardiovascular risk factors except hyperlipidemia with higher prevalence in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Presence of simple renal cysts was independently associated with age (p < 0.05) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (p = 0.0157). There was no correlation between simple renal cysts and abdominal aortic aneurysm size or pre-operative creatinine and urea levels. No difference was observed in post-operative creatinine and urea levels either immediately after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or in 12-month follow-up. In male patients, the presence of simple renal cysts is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm and is increasing with age. However, their presence is neither associated with impaired renal function pre-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and post-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair nor after 12-month follow-up.

  9. Tangential and sagittal curvature from the normals computed by the null screen method in corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-08-01

    A new method for computing the tangential and sagittal curvatures from the normals to a cornea is proposed. The normals are obtained through a Null Screen method from the coordinates of the drops shaped spots at the null screen, the coordinates on a reference approximating surface and the centroids on the image plane. This method assumes that the cornea has rotational symmetry and our derivations will be carried out in the meridional plane that contains the symmetry axis. Experimental results are shown for a calibration spherical surface, using cylindrical null screens with radial point arrays.

  10. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- and Double-Leg Jump Landings in the Sagittal and Frontal Plane

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Double-leg forward or drop-jump landing activities are typically used to screen for high-risk movement strategies and to determine the success of neuromuscular injury prevention programs. However, research suggests that these tasks that occur primarily in the sagittal plane may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during unilateral foot contact or non–sagittal plane movements that are characteristic of many multidirectional sports. Purpose: To examine the extent to which lower extremity biomechanics measured during a jump landing on a double leg (DL) after a sagittal plane (SAG) movement is representative of biomechanics measured during single-leg (SL) or frontal plane (FRONT) jump landing tasks. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Lower extremity biomechanics were measured in 15 recreationally active females (mean age [±SD], 19.4 ± 2.1 years; mean height, 163.3 ± 5.9 cm; mean weight, 61.1 ± 7.1 kg) while performing SAGDL, SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL jump landing tasks. Repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in lower extremity biomechanics between the 4 tasks, and linear regressions examined the extent to which an individual’s biomechanics during SAGDL were representative of their biomechanics during SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL. Results: Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics differed by condition, with the SAGDL task generally eliciting greater hip and knee flexion angles and lower hip and knee forces than the other tasks (P < .05). Although biomechanics during the SAGDL task were strongly associated with those during the FRONTDL task (R 2, 0.41-0.82), weaker associations were observed between SAGDL and single-leg tasks for hip kinematics (R 2, 0.03-0.25) and kinetics (R 2, 0.05-0.20) and knee abduction moments (R 2, 0.06-0.18) (P < .05). Conclusion: Standard double-leg sagittal plane jump landing tasks used to screen for ACL injury risk and the effectiveness of ACL injury

  11. Impact Structures: What Does Crater Diameter Mean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Pierazzo, E.; Collins, G. S.; Osinski, G. R.; Melosh, H. J.; Morgan, J. V.; Reimold, W. U.; Spray, J. G.

    2004-03-01

    Crater diameter is an important parameter in energy scaling and impact simulations. However, disparate types of data make the use of consistent metrics difficult. We suggest a consistent terminology and discuss it in the context of several examples.

  12. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOEpatents

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  13. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  14. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  15. Controlling the Fiber Diameter during Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrikh, Sergey V.; Yu, Jian H.; Brenner, Michael P.; Rutledge, Gregory C.

    2003-04-01

    We present a simple analytical model for the forces that determine jet diameter during electrospinning as a function of surface tension, flow rate, and electric current in the jet. The model predicts the existence of a terminal jet diameter, beyond which further thinning of the jet due to growth of the whipping instability does not occur. Experimental data for various electrospun fibers attest to the accuracy of the model.

  16. Making Jointless Dual-Diameter Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Kathleen E.

    1989-01-01

    Welds between sections having different diameters eliminated. Single tube made with integral tapered transition section between straight sections of different diameters and wall thicknesses. Made from single piece; contains no joints, welded or otherwise. Not prone to such weld defects as voids and need not be inspected for them. Tube fabricated by either of two methods: drawing or reduction. Both methods used to fabricate tubes of 316L corrosion-resistant stainless steel for use as heat-exchanger coil.

  17. Large diameter carbon-boron fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veltri, R. D.; Jacob, B. A.; Galasso, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations concerned with a development of large-diameter carbon fibers are considered, taking into account the employment of vapor deposition techniques. In the experiments a carbon monofilament substrate is used together with reacting gases which consist of combinations of hydrogen, methane, and boron trichloride. It is found that the described approach can be used to obtain a large-diameter carbon filament containing boron. The filament has reasonable strength and modulus properties.

  18. Effects of frontal and sagittal thorax attitudes in gait on trunk and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics.

    PubMed

    Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Belvedere, Claudio; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2015-10-01

    While sagittal trunk inclinations alter upper body biomechanics, little is known about the extent of frontal trunk bending on upper body and pelvis kinematics in adults during gait and its relation to sagittal trunk inclinations. The objective was to determine the effect of the mean lateral trunk attitude on upper body and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics during gait in asymptomatic subjects. Three gait cycles were collected in 30 subjects using a motion analysis system (Vicon 612) and an established protocol. Sub-groups were formed based on the mean thorax lateral bending angle, bending side, and also sagittal tilt. These were compared based on 38 peak angles identified on pelvis, thorax and shoulder kinematics using MANOVAs. A main effect for bending side (p = 0.038) was found, especially for thorax peak angles. Statistics revealed also a significant interaction (p = 0.04993) between bending side and tilt for the thorax sagittal inclination during body-weight transfer. These results reinforce the existence of different gait patterns, which correlate upper body and pelvis motion measures. The results also suggest that frontal and sagittal trunk attitude should be considered carefully when treating a patient with impaired gait.

  19. Ultra-efficient Engine Diameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Brown, Stephen T.; Kawai, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Engine fan diameter and Bypass Ratio (BPR) optimization studies have been conducted since the beginning of the turbofan age with the recognition that reducing the engine core jet velocity and increasing fan mass flow rate generally increases propulsive efficiency. However, performance tradeoffs limit the amount of fan flow achievable without reducing airplane efficiency. This study identifies the optimum engine fan diameter and BPR, given the advanced Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) powerplant efficiencies, for use on an advanced subsonic airframe. Engine diameter studies have historically focused on specific engine size options, and were limited by existing technology and transportation infrastructure (e.g., ability to fit bare engines through aircraft doors and into cargo holds). This study is unique in defining the optimum fan diameter and drivers for future 2015 (UEET) powerplants while not limiting engine fan diameter by external constraints. This report follows on to a study identifying the system integration issues of UEET engines. This Engine Diameter study was managed by Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington through the NASA Glenn Revolutionary Aero Space Engine Research (RASER) contract under task order 10. Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, completed the engine/airplane sizing optimization, while the Boeing Commercial Airplane group (BCA) provided design oversight. A separate subcontract to support the overall project was issued to Tuskegee University.

  20. Modeling Localization of Amplitude-Panned Virtual Sources in Sagittal Planes.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Robert; Majdak, Piotr

    2015-08-18

    Vector-base amplitude panning (VBAP) aims at creating virtual sound sources at arbitrary directions within multichannel sound reproduction systems. However, VBAP does not consistently produce listener-specific monaural spectral cues that are essential for localization of sound sources in sagittal planes, including the front-back and up-down dimensions. In order to better understand the limitations of VBAP, a functional model approximating human processing of spectro-spatial information was applied to assess accuracy in sagittal-plane localization of virtual sources created by means of VBAP. First, we evaluated VBAP applied on two loudspeakers in the median plane, and then we investigated the directional dependence of the localization accuracy in several three-dimensional loudspeaker arrangements designed in layers of constant elevation. The model predicted a strong dependence on listeners' individual head-related transfer functions, on virtual source directions, and on loudspeaker arrangements. In general, the simulations showed a systematic degradation with increasing polar-angle span between neighboring loudspeakers. For the design of VBAP systems, predictions suggest that spans up to 40° polar angle yield a good trade-off between system complexity and localization accuracy. Special attention should be paid to the frontal region where listeners are most sensitive to deviating spectral cues.

  1. Anterior column realignment following lateral interbody fusion for sagittal deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Luiz; Fortti, Fernanda; Oliveira, Leonardo; Marchi, Luis; Jensen, Rubens; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Amaral, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    Degenerative and iatrogenic diseases may lead to loss of lordosis or even kyphotic thoracolumbar deformity and sagittal misalignment. Traditional surgery with three-column osteotomies is associated with important neurologic risks and postoperative morbidity. In a novel technique, the lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is complemented with the sacrifice of the anterior longitudinal ligament and anterior portion of the annulus followed by the insertion of a hyperlordotic interbody cage. This is a less invasive lateral technique named anterior column realignment (ACR) and aims to correct sagittal misalignment in adult spinal deformity (ASD), with or without the addition of minor posterior osteotomies. In this article, we provide an account of the evolution to the ACR technique, the literature, and the Brazilian experience in the treatment of adult spinal deformity with this novel advanced application of LTIF. In the presence of ASD, the risk-to-benefit ratio of a surgical correction must be evaluated. Less invasive surgical strategies can be alternatives to treat the deformity and provide better quality of life to the patient. ACR is an advanced application of lateral transpsoas approach, up to date has shown to be reliable and effective when used for ASD, and may minimize complications and morbidity from traditional surgical procedures. Long-term follow-up and comparative studies are needed to evaluate real benefit.

  2. Evaluation of facial morphology and sagittal relationship between dental arches in primary and mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. METHODS: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects. PMID:26352847

  3. Risk factors for breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback surgery.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Izumi; Igawa, Kaori; Nagata, Jyunko; Yoshida, Maho; Baba, Takashi; Ichiki, Takeshi; Kondoh, Yudai; Takamori, Koichi; Kashima, Koji; Sakoda, Sumio

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breakage of biodegradable plate systems after bilateral sagittal split mandibular setback. We studied 169 Japanese adults (62 men, 107 women; age range 16-53 years) with deformities of the jaw diagnosed as mandibular prognathism. All patients were treated by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) with 2 biodegradable fixation plates and screws at the anterior mandibular ramus. We collected the following data from the medical records and radiological findings: sex; age; degree of setback; presence of asymmetry; presence of open bite; operation; design of the plate; operating time; and blood loss. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the factors that were independently associated with the dependent variable: breakage of the biodegradable plate system. In 10 of the 169 patients (6%) the biodegradable plate system for the BSSO broke. Factors that influenced whether or not the biodegradable plate system fractured were if they were asymmetrical (odds ratio (OR) 5.35; P=0.02) and had an open bite (OR 5.20; P=0.02). Asymmetry or open bite was significantly associated with breaks in the biodegradable plate system. Biodegradable plates should be used only when loading is minimal.

  4. Current concepts on the sagittal balance and classification of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and paediatrics. In spondylolisthesis, it has been clearly demonstrated over the past decade that spino-pelvic morphology is abnormal and that it can be associated to an abnormal sacro-pelvic orientation as well as to a disturbed global sagittal balance of spine. This article presents the SDSG (Spinal Deformity Study Group) classification of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. The proper treatment of spondylolisthesis is dependent on recognizing the type of slip, sacro-pelvic balance and overall sagittal balance and its natural history. Although a number of clinical radiographic features have been identified as risk factors, their role as primary causative factors or secondary adaptative changes is not clear. The conservative treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis results in good outcome in the majority of cases. Of those patients who fail conservative treatment, success with surgery is quite good, with significant improvement in neurologic function in those patients with deficits, as well as improvement in patients with back pain.

  5. Long-term morphological outcomes in nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis: a comparison of 2 techniques.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory P L; Johnson, David; Byren, Jo C; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Magdum, Shailendra A; Richards, Peter G; Wall, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Correction of scaphocephaly is one of the principle goals of surgery in sagittal craniosynostosis. Reported relapse in head shape after surgery and continued head growth into late adolescence underscores the need for long-term outcomes to be considered when comparing between different surgical approaches in this condition; yet there are relatively few reports of results to 5 years and beyond in the literature. Therefore, a retrospective review was performed of the anthropometric data of 224 patients with sagittal craniosynostosis who underwent primary surgery between 1994 and 2012. During this period, patients underwent either a modified strip craniectomy (MSC) or calvarial remodeling (CR) procedure. Sixty-two patients were treated by MSC and followed up for a mean of 44 months. One hundred sixty-two patients had CR, with follow-up for a mean of 45 months. Overall, 90 patients were seen up to 5 years, and 47 patients to 9 years or more after surgery. The cephalic index (CI) of MSC-treated patients improved from a mean of 67.0 to 72.7, with 31% achieving a CI greater than 75 at one year. Calvarial remodeling was significantly more effective at correcting the scaphocephalic deformity. Patients treated with CR improved from a mean CI of 66.7 to 76.1. Sixty-two percent of the patients achieved a CI greater than 75. In both groups, outcomes were stable throughout follow-up with no significant relapse up to 14 years after surgery.

  6. Current concepts on the sagittal balance and classification of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Tebet, Marcos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and paediatrics. In spondylolisthesis, it has been clearly demonstrated over the past decade that spino-pelvic morphology is abnormal and that it can be associated to an abnormal sacro-pelvic orientation as well as to a disturbed global sagittal balance of spine. This article presents the SDSG (Spinal Deformity Study Group) classification of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. The proper treatment of spondylolisthesis is dependent on recognizing the type of slip, sacro-pelvic balance and overall sagittal balance and its natural history. Although a number of clinical radiographic features have been identified as risk factors, their role as primary causative factors or secondary adaptative changes is not clear. The conservative treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis results in good outcome in the majority of cases. Of those patients who fail conservative treatment, success with surgery is quite good, with significant improvement in neurologic function in those patients with deficits, as well as improvement in patients with back pain. PMID:26229765

  7. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses following abdominal surgery under real-time CT-fluoroscopic guidance.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Takeda, Kan

    2010-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses retrospectively under real-time computed tomographic (CT) guidance. For abdominal abscesses, 12 consecutive patients received percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Abscesses were considered inaccessible using the usual access route because they were surrounded by the liver and other organs. The maximum diameters of abscesses were 4.6-9.5 cm (mean, 6.7 +/- 1.4 cm). An 8-Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the liver parenchyma using real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance. Safety, feasibility, procedure time, and clinical utility were evaluated. Drainage catheters were placed with no complications in abscess cavities through the liver parenchyma in all patients. The mean procedure time was 18.8 +/- 9.2 min (range, 12-41 min). All abscesses were drained. They shrank immediately after catheter placement. In conclusions, this transhepatic approach under real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance is a safe, feasible, and useful technique for use of drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses.

  8. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  9. Influence of gap balance on the sagittal movement of a specific mobile bearing floating platform design in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Dong-Ki; Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed 119 knees implanted with mobile bearing floating platform prostheses using the navigation-assisted gap balancing technique to analyze the relationship between intraoperative sagittal movement of floating platforms and soft tissue balancing. The 95 (79.8%) knees were classified into the positive rollback group (mean insert posterior rollback 5.86 ± 1.24 mm), and the remaining 24 (20.2%) into the negative rollback group. Lateral flexion gap (LFG) differed significantly between knees with positive and negative rollback (20.5 ± 1.7 mm vs 22.1 ± 1.7 mm, P = .021). Only LFG significantly influenced the occurrence of bearing sagittal movement. Sagittal translation of the insert occurred in about 80% of knees implanted with mobile bearing floating platforms in TKA, and was affected by flexion gaps, especially on the lateral side.

  10. Improving the efficiency of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress computations.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Jaime E; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses.

  11. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response.

  12. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  13. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  14. Center of Mass Compensation during Gait in Hip Arthroplasty Patients: Comparison between Large Diameter Head Total Hip Arthroplasty and Hip Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Bouffard, Vicky; Nantel, Julie; Therrien, Marc; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Lavigne, Martin; Prince, François

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare center of mass (COM) compensation in the frontal and sagittal plane during gait in patients with large diameter head total hip arthroplasty (LDH-THA) and hip resurfacing (HR). Design. Observational study. Setting. Outpatient biomechanical laboratory. Participants. Two groups of 12 patients with LDH-THA and HR recruited from a larger randomized study and 11 healthy controls. Interventions. Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures. To compare the distance between the hip prosthetic joint center (HPJC) and the COM. The ratio (RHPJC-COM) and the variability (CVHPJC-COM) were compared between groups. Hip flexor, abductor, and adductor muscle strength was also correlated between groups while radiographic measurements were correlated with the outcome measures. Results. In the frontal plane, HR shows less variability than healthy controls at push-off and toe-off and RHPJC-COM is correlated with the muscle strength ratios (FRABD) at heel contact, maximal weight acceptance, and mid stance. In the sagittal plane, LDH-THA has a higher RHPJC-COM than healthy controls at push-off, and CVHPJC-COM is significantly correlated with FRFLEX. Conclusions. One year after surgery, both groups of patients, LDH-THA and HR, demonstrate minor compensations at some specific instant of the gait cycle, in both frontal and sagittal planes. However, their locomotion pattern is similar to the healthy controls. PMID:22110976

  15. Large diameter astromast development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Finley, L. A.; Knapp, K.

    1983-01-01

    Coilable-longeron lattice columns called Astromasts (trademark) were manufactured for a variety of spacecraft missions. These flight structures varied in diameter from 0.2 to 0.5 meter (9 to 19 in.), and the longest Astromast of this type deploys to a length of 30 meters (100 feet). A double-laced diagonal Astromast design referred to as the Supermast (trademark) which, because it has shorter baylengths than an Astromast, is approximately four times as strong. The longeron cross section and composite material selection for these structures are limited by the maximum strain associated with stowage and deployment. As a result, future requirements for deployable columns with high stiffness and strength require the development of both structures in larger diameters. The design, development, and manufacture of a 6.1-m-long (20-ft), 0.75-m-diameter (30-in.), double-laced diagonal version of the Astromast is described.

  16. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; ...

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  17. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers is the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.

  18. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  19. Systematic biases in radiometric diameter determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Sykes, Mark V.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric diameter determinations are presently shown to often be significantly affected by the effect of rotation. This thermal effect of rotation depends not only on the object's thermal inertia, rotation rate, and pole orientation, but also on its temperature, since colder objects having constant rotation rate and thermal inertia will radiate less of their heat on the diurnal than on the nocturnal hemisphere. A disk-integrated beaming parameter of 0.72 is determined for the moon, and used to correct empirically for the roughness effects in thermophysical models; the standard thermal model is found to systematically underestimate cold object diameters, while overstating their albedos.

  20. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-08-12

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed.

  1. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT DRIFT DIAMETER SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Wade

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the thermal response of a repository-emplaced waste package and its corresponding drift wall surface temperature with different drift diameters. The case examined is that of a 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package loaded with design basis spent nuclear fuel assemblies. This calculation evaluates a 3.5 meter to 6.5 meter drift diameter range in increments of 1.0 meters. The time-dependent temperatures of interest, as determined by this calculation, are the spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature, the waste package surface temperature, and the drift wall surface temperature.

  2. Fabrication of 10nm diameter carbon nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Radenovic, Aleksandra; Trepagnier, Eliane; Csencsits, Roseann; Downing, Kenneth H; Liphardt, Jan

    2008-09-25

    The addition of carbon to samples, during imaging, presents a barrier to accurate TEM analysis, the controlled deposition of hydrocarbons by a focused electron beam can be a useful technique for local nanometer-scale sculpting of material. Here we use hydrocarbon deposition to form nanopores from larger focused ion beam (FIB) holes in silicon nitride membranes. Using this method, we close 100-200nm diameter holes to diameters of 10nm and below, with deposition rates of 0.6nm per minute. I-V characteristics of electrolytic flow through these nanopores agree quantitatively with a one dimensional model at all examined salt concentrations.

  3. The truth about small-diameter implants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gordon J; Child, Paul L

    2010-05-01

    SDIs that are treatment planned correctly, placed and loaded properly, and are within a well-adjusted occlusion, are working in an excellent manner for the patients described in this article. It is time for those practitioners unfamiliar with SDIs and their uses to discontinue their discouragement of this technique. SDIs are easily placed, minimally invasive, and a true service to those patients described. They do not replace conventional diameter implants; however, they are a significant and important augmentation to the original root-form implant concept. There is obvious evidence of the growing acceptance of small-diameter implants by both general practitioners and specialists.

  4. Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Ghoroobi, Javad; Khoddami, Maliheh; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Naser; Mahdavi, Alireza; Hatefi, Sayeh

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. She had history of pharyngitis for two weeks. There were no other symptoms. Abdominal examination revealed an irregular solid mass in right lower quadrant (RLQ). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an echohetrogenic large mass in RLQ, liver, and retroperitoneal area. Abdominal CT scan showed a huge mass. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal mass that involved right liver lobe, bladder, ileocecal valve, small and large intestines was found. At histopathology diagnosis of toxocariasis was made. PMID:28164001

  5. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  6. Empyema following intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K C; Sethia, B; Reece, I J; Davidson, K G

    1984-09-01

    Over the past 9 years, ten patients have presented to the Thoracic Unit, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, with 12 empyemas secondary to intra-abdominal sepsis. In eight patients, the presenting signs and symptoms were wrongly attributed to primary intra-thoracic pathology. All were subsequently found to have intra-abdominal sepsis. The presence of empyema after recent abdominal surgery or abdominal pain strongly suggests a diagnosis of ipsilateral subphrenic abscess. Adequate surgical drainage is essential. In our experience, limited thoracotomy with subdiaphragmatic extension offers the best access to both pleural and subphrenic spaces and provides the greatest chance of eradicating infection on both sides of the diaphragm.

  7. Agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for quantifying sagittal plane spinal curvature in sitting.

    PubMed

    Cloud, Beth A; Zhao, Kristin D; Breighner, Ryan; Giambini, Hugo; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-07-01

    Spinal posture affects how individuals function from a manual wheelchair. There is a need to directly quantify spinal posture in this population to ultimately improve function. A fiber optic system, comprised of an attached series of sensors, is promising for measuring large regions of the spine in individuals sitting in a wheelchair. The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between fiber optic and optoelectronic systems for measuring spinal curvature, and describe the range of sagittal plane spinal curvatures in natural sitting. Able-bodied adults (n = 26, 13 male) participated. Each participant assumed three sitting postures: natural, slouched (accentuated kyphosis), and extension (accentuated lordosis) sitting. Fiber optic (ShapeTape) and optoelectronic (Optotrak) systems were applied to the skin over spinous processes from S1 to C7 and used to measure sagittal plane spinal curvature. Regions of kyphosis and lordosis were identified. A Cobb angle-like method was used to quantify lordosis and kyphosis. Generalized linear model and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess agreement. A strong correlation exists between curvature values obtained with Optotrak and ShapeTape (R(2) = 0.98). The mean difference between Optotrak and ShapeTape for kyphosis in natural, extension, and slouched postures was 4.30° (95% LOA: -3.43 to 12.04°), 3.64° (95% LOA: -1.07 to 8.36°), and 4.02° (95% LOA: -2.80 to 10.84°), respectively. The mean difference for lordosis, when present, in natural and extension postures was 2.86° (95% LOA: -1.18 to 6.90°) and 2.55° (95% LOA: -3.38 to 8.48°), respectively. In natural sitting, the mean ± SD of kyphosis values was 35.07 ± 6.75°. Lordosis was detected in 8/26 participants: 11.72 ± 7.32°. The fiber optic and optoelectronic systems demonstrate acceptable agreement for measuring sagittal plane thoracolumbar spinal curvature.

  8. Increased sagittal vertical axis is associated with less effective control of acute pain following vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y-C.; Bok, D. H.; Chang, H-G.; Kim, S. W.; Park, M. S.; Oh, J. K.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although vertebroplasty is very effective for relieving acute pain from an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, not all patients who undergo vertebroplasty receive the same degree of benefit from the procedure. In order to identify the ideal candidate for vertebroplasty, pre-operative prognostic demographic or clinico-radiological factors need to be identified. The objective of this study was to identify the pre-operative prognostic factors related to the effect of vertebroplasty on acute pain control using a cohort of surgically and non-surgically managed patients. Patients and Methods Patients with single-level acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture at thoracolumbar junction (T10 to L2) were followed. If the patients were not satisfied with acute pain reduction after a three-week conservative treatment, vertebroplasty was recommended. Pain assessment was carried out at the time of diagnosis, as well as three, four, six, and 12 weeks after the diagnosis. The effect of vertebroplasty, compared with conservative treatment, on back pain (visual analogue score, VAS) was analysed with the use of analysis-of-covariance models that adjusted for pre-operative VAS scores. Results A total of 342 patients finished the 12-week follow-up, and 120 patients underwent vertebroplasty (35.1%). The effect of vertebroplasty over conservative treatment was significant regardless of age, body mass index, medical comorbidity, previous fracture, pain duration, bone mineral density, degree of vertebral body compression, and canal encroachment. However, the effect of vertebroplasty was not significant at all time points in patients with increased sagittal vertical axis. Conclusions For single-level acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, the effect of vertebroplasty was less favourable in patients with increased sagittal vertical axis (> 5 cm) possible due to aggravation of kyphotic stress from walking imbalance. Cite this article: Y-C. Kim, D. H

  9. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  10. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  11. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  12. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  13. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  14. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  15. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  16. Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.

    1992-01-01

    In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.

  17. Precision distances with spiral galaxy apparent diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Spiral galaxy diameters offer the oldest extragalactic distance indicator known. Although outdated and hitherto imprecise, two spiral diameter-based distance indicators applied in the 1980s can be tested, calibrated, and re-established for precision era use, based on abundant redshift-independent distances data available in NED-D. Indicator one employs the largest Giant Spiral Galaxies, which have an absolute isophotal major diameter of ~70 +/- 10 kpc, offering standard ruler-based distances with <10% precision. Indicator two employs the diameter-magnitude relation for spirals in general, as a secondary indicator, offering ~20% precision. The ruler-based indicator is the only indicator with <10% precision able to independently calibrate type Ia supernovae-based distances at cosmological distances. The secondary-based indicator is the only indicator with 20% precision applicable to more galaxies than in current Tully-Fisher surveys. The primary indicator gives researchers a new tool to confirm or refute if, as currently believed, universal expansion is accelerating. The secondary indicator gives researchers a new path toward acquiring a more complete 3D picture of the local universe and potentially, because the majority of galaxies in the universe are spirals, the distant universe.

  18. Solar diameter with 2012 Venus Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2012-06-01

    The role of Venus and Mercury transits is crucial to know the past history of the solar diameter. Through the W parameter, the logarithmic derivative of the radius with respect to the luminosity, the past values of the solar luminosity can be recovered. The black drop phenomenon affects the evaluation of the instants of internal and external contacts between the planetary disk and the solar limb. With these observed instants compared with the ephemerides the value of the solar diameter is recovered. The black drop and seeing effects are overcome with two fitting circles, to Venus and to the Sun, drawn in the undistorted part of the image. The corrections of ephemerides due to the atmospheric refraction will also be taken into account. The forthcoming transit of Venus will allow an accuracy on the diameter of the Sun better than 0.01 arcsec, with good images of the ingress and of the egress taken each second. Chinese solar observatories are in the optimal conditions to obtain valuable data for the measurement of the solar diameter with the Venus transit of 5/6 June 2012 with an unprecedented accuracy, and with absolute calibration given by the ephemerides.

  19. Measuring Solar Diameter with 2012 Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    The role of Venus and Mercury transits is crucial to know the past history of the solar diameter. Through the W parameter, the logarithmic derivative of the radius with respect to the luminosity, the past values of the solar luminosity can be recovered. The black drop phenomenon affects the evaluation of the instants of internal and external contacts between the planetary disk and the solar limb. With these observed instants compared with the ephemerides the value of the solar diameter is recovered. The black drop and seeing effects are overcome with two fitting circles, to Venus and to the Sun, drawn in the undistorted part of the image. The corrections of ephemerides due to the atmospheric refraction will also be taken into account. The forthcoming transit of Venus will allow an accuracy on the diameter of the Sun better than 0.01 arcsec, with good images of the ingress and of the egress taken each second. Chinese solar observatories are in the optimal conditions to obtain valuable data for the measurement of the solar diameter with the Venus transit of 5/6 June 2012 with an unprecedented accuracy, and with absolute calibration given by the ephemerides.

  20. Association of achondroplasia with sagittal synostosis and scaphocephaly in two patients, an underestimated condition?

    PubMed

    Accogli, Andrea; Pacetti, Mattia; Fiaschi, Pietro; Pavanello, Marco; Piatelli, Gianluca; Nuzzi, Daniele; Baldi, Maurizia; Tassano, Elisa; Severino, Maria Savina; Allegri, Anna; Capra, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    We report on two patients with an unusual combination of achondroplasia and surgically treated sagittal synostosis and scaphocephaly. The most common achondroplasia mutation, p.Gly380Arg in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), was detected in both patients. Molecular genetic testing of FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and TWIST1 genes failed to detect any additional mutations. There are several reports of achondroplasia with associated craniosynostosis, but no other cases of scaphocephaly in children with achondroplasia have been described. Recently it has been demonstrated that FGFR3 mutations affect not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification, providing new explanations for the craniofacial hallmarks in achondroplasia. Our report suggests that the association of isolated scaphocephaly and other craniosynostoses with achondroplasia may be under recognized.

  1. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry.

    PubMed

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-04-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space-time modulation of an X-ray beam.

  2. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry1

    PubMed Central

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-01-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La3Ga5SiO14) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space–time modulation of an X-ray beam. PMID:28381976

  3. Anomalous PiB enhancement in the superior sagittal and transverse venous sinuses.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Scott B; Cohen, Ann D; Becker, Carl; Price, Julie; Klunk, William E

    2012-01-01

    Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB), an amyloid-binding positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, is widely used for imaging amyloid-β in those with and at risk for Alzheimer disease. Here, we report on an otherwise normal 68-year-old female with abnormally high and very focal PiB retention. Coregistered T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) images confirmed that the focal PiB enhancement was in the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses, outside of the adjacent cortex. Flow through the venous vasculature was normal as assessed by dynamic FDG PET imaging. These features supported the conclusion that PiB retention was not simply due to a hemodynamic abnormality, but may have represented PiB binding to fibrillar deposits of a β-sheet protein (ie, amyloid), whose nature is currently unclear.

  4. Facial and abdominal hair growth in hirsutism: a computerized evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hines, G; Moran, C; Huerta, R; Folgman, K; Azziz, R

    2001-12-01

    Methods of objectively assessing the growth rate of hairs in hirsute women have generally required some form of shaving and have focused on studying hairs affecting the face, which has reduced the number of patients willing or able to participate in such studies. A possible solution is to assess the terminal hairs on the lower abdomen (ie, the male escutcheon) because these two body areas are the most frequently affected with excess hair growth in hirsute patients. Nonetheless, it is unclear how the growth characteristics (density, diameter, and growth rate) of the hairs on the abdomen and face differ in these patients. We hypothesize that the growth characteristics of terminal hairs on the abdomen and face are similar and that evaluation of either area may be sufficient in assessing the hair growth rate of these patients. To objectively evaluate hair growth in the face and abdomen in hirsute patients, we developed a computer-aided image analysis system capable of measuring several growth parameters. Twenty hirsute women (12 white and 8 black), aged 31.2 +/- 6.1 years, were studied. Facial and abdominal skin areas were shaved, and 3 to 5 days later the areas were photographed through a calibrated glass plate and 5 terminal hairs were plucked from each area. The daily hair growth rate (assessed by photography and by direct measurement of the plucked hair), the density of hairs (number of hairs per surface area assessed by photography), and hair diameter (of the plucked hairs) were determined. The extent of hirsutism was also measured, albeit subjectively, by a modification of the Ferriman-Gallwey method, with each area given a score of 0 (no terminal hairs seen) to 4 (terminal hairs in a pattern similar to that of a very hirsute man). Facial, abdominal, and total Ferriman-Gallwey scores were 1.3 +/- 0.6, 1.8 +/- 0.9, and 12.5 +/- 5.4, respectively. Our results indicated that facial hairs were distributed in greater density and had a greater diameter than abdominal

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of 3 Ankle Braces With and Without Free Rotation in the Sagittal Plane

    PubMed Central

    Alfuth, Martin; Klein, Dieter; Koch, Raphael; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Context: Various designs of braces including hinged and nonhinged models are used to provide external support of the ankle. Hinged ankle braces supposedly allow almost free dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot in the sagittal plane. It is unclear, however, whether this additional degree of freedom affects the stabilizing effect of the brace in the other planes of motion. Objective: To investigate the dynamic and passive stabilizing effects of 3 ankle braces, 2 hinged models that provide free plantar flexion–dorsiflexion in the sagittal plane and 1 ankle brace without a hinge. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University Movement Analysis Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seventeen healthy volunteers (5 women, 12 men; age = 25.4 ± 4.8 years; height = 180.3 ± 6.5 cm; body mass = 75.5 ± 10.4 kg). Intervention(s): We dynamically induced foot inversion on a tilting platform and passively induced foot movements in 6 directions via a custom-built apparatus in 3 brace conditions and a control condition (no brace). Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximum inversion was determined dynamically using an in-shoe electrogoniometer. Passively induced maximal joint angles were measured using a torque and angle sensor. We analyzed differences among the 4 ankle-brace conditions (3 braces, 1 control) for each of the dependent variables with Friedman and post hoc tests (P < .05). Results: Each ankle brace restricted dynamic foot-inversion movements on the tilting platform as compared with the control condition, whereas only the 2 hinged ankle braces differed from each other, with greater movement restriction caused by the Ankle X model. Passive foot inversion was reduced with all ankle braces. Passive plantar flexion was greater in the hinged models as compared with the nonhinged brace. Conclusions: All ankle braces showed stabilizing effects against dynamic and passive foot inversion. Differences between the hinged braces and the nonhinged brace did not appear to be

  6. Sagittal Pelvic Radius in Low-Grade Isthmic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis of Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Cheng, Da-Wei; Dong, Fu-Long; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variation of pelvic radius and related parameters in low-grade isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods Seventy-four patients with isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis and 47 controls were included in this study. There were 17 males and 57 females between 30 and 66 years of age, including 30 with grade I slippages and 44 grade II slippages; diseased levels included 34 cases on L4 and 40 cases on L5. Thoracic kyphosis (TK), the pelvic radius (PR), the pelvic angle (PA), pelvic morphology (PR-S1), and total lumbopelvic lordosis (PR-T12) were assessed from radiographs. Results Statistically significant differences were found for the PA, PR-T12, and PR-S1 (24.5±6.6°, 83.7±9.8°, and 25.4±11.2°, respectively) of the patients with spondylolisthesis and the healthy volunteers (13.7±7.8°, 92.9±9.2°, and 40.7±8.9°, respectively). The TK/PR-T12 ratios were between 0.15 and 0.75. However, there were no differences in all the parameters between the L4 and L5 spondylolysis subgroups (p>0.05). The TK and PR-S1 of grade II were less than grade I, but the PA was greater. The PR-T12 of female patients were less than male patients, but the PA was greater (p<0.05). Conclusion Pelvic morphology differed in patients with low-grade isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis compared to controls. Gender and the grade of slippage impacted the sagittal configuration of the pelvis, but the segment of the vertebral slip did not. Overall, the spine of those with spondylolisthesis remains able to maintain sagittal balance despite abnormal pelvic morphology. PMID:27226863

  7. Clinical outcome of the modified pi-plasty procedure for sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, J; Gewalli, F; David, L; Olsson, R; Friede, H; Lauritzen, C G

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the modified pi-plasty procedure for the treatment of sagittal synostosis, assessing the issues of safety, complications, morphological outcome, and degree of parental satisfaction. A retrospective evaluation of 110 patients with nonsyndromal single suture sagittal synostosis operated on with the modified pi-plasty procedure was undertaken. Cephalometric radiographs were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at ages 3 and 5 years in three standardized projections. The Cephalic Index and the Axial Width Ratio were determined and used as objective outcome measures. An evaluation of the radiographic digital markings was carried out using a Beaten Copper Score. A parental questionnaire was used to obtain a subjective esthetical outcome assessment. The patient population consisted of 76% boys and 24% girls with a 20% incidence of a positive familial history of craniosynostosis. The mean age at surgery was 7.73 months. Morbidity from the procedure was minimal and there were no mortalities. The Cephalic Index changed from a mean preoperative value of 65% to a postoperative mean value of 72% (P = 0.00004). The mean Axial Width Ratio changed from a preoperative 80% to 72% at the 3-year evaluation (P = 0.00029). The Beaten Copper score changed from a mean preoperative value of 2.35 to 5.42 postoperatively at 3 years (P = 0.00001). The response rate to the questionnaire was 86%, and there were significant postoperative improvements in all studied aspects of the skull shape. The modified pi-plasty is a safe technique, and it induces significant objective changes in skull morphology toward normality. It also yields a high degree of parental satisfaction with regard to aesthetic outcome, as evaluated by a written questionnaire.

  8. Mutation Screening of Candidate Genes in Patients with Nonsyndromic Sagittal Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoqian; Guilmatre, Audrey; Reva, Boris; Peter, Inga; Heuzé, Yann; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Fox, Deborah J.; Goedken, Rhinda J.; Jabs, Ethylin W; Romitti, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Craniosynostosis is a condition that includes the premature fusion of one or multiple cranial sutures. Among various craniosynostosis forms, midline sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most prevalent. Although different gene mutations have been identified in some craniosynostosis syndromes, the etiology of sNSC remains largely unknown. Methods To screen for candidate genes for sNSC, we performed Sanger sequencing on DNA from 93 sNSC patients from a population-based, case-control study conducted in Iowa and New York states. FGFR1-3 mutational hotspots known to be associated with sNSC, and the entire TWIST1, RAB23, BMP2 coding regions were screened because of their known roles in human nonsyndromic or syndromic sagittal craniosynostosis, expression patterns, and/or animal model studies. Results We identified two rare variants in our cohort. An insertion c.730_731insG in FGFR1, which led to a premature stop codon, was predicted to abolish the entire IgIII domain, including the ligand binding region. A c.439C>G variant was observed in TWIST1 at its highly conserved loop domain in another patient. The patient’s mother harbored the same variant and was reported to have jaw abnormalities. These two variants were not detected in 116 alleles from unaffected controls or seen in the several databases; however, TWIST1 variant was found in a low frequency of .000831 percent in ExAC database. Conclusions The low mutation detection rate indicates that these genes only account for a very small proportion of sNSC patients. Our results add to the perception that sNSC is a complex developmental defect with considerable genetic heterogeneity. PMID:26910679

  9. Surgical Outcomes of Post-Fusion Lumbar Flatback Deformity with Sagittal Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Seong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review surgical results of post-fusion lumbar flatback treated with pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) or Smith-Petersen osteotomies (SPOs). Methods Twenty-eight patients underwent osteotomies. Radiological outcomes by sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic tilt (PT), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), and pelvic incidence (PI)-lumbar lordosis (LL) at preoperative, postoperative 1 month, and final were evaluated. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) score of back pain/leg pain, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 score (SRS-22r) were analyzed and compared. Patients were divided into 2 groups (SVA ≤5 cm : normal, SVA >5 cm : positive) at final and compared outcomes. Results Nineteen patients (68%) had PSO and the other 9 patients had SPOs with anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) (Mean age : 65 years, follow-up : 31 months). The PT, PI-LL, SVA, T1PA were significantly improved at 1 month and at final (p<0.01). VAS score, ODI, and SRS-22r were also significantly improved at the final (p<0.01). 23 patients were restored with normal SVA and the rest 5 patients demonstrated to positive SVA. SVA and T1PA at 1 month and SVA, PI-LL, and T1PA at final were significantly different (p<0.05) while the ODI, VAS, and SRS-22r did not differ significantly between the groups (p>0.05). Common reoperations were early 4 proximal junctional failures (14%) and late four rod fractures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that PSO and SPOs with ALIFs at the lower lumbar are significantly improves sagittal balance. For maintenance of normal SVA, PI-LL might be made negative value and T1PA might be less than 11° even though positive SVA group was also significantly improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27847576

  10. A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Lei; Ding, Yun; Hutchinson, John R; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.

  11. An in vitro comparison between two different designs of sagittal split ramus osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Valdir Cabral; Luthi, Leonardo Flores; Sato, Fabio Loureiro; Pozzer, Leandro; Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the influence of the type of osteotomy in the inferior aspect of the mandible on the mechanical performance. Materials and Methods The study was performed on 20 polyurethane hemimandibles. A sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) was designed in 10 hemimandibles (group 1) with a vertical osteotomy in the buccal side (second molar level) and final osteotomy was performed horizontally on the lingual aspect, while the mandible body osteotomy was finalized as a straight osteotomy in the basilar area, perpendicular to the body. For group 2, the same osteotomy technique was used, but an oblique osteotomy was done in the basilar aspect of the mandibular body, forming continuity with the sagittal cut in the basilar area. Using a surgical guide, osteosynthesis was performed with bicortical screws using an inverted L scheme. In both groups vertical compression tests were performed with a linear load of 1 mm/min on the central fossa of the first molar and tests were done with models made from photoelastic resin. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, establishing a statistical significance when P <0.05. Results A statistical difference was not observed in the maximum displacements obtained in the two osteotomies (P <0.05). In the extensiometric analysis, statistically significant differences were identified only in the middle screw of the fixation. The photoelastic resin models showed force dissipation towards the inferior aspect of the mandible in both SSRO models. Conclusion We found that osteotomy of the inferior aspect did not influence the mechanical performance for osteosynthesis with an inverted L system. PMID:26131430

  12. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  13. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Amparo, E G; Hoddick, W K; Hricak, H; Sollitto, R; Justich, E; Filly, R A; Higgins, C B

    1985-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate abdominal aortic aneurysms in 27 patients. The findings were compared retrospectively with CT, ultrasound (US), and angiography in 17 cases and prospectively with US in 10 cases. MRI identified the renal arteries in all cases, demonstrated involvement at or above the origin of the renal arteries in eight patients, and showed extension of the aneurysm into the iliac arteries in 12 cases. The outer dimension of the aneurysm, the diameter of the residual lumen, and the length of the aneurysm were measured easily from the MR images. The measurements of transverse dimension of the abdominal aortic aneurysm were similar for MRI, CT, and US. MRI more accurately defined extension above the renal arteries and below the aortic bifurcation. It is concluded that MRI provides the necessary information for the surveillance and preoperative evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  14. Björk-Jarabak cephalometric analysis on CBCT synthesized cephalograms with different dentofacial sagittal skeletal patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cardenas, Yalil Augusto; Arriola-Guillen, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the Björk and Jabarak cephalometric analysis generated from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) synthesized lateral cephalograms in adults with different sagittal skeletal patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 46 CBCT synthesized cephalograms obtained from patients between 16 and 40 years old. A Björk and Jarabak cephalometric analysis among different sagittal skeletal classes was performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple range test of Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis test, and independent t-test were used as appropriate. RESULTS: In comparison to the standard values: Skeletal Class III had increased gonial and superior gonial angles (P < 0.001). This trend was also evident when sex was considered. For Class I males, the sella angle was decreased (P = 0.041), articular angle increased (P = 0.027) and gonial angle decreased (P = 0.002); whereas for Class III males, the gonial angle was increased (P = 0.012). For Class I females, the articular angle was increased (P = 0.029) and the gonial angle decreased (P = 0.004). Björk's sum and Björk and Jabarak polygon sum showed no significant differences. The facial biotype presented in the three sagittal classes was mainly hypodivergent and neutral. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, skeletal Class III malocclusion was strongly differentiated from the other sagittal classes, specifically in the mandible, as calculated through Björk and Jarabak analysis. PMID:25628079

  15. Correlations between sagittal plane kinematics and landing impact force during single-leg lateral jump-landings

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Junya; Ohji, Shunsuke; Koga, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tadashi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The correlations of peak vertical ground reaction force and sagittal angles during single-leg lateral jump-landing with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury remain unknown. This study aimed to clarify the correlations between kinematics and impact force during lateral jump-landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty active males were included in the analysis. A sagittal-view movie camera and force plate were time synchronized. Trunk and lower extremity sagittal angles were measured 100 ms before initial contact and at peak vertical ground reaction force. Peak vertical ground reaction force, time between initial contact and peak vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were calculated. [Results] The mean sagittal angle was 40.7° ± 7.7° for knee flexion during the flight phase and 16.4° ± 6.3° for pelvic anterior inclination during the landing phase. The mean peak vertical ground reaction force was four times the body weight. The median time to peak vertical ground reaction force was 63.8 ms. The knee flexion during the flight phase and pelvic anterior inclination angles during the landing phase were related to the peak vertical ground reaction force. [Conclusion] Increasing knee flexion and decreasing pelvic anterior inclination might reduce the impact during single-leg lateral jump-landing. PMID:27630422

  16. Correlations between sagittal plane kinematics and landing impact force during single-leg lateral jump-landings.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Junya; Ohji, Shunsuke; Koga, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tadashi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The correlations of peak vertical ground reaction force and sagittal angles during single-leg lateral jump-landing with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury remain unknown. This study aimed to clarify the correlations between kinematics and impact force during lateral jump-landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty active males were included in the analysis. A sagittal-view movie camera and force plate were time synchronized. Trunk and lower extremity sagittal angles were measured 100 ms before initial contact and at peak vertical ground reaction force. Peak vertical ground reaction force, time between initial contact and peak vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate were calculated. [Results] The mean sagittal angle was 40.7° ± 7.7° for knee flexion during the flight phase and 16.4° ± 6.3° for pelvic anterior inclination during the landing phase. The mean peak vertical ground reaction force was four times the body weight. The median time to peak vertical ground reaction force was 63.8 ms. The knee flexion during the flight phase and pelvic anterior inclination angles during the landing phase were related to the peak vertical ground reaction force. [Conclusion] Increasing knee flexion and decreasing pelvic anterior inclination might reduce the impact during single-leg lateral jump-landing.

  17. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  18. Diameters and albedos of satellites of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    Products of the masses of the five known satellites of Uranus, and estimates of their bulk densities and surface albedos, are used to infer their probable dimensions. Spectrophotometry has established the presence of water ice on the surfaces of all save Rhea, and the brightnesses of the satellites have been measured photoelectrically. The diameter measurements presented were made using a photometric/radiometric technique, whose recent recalibration, using independent solar system object measurements, has yielded absolute accuracies better than 5 per cent. The new albedo measurements show that Umbriel, Titania and Oberon are similar to the Jupiter moon Callisto, while Ariel resembles the Saturn moon Hyperion. The diameters of all four are similar to those of the large, icy Saturn satellites Rhea and Iapetus.

  19. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  20. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  1. European Projects of Solar Diameter Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Bianda, Michele; Arnaud, Jean

    2008-10-01

    Three projects dealing with solar diameter evolution are presently in development. Historical and contemporary eclipses and planetary transits data collection and analysis, to cover potentially the last 5 centuries with an accuracy of few hundreds of arcsecond on diameter's measurements. The French space mission PICARD with a few milliarcseconds accuray. With PICARD-SOL instruments located at the plateau of Calern the role of the atmosphere in ground-based measurements will be clarified. CLAVIUS is a Swiss-Italian project based on drift-scan method, free from optical distortions, where hourly circles transits will be monitored with fast CMOS sensors in different wavebands. The will run at IRSOL Gregory-Coudé telescope.

  2. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. )

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Gender differences in sagittal standing alignment before pubertal peak growth: the importance of subclassification and implications for spinopelvic loading.

    PubMed

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Vleeming, Andry; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Danneels, Lieven

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender differences in sagittal standing alignment at pre-peak height velocity age thereby applying a scientifically sound and practically oriented classification scheme for overall standing balance. The study population consisted of healthy boys (n = 639) and girls (n = 557) before pubertal peak growth. During subjects' habitual standing, sagittal plane measures of the spine, pelvis and lower limbs were collected using a clinical screening protocol. With each subject classified as one of three postural types (neutral, sway-back, or leaning-forward), differences in sagittal plane alignment were analyzed between sexes. The results revealed clear differences between genders in each of the postural types. Within the neutral and sway-back postural subgroups, boys presented more forward inclination of the trunk, more thoracic kyphosis and more pelvis backtilt compared with girls. Within the leaning-forward category, girls displayed more forward trunk lean, less thoracic kyphosis and more pelvic anteversion. A state of lumbar segmental hyperextension appeared to exist in female leaning-forward subjects. Our results reveal for the first time that sagittal standing alignment is different between prepubescent boys and girls when subjects are appropriately subclassified, and conversely represent a 'wash-out effect' when pooled. When the classification system is applied, gender-specificity in gravity line position is suggested, implying gender-related differences in lever arms and thus load. Present findings may add to our understanding of gender-specific biomechanical challenges posed by habitual posture, and may shed new light on sagittal standing alignment as a possible contributory factor in developmental spinal-pelvic disorders.

  4. How is sagittal balance acquired during bipedal gait acquisition? Comparison of neonatal and adult pelves in three dimensions. Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, Christine; Bonneau, Noémie; Hecquet, Jérôme; Boulay, Christophe; Marty, Catherine; Legaye, Jean; Duval-Beaupère, Geneviève

    2013-08-01

    We compare adult and intact neonatal pelves, using a pelvic sagittal variable, the angle of sacral incidence, which presents significant correlations with vertebral curvature in adults and plays an important role in sagittal balance of the trunk on the lower limbs. Since the lumbar curvature develops in the child in association with gait acquisition, we expect a change in this angle during growth which could contribute to the acquisition of sagittal balance. To understand the mechanisms underlying the sagittal balance in the evolution of human bipedalism, we also measure the angle of incidence of hominid fossils. Fourty-seven landmarks were digitized on 50 adult and 19 intact neonatal pelves. We used a three-dimensional model of the pelvis (DE-VISU program) which calculates the angle of sacral incidence and related functional variables. Cross-sectional data from newborns and adults show that the angle of sacral incidence increases and becomes negatively correlated with the sacro-acetabular distance. During ontogeny the sacrum becomes curved, tends to sink down between the iliac blades as a wedge and moves backward in the sagittal plane relative to the acetabula, thus contributing to the backwards displacement of the center of gravity of the trunk. A chain of correlations links the degree of the sacral slope and of the angle of incidence, which is tightly linked with the lumbar lordosis. We sketch a model showing the coordinated changes occurring in the pelvis and vertebral column during the acquisition of bipedalism in infancy. In the australopithecine pelves, Sts 14 and AL 288-1, and in the Homo erectus Gona pelvis the angle of sacral incidence reaches the mean values of humans. Discussing the incomplete pelves of Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus sediba and the Nariokotome Boy, we suggest how the functional linkage between pelvis and spine, observed in humans, could have emerged during hominid evolution.

  5. Value of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography as a supplementary tool in the differential diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) for the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP). Methods We performed targeted ultrasonography on 25 fetuses with CL and CP, taking coronal and axial images of the upper lip and maxillary alveolar arch in each case. The existence of defects in and malalignment of the alveolus on the axial image, hard palate defects on the midsagittal image, and flow-through defects on CDUS taken during fetal breathing or swallowing were assessed. We compared the ultrasonography findings with postnatal findings in all fetuses. Results Alveolar defects were detected in 16 out of 17 cases with CP and four out of eight cases with CL. Alveolar malalignment and hard palate defects were detected in 11 out of 17 cases and 14 out of 17 cases with CP, respectively, but not detected in any cases with CL. Communicating flow through the palate defect was detected in 11 out of 17 cases of CL with CP. The accuracy of detection in axial scans of an alveolar defect and malalignment was 80% and 76%, respectively. Accuracy of detection of in mid-sagittal images of hard palate defect and flow was 80% and 86%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of combined axial and sagittal images with sagittal CDUS was 92%. Conclusion Sagittal CDUS of the fetal hard palate is a feasible method to directly reveal hard palate bony defects and flow through defects, which may have additional value in the differential diagnosis of fetal CL and CP. PMID:27764909

  6. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30-49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA.

  7. New Large Diameter RF Complex Plasma Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, John; Nosenko, Volodymyr; Thomas, Hubertus

    2016-10-01

    The Complex Plasma Research Group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen has built a new large diameter rf plasma setup for dusty plasma experiments. The vacuum chamber is a stainless steel cylinder 0.90 m in diameter and 0.34 m in height with ports for viewing and measurement. A 0.85 m diameter plate in about the center serves as a powered electrode (13.56 MHz) with the chamber walls as the ground. It is pumped on by one of two Oerlikon turbo pumps with a pumping rate of 1100 l/s or 270 l/s. Argon gas is admitted into the chamber by an MKS mass flow meter and pumping is regulated by a butterfly valve to set pressure for experiments. A manual dropper is used to insert dust into the plasma. The dust is illuminated horizontally by a 660 nm 100 mW laser sheet and viewed from above by a Photron FASTCAM 1024 PCI camera. A vertical laser sheet of 635 nm will be used for side imaging. So far, single-layer plasma crystals of up to 15000 particles have been suspended. The particle velocity fluctuation spectra were measured and from these, the particle charge and screening length were calculated. Future experiments will explore the system-size dependence of the plasma crystal properties.

  8. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Haruka; Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Nakai, Yusuke; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Saito, Takeshi; Maniwa, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature Twd ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter Dc ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > Dc) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at Twd upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below Twd freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < Dc) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  9. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard; Naranjo, Angela Carol; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2016-08-15

    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  10. Use of spiral computed tomographic angiography in monitoring abdominal aortic aneurysms after transfemoral endovascular repair.

    PubMed Central

    Balm, R; Jacobs, M J

    1997-01-01

    Transfemoral endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has proved to be technically feasible in a selected group of patients. However, long-term efficacy has not been proved. Graft performance after implantation can be monitored by a single imaging technique: spiral computed tomographic angiography. With this technique, the parameters for continuing clinical success of the procedure-graft patency, endoleaks, graft migration, attachment site diameter, attachment system failure, and aneurysm diameter-can be monitored. Only in selected cases will an additional imaging technique be necessary. PMID:9339508

  11. Ultrasonographic characteristics of abdominal and thoracic abscesses in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S

    2007-11-01

    Six cows and five buffaloes with abdominal and thoracic abscesses were examined clinically and ultrasonographically. There was a wide range of clinical signs and at least 50% of the animals exhibited dull demeanour, anorexia, abdominal pain, recurrent tympany and/or weight loss. Three cases of abdominal abscesses were imaged in the left ventral abdomen between the rumen and abdominal wall, two cases were imaged at the xiphoid cartilage near the reticular wall and one case was imaged on the right ventral abdomen between the jejunum and right abdominal wall. Four cases of thoracic abscesses were imaged in the third intercostal space on the left side; however, one case of abscess was imaged in the fourth intercostal space, also on the left side. The content of the abscess was echogenic in eight animals and anechoic in three. In three animals, the content of the abscess was partitioned by echogenic septae. In two cows, the echogenic content of the abscess was surrounded by a narrow rim of anechoic fluid. The diameters of the abscesses were 5-10 cm in three cows, 11-15 cm in seven cows and >15 cm in one cow. In every case, the diagnosis was confirmed by centesis and aspiration of the abscess, which yielded purulent material. There were biochemical data of hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglobulinaemia and 90% of tested animals had neutrophilia. Five cows were examined at slaughter, where the ultrasonographic diagnosis was confirmed.

  12. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  13. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  14. The prognosis of childhood abdominal migraine

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, F; Abu-Arafeh, I; Russell, G

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the clinical course of childhood abdominal migraine, seven to 10 years after the diagnosis.
METHODS—A total of 54 children with abdominal migraine were studied; 35 were identified from a population survey carried out on Aberdeen schoolchildren between 1991 and 1993, and 19 from outpatient records of children in the same age group who had attended the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital. Controls were 54 children who did not have abdominal pain in childhood, matched for age and sex, obtained from either the population survey or the patient administration system. Main outcome measures were presence or resolution of abdominal migraine and past or present history of headache fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for the diagnosis of migraine.
RESULTS—Abdominal migraine had resolved in 31 cases (61%). Seventy per cent of cases with abdominal migraine were either current (52%) or previous (18%) sufferers from headaches that fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine, compared to 20% of the controls.
CONCLUSIONS—These results support the concept of abdominal migraine as a migraine prodrome, and suggest that our diagnostic criteria for the condition are robust.

 PMID:11316687

  15. Simulation of bifurcated stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, J.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper a method is introduced, to visualize bifurcated stent grafts in CT-Data. The aim is to improve therapy planning for minimal invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Due to precise measurement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and exact simulation of the bifurcated stent graft, physicians are supported in choosing a suitable stent prior to an intervention. The presented method can be used to measure the dimensions of the abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as simulate a bifurcated stent graft. Both of these procedures are based on a preceding segmentation and skeletonization of the aortic, right and left iliac. Using these centerlines (aortic, right and left iliac) a bifurcated initial stent is constructed. Through the implementation of an ACM method the initial stent is fit iteratively to the vessel walls - due to the influence of external forces (distance- as well as balloonforce). Following the fitting process, the crucial values for choosing a bifurcated stent graft are measured, e.g. aortic diameter, right and left common iliac diameter, minimum diameter of distal neck. The selected stent is then simulated to the CT-Data - starting with the initial stent. It hereby becomes apparent if the dimensions of the bifurcated stent graft are exact, i.e. the fitting to the arteries was done properly and no ostium was covered.

  16. Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stéphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ≥65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta≥30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.2±4.7 vs 34.0±5.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ≥65 years and women≥75 years.

  17. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  18. Torsion of an intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Roller; Parra; Cotlar

    2000-09-01

    To present a case of torsion of a nonneoplastic intra-abdominal testis with an unusual clinical presentation.A 26-year-old active duty Navy Petty Officer presented to the emergency department on 3 occasions over a 5-day period with lower abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated acute tenderness in the left lower quadrant with sugestion of a normal spermatic cord and atrophic testis in the left scrotum. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an intra-abdominal lesion near the internal inguinal ring. The patient underwent surgical exploration through an inguinal incision. Torsion of a nonviable intra-abdominal testis was present. The scrotum contained only the vas deferens and cremasteric muscle. An orchiectomy was performed with removal of the vas deferens and other cord structures.The unusual clinical finding of acute torsion of an intra-abdominal testis, associated with an apparent atrophic scrotal testis, presented a confusing clinical picture. Computed tomography scan did not clarify the issue sufficiently to establish a definite preoperative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion prompted early surgical intervention. Review of the current literature produced 60 reported cases of torsion of an intra-abdominal testis. Two thirds of these involved testicular neoplasm, usually seminoma. Although the clinical presentation varied, most patients had recent onset of lower abdominal pain associated with tenderness and, in half the cases, a mass. Patients almost always presented with an absent scrotal testis on the involved side, and not infrequently reported previous surgery thought to be an orchiectomy.Diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular torsion is rare, particularly when no neoplasm is present. A high index of suspicion must be maintained whenever there is abdominal pain and undescended testis. The surgical history and imaging studies may not clarify a confusing clinical picture.

  19. Advances in abdominal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, J T

    1998-01-01

    Major technical advances in MR imaging have led to its wider use in the evaluation of abdominal disease. The principle new pulse sequence is the RARE sequence for T2-weighted imaging. Multishot and breath-hold single-shot RARE techniques are now widely used, and both have performed as well as conventional spin-echo imaging with far shorter acquisition times. The most notable improvements have been in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Two liver-specific contrast agents received FDA approval during 1997: SPIO particles or ferumoxide and mangafodipir trisodium, a hepatocyte-specific agent. Both of these agents provide considerable benefit in the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Manganese enhancement has also proved useful in MR imaging of the pancreas, although fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging with dynamic gadolinium enhancement has also yielded results comparable with those of contrast-enhanced CT. MR hydrography, a generic term for static fluid imaging, is another derivative of RARE fast T2-weighted imaging. MRCP, the best known example of MR hydrography, has been rapidly and widely employed as a primary method for imaging the biliary and pancreatic ducts and has become competitive with ERCP. MR vascular imaging, especially portal venography, has been used for noninvasive imaging of portal venous disease in Budd Chiari disease, before placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, and for pancreatic cancer staging. Finally, the development of conventional phased-array body coils and endorectal coils has enabled high-quality MR imaging of perirectal disease (including Crohn disease, fistula in ano, and postpartum sphincter dysfunction). Future abdominal applications of MR imaging will involve second-generation MR interventional techniques, including use of open systems, functional or diffusion-weighted imaging exploiting the molecular activity of tissues, and virtual MR endoscopy. Although CT continues to evolve

  20. Sagittal Spinal and Pelvic Postures of Highly-Trained Young Canoeists

    PubMed Central

    López-Miñarro, Pedro A.; Muyor, José M.; Alacid, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic position in standing and kneeling in the canoe in young canoeists. Forty-four young highly-trained canoeists (mean age: 15.11 ± 0.61 years) were recruited. Thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic inclination were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system in standing position and in the base position (kneeling on one knee in the canoe) and catch phase of the stroke. The mean thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination in standing were 44.66 ± 8.80º, −30.34 ± 8.31º, and 14.20 ± 7.32º, respectively. In the canoe, the thoracic, lumbar and pelvic angles were 39.66 ± 9.52º, −24.32 ± 6.79º, and 15.18 ± 4.34º, respectively, for the base position (p<0.001 with respect to standing, except for pelvic inclination), and 28.93 ± 10.45º, −13.45 ± 10.60º, and 37.61 ± 6.27º, respectively, for the catch phase of the stroke (p<0.001 with respect to standing and base position). A higher percentage of hyperkyphotic postures in standing than in the canoe was found, while thoracic hypokyphosis increased in the catch phase of the stroke. In regards to the lumbar curve, the percentage of hypolordosis postures in the base position was higher than when standing. Lumbar kyphotic postures were detected in the catch phase of the stroke. In conclusion, the standing thoracic hyperkyphosis in young canoeists may be related to factors other than the posture and movement in the canoe. The canoeists adopted a lumbar flexed posture at the catch phase of the stroke, although this position may not affect the sagittal configuration of lumbar spine in standing. Postural training should be included in the training program of canoeists to improve the thoracic posture in the standing position. PMID:23487014

  1. [Laparoscopic abdominal drainage by sterile destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L

    2009-01-01

    90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.

  2. Soft tissue coverage in abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal wall defects requiring soft tissue coverage can be either partial-thickness defects or full-thickness composite defects. Soft tissue flap reconstruction offers significant advantages in defects that cannot be closed primarily. Flap reconstruction is performed in a single-stage procedure obviating chronic wound management. If the defect size exceeds the availability of local soft tissue for coverage, regional pedicled flaps can be delivered into the abdominal wall while maintaining blood supply from their donor site. Microsurgical free tissue transfer increases the capacity to provide soft tissue coverage for abdominal wall defects that are not amenable to either local or regional flap coverage.

  3. Intra-abdominal bleeding in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S

    1991-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  5. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  6. The diameter and albedo of 1943 Anteros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Tedesco, E. F.; Tholen, D. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Kowal, C.

    1981-01-01

    The results of broadband visual and infrared photometry of the Apollo-Amor asteroid 1943 Anteros during its 1980 apparition are reported. By means of a radiometric model, a diameter of 2.3 + or - 0.2 km and a visual geometric albedo of 0.13 + or - 0.03 is calculated. The albedo and reflectance spectrum of Anteros imply that it is a type S asteroid. Thus, Anteros may have a silicate surface similar to other Apollo-Amor asteroids as well as some stony-iron meteorites.

  7. A Variable Diameter Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James M.; Jones, Christopher T.; Nixon, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    The Short-Haul-Civil-tiltrotor (SHCT) component of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program is an effort to develop the technologies needed for a potential 40-passenger civil tiltrotor. The variable diameter tiltrotor (VDTR) is a Sikorsky concept aimed at improving tiltrotor hover and cruise performance currently limited by disk loading that is much higher in hover than conventional helicopter, and much lower in cruise than turbo-prop systems. This paper describes the technical merits of using a VDTR on a SHCT aircraft. The focus will be the rotor design.

  8. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  9. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  10. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  11. The MRI of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huang Sui; Feng, Xu Lin; Yong, Li; Yong, Zhang; Lian, Zhong Jing; Ling, Liang Bi

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the MR appearances of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity and evaluate the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of the tumor. Eleven consecutive patients with an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in abdominal cavity who underwent preoperative 0.5 T (n=5) or 1.5 T (n=6) superconductor MRI and had a surgical resection were enrolled in the study. The MR scanning protocol included axial T(2)-weighted imaging with or without fat-suppressed sequences, axial and coronal uncontrast and contrast T(1)-weighted sequences with or without fat suppression. The extraadrenal pheochromocytomas were found in retroperitoneum (n=5), the urinary bladder (n=1), the pelvis (n=1), the right prerenal area (n=1), the renal hilus (n=1), the left paramusculus psoas major (n=1) and liver (n=1). The mean maximal diameter of tumors was 55.9 mm (range 17.8-162.2 mm). The high signal intensity was seen on T(2)-weighted imaging in all tumors compared to muscle or liver, especially with fat suppression. The intratumoral septa and capsules were shown in 63.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively, which had low signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging. These relative characteristics may be helpful for qualitative diagnosis of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas with MRI. Other usefulness of MRI was to locate the position, to decide the range of tumors and to show well the relationship between the tumor and near structures.

  12. In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

    2015-01-21

    The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5 cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient.

  13. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  14. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  15. Large Diameter Limbs for Dilated Common Iliac Arteries in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Is It Safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Malagari, Katerina Brountzos, Elias; Gougoulakis, Alexandros; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Mastorakou, Renata; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2004-09-15

    In this prospective study we examined whether dilated common iliac arteries (CIAs) can provide a safe distal seal in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the use of bifurcated stent grafts with large diameter limbs. Sixteen patients with 26 dilated CIAs with a diameter of {>=}6 mm who were offered EVAR using stent grafts with large diameter limbs were included in the study (Group A). Forty-two patients who also underwent EVAR without iliac dilatation, matched for age, sex and surgical risk were used for comparison (controls-Group B). In group A mean CIA diameter was 18.2 mm (16-28) and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter was 6.87 {+-} 1.05 cm; mean age was 77.2 {+-} 4.8 yrs (67-81). Mean follow-up was 33.6 months (2.8 yrs). CIA diameter changes and development of endoleaks were assessed by CT angiography (CTA). Overall iliac dilatation was present in 16/58 of our patients (27.6%). In 10 patients dilatation was bilateral (17.3%). Partial or complete flow to the internal iliac artery (IIA) territories was preserved in all patients post-EVAR. On follow-up, stable caliber of the dilated CIAs was observed in 21 patients (84%), enlargement of 1mm in 3 (16%), and failure of the distal attachment in 1 (6.2%). Compared to the control group there was no statistical significance in the incidence of complications. Dilated common iliac arteries provide a safe distal seal in patients who have undergone EVAR, thus obviating the need for additional endovascular procedures and sparing flow in the IIA vascular bed.

  16. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  17. Influence of the design in sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Pozzer, Leandro; Olate, Sergio; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio; Albergaría-Barbosa, José Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the design of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) on the mechanical resistance to vertical forces. An in vitro study was designed for 30 test specimens. Two osteotomy models were made on two polyurethane hemimandibles, where group I presented a SSRO with an angle at vestibular level between both molars and group II presented a linear SSRO towards the basilar border. In both groups a standard osteosynthesis was performed with a 2.0 system plate and four monocortical screws, establishing sub-groups according to the degree of mandibular advancement: group A without advancement, group B with an advancement of 3 mm, and group C with advancement of 7 mm. Hemimandibles were subjected to a vertical load in the Instron machine until reaching peak load with failure, recording the value of the load and displacement. The data were analyzed with a t-test to establish statistical significance, considering p<0.05. The results showed that group II presented the best response to the compressive load, tolerating the highest load values. These results were observed in almost all the groups with statistically significant differences (p<0.05). By contrast, group I presented torsional forces prior to reaching system failure. It can be concluded that the osteotomy design influences mechanical resistance and that the linear SSRO offers the best mechanical resistance.

  18. Influence of cartilage and menisci on the sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, Gianluca; Sessa, Pasquale; Ragusa, Giovanni; Ripani, Francesca Romana; Postacchini, Roberto; Masciangelo, Raffaele; Giannicola, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the magnetic resonance studies of the knee in 80 subjects, 45 men and 35 women with a mean age of 38.9 years, who showed no pathological condition of the joint. Using an imaging visualization software, the sagittal longitudinal axis of the tibia was identified. The angle between this axis and a line tangent to the bone profile of the tibial plateau (bone slope) and to the superior border of the menisci (meniscal slope) were calculated. Thickness of anterior and posterior portion of menisci and underlying cartilage were also measured. The bone slope averaged 8° and 7.7° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively. The mean meniscal slope was 4.1° and 3.3° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively, with a significant difference compared with the bone slope. Menisci and underlying cartilage were significantly thicker in their posterior than their anterior portion (7.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the medial compartment; 8.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the lateral compartment). The presence of cartilage and menisci implies a significant decrease in the posterior tibial slope. In the lateral compartment, the greater the bone slope, the larger the difference between bone and meniscal slope, which means that a marked posterior tilt of the lateral tibial plateau is decreased by the cartilage and meniscus. These findings should be taken into account in planning surgical procedures which affect the slope of the articular tibial surface.

  19. Conical geometry for sagittal focusing as applied to X rays from synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The authors describe a method for simultaneously focusing and monochromatization of X rays from a fan of radiation having up to 15 mrad divergence in one dimension. This geometry is well suited to synchrotron radiation sources at magnifications of one-fifth to two and is efficient for X-ray energies between 3 and 40 keV (0.48 and 6.4 fJ). The method uses crystals bent to part of a cone for sagittal focusing and allows for the collection of a larger divergence with less mixing of the horizontal into the vertical divergence than is possible with X-ray mirrors. They describe the geometry required to achieve the highest efficiency when a conical crystal follows a flat crystal in a nondispersive two-crystal monochromator. At a magnification of one-third, the geometry is identical to a cylindrical focusing design described previously. A simple theoretical calculation is shown to agree well with ray-tracing results. Minimum aberrations are observed at magnifications near one. Applications of the conical focusing geometry to existing and future synchrotron radiation facilities are discussed.

  20. Changes in sagittal plane kinematics with treadmill familiarization to barefoot running.

    PubMed

    Moore, Isabel S; Dixon, Sharon J

    2014-10-01

    Interest in barefoot running and research on barefoot running are growing. However a methodological issue surrounding investigations is how familiar the participants are with running barefoot. The aim of the study was to assess the amount of time required for habitually shod runners to become familiar with barefoot treadmill running. Twelve female recreational runners, who were experienced treadmill users, ran barefoot on a treadmill for three bouts, each bout consisting of 10 minutes at a self-selected speed with 5 minute rest periods. Sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, ankle, and foot during stance were recorded during the first and last minute of each 10-minute bout. Strong reliability (ICC > .8) was shown in most variables after 20 minutes of running. In addition, there was a general trend for the smallest standard error of mean to occur during the same period. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any of the biomechanical variables after 20 minutes of running. Together, this suggests that familiarization was achieved between 11 and 20 minutes of running barefoot on a treadmill. Familiarization was characterized by less plantar flexion and greater knee flexion at touchdown. These results indicate that adequate familiarization should be given in future studies before gait assessment of barefoot treadmill running.

  1. High prevalence of vaterite in sagittal otoliths causes hearing impairment in farmed fish

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, T.; Dempster, T.; Warren-Myers, F.; Jensen, A. J.; Swearer, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of aquaculture raises questions about the welfare status of mass-produced species. Sagittal otoliths are primary hearing structures in the inner ear of all teleost (bony) fishes and are normally composed of aragonite, though abnormal vaterite replacement is sometimes seen in the wild. We provide the first widespread evaluation of the prevalence of vaterite in otoliths, showing that farmed fish have levels of vaterite replacement over 10 times higher than wild fish, regardless of species. We confirm this observation with extensive sampling of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway, the world’s largest producer, and verify that vateritic otoliths are common in farmed salmon worldwide. Using a mechanistic model of otolith oscillation in response to sound, we demonstrate that average levels of vaterite replacement result in a 28–50% loss of otolith functionality across most of a salmonid’s known hearing range and throughout its life cycle. The underlying cause(s) of vaterite formation remain unknown, but the prevalence of hearing impairment in farmed fish has important implications for animal welfare, the survival of escapees and their effects on wild populations, and the efficacy of restocking programs based on captive-bred fish. PMID:27121086

  2. Hybrid fixation in the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for lower jaw advancement

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Felipe Ladeira; JANSON, Marcos; SANT'ANA, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Miniplate and screw fixation has been widely used in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, but some issues remain unclear concerning its lack of rigidity when compared to Spiessl's bicortical technique. This paper demonstrates the hybrid fixation technique in a case report. A 34-year-old female patient underwent a double jaw surgery with counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible fixed using the hybrid fixation technique. The patient evolved well in the postoperative period and is still under follow up after 14 months, reporting satisfaction with the results and no significant deviation from the treatment plan up to now. No damage to tooth roots was done, maxillomandibular range of motion was within normality and regression of the inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia was observed bilaterally. The hybrid mandibular fixation is clearly visible in the panoramic and cephalometric control radiographs. It seems that the hybrid fixation can sum the advantages of both monocortical and bicortical techniques in lower jaw advancement, increasing fixation stability without significant damage to the mandibular articulation and the inferior alveolar nerve. A statistical investigation seems necessary to prove its efficacy. PMID:20379687

  3. Preoperative removal of lower third molars and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rice, Steven; Serrant, Paul; Laverick, Sean; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-06-01

    To find out what consultants in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) in the UK think about complications of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in relation to lower third molars we organised a national postal questionnaire during 2012-13. Of 378 consultants, 192 practised orthognathic surgery of whom 132 replied (a 69% response rate). Eighty-one respondents routinely removed lower third molars before BSSO; 51 did not. Eighty-nine respondents thought that there was an increased risk of complications if third molars were present at the time of BSSO, mainly an increased risk of unfavourable fractures. Forty-three respondents did not think there was an increased risk of complications of BSSO when third molars were present. Of the 81 who routinely removed the lower third molars, 13 removed them within the six-month period before BSSO, 56 removed them 6-12 months before, and 11 removed them more than 12 months before. There seemed to be no difference in self-reported unfavourable fracture rates between those surgeons who routinely removed lower third molars and those who did not. The results of the questionnaire showed that there was considerable variation in surgical practice across the UK in the management of lower third molars before BSSO, both in terms of whether or not to remove these teeth at all, and if so, when to remove them.

  4. A Systematic Approach to Predicting Spring Force for Sagittal Craniosynostosis Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangming; Tan, Hua; Qian, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jian; Li, King; David, Lisa R; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-05-01

    Spring-assisted surgery (SAS) can effectively treat scaphocephaly by reshaping crania with the appropriate spring force. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate spring force without considering biomechanical properties of tissues. This study presents and validates a reliable system to accurately predict the spring force for sagittal craniosynostosis surgery. The authors randomly chose 23 patients who underwent SAS and had been followed for at least 2 years. An elastic model was designed to characterize the biomechanical behavior of calvarial bone tissue for each individual. After simulating the contact force on accurate position of the skull strip with the springs, the finite element method was applied to calculating the stress of each tissue node based on the elastic model. A support vector regression approach was then used to model the relationships between biomechanical properties generated from spring force, bone thickness, and the change of cephalic index after surgery. Therefore, for a new patient, the optimal spring force can be predicted based on the learned model with virtual spring simulation and dynamic programming approach prior to SAS. Leave-one-out cross-validation was implemented to assess the accuracy of our prediction. As a result, the mean prediction accuracy of this model was 93.35%, demonstrating the great potential of this model as a useful adjunct for preoperative planning tool.

  5. Automatic spinal canal detection in lumbar MR images in the sagittal view using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jaehan; Chaudhary, Vipin; Jeon, Eun Kyung; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2014-10-01

    As there is an increasing need for the computer-aided effective management of pathology in lumbar spine, we have developed a computer-aided diagnosis and characterization framework using lumbar spine MRI that provides radiologists a second opinion. In this paper, we propose a left spinal canal boundary extraction method, based on dynamic programming in lumbar spine MRI. Our method fuses the absolute intensity difference of T1-weighted and T2-weighted sagittal images and the inverted gradient of the difference image into a dynamic programming scheme and works in a fully automatic fashion. The boundaries generated by our method are compared against reference boundaries in terms of the Euclidean distance and the Chebyshev distance. The experimental results from 85 clinical data show that our methods find the boundary with a mean Euclidean distance of 3mm, achieving a speedup factor of 167 compared with manual landmark extraction. The proposed method successfully extracts landmarks automatically and fits well with our framework for computer-aided diagnosis in lumbar spine.

  6. Parasagittal meningiomas: Our surgical experience and the reconstruction technique of the superior sagittal sinus

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Alessandro; Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Del Maestro, Mattia; Gallieni, Massimo; Dechcordi, Soheila Raysi; Marzi, Sara; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The radical resection of parasagittal meningiomas without complications and recurrences is the goal of the neurosurgeon. Nowadays, different managements are proposed. This study describes our surgical technique during the lesional excision and the reconstruction of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Methods: The total removal (Simpson I and II) of parasagittal meningiomas (WHO grade I and II) was obtained in 75 patients from September 2000 to January 2010. The indocyanine green videoangiography was used before the dural opening and, when necessary, to identify and preserve the cortical veins. The surgery of the SSS was performed in accordance with Sindou's classification, and its reconstruction was achieved through the use of a patch of galea capitis. Results: We had no cases of recurrence and thrombotic occlusion of the SSS in 5 years after the reconstruction. No complications were observed in 65 patients, and no cases of mortality were reported. Neurological focal deficits were observed in 5 patients. A brain swelling and a venous infarction were observed in 1 patient. Only one case of thrombotic occlusion was observed. A cerebrospinal fluid leak was observed in 2 patients, and a systemic complication was found in 1 patient. Conclusion: Several factors contribute to the success of the parasagittal meningioma surgery. We consider the preservation of the cortical veins to be important, and, when possible, we recommend the reconstruction of the anterior third of the SSS. Our experience has led us to believe that until now surgery is a winning choice if practiced by expert hands. PMID:28217380

  7. Photoelastic evaluation of two different sagittal split ramus osteotomies in advancement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Valdir Cabral; Olate, Sergio; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the design of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) on stress distribution on the osteosynthesis in a photoelastic resin model. Two polyurethane hemimandibles were used to perform the osteotomies, tilted in the lateral sector of the first/second molar (group I) and the other descending downwards and laterally from the first molar (group II), with no higher angle. Six replicas of each were made in photoelastic resin and stabilized with a plate and 5 mm monocortical screws in a standardized way. Stabilization was done in the SSRO without advancement, with 3 mm advancement and with 7 mm advancement. Compressive loads were applied at the level of the lower first molar in an Instron machine (model 4411) with a speed of 1 mm/min until reaching 3 mm of displacement, at which point the data was recorded with a camera to identify the stress distribution bands. The results showed stress distribution in different places: for group I it was observed mainly in the screws of the proximal segment, being more intense closer to the osteotomy; in group II I it was observed mainly in the screws of the proximal segment furthest from the osteotomy, also being distributed towards the upper area of the plate. It may be concluded that under standard osteosynthesis conditions, modifications to the SSRO produce changes in the location and distribution of stress. PMID:25232374

  8. Electron microscopic observation of the sagittal structure of Drosophila mature sperm.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2014-09-01

    Observation of sperm development and determination of their morphological characteristics are very important to the understanding of phylogenetic relationships and the study of sperm function during fertilization. Although ultrastructural studies of sperm development in the testes of the fruit fly Drosophila have been performed, there are few reports describing electron microscopic morphology of mature sperm, that is, those released from the testes to the seminal vesicles. Here, we present the first report of the sagittal organization of Drosophila sperm head and neck regions by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The head and tail structures of a mature sperm, for example, the acrosome, nucleus, and flagellum, were easy to distinguish by the morphological characteristics of the sperm surface by SEM. The morphological relationships between the surface and internal structures of mature sperm were confirmed by observing longitudinal sections with TEM. Our approach overcame the technical difficulties involved in sample preparation for electron microscopic observation of the Drosophila mature sperm head, and therefore, this study serves as an important foundation for future genetic dissection of sperm ultrastructure and function in male sterile mutants.

  9. A finite element study of a lumbar motion segment subjected to pure sagittal plane moments.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Adl, A; Ahmed, A M; Shrivastava, S C

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element program has been developed and applied to the analysis of a three-dimensional model of the lumbar L2-3 motion segment subjected to sagittal plane moments. The analysis accounts for both material and geometric nonlinearities and is based on the Updated Lagrangian approach. The disc nucleus has been considered as an incompressible inviscid fluid and the annulus as a composite of collagenous fibres embedded in a matrix of ground substance. Articulation at the facet joints has been treated as a general moving contact problem and the spinal ligaments have been modelled as a collection of nonlinear axial elements. Effects of the loss of intradiscal pressure in flexion and of facetectomy in extension have been analyzed. Comparison of the predicted gross response characteristics with available measurements indicates satisfactory agreement. In flexion relatively large intradiscal pressures are generated, while in extension negative pressures (i.e. suction) of low magnitude are predicted. The stress distribution results indicate that the load transfer path through the posterior elements of the joint in flexion is different from that in extension. In flexion the ligaments are the means of load transfer, while in extension the load is transmitted through the pedicles, laminae and articular processes. In flexion, the inner annulus fibres at the posterolateral location are subject to maximum tensile strain. It is suggested that large flexion moment in combination with other loads is a likely cause of disc prolapse commonly found at this location of the annulus.

  10. Comparing inclined locomotion in a ground-living and a climbing ant species: sagittal plane kinematics.

    PubMed

    Weihmann, Tom; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2009-11-01

    Formicine ants are able to detect slopes in the substrates they crawl on. It was assumed that hair fields between the main segments of the body and between the proximal leg segments contribute to graviception which triggers a change of posture in response to substrate slopes. The sagittal kinematics of two ant species were investigated and compared on different slopes. Cataglyphis fortis, a North African desert ant, is well known for its extraordinary sense of orientation in texturally almost uniform habitats, while Formica pratensis, a common central-European species, primarily uses landmarks and pheromone traces for orientation. A comparison of these two species reveals differences in postural adaptations during inclined locomotion. Only minor slope-dependent angular adjustments were observed. The largest is a 25 degrees head rotation for Cataglyphis, even if the slope is changed by 150 degrees, suggesting dramatic changes in the field of vision. The trunk's pitch adjustment towards the increasing slope is low in both species. On all slopes Cataglyphis achieves higher running speeds than Formica and displays greater slope-dependent variation in body height. This indicates different strategies for coping with changing slopes. These specific aspects have to be reflected in the ants' respective mode of slope perception.

  11. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy - significance of pelvic extensors in sagittal spinal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Sung; Kang, Suk Jung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Yung-Tae; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-11-01

    Although facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common inherited myopathy, cases of infantile or early-childhood onset have rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to describe a case of early-onset FSHD with lumbar hyperlordosis, which shows the significance of the dynamic component of sagittal spinal imbalance. An 11-year-old girl presented with progressive gait disturbance and lumbar hyperlordosis. The motor power of her pelvic extensor muscles was grade 3. Pelvic tilt and hip flexion were markedly increased as determined by gait analysis. The most important factor in the development of hyperlordosis is the weakness of the pelvic extensor muscles, and the results of gait analysis exquisitely explain the pathophysiology. The patient stands with her spine hyperextended to maintain upright posture by a compensatory mechanism of relatively strong back extensor muscles. Corrective surgery for lumbar hyperlordosis was not considered because it could have eliminated the compensatory lumbar hyperextension, thus making the spine of the patient stoop forward through her hip joint during walking by the weakness of her pelvic extensor muscles. This FSHD case is an impressive example of a patient showing the concept that weak pelvic extensor muscles cannot keep the spine upright and balanced.

  12. In vitro biomechanical comparison of six different fixation methods following 5-mm sagittal split advancement osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Y; Watanabe, E R; Reis, J M; Spin-Neto, R; Gabrielli, M A; Pereira-Filho, V A

    2015-08-01

    The sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is a surgical technique used widely to treat many congenital and acquired mandibular discrepancies. Stabilization of the osteotomy site and the potential for skeletal relapse after the procedure are still major problems. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stability of six methods of rigid fixation in SSRO using a biomechanical test model. Sixty polyurethane replicas of human hemimandibles were divided into six groups. In group I, the osteotomies were fixed with two four-hole titanium miniplates; in group II, with one four-hole miniplate; in group III, with one four-hole miniplate+a bicortical screw; in group IV, with a grid miniplate; in group V, with a four-hole locking miniplate; and in group VI, with a six-hole miniplate. A linear load in the premolar region was applied to the hemimandibles. The resistance forces (N) needed to displace the distal segment by 1, 3, and 5mm were recorded and the data transmitted from the load cell to a computer. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test was performed to compare the means between groups. For the three displacement conditions, there was a strong tendency for the 2.0-mm plate+screw and the grid plate to have higher values.

  13. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Luigi; Riatti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, 12.3 ± 1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. PMID:27995136

  14. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of abdominal aneurysms have an excessively thick wall that sometimes involve duodenum, cava or colon by an inflammatory process. Between February 1986 and December 1992, 147 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated surgically and in 13 (8.8%) the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Their mean age was 67.3 years (70.1 years in non inflammatory group) and all were symptomatics initially (abdominal pain in 53%, rupture in 23%, mass in 15%). The operative mortality for elective resection was 37% in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) decreasing to 9% in the AAA group without inflammatory involvement. We conclude that surgery is indicated in these patients to prevent rupture and to hasten the subsidense of inflammatory process ever with postoperative morbi-mortality increased.

  15. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.

  16. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  17. Selective Nonoperative Management of Abdominal Stab Wounds.

    PubMed

    Murry, Jason S; Hoang, David M; Ashragian, Sogol; Liou, Doug Z; Barmparas, Galinos; Chung, Rex; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Stab wounds (SW) to the abdomen traditionally require urgent exploration when associated with shock, evisceration, or peritonitis. Hemodynamically stable patients without evisceration may benefit from serial exams even with peritonitis. We compared patients taken directly to the operating room with abdominal SWs (ED-OR) to those admitted for serial exams (ADMIT). We retrospectively reviewed hemodynamically stable patients presenting with any abdominal SW between January 2000 and December 2012. Exclusions included evidence of evisceration, systolic blood pressure ≤110 mm Hg, or blood transfusion. NON-THER was defined as abdominal exploration without identification of intra-abdominal injury requiring repair. Of 142 patients included, 104 were ED-OR and 38 were ADMIT. When ED-OR was compared with ADMIT, abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score was higher (2.4 vs 2.1; P = 0.01) and hospital length of stay was longer (4.8 vs 3.3 days; P = 0.04). Incidence of NON-THER was higher in ED-OR cohort (71% vs 13%; P ≤ 0.001). In a regression model, ED-OR was a predictor of NON-THER (adjusted odds ratio 16.6; P < 0.001). One patient from ED-OR expired after complications from NON-THER. There were no deaths in the ADMIT group. For those patients with abdominal SWs who present with systolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg, no blood product transfusion in the emergency department and lacking evisceration, admission for serial abdominal exams may be preferred regardless of abdominal exam.

  18. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  19. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  20. Fluctuating asymmetry and fractal dimension of the sagittal suture as indicators of inbreeding depression in dama and dorcas gazelles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, Concepcion L.; Escos, Juan; Emlen, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of inbreeding on the developmental instability of skulls of dorcas (Gazella dorcas) and dama (G. dama) gazelles were investigated. In total, 132 dorcas gazelle skulls and 74 dama gazelle skulls from the Estación Experimental de Zonas Aridas in Almera, Spain, were measured. The fluctuating asymmetry of 9 meristic characters, consisting of the numbers of foramina on the two sides of the skull and mandible, was calculated. Although only the foramen infraorbitalis showed a significant increase in asymmetry with inbreeding in dorcas gazelles, the sum of the foramina in 5 of the skull regions clearly indicates an increase in asymmetry with inbreeding in both dorcas and dama gazelles. The fractal dimension of the sagittal suture was calculated by means of the coastline method. A greater effect of inbreeding on the sagittal suture in dama than in dorcas gazelle was observed, in concordance with the more evident deleterious effects of inbreeding depression in dama than in dorcas gazelles.

  1. Large-diameter glory-hole drilling: Evolution from 12- to 20-ft diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, R.

    1994-06-01

    To drill for oil and gas in shallow, ice-infested waters, a hole needs to be excavated in the seafloor to protect subsea blowout preventers (BOP's) from ice-scour damage. Canadian Marine Drilling pioneered the use of large-diameter glory-hole drilling systems by designing, building, and patenting a 12-ft (3.7-m)-diameter prototype bit system, a 17-ft (5.2-m)-diameter upgrade, a 20-ft (6.1-m)-diameter standard system, and a 20-ft (6.1-m)-diameter enhanced system. The enhanced bit design incorporates high-pressure jetting, boulder storage, pilot-hole centering, and other features that allow a 36-in (0.91-m) hole to be drilled through the body of the bit. An optional feature is the ability to drill and case the glory hole simultaneously. To date, penetration rates up to 4.5 ft/hr (1.37 m/h) in soils with a shear strength 5,000 lbf/ft[sup 2] (239 kPa) have been obtained. Glory-hole drilling times have been reduced from more than 20 days in 1978 to approximately 1[1/2] days since 1986.

  2. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sourabh; Qamar, Arman; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Alka

    2011-01-01

    An arterial aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation of a blood vessel with respect to the original artery. The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) increases dramatically in the presence of the following factors: age older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension and Caucasian ethnicity. The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by the aneurysm size, expansion rate, continued smoking and persistent hypertension. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed for other purposes. It can also present with abdominal pain or complications such as thrombosis, embolization and rupture. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic AAAs are discovered as a pulsatile abdominal mass on routine physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography is considered the screening modality of choice for detecting AAAs because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as its safety and relatively lower cost. The decision to screen for AAAs is challenging. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that men between the age of 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked should be screened at least once for AAAs by abdominal ultrasonography. Management options for patients with an asymptomatic AAA include reduction of risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia; medical therapy with beta-blockers; watchful waiting; endovascular stenting; and surgical repair depending on the size and expansion rate of the aneurysm and underlying comorbidities. PMID:21523201

  4. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in the Superior Sagittal Sinus as a Rare Cause of a Paroxysmal Kinetic Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Murao, Kei; Arakawa, Shuji; Furuta, Yoshihiko; Shijo, Masahiro; Ago, Tetsuro; Kitazono, Takanari

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has a broad spectrum of clinical presentation compared to arterial etiology. Seizure is one of the common symptoms and is more frequent than in other stroke types. Hence, transient neurological symptoms in CVT patients are usually due to epileptic seizures, while transient repetitive movement disorder is extremely rare except as a complication of epilepsy. We report a case of CVT in the superior sagittal sinus with a 1-year history of paroxysmal kinetic tremor without evident epilepsy. PMID:28203183

  5. Development of fine diameter mullite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a program to develop and evaluate mullite fiber with a mean diameter under two microns. The two micron fiber is produced by a blowing process at room temperature from a low viscosity (10-25 poise) solution. The blown fiber was evaluated for dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C, and was equivalent to the 5 micron spun B and W mullite fiber. An additive study was conducted to evaluate substitutes for the boron. Three levels of chromium, lithium fluoride, and magnesium were added to the standard composition in place of boron and the fiber produced was evaluated for chemical and dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C. The magnesium was the most chemically stable, but the chrome additive imparted the best dimensional stability.

  6. Five meter diameter conical furlable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J. W.; Freeland, R. E.; Moore, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to demonstrate that a 5-meter-diameter, furlable, conical reflector antenna utilizing a line source feed can be fabricated utilizing composite materials and to prove that the antenna can function mechanically and electrically as prototype flight hardware. The design, analysis, and testing of the antenna are described. An RF efficiency of 55% at 8.5 GHz and a surface error of 0.64 mm rms were chosen as basic design requirements. Actual test measurements yielded an efficiency of 53% (49.77 dB gain) and a surface error of 0.61 mm rms. Atmospherically induced corrosion of the reflector mesh resulted in the RF performance degradation. An assessment of the antenna as compared to the current state of the art technology was made. This assessment included cost, surface accuracy and RF performance, structural and mechanical characteristics, and possible applications.

  7. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30-cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cu cm at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of + or - 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity.

  8. Stemming selection for large-diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect

    Eloranta, J.

    1994-12-31

    Proper selection of stemming has a profound effect on blast performance. This paper describes several methods of evaluating stemming performance in 16-inch blastholes. Tests are done on stemming ranging in size from nominal 1/4 inch crushed rock up to railroad ballast size rock (2 1/2 inch > diameter < 3/4 inch). Concrete plugs (both pre-cast and poured) are evaluated as well as air decking. A Red lake Lo-cam and a velocity of detonation recorder (VODR) are used to estimate stemming retention time and stemming ejection velocities. Downstream productivity rates including: shovel digging rates, crusher speed and crusher hangup counts are used to estimate fragmentation results. Digital image analysis is used to estimate size distributions.

  9. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  10. The effects of changes in the sagittal plane alignment of running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Shuichi; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Usui, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of sagittal plane alignment changes in running-specific transtibial prostheses on ground reaction forces (GRFs). [Subjects and Methods] Eight transtibial amputees who used running-specific prostheses during sprinting participated. The sprint movements were recorded using a Vicon-MX system and GRF measuring devices. The experiment levels were set as regularly recommended alignment (REG; the normal alignment for the subjects) and dorsiflexion or plantar flexion from the REG. [Results] The subjects were classified into fast (100-m personal best < 12.50 s) and slow (100-m personal best ≥ 12.50 s) groups. In both groups, there were no significant differences in the center of gravity speed; further, the difference in the stance time was significant in the slow group but not in the fast group. Significant differences were observed in the step length for the fast group, whereas the stance time and step rate significantly differed in the slow group. The GRF impulse showed significant differences in the vertical and braking directions in both groups. [Conclusion] The GRFs are affected by sagittal plane alignment changes in running-specific prostheses. Moreover, our results suggest that the change in GRFs along with the altered sagittal plane alignment influenced the step length and step rate. PMID:26157216

  11. The change of pain and lumbosacral sagittal alignment after sling exercise therapy for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hee Sook; Cho, Won Je; Ryu, Won Jong; Park, Seung Jin; An, Chang Sik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to quantify the effect of sling exercise therapy in the recovery of lumbosacral sagittal alignment (LSA) and in the control of low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 102 chronic low back pain patients were divided into two groups, a physical therapy group and a sling exercise group. In both groups, programs were conducted thrice a week for twelve weeks. With respect to LSA, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured with plain radiography. Pain was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). [Results] Differences were found in visual analogue scale, delta score of visual analogue scale, pelvic tilt, delta score of pelvic tilt, and delta score of pelvic incidence between sling exercise therapy and physical therapy groups. VAS, pelvic tilt, and pelvic incidence was positively changed after sling exercise. However, only the visual analogue scale was found to be improved after physical therapy. [Conclusion] Sling exercise therapy and physical therapy were effective in reducing pain. However, pelvic tilt and pelvic incidence were positively changed after sling exercise therapy for Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment, but were unchanged after physical therapy. Therefore, sling exercise therapy is more effective than physical therapy for the recovery of Lumbosacral Sagittal Alignment in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:27821936

  12. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  13. Reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, A; Tukiainen, E

    2013-01-01

    Complex abdominal wall defects refer to situations where simple ventral hernia repair is not feasible because the defect is very large, there is a concomitant infection or failed previous re-pair attempt, or if there is not enough original skin to cover the repair. Usually a complex abdominal wall repair is preceded by a period of temporary abdominal closure where the short-term aims include closure of the catabolic drain, protection of the viscera and preventing fistula formation, preventing bowel adherence to the abdominal wall, and enabling future fascial and skin closure. Currently the best way to achieve these goals is the vacuum- and mesh-mediated fascial traction method achieving close to 90% fascial closure rates. The long-term aims of an abdominal closure following a planned hernia strategy include intact skin cover, fascial closure at midline (if possible), good functional outcome with innervated abdominal musculature, no pain and good cosmetic result. The main methods of abdominal wall reconstruction include the use of prosthetic (mesh) or autologous material (tissue flaps). In patients with original skin cover over the fascial defect (simple ventral hernia), the most commonly used method is hernia repair with an artificial mesh. For more complex defects, our first choice of reconstruction is the component separation technique, sometimes combined with a mesh. In contaminated fields where component separation alone is not feasible, a combination with a biological mesh can be used. In large defects with grafted skin, a free TFL flap is the best option, sometimes reinforced with a mesh and enhanced with components separation.

  14. Evaluation of stress distribution in resorbable screw fixation system: three-dimensional finite element analysis of mandibular setback surgery with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Pyong; Baek, Seung-Hak; Choi, Jin-Young

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution of resorbable screw (RS) and cortical/cancellous bone in the mandibular setback surgery with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) according to fixation geometry and number of RSs using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Three-dimensional virtual models of the mandible and bicortical RS (INION CPS System; diameter, 2.5 mm; length, 12 mm [Inion Ltd, Tampere, Finland]) were constructed by Mimics (Materialise, Ann Arbor, MI) using three-dimensional computed tomography DICOM data with 0.5-mm-thickness cut. After 8-mm setback BSSRO was performed, fixation between the proximal and distal segments of the mandible was done with bicortical RS. Fixation options were classified into 3RL (3 RSs with linear configuration at the retromolar area), 2R1A (2 RSs at the retromolar area and 1 RS at the mandibular angle area), 2R1B (2 RSs at the retromolar area and 1 RS at the mandibular body area), and 3R1A (3 RSs at the retromolar area and 1 RS at the mandibular angle area). After applying the occlusal load of 132 N on the lower first molar, stress distributions of the RSs and cortical/cancellous bone in each option were analyzed by ANSYS program (ANSYS Inc, Canonsburg, PA). Maximum stress concentration was found at the anterior RS fixation in the retromolar area in all options. Although 3R1A fixation showed more even distribution of stress concentration than other fixation options, 2R1A fixation was comparable with 3R1A fixation in view of yield stress in RSs. In terms of fixation geometry and number of RSs, both 2R1A and 3R1A fixation configurations might provide proper stress distribution in BSSRO.

  15. Muscle contributions to whole-body sagittal plane angular momentum during walking.

    PubMed

    Neptune, R R; McGowan, C P

    2011-01-04

    Walking is a complex dynamic task that requires the regulation of whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance while performing walking subtasks such as propelling the body forward and accelerating the leg into swing. In human walking, the primary mechanism to regulate angular momentum is muscle force generation. Muscles accelerate body segments and generate ground reaction forces that alter angular momentum about the body's center-of-mass to restore and maintain dynamic stability. In addition, gravity contributes to whole-body angular momentum through its contribution to the ground reaction forces. The purpose of this study was to generate a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation of normal walking to quantify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the sagittal plane. In early stance, the uniarticular hip and knee extensors (GMAX and VAS), biarticular hamstrings (HAM) and ankle dorsiflexors (TA) generated backward angular momentum while the ankle plantar flexors (SOL and GAS) generated forward momentum. In late stance, SOL and GAS were the primary contributors and generated angular momentum in opposite directions. SOL generated primarily forward angular momentum while GAS generated backward angular momentum. The difference between muscles was due to their relative contributions to the horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces. Gravity contributed to the body's angular momentum in early stance and to a lesser extent in late stance, which was counteracted primarily by the plantar flexors. These results may provide insight into balance and movement disorders and provide a basis for developing locomotor therapies that target specific muscle groups.

  16. 3D analysis of condylar remodelling and skeletal relapse following bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Xi, Tong; Schreurs, Ruud; van Loon, Bram; de Koning, Martien; Bergé, Stefaan; Hoppenreijs, Theo; Maal, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A major concern in mandibular advancement surgery using bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) is potential postoperative relapse. Although the role of postoperative changes in condylar morphology on skeletal relapse was reported in previous studies, no study so far has objectified the precise changes of the condylar volume. The aim of the present study was to quantify the postoperative volume changes of condyles and its role on skeletal stability following BSSO mandibular advancement surgery. A total of 56 patients with mandibular hypoplasia who underwent BSSO advancement surgery were prospectively enrolled into the study. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was acquired preoperatively, at 1 week postoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. After the segmentation of the facial skeleton and condyles, three-dimensional cephalometry and condylar volume analysis were performed. The mean mandibular advancement was 4.6 mm, and the mean postoperative relapse was 0.71 mm. Of 112 condyles, 55% showed a postoperative decrease in condylar volume, with a mean reduction of 105 mm(3) (6.1% of the original condylar volume). The magnitude of condylar remodelling (CR) was significantly correlated with skeletal relapse (p = 0.003). Patients with a CR greater than 17% of the original condylar volume exhibited relapse as seen in progressive condylar resorption. Female patients with a high mandibular angle who exhibited postoperative CR were particularly at risk for postoperative relapse. Gender, preoperative condylar volume, and downward displacement of pogonion at surgery were prognostic factors for CR (r(2) = 21%). It could be concluded that the condylar volume can be applied as a useful 3D radiographic parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up of postoperative skeletal relapse and progressive condylar resorption.

  17. Establishment of norms of the beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Reddy, Karnati Praveen Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Chaitanya, Nellore; Bhaskar Reddy, Myla Vijay; Patil, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, assessment of anteroposterior discrepancy is of importance to the orthodontist. Both angular and linear measurements have been incorporated into various cephalometric analyses to help the clinician diagnose anteroposterior discrepancies and establish the most appropriate treatment plan. Hence the present study is designed to establish the norms of Beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population. Materials and Methods: The sample was screened from the old records of the Orthodontic department of Narayana Dental College and Hospital. One hundred and fifty pretreatment cephalometric radiographs (50 each of Class I, II, and III) were subdivided based on ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle into skeletal Class I, II, III. The same cephalograms were again classified into skeletal Class I, II, and III based purely on Beta angle. Each group was again divided into 2 subgroups consisting of 25 male and 25 female subjects with a mean age limit between 15 and 45 years old. Results: The Newman-keuls post hoc test and ANOVA showed that the 3 groups were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001). The Newman-keuls post hoc test also found the groups to be significantly different. Conclusions: There was statistically significant difference for, the mean values and the standard deviation for Beta angle within the three skeletal patterns (Class I, Class II and Class III skeletal patterns). There was no statistically significant difference among the mean values of beta angle between Nellore district population and Caucasian norms and between male and female sex groups. PMID:24082742

  18. Correlation between posterior offset of femoral condyles and sagittal slope of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Ripani, F R; Postacchini, R; Masciangelo, R; Giannicola, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to address, in normal knees, the variability of posterior offset of femoral condyles and tibial slope, and the presence of any correlation between the two that might be needed to achieve an adequate joint motion in flexion. Magnetic resonance images of normal knees of 80 subjects, 45 males and 35 females, with a mean age of 38.9 years, were analysed. Measurements were performed by two independent observers using an imaging visualization software. The tibial slope averaged 8 and 7.7 °, on the medial and lateral sides, respectively (P = 0.2); the mean posterior offset of femoral condyles was 27.4 and 25.2 mm on the two sides, respectively (P = 0.0001). The variation coefficient of the condylar offset and tibial slope was 11.5 and 38%, respectively. In the medial compartment, a significant correlation was found between the femoral condylar offset and the tibial slope, while the same was not observed in the lateral compartment of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the assessment of tibial slope and femoral condylar offset in the medial and lateral side separately, taking into account any difference between the two compartments. The sagittal tibial slope exhibits a greater variability compared with the posterior offset of femoral condyles. The correlation found, in the medial compartment, between the tibial slope and femoral condylar offset suggests that the reconstitution of the proper morphology of the posterior part of the knee joint may be necessary to obtain a full range of motion in flexion after total knee replacement.

  19. Selective Distribution of Retinal Input to Mouse SCN Revealed in Analysis of Sagittal Sections.

    PubMed

    Lokshin, Maria; LeSauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae

    2015-06-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the locus of the master circadian clock, setting the daily rhythms in physiology and behavior and synchronizing these responses to the local environment. The most important of these phase-setting cues derive from the light-dark cycle and reach the SCN directly via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). The SCN contains anatomically and functionally heterogeneous populations of cells. Understanding how these neurons access information about the photic environment so as to set the phase of daily oscillation requires knowledge of SCN innervation by the RHT. While retinal innervation of the SCN has long been a topic of interest, the information is incomplete. In some instances, studies have focused on the caudal aspect of the nucleus, which contains the core region. In other instances, subregions of the nucleus have been delineated based on projections of where specific peptidergic cell types lie, rather than based on double or triple immunochemical staining of distinct populations of cells. Here, we examine the full extent of the mouse SCN using cholera toxin β (CTβ) as a tracer to analyze RHT innervation in triple-labeled sagittal sections. Using specific peptidergic markers to identify clusters of SCN cells, we find 3 distinct patterns. First is an area of dense RHT innervation to the core region, delineated by gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive cells. Second is an area of moderate RHT fiber clusters, bearing arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-positive cells that lie close to the core. Finally, the outermost, shell, and rostral AVP-containing regions of the SCN have few to no detectable retinal fibers. These results point to a diversity of inputs to individual SCN cell populations and suggest variation in the responses that underlie photic phase resetting.

  20. A New Model to Produce Sagittal Plane Rotational Induced Diffuse Axonal Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Marten

    2011-01-01

    A new in vivo animal model that produces diffuse brain injuries in sagittal plane rearward rotational acceleration has been developed. In this model, the skull of an anesthetized adult rat is tightly secured to a rotating bar. During trauma, the bar is impacted by a striker that causes the bar and the animal head to rotate rearward; the acceleration phase last 0.4 ms and is followed by a rotation at constant speed and a gentle deceleration when the bar makes contact with a padded stop. The total head angle change is less than 30°. By adjusting the air pressure in the rifle used to accelerate the striker, resulting rotational acceleration between 0.3 and 2.1 Mrad/s2 can be produced. Numerous combinations of trauma levels, post-trauma survival times, brain and serum retrieval, and tissue preparation techniques were adopted to characterize this new model. The trauma caused subdural bleedings in animals exposed to severe trauma. Staining brain tissue with β-Amyloid Precursor Protein antibodies and FD Neurosilver that detect degenerating axons revealed wide spread axonal injuries (AI) in the corpus callosum, the border between the corpus callosum and cortex and in tracts in the brain stem. The observed AIs were apparent only when the rotational acceleration level was moderate and above. On the contrary, only limited signs of contusion injuries were observed following trauma. Macrophage invasions, glial fibrillary acidic protein redistribution or hypertrophy, and blood brain barrier (BBB) changes were unusual. S100 serum analyses indicate that blood vessel and glia cell injuries occur following moderate levels of trauma despite the absence of obvious BBB injuries. We conclude that this rotational trauma model is capable of producing graded axonal injury, is repeatable and produces limited other types of traumatic brain injuries and as such is useful in the study of injury biomechanics, diagnostics, and treatment strategies following diffuse axonal injury. PMID

  1. Relative importance of aneurysm diameter and body size for predicting AAA rupture in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Lu, Bing; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Conrad, Mark; Patel, Virendra I.; Fillinger, Mark; Matyal, Robina; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Women have been shown to have up to a four-fold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared to men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and to determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Using each patient’s height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, BMI, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size [e.g. aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm) / BSA (m2)]. Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs. elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately and different models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC). Results We identified 4045 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 53% EVAR). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men (Table 1). For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (AUC = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5cm: OR 1.0; 5.5–6.4cm: OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1

  2. Development of large diameter carbon monofilament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, B.; Neltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A process for preparing large diameter carbon-boron monofilament was developed. The process involves chemical vapor depositing a carbon-boron alloy monofilament from a BCl3, CH4, and H2 gas mixture onto a carbon substrate. Amorphous alloys were formed when gaseous mixtures containing greater than 20 percent methane (80 percent BCl3) were used. The longest uninterrupted lengths of carbon-boron monofilament were produced using a CH4/BCl3 gas ratio of 2.34. It was found that the properties of the carbon-boron alloy monofilament improved when the carbon substrate was precleaned in chlorine. The highest strength monofilament was attained when a CH4/BCl3 gas volume ratio of 0.44 was 28 million N/sq cm (40 million psi). While the highest strengths were attained in this run, the 0.44 gas ratio and other CH4/BCl3 ratios less than 2.34 would not yield long runs. Runs using these ratios were usually terminated because of a break in the monofilament within the reactor. It is felt better process control could probably be achieved by varying the amount of hydrogen; the BCl3/H2 ratio was kept constant in these studies.

  3. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  4. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  5. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  6. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. PMID:26958978

  7. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, S.; Chan, V. O.; Ridge, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:28250993

  8. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  9. Creation of Abdominal Adhesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Clement D; Hu, Michael S; Leavitt, Tripp; Barnes, Leandra A; Cheung, Alexander T M; Malhotra, Samir; Lorenz, H Peter; Longaker, Michael T

    2016-08-27

    Abdominal adhesions consist of fibrotic tissue that forms in the peritoneal space in response to an inflammatory insult, typically surgery or intraabdominal infection. The precise mechanisms underlying adhesion formation are poorly understood. Many compounds and physical barriers have been tested for their ability to prevent adhesions after surgery with varying levels of success. The mouse and rat are important models for the study of abdominal adhesions. Several different techniques for the creation of adhesions in the mouse and rat exist in the literature. Here we describe a protocol utilizing abrasion of the cecum with sandpaper and sutures placed in the right abdominal sidewall. The mouse is anesthetized and the abdomen is prepped. A midline laparotomy is created and the cecum is identified. Sandpaper is used to gently abrade the surface of the cecum. Next, several figure-of-eight sutures are placed into the peritoneum of the right abdominal sidewall. The abdominal cavity is irrigated, a small amount of starch is applied, and the incision is closed. We have found that this technique produces the most consistent adhesions with the lowest mortality rate.

  10. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  11. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance.

  12. Low-dose dacarbazine-doxorubicin therapy against intra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Ryota; Nishimura, Junichi; Uemura, Mamoru; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Hata, Taishi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2013-05-01

    Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor is a life-threatening disease. Studies have shown that dacarbazine (DTIC)-doxorubicin (DOX) (D-D) therapy is the most effective treatment. However, myelosuppression is a major problem, and cardiac muscle disorders due to DOX limit the number of administration cycles, whereas it usually requires a long time to achieve tumor shrinkage. To resolve these issues, we introduced low-dose D-D therapy to 3 patients employing 50 mg/m² DOX and 600-700 mg/m² DTIC per cycle, which permits repeated administration cycles up to 10-11 times. Case 1 was a 23-year-old female with a sporadic recurrent mesenterium desmoid tumor located in the pelvis (maximum diameter, 8 cm). Cases 2 and 3 were a 33-year-old female and a 36-year-old male. Both patients had intra-abdominal mesenterium desmoid tumors (maximum diameter 9.6 and 9.0 cm, respectively) that were generated after proctocolectomy due to familial adenomatous polyposis. No severe adverse events occurred during the therapy. With the aid of sulindac and tamoxifen after low-dose D-D therapy, the first two patients achieved a complete response, and the third patient achieved a partial response and awaits further tumor shrinkage. Our experience indicates that low-dose DT-D therapy is a safe and effective regimen for patients with intra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

  13. Human thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues: Damage experiments, statistical analysis and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David M; Maier, Franz; Weisbecker, Hannah; Viertler, Christian; Verbrugghe, Peter; Famaey, Nele; Fourneau, Inge; Herijgers, Paul; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-01-01

    Development of aortic aneurysms includes significant morphological changes within the tissue: collagen content increases, elastin content reduces and smooth muscle cells degenerate. We seek to quantify the impact of these changes on the passive mechanical response of aneurysms in the supra-physiological loading range via mechanical testing and constitutive modeling. We perform uniaxial extension tests on circumferentially and axially oriented strips from five thoracic (65.6 years ± 13.4, mean ± SD) and eight abdominal (63.9 years ± 11.4) aortic fusiform aneurysms to investigate both continuous and discontinuous softening during supra-physiological loading. We determine the significance of the differences between the fitted model parameters: diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, and healthy (Weisbecker et al., J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 12, 93-106, 2012) versus diseased tissues. We also test correlations among these parameters and age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and preoperative aneurysm diameter, and investigate histological cuts. Tissue response is anisotropic for all tests and the anisotropic pseudo-elastic damage model fits the data well for both primary loading and discontinuous softening which we interpret as damage. We found statistically relevant differences between model parameters fitted to diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, as well as between those fitted to healthy versus diseased tissues. Only BMI correlated with fitted model parameters in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues.

  14. [Ultrasound diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a 52 year old woman].

    PubMed

    Romero-Hernández, Juan José; Lozano-Corona, Marco Antonio; Díaz-Méndez, Macrina; Aspeitia-León, Jorge Alejandro; Hernández-Díaz, Víctor; Magaña-Cabrera, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as increasing the diameter of the aorta in more than 50 % of its original size and the infra-renal location is the most common (90 %). AAA disease mainly affects older men and white smokers, and has a male: female ratio of 4:1, as well the diagnosis is rare in women under age 55. Aneurysm rupture is the most common complication and cause of death in the general population, its etiology is unclear, but is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. The AAA do not exhibit rupture and it is usually asymptomatic diagnosed incidentally, however, as the aneurysm grows, appears symptoms such as back pain, abdominal or groin pain, well as palpation of a pulse mass on umbilical and supra-umbilical region. Imaging study such as ultrasound and CT scan are the mainstay of diagnosis. We present a case of 52 years old patient with no history related to the diagnosis, who presented sudden and severe abdominal pain. She was admitted to the emergency room with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis vs. acute pancreatitis. After ultrasound and CT studies, the diagnosis was a complicated abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  15. Behavior of large diameter wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Raoof, M.; Kraincanic, I.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reviews the recent theoretical work of the present authors as regards the prediction of the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing axial/torsional coupling of large diameter wire ropes. The theoretical analysis is based on results from a previously reported orthotropic sheet model which enables one to obtain estimates of the coefficients in the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing the axial/torsional coupling of the constituent spiral strands. The proposed model can (unlike previously available theories for wire ropes) cater for the presence of interwire friction and the various wire rope stiffness coefficients corresponding to both no-slip and full-slip regimes can be calculated. The no-slip regime corresponds to cases when an axially preloaded wire rope experiences cyclic variations of external load which are small enough not to induce initiation of gross interwire slippage within the constituent spiral strands. For sufficiently large values of range/mean axial load ratios, on the other hand, gross interwire slippage takes place and the effects of interwire friction on wire rope stiffness coefficients will be negligibly small compared with the effects due to the force changes in the wires themselves. Theoretical models have been developed for two types of wire ropes, i.e., those with an independent wire rope core (IWRC) or the types with a fiber core: the salient features for both approaches are reviewed with an emphasis on the characteristics of various wire rope constructions. In addition, experimental results from other sources are found to provide encouraging support for the theoretical predictions in a number of areas.

  16. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd

    2016-05-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  17. [Duodenal perforation after blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S

    2009-12-01

    Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis.

  18. Electromyographic analysis of four popular abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.

  19. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  20. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.

  1. [Penetrating abdominal wounds. Apropos of 330 cases].

    PubMed

    Nejjar, M; Bennani, S; Zerouali, O N

    1991-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal wounds are frequent and serious. 330 cases have been treated in the Department of Emergencies and visceral Surgery at Averroes Hospital of Casablanca from 1980 to 1990. The predominance of male sex is noted, and these wounds are always the result of aggression by white arm. All patients have been operated, the white laparotomy rate is of 36%. The classic interventionist attitude is still recommended in spite of this high rate, because our present conditions can't permit us a rigorous watching. According to abdominal lesions, the different interventions are reviewed, and their indications are detailed.

  2. Hypovolemic shock in children: abdominal CT manifestations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G A; Fallat, M E; Eichelberger, M R

    1987-08-01

    The authors describe a "hypoperfusion complex," seen on abdominal computed tomography, which consists of marked, diffuse dilatation of the intestine with fluid; abnormally intense contrast enhancement of the bowel wall, mesentery, kidneys, and/or pancreas; decreased caliber of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava; and moderate to large peritoneal fluid collections. This complex was present in three patients less than 2 years of age and was associated with severe injury and a poor outcome. Recognition of this constellation of findings may help direct attention to the patient's serious hemodynamic abnormality as much as to individual organ defects.

  3. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens

    2008-02-11

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP.

  4. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis.

  5. Abdominal Migraine in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kunishi, Yosuke; Iwata, Yuri; Ota, Mitsuyasu; Kurakami, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Mao; Kanno, Masatomo; Kuboi, Yoriko; Yoshie, Koichiro; Kato, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with recurrent, severe abdominal pain. Laboratory tests and imaging were insignificant, and treatment for functional dyspepsia was ineffective. The poorly localized, dull, and severe abdominal pain, associated with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, was consistent with abdominal migraine. The symptoms were relieved by loxoprofen and lomerizine, which are used in the treatment of migraine. We herein report a case of abdominal migraine in a middle-aged woman. Abdominal migraine should be considered as a cause of abdominal pain as it might easily be relieved by appropriate treatment. PMID:27725538

  6. Evaluation of nasal morphology in predicting vertical and sagittal maxillary skeletal discrepancies’

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Chaitanya, Nellore; Reddy, Karnati Praveen Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Myla, Vijaya Bhaskar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the relationship between nasal morphology and maxillary skeletal pattern. The clinical significance was to emphasize the importance of role of nasal pattern in diagnosis and treatment planning. Materials and Methods: The sample included the pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 South Indian adults (94 women, 86 men), aged 18 to 28 years. Six maxillary and six nasal soft tissue parameters were measured. Pearson correlation coefficients and Analysis of variance were used for statistical analyses. Results: There were significant correlations between maxillary vertical and sagittal, skeletal and soft tissue parameters. The Mean and standard deviations were correlated between low insignificant range to high significant levels with nasal length, nasal depth and columella convexity. Nasal length also showed significant correlation with inclination of palatal plane. Significant influence of gender was seen on nasal length, nasal depth, columella convexity and nasal tip angle. A statistically significant difference was seen regarding nasal length between males and females, with nasal length being more in males (50.26 ± 4.18) than in females (48.86 ± 3.45), nasal depth being more in males (18.64 ± 2.56) than in females (16.63 ± 2.16), columella convexity being greater in males (4.31 ± 1.26) than in females (3.41 ± 1.13), nasolabial angle decreased in males (87.26° ±13.79°) than in females (89.38° ±15.72°) and nasal tip angle being more in females (80.18° ±9.44°) than in males (73.60° ±10.24°). There was no statistically significant difference in nasal hump between males (-2.01 ± 1.76) and females (-2.02 ± 1.62). Conclusion: Long nose with increased nasal prominence were seen with increase in the anteroposterior length and vertical height of maxilla. Male and female genders had a varied amount of nasal length, nasal depth and columella convexity along with nasal

  7. Effect of applied force and blade speed on histopathology of bone during resection by sagittal saw.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas P; Chang, Gerard; Micucci, Steven; Sagar, Amrit; Smith, Eric L; Cassidy, Charles

    2014-03-01

    A sagittal saw is commonly used for resection of bone during joint replacement surgery. During sawing, heat is generated that can lead to an increase in temperature at the resected surface. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of applied thrust force and blade speed on generating heat. The effect of these factors and their interactions on cutting temperature and bone health were investigated with a full factorial Design of Experiments approach for two levels of thrust force, 15 N and 30 N, and for two levels of blade oscillation rate, 12,000 and 18,000 cycles per minute (cpm). In addition, a preliminary study was conducted to eliminate blade wear as a confounding factor. A custom sawing fixture was used to crosscut samples of fresh bovine cortical bone while temperature in the bone was measured by thermocouple (n=40), followed by measurements of the depth of thermal necrosis by histopathological analysis (n=200). An analysis of variance was used to determine the significance of the factor effects on necrotic depth as evidenced by empty lacunae. Both thrust force and blade speed demonstrated a statistically significant effect on the depth of osteonecrosis (p<0.05), while the interaction of thrust force with blade speed was not significant (p=0.22). The minimum necrotic depth observed was 0.50mm, corresponding to a higher level of force and blade speed (30 N, 18,000 cpm). Under these conditions, a maximum temperature of 93°C was measured at 0.3mm from the kerf. With a decrease in both thrust force and blade speed (15N, 12,000 cpm), the temperature in the bone increased to 109°C, corresponding to a nearly 50% increase in depth of the necrotic zone to 0.74 mm. A predictive equation for necrotic depth in terms of thrust force and blade speed was determined through regression analysis and validated by experiment. The histology results imply that an increase in applied thrust force is more effective in reducing the depth of thermal damage to surrounding

  8. Extrusion of small-diameter, thin-wall tungsten tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Small-diameter, thin-wall seamless tubing of tungsten has been fabricated in lengths of up to 10 feet by hot extrusion over a floating mandrel. Extrusion of 0.50-inch-diameter tubing over 0.4-inch-diameter mandrels was accomplished at temperatures ranging from 3000 degrees to 4000 degrees F.

  9. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the skeletal stability after large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation and to correlate the skeletal stability with the vertical facial type. Material and Methods A total of 33 consecutive patients underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion with a mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) measured at B-point and postoperative skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation for 16 weeks. Skeletal stability was evaluated using lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained preoperative (T1), 8 weeks postoperatively (T2), and 18 month postoperatively (T3). B-point and pogonion (Pog) was used to measure the skeletal relapse and the mandibular plane angle (MP-angle) was used to determine the vertical facial type. Results The mean advancement from T1 to T2 were 11.6 mm and 13.5 mm at B-point and Pog, respectively. The mean skeletal relapse from T2 to T3 was -1.3 mm at B-point and -1.6 mm at Pog. The nineteen patients characterized as long facial types, showed the highest amount of skeletal relapse (-1.5 mm at B-point and -1.9 mm at Pog). Conclusions The present study showed a limited amount of skeletal relapse in large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in combination with skeletal intermaxillary fixation can therefore be an alternative to distraction osteogenesis in large mandibular advancements. PMID:27489609

  10. Acoustic and non-acoustic factors in modeling listener-specific performance of sagittal-plane sound localization

    PubMed Central

    Majdak, Piotr; Baumgartner, Robert; Laback, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The ability of sound-source localization in sagittal planes (along the top-down and front-back dimension) varies considerably across listeners. The directional acoustic spectral features, described by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), also vary considerably across listeners, a consequence of the listener-specific shape of the ears. It is not clear whether the differences in localization ability result from differences in the encoding of directional information provided by the HRTFs, i.e., an acoustic factor, or from differences in auditory processing of those cues (e.g., spectral-shape sensitivity), i.e., non-acoustic factors. We addressed this issue by analyzing the listener-specific localization ability in terms of localization performance. Directional responses to spatially distributed broadband stimuli from 18 listeners were used. A model of sagittal-plane localization was fit individually for each listener by considering the actual localization performance, the listener-specific HRTFs representing the acoustic factor, and an uncertainty parameter representing the non-acoustic factors. The model was configured to simulate the condition of complete calibration of the listener to the tested HRTFs. Listener-specifically calibrated model predictions yielded correlations of, on average, 0.93 with the actual localization performance. Then, the model parameters representing the acoustic and non-acoustic factors were systematically permuted across the listener group. While the permutation of HRTFs affected the localization performance, the permutation of listener-specific uncertainty had a substantially larger impact. Our findings suggest that across-listener variability in sagittal-plane localization ability is only marginally determined by the acoustic factor, i.e., the quality of directional cues found in typical human HRTFs. Rather, the non-acoustic factors, supposed to represent the listeners' efficiency in processing directional cues, appear to be

  11. Interceptive orthopedics for the correction of maxillary transverse and sagittal deficiency in the early mixed dentition period

    PubMed Central

    Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Karnati Praveen; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Dentofacial Orthopedics directed to a hypoplastic maxilla in the prepubertal period redirects growth of the maxilla in the vertical, transverse and sagittal planes of space. The orthopedic correction of maxillary hypoplasia in the early mixed dentition period thus intercepts the establishment of permanent structural asymmetry in the mandible and helps in the achievement of optimal dentofacial esthetics. This paper presents the growth redirection in a hypoplastic maxilla of an 8-year-old girl with simultaneous rapid maxillary expansion and protraction headgear therapy for a period of 11 months which corrected the posterior unilateral cross-bite, the positional asymmetry of the mandible and established an orthognathic profile in the individual. PMID:22346162

  12. Endovascular treatment of a traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula of the superior sagittal sinus using dual lumen balloon microcatheter

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yihao; Niu, Yin; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVFs) induced by trauma in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) are rare and difficult to treat because of their unique midline location, multiplicity of arterial feeders, and critical venous drainage. We report a case of an endovascular treatment using dual lumen balloon microcatheter on a patient with post-traumatic SSS DAVF. By the use of dual lumen Scepter balloon microcatheter, proximal Onyx reflux was prevented. In this case, complete embolization of the DAVFs was achieved and the outcome of the patient was fairly good. PMID:27094527

  13. Scar due to skin incision for screw fixation through the transbuccal approach after sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Muto, Toshitaka

    2012-05-01

    Most rigid fixation techniques after sagittal split ramus osteotomies of the mandible involve the transbuccal approach. A skin incision in the cheek carries with it possible undesirable sequelae, such as noticeable scarring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is scarring in the face after this technique. For screw insertion, a 5-mm stab incision was performed on 40 Japanese patients (20 men and 20 women) with class III occlusion. After surgery, gross examination (via the naked eyes) of the skin incision was performed monthly for 1 year by the same oral surgeon. In all cases, the skin incision had disappeared by 1 year after the surgery.

  14. Abdominal manifestations of actinomycosis in IUD users.

    PubMed

    Asuncion, C M; Cinti, D C; Hawkins, H B

    1984-08-01

    The use of an intrauterine device (IUD) is associated with the presence of actinomyces in the female genital tract. Since IUD use is currently so prevalent, IUD-related pelvic inflammatory disease occasionally spreads to the rest of the abdomen. Two patients with abdominal actinomycosis in association with an IUD illustrate the problem; we review the general problem.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug;6(4):232-6. Citation on PubMed Islam S. Clinical care outcomes in abdominal wall defects. Curr ... Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. ...

  16. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  17. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  18. Assessment of the patient with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elaine; Lynch, Antonia; Cugnoni, Helen

    Abdominal pain has many causes, from simple to complex presentations. Patients with abdominal pain may have a number of physiological and psychological needs. Nurses have a key role to play in patient assessment, history talking and management.

  19. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

  20. The Role of Computed Tomography in the Diagnostics of Diaphragmatic Injury After Blunt Thoraco-Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gmachowska, Agata; Pacho, Ryszard; Anysz-Grodzicka, Agnieszka; Bakoń, Leopold; Gorycka, Maria; Jakuczun, Wawrzyniec; Patkowski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Diaphragmatic injuries occur in 0.8–8% of patients with blunt trauma. The clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture is difficult and may be overshadowed by associated injuries. Diaphragmatic rupture does not resolve spontaneously and may cause life-threatening complications. The aim of this study was to present radiological findings in patients with diaphragmatic injury. Material/Methods The analysis of computed tomography examinations performed between 2007 and 2012 revealed 200 patients after blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma. Diaphragmatic rupture was diagnosed in 13 patients. Twelve of these patients had suffered traumatic injuries and underwent a surgical procedure that confirmed the rupture of the diaphragm. Most of diaphragmatic ruptures were left-sided (10) while only 2 of them were right-sided. In addition to those 12 patients there, another patient was admitted to the emergency department with left-sided abdominal and chest pain. That patient had undergone a blunt thoracoabdominal trauma 5 years earlier and complained of recurring pain. During surgery there was only partial relaxation of the diaphragm, without rupture. The most important signs of the diaphragmatic rupture in computed tomography include: segmental discontinuity of the diaphragm with herniation through the rupture, dependent viscera sign, collar sign and other signs (sinus cut-off sign, hump sign, band sign). Results In our study blunt diaphragmatic rupture occurred in 6% of cases as confirmed intraoperatively. In all patients, coronal and sagittal reformatted images showed herniation through the diaphragmatic rupture. In left-sided ruptures, herniation was accompanied by segmental discontinuity of the diaphragm and collar sign. In right-sided ruptures, predominance of hump sign and band sign was observed. Other signs were less common. Conclusions The knowledge of the CT findings suggesting diaphragmatic rupture improves the detection of injuries in thoraco-abdominal

  1. [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].

    PubMed

    Kvirikashvili, T O

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.

  2. Combined Gastric and Duodenal Perforation Through Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Adarshpal; Singla, Archan Lal; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are uncommonly encountered despite their high prevalence, and injuries to the organ like duodenum are relatively uncommon (occurring in only 3%-5% of abdominal injuries) because of its retroperitoneal location. Duodenal injury combined with gastric perforation from a single abdominal trauma impact is rarely heard. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of blunt abdominal trauma with combined gastric and duodenal injuries. PMID:25738037

  3. Abdominal cavity myolipoma presenting as an enlarging incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark O; Richardson, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of an abdominal cavity myolipoma which herniated through a low transverse abdominal (Pfannenstiel) incision, and presented as an enlarging abdominal wall mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery demonstrated an encapsulated solid tumor mass demonstrating fat signal and and increased T2-weighted signal. Postsurgical histological tissue diagnosis was myolipoma. Recognition of the intra- and extraperitoneal location of this abdominal tumor was essential for accurate surgical planning.

  4. [Approaches to the abdominal cavity and closure of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Y; Rauchfuss, F; Ardelt, M; Settmacher, U

    2011-12-01

    Although minimally invasive approaches to the abdominal cavity are becoming increasingly more important, open surgical techniques are still of essential interest and must be mastered by general and visceral surgeons. The choice of the particular approach depends on the specificity and location of the scheduled procedure. The following article is intended to give an overview on the current literature as well as experiences in the field of open surgical approaches to the abdominal cavity.

  5. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for wool fiber diameter measures.

    PubMed

    Iman, N Y; Johnson, C L; Russell, W C; Stobart, R H

    1992-04-01

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritability estimates of side, britch, and core diameters; side and britch CV; side and britch diameter difference; and clean fleece weight were investigated using 385 western white-faced ewes produced by 50 sires and maintained at two locations on a selection study. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance procedures, and effects in the final model included breed of sire-selection line combination, sire within breed-selection line, and location. Heritabilities were estimated by paternal half-sib analysis. Sires within breed-selection line represented a significant source of variation for all traits studied. Location had a significant effect on side diameter, side and britch diameter difference, and clean fleece weight. Age of ewe only affected clean fleece weight. Phenotypic and genetic correlations among side, britch, and core diameter measures were high and positive. Phenotypic correlations ranged from .68 to .75 and genetic correlations ranged from .74 to .89. The genetic correlations between side and britch diameter difference and side diameter or core diameter were small (-.16 and .28, respectively). However, there was a stronger genetic correlation between side and britch diameter difference and britch diameter (.55). Heritability of the difference between side and britch diameter was high (.46 +/- .16) and similar to heritability estimates reported for other wool traits. Results of this study indicate that relatively rapid genetic progress through selection for fiber diameter should be possible. In addition, increased uniformity in fiber diameter should be possible through selection for either side and britch diameter difference or side or britch CV.

  7. Crown diameters of the deciduous teeth of Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Dung, S Z; Yang, Y H

    2000-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to characterize the crown diameters of the deciduous teeth of Taiwanese; (2) to compare the differences in the deciduous crown diameters between different populations. The results might provide odontometric information in making preformed stainless steel crowns of the Chinese population. Study casts of 90 children (51 boys and 39 girls) of aged 3 to 6 years were used in this study. The maximum mesiodistal crown diameter (the greatest distance between the contact points of the approximal surfaces) and the buccolingual crown diameter (the greatest distance at a right angle to the mesiodistal measurement) were obtained by using an electronic digital caliper. Significant differences between antimeres were found in the mesiodistal diameters of maxillary canine and maxillary molars (p < 0.001) as well as in the buccolingual diameters of mandibular molars (p < 0.05). Excellent correlations between the antimeres of the corresponding teeth were found (r = 0.70 to 0.96). Boys generally had larger crown diameters than girls with the exception of mesiodistal diameters of maxillary and mandibular canines, and mandibular lateral incisor, whereas the statistically significant gender difference was only found in the buccolingual diameter of mandibular second molar (p < 0.05). The higher the percentage of sexual dimorphism, the larger the gender differences. The percentage of sexual dimorphism ranged from 0.09 to 1.94 for mesiodistal diameters and 0.04 to 2.86 for buccolingual diameters. The mandibular second molar was the most dimorphic tooth. Variations in the crown diameters of the deciduous teeth existed among and within different populations. Deciduous mesiodistal crown diameters of Taiwanese were, in general, smaller than those of Australian aborigines, Taiwan Chinese aborigines, and Hong Kong Chinese, but larger than those of American whites. When considering the buccolingual crown diameters, our data were significantly smaller than those

  8. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  9. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  10. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  11. Extracellular Matrix Disarray as A Mechanism for Greater Abdominal vs. Thoracic Aortic Stiffness with Aging in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Xin; Vatner, Dorothy E; McNulty, Tara; Bishop, Sanford; Sun, Zhe; Shen, You-Tang; Chen, Li; Meininger, Gerald A; Vatner, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased vascular stiffness is central to the pathophysiology of aging, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, relatively few studies have examined vascular stiffness in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta with aging, despite major differences in anatomy, embryological origin and relation to aortic aneurysm. Approach and Results The two other unique features of this study were 1) to study young (9±1 years) and old (26±1 years) male monkeys, and 2) to study direct and continuous measurements of aortic pressure and thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in conscious monkeys. As expected, aortic stiffness, β, was increased p<0.05, 2–3 fold, in old vs. young thoracic aorta, and augmented further with superimposition of acute hypertension with phenylephrine. Surprisingly, stiffness was not greater in old thoracic aorta than young abdominal aorta. These results can be explained in part by the collagen/elastin ratio, but more importantly, by disarray of collagen and elastin, which correlated best with vascular stiffness. However, vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness, was not different in thoracic vs. abdominal aorta in either young or old monkeys. Conclusions Thus, aortic stiffness increases with aging as expected, but the most severe increases in aortic stiffness observed in the abdominal aorta is novel, where values in young monkeys equaled, or even exceeded, values of thoracic aortic stiffness in old monkeys. These results can be explained by alterations in collagen/elastin ratio, but even more importantly by collagen and elastin disarray. PMID:26891739

  12. Stability of unilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for correction of facial asymmetry: long-term case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Geun; Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Ryoul

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy is considered a standard technique in mandibular orthognathic surgeries to reduce unexpected bilateral stress in the temporomandibular joints. Unilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (USSO) was recently introduced to correct facial asymmetry caused by asymmetric mandibular prognathism and has shown favorable outcomes. If unilateral surgery could guarantee long-term postoperative stability as well as favorable results, operation time and the incidence of postoperative complications could be reduced compared to those in bilateral surgery. This report highlights three consecutive cases with long-term follow-up in which USSO was used to correct asymmetric mandibular prognathism. Long-term postoperative changes in the condylar contour and ramus and condylar head length were analyzed using routine radiography and computed tomography. In addition, prior USSO studies were reviewed to outline clear criteria for applying this technique. In conclusion, patients showing functional-type asymmetry with predicted unilateral mandibular movement of less than 7 mm can be considered suitable candidates for USSO-based correction of asymmetric mandibular prognathism with or without maxillary arch surgeries. PMID:26131434

  13. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results.

  14. Improvement in venous outflow following superior sagittal sinus decompression after a gunshot wound to the head: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Birk, Daniel M; Tobin, Matthew K; Moss, Heather E.; Feinstein, Eric; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly described indications for surgical management of closed depressed skull fractures are hematoma evacuation and repair of extensive cosmetic deformity. Venous sinus injury, which occurs in a subset of depressed skull fractures is not typically listed as an indication for surgical treatment due to the potential for major venous hemorrhage associated with operation near these structures. However, if patients exhibit signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension and radiographic findings demonstrate sinus compromise, surgical elevation of the depressed skull fragments is indicated. The authors present the case of a 25-year-old woman with a depressed skull fracture secondary to a gunshot wound with symptomatic compromise in venous outflow of the posterior one-third of the superior sagittal sinus. The patient was treated with surgical decompression via bilateral craniectomy along with intracranial pressure lowering medical therapy and had almost full resolution of her presenting symptoms with documented improvement in flow through the superior sagittal sinus. While the use of surgical treatment for these types of injuries is highly debated we demonstrate here that safe, effective surgical management of these patients is possible and that surgical decompression should always be considered in the case of symptomatic venous sinus flow obstruction. PMID:25839927

  15. Fiber diameter distributions in the chinchilla's ampullary nerves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Larry F.; Honrubia, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    A morphometric study of the chinchilla's ampullary nerves was conducted to produce an unbiased accounting of the diameter distribution of their constituent fibers. Diameter analyses were determined from 1 microm plastic-embedded nerve sections taken at a plane immediately proximal to the sensory epithelium. We found these nerves to be composed of 2094+/-573 fibers, having diameters that ranged from 0.5 to 8 microm. The distributions of diameters were positively skewed, where approximately 75% of the fibers were found to have diameters less than 3.5 microm. An analysis of the spatial distribution of diameters within the nerve section revealed that the lateralmost areas of the nerve contained larger fractions of fibers within the smallest diameter quintiles, and the central area harbored greater proportions of the larger diameter quintiles. However, significant fractions of all quintiles were found in all areas. These data were integrated with available data of Fernandez et al. (1998) to produce diameter estimates of calyx, dimorphic, and bouton morphology subpopulations. In view of a general relationship between diameter, innervation locus, and an afferent's physiologic characteristics, these data provide the basis for developing a perspective for the in situ distribution of afferent response dynamics.

  16. Endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aneurysm: a retrospective analysis of CT follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hechelhammer, Lukas; Wildermuth, Simon; Lachat, Mario L; Pfammatter, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Retrospective radiologic and clinical midterm follow-up is reported for 10 patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). At a mean follow-up of 33 months, regression of the thickness of the perianeurysmal fibrosis (PAF) and decrease of aneurysmal sac diameter was observed in nine patients. Four EVAR-associated complications were observed: periinterventional dissection of femoral artery (n = 1), blue toe syndrome (n = 1), and stent-graft disconnection (n = 2). EVAR is the less invasive method of aneurysm exclusion in patients with IAAA with a comparable evolution of the PAF as reported after open repair.

  17. Thresholds for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Karthikesalingam, Alan; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Holt, Peter J; Loftus, Ian M; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Soden, Peter A; Landon, Bruce E; Thompson, Matthew M

    2016-11-24

    Background Thresholds for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms vary considerably among countries. Methods We examined differences between England and the United States in the frequency of aneurysm repair, the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of the procedure, and rates of aneurysm rupture and aneurysm-related death. Data on the frequency of repair of intact (nonruptured) abdominal aortic aneurysms, in-hospital mortality among patients who had undergone aneurysm repair, and rates of aneurysm rupture during the period from 2005 through 2012 were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Data on the aneurysm diameter at the time of repair were extracted from the U.K. National Vascular Registry (2014 data) and from the U.S. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2013 data). Aneurysm-related mortality during the period from 2005 through 2012 was determined from data obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.K. Office of National Statistics. Data were adjusted with the use of direct standardization or conditional logistic regression for differences between England and the United States with respect to population age and sex. Results During the period from 2005 through 2012, a total of 29,300 patients in England and 278,921 patients in the United States underwent repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms. Aneurysm repair was less common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.49; P<0.001), and aneurysm-related death was more common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.64; P<0.001). Hospitalization due to an aneurysm rupture occurred more frequently in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 2.19 to 2.27; P<0.001), and the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of repair was larger in England (63.7 mm vs. 58.3 mm, P<0.001). Conclusions We found a lower rate

  18. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2016-12-03

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P < 0.10 for all variables remaining in the model. The weight of abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus

  19. [Surgical correction of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Khamitov, F F; Matochkin, E A; Vertkina, N V; Kizyma, A G; Lisitskiĭ, D A

    2008-01-01

    The authors compare various surgical strategies of infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm (IAAA) repair based on the experience of the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Urban Clinical Hospital No.81. Total 198 patients underwent aneurysm resection and grafting through conventional (90) or minilaparotomy (108) approaches. Mini-approach was shown to improve significantly both perioperative course and outcomes of IAAA correction. The main advantage of this approach comprised limited invasiveness together with sufficient exposure of abdominal aorta and its branches. Abandoning small bowel evisceration helps to preserve ther-moregulation and achieve volemic homeostasis with less fluid volume. Postoperative period after surgical mini-approach was characterized by shorter period of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, earlier restoration of bowel motility, conversion to usual nutrition, patient mobilization and discharge. Minimally invasive technology significantly broadens feasibility of radical aortic reconstructions for patients with serious cardio-vascular comorbidities.

  20. Missed Gastric Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, Ahmed A.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Kendi, Badriya H.; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Hollow viscus injuries of the digestive tract are an uncommon occurrence in blunt abdominal trauma. We report a 39-year-old male who was hit by a vehicle as a pedestrian and admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed injuries to the distal stomach, liver and descending colon. Postoperatively, the patient was febrile, tachycardic and hypotensive. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness. The next day, a repeat laparotomy identified a gastric injury which had not been diagnosed during the initial laparotomy. Although the defect was repaired, the patient subsequently died as a result of multiorgan failure. Missed gastric injuries are rare and are associated with a grave prognosis, particularly for trauma patients. Delays in diagnosis, in addition to associated injuries, contribute to a high mortality rate. PMID:28003902

  1. Refractory Abdominal Pain in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ying; Chen, Xiao-nong; Shi, Hao; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a rare disorder. Failure of an early diagnosis may cause progressive intestinal ischemia, leading to abdominal pain, sepsis, and death. Patients with end-stage renal disease are among the highest risk populations for developing this lethal complication. The key to a correct diagnosis at an early stage is a high index of suspicion in predisposed patients. In our case, we present a 62-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for 8 years; she complained of abdominal pain after hemodialysis in the last 3 months; NOMI was suspected after a CT angiography. She partially recovered after multiple clinical interventions such as decreased ultrafiltration, an increased dose of low molecular-weight heparin and the use of vasoactive drugs. In conclusion, NOMI can be reversible if it is diagnosed as early as possible and after the necessary diagnostic measurements are initiated. PMID:26266246

  2. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  3. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  4. Abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Biller, J A; Grand, R J; Harris, B H

    1987-09-01

    Little information is available about the development of abdominal abscesses in adolescents with Crohn's disease. We report the clinical presentation of five adolescents with Crohn's disease who developed this complication. The mean time from diagnosis until development of an abdominal abscess was 1.7 years. The admitting diagnosis was an acute abdomen in two patients and recurrent Crohn's disease in the other three. No features of the clinical presentation or laboratory data distinguished this group from other adolescents with Crohn's disease. The use of ultrasound and CT scanning was helpful in making this diagnosis preoperatively. Those patients with active Crohn's disease who do not respond promptly to medical therapy should be evaluated for the development of this complication.

  5. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Danesino, G M; Danesino, V; Castellani, S

    2010-09-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  7. [Postoperative foreign objects in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Kazarian, V M

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to elucidate the circumstances under which iatrogenic foreign objects can be mistakenly left inside the patient's body after surgical interventions and to outline measures to prevent such errors. The data obtained in forensic medical examination of two cases of urgent surgery on abdominal organs are analysed. They indicate that the main causes of leaving behind foreign bodies in a patient include improper organization of emergency medical aid, personal qualities of the surgeon, and psycho-emotional atmosphere during the operation. Comprehensive evaluation of the associated clinical symptoms and their dynamics is necessary for early identification and removal of foreign objects left in the abdominal cavity. It would help to avoid undesirable outcomes of surgery and reduce the number of legal proceedings against medical and preventive treatment facilities.

  8. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. Role of corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Testart, J; Plissonnier, D; Peillon, C; Watelet, J

    2000-06-01

    For more than 20 years it has been generally acknowledged that operation for inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) using the common in-lay-graft procedure will induce the regression of peri-aortic fibrosis. However in prospective studies, after a 2 years follow-up, no regression appeared in approximated 8% of the cases (table I). Moreover in some IAAA a corticosteroid treatment (CS) was prescribed and it produced a regression of fibrosis and therefore facilitated the operation. Nevertheless the usefulness of the CS remains debated. We report 4 new cases of IAAA with CS. Based on our cases and an analysis of the literature we conclude that when there is no urgency to operate (diameter inferior to 50 mm) CS is the best option in IAAA with either severe inflammation or ureter involvement. Due to the regression of the fibrosis it can facilitate the surgical procedure. However it needs to be conducted with an adequate dose and duration. Finally the CS is the only possibility when the inflammation persist following the treatment of the IAAA.

  9. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  10. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E; Chaer, Rabih A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  12. The biaxial biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Healey, Donagh A; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2014-12-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. Knowledge of AAA wall mechanics plays a fundamental role in the development and advancement of AAA rupture risk assessment tools. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the biaxial mechanical properties of AAA tissue. Multiple biaxial test protocols were performed on AAA samples harvested from 28 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Both the Tangential Modulus (TM) and stretch ratio (λ) were recorded and compared in both the circumferential (ϴ) and longitudinal (L) directions at physiologically relevant stress levels, the influence of patient specific factors such as sex, age AAA diameter and status were examined. The biomechanical response was also fit to a hyperplastic material model. The AAA tissue was found to be anisotropic with a greater tendency to stiffen in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model represented the data well and the properties were not influenced by the investigated patient specific factors however, a future study utilizing a larger cohort of patients is warranted to confirm these findings. This work provides further insights on the biomechanical behavior of AAA and may be useful in the development of more reliable rupture risk assessment tools.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: how can we improve their treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, T K

    1980-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms are present in a least 2% of the elderly population of the Western world and their number is increasing. Without treatment 30% of patients with asymptomatic aneurysms live for 5 years, although the risk of rupture becomes greater as the size of the aneurysm increases. Of those with untreated symptomatic aneurysms 80% are dead within a year. Elective repair of aneurysms has a low mortality, and 50% of the patients live for at least 5 years. Symptomatic aneurysms all cause pain and may produce other symptoms from pressure on adjacent structures, distal embolism, acute thrombosis or rupture. In 88% of cases an aneurysm can be diagnosed by physical examination alone; confirmatory tests include soft-tissue roentgenography of the abdomen, ultrasonography, computer-assisted tomography and aortography. Repair is indicated for symptomatic or ruptured aortic aneurysms and for asymptomatic aneurysms over 5 cm in diameter. Early diagnosis and referral for repair is essential for optimum treatment of this common condition. PMID:7004617

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and histological, clinical, radiological correlation.

    PubMed

    Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita; Bonomini, Francesca; Peroni, Michele; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Hirtler, Lena; Bonardelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    To date, the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) still remains unclear. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes of the aortic structure during AAA. We analysed the microscopic frame of vessels sections, starting from the primum movens leading to abnormal dilatation. AAA samples were collected and processed through various staining methods (Verhoeff-Van Gieson, Masson Goldner, Sirius Red). Subsequently, the vessel morphology and collagenic web of the tunica media and adventitia were determined and the amount of type I and type III collagen was measured. We also applied immune-histochemistry markers for CD34 and PGP 9.5 in order to identify vascular and nerve structures in the aorta. Immune-positivity quantification was used to calculate the percentage of the stained area. We found increasing deposition of type I collagen and reduced type III collagen in both tunica media and adventitia of AAA. The total amount of vasa vasorum, marked with CD34, and nerva vasorum, marked with PGP 9.5, was also higher in AAA samples. Cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking) and radiological data (maximum aneurism diameter, intra-luminal thrombus, aortic wall calcification) increased these changes. These results suggest that the tunica adventitia may have a central role in the pathogenesis of AAA as clearly there are major changes characterized by rooted inflammatory infiltration. The presence of immune components could explain these modifications within the framework of the aorta.

  15. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  16. Arterial diameter measurement using high resolution ultrasonography: in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Brum, Javier; Bia, Daniel; Benech, Nicolas; Balay, Guillermo; Armentano, Ricardo L; Negreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of pressure and diameter in blood vessels or vascular prosthesis is of great importance in cardiovascular research. Knowledge of diameter changes as response to intravascular pressure is the basis to estimate the biomechanical properties of blood vessel. In this work a new method to quantify arterial diameter based in high resolution ultrasonography is proposed. Measurements on an arterial phantom placed on a cardiovascular simulator were performed. The results were compared to sonomicrometry measurements considered as gold standard technique. The obtained results indicate that the new method ensure an optimal diameter quantification. This method presents two main advantages respect to sonomicrometry: is noninvasive and the vessel wall strain can be measured directly.

  17. Diameter Controlled of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Nanoporous Silicon Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Maryam, M.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesized on nanoporous silicon template (NPSiT) using botanical source, camphor oil. Diameter of CNTs synthesized was controlled by pore size of NPSiT prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. The diameter of CNTs grown on different NPSiT corresponded to the pore diameter of NPSiT. FESEM images showed self-organized bundles of fiber-like structures of CNTs with diameter of around 20nm which were successfully grown directly on nanoporous silicon while raman spectra obtained ratio of ID/IG at 0.67.

  18. Research on fiber diameter automatic measurement based on image detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Jiang, Yu; Shen, Wen; Han, Guangjie

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a method of Fiber Diameter Automatic Measurement(FDAM). This design is based on image detection technology in order to provide a rapid and accurate measurement of average fiber diameter. Firstly, a preprocessing mechanism is proposed to the sample fiber image by using improved median filtering algorithm, then we introduce edge detection with Sobel operator to detect target fiber, finally diameter of random point and average diameter of the fiber can be measured precisely with searching shortest path algorithm. Experiments are conducted to prove the accuracy of the measurement, and simulations show that measurement errors caused by human factors could be eliminated to a desirable level.

  19. Treatment of osteomyelitis in the rear area of the lingula of the mandible using sagittal split ramus osteotomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Young

    2015-08-01

    Osteomyelitis is classified into three groups according to its origin: osteomyelitis that originates from the blood supply, osteomyelitis related to bone disease or vascular disease, and osteomyelitis related to a local infection of dental or non-dental origin. The present case involved osteomyelitis related to a local infection of dental origin and was located in the rear area of the lingula of the mandible. We decided to use sagittal split ramus osteotomy to access the osteomyelitis area. Under general anesthesia, we successfully performed surgical sequestrectomy and curettage via sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

  20. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilks, B.; Hegedus, C.; Freeman, H.; Fratkin, L.; Churg, A.

    1988-05-15

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references.

  1. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Feasi, Marcello; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Cappato, Stefano; Pontali, Emanuele; Usiglio, David; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Filauro, Marco; Mori, Marco; Cassola, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen.

  2. Abdominal surgical emergencies in the puerperium.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, A; Jones, P F

    1975-01-01

    Since surgical emergencies in the puerperium are rare, surgeons and obstetricians amass little experience of them. There may be considerable delay in making a diagnosis, firstly, because the abdominal symptoms are thought to be related to the pregnancy, and, secondly, because the signs are rarely convincing in contrast to the symptoms. Any of the common surgical emergencies may occur in pregnancy and the puerperium and there are some others that appear to be a particullar problem of the puerperium. PMID:1203726

  3. Abdominal manifestations of extranodal lymphoma: pictorial essay*

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Laís; Ramin, Guilherme de Araujo; Penachim, Thiago José; Martins, Daniel Lahan; Cardia, Patrícia Prando; Prando, Adilson

    2016-01-01

    In the appropriate clinical setting, certain aspects of extranodal abdominal lymphoma, as revealed by current cross-sectional imaging techniques, should be considered potentially diagnostic and can hasten the diagnosis. In addition, diagnostic imaging in the context of biopsy-proven lymphoma can accurately stage the disease for its appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article was to illustrate the various imaging aspects of extranodal lymphoma in the abdomen. PMID:28057966

  4. Robot-Assisted Abdominal Cerclage During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zeybek, Burak; Hill, Amanda; Menderes, Gulden; Borahay, Mostafa A.; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Cervical insufficiency is a difficult condition to diagnose and can lead to preterm birth, miscarriage, or perinatal infant morbidity and mortality. We conducted this retrospective case study and literature review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a case series and a systematic review that included patients who underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy from January 2010 through March 2016. Results: Six patients met the criteria for the case series. Median age was 34 years (range, 28–37) at the time of the procedure. In 5 cases, the indication for transabdominal cerclage was a failed vaginal cerclage in a previous pregnancy, whereas a scarred and shortened cervix caused by a previous dilatation and curettage–induced cervical laceration was the indication in the remaining case. Median operating time was 159.5 minutes (range, 124–204), and median estimated blood loss was 25 mL (range, 10–25). No surgeries were converted to laparotomies; all patients were discharged on postoperative day 1. The median gestational age at delivery was 37.5 weeks (range, 22–39). Five patients delivered between 36 and 39 weeks. No patients had chorioamnionitis or preterm premature rupture of membranes. One patient went into preterm labor at 22 weeks, and the cerclage was removed via minilaparotomy. Eight articles met the criteria for systematic review. Sixteen patients underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. Median age was 31.5 years (range, 25–37). The major indication in most articles was previous failed transvaginal cerclage. The median gestational ages at time of procedure and delivery were 12 weeks (range, 10–15) and 37 weeks (range, 33–39), respectively. Conclusion: Robot-assisted abdominal cerclage is safe and effective during pregnancy. PMID:27904309

  5. Effect of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on splanchnic circulation: historical developments.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Akbulut, Sami; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-12-28

    With the developments in medical technology and increased surgical experience, advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures are performed successfully. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is one of the best examples of advanced laparoscopic surgery (LS). Today, laparoscopic abdominal surgery in general surgery clinics is the basis of all abdominal surgical interventions. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is associated with systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic alterations. Inadequate splanchnic perfusion in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. With experience and with an increase in the number and diversity of the resulting data, the pathophysiology of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is now better understood. The normal physiology and pathophysiology of local and systemic effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is extremely important for safe and effective LS. Future research projects should focus on the interplay between the physiological regulatory mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation (SC), organs, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on the SC.

  6. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  7. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  8. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el angioedema hereditario es un trastorno inflamatorio episódico, que se hereda de manera autosómica dominante y se caracteriza por episodios de edema periférico. Los pacientes pueden tener edema de la pared de cualquier víscera hueca, incluido el intestino. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 33 años de edad, sin antecedentes de importancia, con dolor abdominal, localizado en el epigastrio, irradiado al cuadrante inferior derecho, acompañado de 5 vómitos. La tomografía abdominal mostró engrosamiento de la pared de la segunda y tercera porción del duodeno, con infiltración de grasa y líquido libre. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: concentraciones bajas del complemento C4 (5.5 mg/dL) y actividad del inhibidor de C1 del complemento de 30%. Conclusiones: el angioedema hereditario es consecuencia de la deficiencia (tipo I) o disfunción (tipo II) del inhibidor C1 del complemento. El dolor abdominal asociado con angioedema es de inicio súbito, como dolor cólico, recurrente y de intensidad moderada. En la actualidad existen dos medicamentos aprobados por la Food and Drug Administration para el tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección.

  9. Spontaneous abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Brabandere, K; Vanpaemel, G; Verheyen, L

    2008-01-01

    We report the first case, to our knowledge, of spontaneous abscess of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity caused by group G streptococci. A 52-year-old diabetic woman presented with abdominal tenderness and weight loss that had persisted for a few weeks. CT scan showed several abscesses of the abdominal wall, omentum and abdominal cavity. The abscesses were drained laparoscopically and antibiotics were given postoperatively. Biopsies and cultures showed group G streptococci. The patient recovered without any complication and left our hospital on the 17th postoperative day.

  10. Comprehensive Analysis of Mandibular Residual Asymmetry after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Correction of Menton Point Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiuping; Huang, Xiaoqiong; Xu, Yue; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Facial asymmetry often persists even after mandibular deviation corrected by the bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) operation, since the reference facial sagittal plane for the asymmetry analysis is usually set up before the mandibular menton (Me) point correction. Our aim is to develop a predictive and quantitative method to assess the true asymmetry of the mandible after a midline correction performed by a virtual BSSRO, and to verify its availability by evaluation of the post-surgical improvement. Patients and Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University (China) of patients with pure hemi-mandibular elongation (HE) from September 2010 through May 2014. Mandibular models were reconstructed from CBCT images of patients with pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. After mandibular de-rotation and midline alignment with virtual BSSRO, the elongation hemi-mandible was virtually mirrored along the facial sagittal plane. The residual asymmetry, defined as the superimposition and boolean operation of the mirrored elongation side on the normal side, was calculated, including the volumetric differences and the length of transversal and vertical asymmetry discrepancy. For more specific evaluation, both sides of the hemi-mandible were divided into the symphysis and parasymphysis (SP), mandibular body (MB), and mandibular angle (MA) regions. Other clinical variables include deviation of Me point, dental midline and molar relationship. The measurement of volumetric discrepancy between the two sides of post-surgical hemi-mandible were also calculated to verify the availability of virtual surgery. Paired t-tests were computed and the P value was set at .05. Results This study included 45 patients. The volume differences were 407.8±64.8 mm3, 2139.1±72.5 mm3, and 422.5±36.9 mm3; residual average transversal discrepancy, 1.9 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.2 mm; average vertical discrepancy, 1.1 mm, 2.2 mm, and 2

  11. Frontobiparietal remodeling with or without a widening bridge for sagittal synostosis: comparison of 2 cohorts for aesthetic and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Mihajlović, Dalibor; Dammers, Ruben; Lingsma, Hester; van Adrichem, Leon N A; Mathijssen, Irene M J

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT Various techniques to correct sagittal synostosis have been described. The authors of this study assess the results of 2 techniques for late complete cranial remodeling and test the hypothesis that adding a widening bridge would improve outcome. METHODS In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated patients with nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis-those who underwent frontobiparietal remodeling (FBR) and those who underwent modified FBR (MFBR) involving the introduction of a bony bridge to increase the width of the skull. Outcomes for both groups are described in terms of the aesthetic results assessed on photographs and any changes in the cranial index (CI) and head circumference over time, the presence of papilledema, and complaints of headache. The effect of the surgical technique on CI and head circumference over time was assessed using linear regression analysis, with adjustment for preoperative CI and head circumference. RESULTS Sixty-nine patients with isolated sagittal synostosis were included in this study: 35 underwent MFBR and 34 underwent the original technique of FBR. The mean follow-up period was 7 years. In the 1st year after surgery, mean CI improved by 9% in the FBR group and by 12% in the MFBR group. One year after surgery, CI in the MFBR group was on average 4.7% higher than that in the FBR group (p < 0.001). During follow-up, CI decreased in both groups; however, at all time points CI was significantly higher in the MFBR group than in the FBR group. The impact of surgical technique on CI was less important than the impact of preoperative CI (R(2)= 0.26 vs 0.54), and this applied at all time points during follow-up. Head circumference declined during follow-up in both groups. It was influenced by preoperative head circumference, but not by surgical technique. Aesthetic outcome, prevalence of headache (42%), and papilledema (7%) were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Adding a widening bridge to late complete remodeling significantly

  12. Is abdominal wall tenderness a useful sign in the diagnosis of non-specific abdominal pain?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. W.; Dixon, J. M.; Seabrook, G.; Collin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pain arising from the abdominal wall has been implicated as a cause of non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP), and the presence of abdominal wall tenderness (AWT) has been proposed as an accurate diagnostic test for NSAP. One hundred and fifty eight patients admitted to hospital with abdominal pain were tested for the presence of positive AWT. In 53 patients the final diagnosis was appendicitis and positive AWT was found in five. Thirty eight patients were found to have a variety of other recognised pathological diagnoses, none of whom had a positive AWT. In 67 patients a diagnosis of NSAP was made in the absence of other pathological diagnosis, 19 of whom had positive AWT, which was significantly different from the other diagnostic groups. This study confirms the presence of AWT in up to 28% of patients with NSAP, and suggests that testing for AWT is of value in patients with abdominal pain, although a positive AWT is not as accurate a predictor of NSAP as previously reported. PMID:2970820

  13. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P

    2016-10-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall.

  14. Mean particle diameters. From statistical definition to physical understanding.

    PubMed

    Alderliesten, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Mean particle diameters may be used to describe and to model physical, chemical, or physiological properties of products or materials containing dispersed phases. There are different notation systems for these mean diameters, which may cause much confusion. This equally applies to their nomenclature. This article introduces the Moment-Ratio definition system and evaluates briefly the ISO definition system. The ISO system appears to have serious drawbacks. Mean particle diameters can be estimated from histograms of size distributions by Summation (M-R system) and by Integration (ISO system) over the histogram intervals. Summation tends to be more accurate than Integration and is less sensitive to low values of the lower limit of size distributions. The Summation method equations are straightforward and generally applicable. The mathematical formulas of the Integration method are difficult to apply in daily practice, and their complexity may easily hide the physical background of a mean particle diameter. A coherent nomenclature system for denoting mean particle diameters is recommended. This nomenclature system does not contain any ambiguities and clearly conveys the physical meanings of mean particle diameters. This article deals also with an empirical method to select the proper type of mean diameter to describe a physical, chemical, or physiological property of a product or material containing dispersed phases. After calculation of the mean diameters from experimental data, the relationships between the product property and these mean diameters are investigated statistically. The selection method has been illustrated by two examples. The dataset of each example consists of a set of particle size distributions and the corresponding physical product properties that are influenced by the particle sizes. Hypotheses are formulated to explain the types of selected mean diameters. Sharing results from all over the world of applications of the developed selection method

  15. Mega aorta syndrome: a case of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wu, William C; Mitchell, Christopher A; Linklater, Derek

    2010-07-01

    An 83-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) via emergency medical services with the chief complaint of "strokelike symptoms." Physical examination revealed altered mental status, tachycardia, hypotension, and a large nonpulsatile periumbilical mass. Bedside ultrasound revealed a 9-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm with absent central flow. Computed tomography scan demonstrated diffuse thoracic and abdominal aortic dilation with rupture into the mediastinum along with left hemothorax. Repeat beside ultrasound demonstrated abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture not seen on the computed tomography scan. Despite aggressive resuscitation, the patient developed bradycardia, which devolved into pulseless electric activity cardiac arrest. She was unable to be resuscitated. The patient's diffuse aneurysmal dilation places her into the small category of patients with a disease entity known as mega aorta syndrome (MAS). Mega aorta syndrome is defined as aneurysmal dilation of the aorta to greater than 6 cm in diameter. Although not in our case, most cases of MAS are symptomatic before catastrophic presentation. The disease progression for these patients is slow and occurs over years. When this disease is recognized early, a surgery known as the elephant trunk procedure can be performed. This operation replaces the entire aorta in multiple stages. This gives the emergency physician a critical role in the diagnosis and outcome of these patients because they may come through the ED for an unrelated complaint early in the disease process. This case report illustrates an advanced case of MAS.

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress.

  17. Dataset for the validation and use of DiameterJ an open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Nathan A.; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    DiameterJ is an open source image analysis plugin for ImageJ. DiameterJ produces ten files for every image that it analyzes. These files include the images that were analyzed, the data to create histograms of fiber radius, pore size, fiber orientation, and summary statistics, as well as images to check the output of DiameterJ. DiameterJ was validated with 130 in silico-derived, digital, synthetic images and 24 scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of steel wire samples with a known diameter distribution. Once validated, DiameterJ was used to analyze SEM images of electrospun polymeric nanofibers, including a comparison of different segmentation algorithms. In this article, all digital synthetic images, SEM images, and their segmentations are included. Additionally, DiameterJ’s raw output files, and processed data is included for the reader. The data provided herein was used to generate the figures in DiameterJ: A Validated Open Source Nanofiber Diameter Measurement Tool[1], where more discussion can be found. PMID:26380840

  18. The Measurements of the Solar Diameter at the Kepler's Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Fraschetti, Federico

    2002-12-01

    We examine five measurements of the solar disk diameter made with a pinhole instrument by Tycho in 1591 and Kepler in 1600-1602 [1]. Those are the first accurate measurements of the solar disk diameter available in literature, even if Ptolemy and Copernicus already did such measurements [2].

  19. Method accurately measures mean particle diameters of monodisperse polystyrene latexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Photomicrographic method determines mean particle diameters of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Many diameters are measured simultaneously by measuring row lengths of particles in a triangular array at a glass-oil interface. The method provides size standards for electronic particle counters and prevents distortions, softening, and flattening.

  20. Fast, Accurate and Precise Mid-Sagittal Plane Location in 3D MR Images of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergo, Felipe P. G.; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Ruppert, Guilherme C. S.

    Extraction of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a key step for brain image registration and asymmetry analysis. We present a fast MSP extraction method for 3D MR images, based on automatic segmentation of the brain and on heuristic maximization of the cerebro-spinal fluid within the MSP. The method is robust to severe anatomical asymmetries between the hemispheres, caused by surgical procedures and lesions. The method is also accurate with respect to MSP delineations done by a specialist. The method was evaluated on 64 MR images (36 pathological, 20 healthy, 8 synthetic), and it found a precise and accurate approximation of the MSP in all of them with a mean time of 60.0 seconds per image, mean angular variation within a same image (precision) of 1.26o and mean angular difference from specialist delineations (accuracy) of 1.64o.

  1. Diagonal movement of the upper limb produces greater adaptive plasticity than sagittal plane flexion in the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Rayele; Lial, Lysnara; Teles Monteiro, Maria Gabriela; Aragão, Alice; Santos David, Lorena; Coertjens, Marcelo; Silva-Júnior, Fernando L; Dias, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Teixeira, Silmar Silva; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2017-03-16

    The motor rehabilitation is based on exercises that involve various joints and muscle groups. One such treatment method is Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF), which involves diagonal movements simulating many activities of daily living. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences between PNF and shoulder flexion movements performed without the diagonal component (i.e., only in the sagittal plane) using beta band absolute power as a measure of plasticity. The study included 30 volunteers randomized into three groups (control, PNF, and FLEX), with electroencephalographic signals captured before and after the performance of the task. The PNF group showed an increase in beta band absolute power in both hemispheres, indicating greater plasticity than that seen in the FLEX group. Therefore, PNF seems to be capable of promoting cortical adaptations that lead to the recruitment of both hemispheres, thus influencing cortical organization in more complex tasks.

  2. Successful inferior alveolar nerve decompression for dysesthesia following endodontic treatment: report of 4 cases treated by mandibular sagittal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, Paolo; Lombardi, Tommaso; Jaques, Bertrand

    2004-05-01

    Endodontic overfilling involving the mandibular canal may cause an injury of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) resulting in disabling sensory disturbances such as pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, or anesthesia. Two fundamental mechanisms are responsible for the injury: the chemical neurotoxicity and the mechanical compression caused by the extruded material. Although spontaneous resorption has been described for some materials, early surgical exploration with removal of the material and decompression of the IAN should be performed, irrespective of the material used, given that the importance of nerve damage increases with the duration of the injury. We report 4 cases of disabling dysesthesia and paresthesia following endodontic treatment of lower molars in which sagittal osteotomy was used to remove the endodontic paste and to perform nerve decompression. All the patients experienced immediate relief of dysesthesia and paresthesia.

  3. Spinal factors influencing change in pelvic sagittal inclination from supine position to standing position in patients before total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Takao, Masaki; Sakai, Takashi; Nishii, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2014-12-01

    In some atypical patients, pelvic sagittal inclination (PSI) changes posteriorly by >10° from supine to standing position before total hip arthroplasty (THA). Several studies have suggested PSI in standing position is related to lumbar degeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate spinal factors influencing changes in PSI from supine to standing position before THA. Participants comprised 163 consecutive patients who had undergone THA. Presence of compression fractures, presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis, thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle, S1 anterior tilt angle and T4 plumb line position were investigated as spinal factors. Presence of compression fractures, age, presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis and small S1 anterior tilt angle were independently associated with posterior change in PSI from supine to standing position in patients before THA.

  4. Simultaneous anterior vertebral column resection-distraction and posterior rod contouring for restoration of sagittal balance: report of a technique

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Shaishav; Rai, Am S.

    2016-01-01

    With an increasingly aging population, adult spinal deformity is becoming more common. This can be associated with increased morbidity. Results from multicentre studies of deformity surgery correction confirm complication rates as high as 40 percent. Most often a bad result is associated with inadequate restoration of the sagittal balance. Posterior vertebral body resection has been described as a method to correct significant deformity, but this is a complicated procedure. It is possible to do this in the thoracic spine where nerve roots can be sacrificed, but it is difficult in the lumbar spine due to the significant role of the lumbar nerve roots. We describe a safer technique for correction of deformity using a three stage process. This appears to be a good technique for revision surgery. PMID:27757434

  5. The role of cone beam computed tomography in the management of unfavourable fractures following sagittal split mandibular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Timothy E; Drage, Nicholas A; Cronin, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been at the forefront of recent technological advances within the maxillofacial region. CBCT is useful in the accurate assessment and planning of patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. We propose that it also has a role in the post-operative evaluation of a subgroup of patients who have suffered complications at the time of surgery. We present two cases where unfavourable splits occurred during a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) of the mandible. Both cases were investigated post-operatively with CBCT with the aim of identifying the potential cause of the unfavourable split and to establish accurate localization of the condyle in the glenoid fossa following intra-operative attempts at proximal segment control. CBCT should be considered for evaluation of the mandible following an unfavourable split where it is deemed that plain radiographs would not provide adequate information.

  6. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena.

  7. Superresolution measurement of nanofiber diameter by modes beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, E. F.; Solano, P.; Hoffman, J. E.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Fatemi, F. K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofibers are becoming an important tool in quantum information technologies for coupling photonics systems to atomic systems. Nondestructive techniques for characterizing these nanofibers prior to integration into an apparatus are desirable. In this work, we probe the light propagating in a fused silica optical nanofiber (750-nm-diameter) by coupling it evanescently to a 6- μm-diameter microfiber that is scanned along the nanofiber length. This technique is capable of observing all possible beat lengths among different propagating modes. The beat lengths are strongly dependent on the nanofiber diameter and refractive index of the fiber. The steep dependence has enabled measurements of the fiber diameter with sub-Angstrom sensitivity. The diameter extracted from the beat length measurements agrees with a measurement made using scanning electron microscopy. Work supported by NSF.

  8. [Intra-abdominal pressure as a surgery predictor in patients with acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Campos-Muñoz, Manuel Alejandro; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique; Chimal-Torres, Mariano; Pozas-Medina, Josué Atila

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la presión intraabdominal es el estado de equilibrio de la presión de la cavidad abdominal en reposo y puede presentar cambios durante la ventilación mecánica o espontánea. El objetivo fue determinar la presión intraabdominal como predictor de cirugía en el paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de pacientes con dolor abdominal agudo en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, en el periodo comprendido entre abril y diciembre de 2013. Se incluyeron 37 pacientes, todos fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente con previa toma de la presión intraabdominal. Se formaron los grupos con el resultado del estudio anatomopatológico: con evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 28) y sin evidencia de proceso inflamatorio abdominal agudo (n = 9). Resultados: en los casos el 100 % presentó presión intraabdominal alta con una p = 0.01, RM: 5 (IC 95 %: 2.578-9.699). En los casos la media de la presión intraabdominal fue de 11.46 y en los controles de 9.2 (p = 0.183). Conclusiones: el dolor abdominal que requiere cirugía para su resolución tiene relación directa con una presión intraabdominal > 5 mmHg.

  9. Abdominal scar characteristics as a predictor of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Jin; Ju, Xingzhu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether abdominal scar characteristics could predict the occurrence of cervical stenosis after abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART), we conducted a retrospective study and investigated the relationship between abdominal scar characteristics and the occurrence of cervical stenosis in patients one year after undergoing ART. The abdominal scars were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Seventy-two participants were enrolled in the study, including 15 (20.8%) women with cervical stenosis, and 57 (79.2%) without stenosis. Results showed that the mean abdominal scar score assessed by VSS was higher in patients with cervical stenosis (7, range: 1–10) compared to those without stenosis (4, range: 0–9) (P = 0.001). Incidence rates of cervical stenosis increased with the VSS score. For women with VSS scores of 0 to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, respectively, the occurrences of cervical stenosis were 6.1%, 16.7%, 16.7%, 27.3%, 37.5%, 50% and 100%. The cutoff point of VSS score was 7 according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Fourteen of the 15 stenosis happened either in patients without anti-stenosis tools (Foley catheters or tailed intrauterine devices) placed during the surgery or after the devices were removed. Our results demonstrated that VSS is an effective approach to assess the presence of cervical stenosis after ART. Women who have an abdominal scar with a VSS score > 7 have a high risk of developing isthmic stenosis without anti-stenosis tools in place. PMID:27191256

  10. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  11. Sagittal plane hip motion reversals during walking are associated with disease severity and poorer function in subjects with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Foucher, Kharma C; Schlink, Bryan R; Shakoor, Najia; Wimmer, Markus A

    2012-05-11

    A midstance reversal of sagittal plane hip motion during walking, or motion discontinuity (MD), has previously been observed in subjects with endstage hip osteoarthritis (OA) and in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether this gait pattern is a marker of OA presence or radiographic severity by analyzing a large IRB approved motion analysis data repository. We also hypothesized that subjects with the MD would show more substantial gait impairments than those with normal hip motion. We identified 150 subjects with symptomatic unilateral hip OA and Kellgren-Lawrence OA severity data on file, and a control group of 159 asymptomatic subjects whose ages fell within 2 standard deviations of the mean OA group age. From the gait data, the MD was defined as a reversal in the slope of the hip flexion angle curve during midstance. Logistic regressions and general linear models were used to test the association between the MD and OA presence, OA severity and, other gait variables. 53% of OA subjects compared to 7.5% of controls had the MD (p<0.001); occurrence of the MD was associated with OA severity (p=0.009). Within the OA subject group, subjects with the MD had reduced dynamic range of motion, peak, extension, and internal rotation moments compared to those who did not (MANCOVA p ≤ 0.042) after controlling for walking speed. We concluded that sagittal plane motion reversals are indeed associated with OA presence and severity, and with more severe gait abnormalities in subjects with hip OA.

  12. Remote revascularization of abdominal wall transplants using the forearm.

    PubMed

    Giele, H; Bendon, C; Reddy, S; Ramcharan, R; Sinha, S; Friend, P; Vaidya, A

    2014-06-01

    Primary abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation is frequently impossible due to contraction of the abdominal domain. Although abdominal wall transplantation was reported 10 years ago this, technique has not been widely adopted, partly due to its complexity, but largely because of concerns that storing the abdominal allograft until the end of a prolonged intestinal transplant procedure would cause severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report six cases of combined small bowel and abdominal wall transplantation where the ischemic time was minimized by remotely revascularizing the abdominal wall on the forearm vessels, synchronous to the intestinal procedure. When the visceral transplant was complete, the abdominal wall was removed from the forearm and revascularized on the abdomen (n = 4), or used to close the abdomen while still vascularized on the forearm (n = 2). Primary abdominal wall closure was achieved in all. Mean cold ischemia was 305 min (300-330 min), and revascularization on the arm was 50 min (30-60 min). Three patients had proven abdominal wall rejection, all treated successfully. Immediate revascularization of the abdominal wall allograft substantially reduces cold ischemia without imposing constraints on the intestinal transplant. Reducing storage time may also have benefits with respect to ischemia-reperfusion-related graft immunogenicity.

  13. 3D segmentation of abdominal aorta from CT-scan and MR images.

    PubMed

    Duquette, Anthony Adam; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Bouchot, Olivier; Lalande, Alain

    2012-06-01

    We designed a generic method for segmenting the aneurismal sac of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) both from multi-slice MR and CT-scan examinations. It is a semi-automatic method requiring little human intervention and based on graph cut theory to segment the lumen interface and the aortic wall of AAAs. Our segmentation method works independently on MRI and CT-scan volumes and has been tested on a 44 patient dataset and 10 synthetic images. Segmentation and maximum diameter estimation were compared to manual tracing from 4 experts. An inter-observer study was performed in order to measure the variability range of a human observer. Based on three metrics (the maximum aortic diameter, the volume overlap and the Hausdorff distance) the variability of the results obtained by our method is shown to be similar to that of a human operator, both for the lumen interface and the aortic wall. As will be shown, the average distance obtained with our method is less than one standard deviation away from each expert, both for healthy subjects and for patients with AAA. Our semi-automatic method provides reliable contours of the abdominal aorta from CT-scan or MRI, allowing rapid and reproducible evaluations of AAA.

  14. Erratum: Modeling sound-source localization in sagittal planes for human listeners [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 791-802 (2014)].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Robert; Majdak, Piotr; Laback, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    This erratum concerns Eq. (4) of the original article, which defines the distance metric of the comparison process of the sagittal-plane sound localization model. The distance metric was actually implemented as a mean absolute difference but was erroneously described as a L1-norm difference.

  15. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  16. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  17. Cytoreductive strategy for multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Toiyama, Yuji; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Araki, Toshimitsu; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2012-10-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are benign myofibroblastic neoplasms originating from the fascia or muscle aponeurosis, which occur in one-third of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Most FAP-associated DTs occur in the intra-abdominal or abdominal wall region, thus, their infiltrative or expansive growth causes life-threatening organ damage, such as intestinal obstruction, urethral obstruction, and mesenteric infiltration with the involvement of mesenteric vessels. Treatments including surgical resection, cytotoxic chemotherapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-estrogen therapy have all been tried with variable success. Here, we report on three patients with FAP who developed multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall DTs after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Two cases underwent surgical resection of uncontrolled abdominal wall DTs after successful control of intra-abdominal DTs by systemic chemotherapy. The remaining case underwent repeated surgical resections of multiple intra-abdominal and abdominal wall DTs, and consequently had recurrent intra-abdominal DTs, with involvement of the small bowel and ureter. Surgical intervention as tumor volume reduction (cytoreduction) may be useful for cases with medical treatment-refractory or symptomatic FAP-associated abdominal DTs.

  18. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W

    2014-10-28

    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  19. Regulation of electrospun scaffold stiffness via coaxial core diameter.

    PubMed

    Drexler, J W; Powell, H M

    2011-03-01

    Scaffold mechanics influence cellular behavior, including migration, phenotype and viability. Scaffold stiffness is commonly modulated through cross-linking, polymer density, or bioactive coatings on stiff substrates. These approaches provide useful information about cellular response to substrate stiffness; however, they are not ideal as the processing can change substrate morphology, density or chemistry. Coaxial electrospinning was investigated as a fabrication method to produce scaffolds with tunable stiffness and strength without changing architecture or surface chemistry. Core solution concentration, solvent and feed rate were utilized to control core diameter with higher solution concentration and feed rate positively correlating with increased fiber diameter and stiffness. Coaxial scaffolds electrospun with an 8 wt./vol.% polycaprolactone (PCL)-HFP solution at 1 ml h(-1) formed scaffolds with an average core diameter of 1.1±0.2 μm and stiffness of 0.027±3.3×10(-3) N mm(-1). In contrast, fibers which were 2.6±0.1 μm in core diameter yielded scaffolds with a stiffness of 0.065±4.7×10(-3) N mm(-1). Strength and stiffness positively correlated with core diameter with no significant difference in total fiber diameter and interfiber distance observed in as-spun scaffolds. These data indicate that coaxial core diameter can be utilized to tailor mechanical properties of three-dimensional scaffolds and would provide an ideal scaffold for assessing the effect of scaffold mechanics on cell behavior.

  20. Standard versus Abdominal Lifting and Compression CPR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Han, Shupeng; Zhang, Ziran; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and the groups had similar baseline characteristics. After CPR, 9 (22.5%) and 7 (16.3%) patients in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups, respectively, obtained ROSC. At 60 minutes after ROSC, 7 (77.8%) and 2 (28.6%) patients, respectively, in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups survived (P = 0.049). Patients in the ALP-CPR group had a significantly higher heart rate and lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) than those in the STD-CPR group (heart rate: 106.8 versus 79.0, P < 0.001; MAP: 60.0 versus 67.3 mm Hg, P = 0.003). The posttreatment PCO2 was significantly lower in ALP-CPR group than in STD-CPR group (52.33 versus 58.81, P = 0.009). PO2 was significantly increased after ALP-CPR (45.15 to 60.68, P < 0.001), but it was not changed after STD-CPR. PO2 after CPR was significantly higher in the ALP-CPR group (60.68 versus 44.47, P < 0.001). There were no differences between genders and for patients who are > 65 or ≤ 65 years of age. Conclusions. The abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation device used in this study is associated with a higher survival rate after ROSC than standard CPR. PMID:27882073

  1. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-12-23

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended.

  2. Vertically transmitted hypoplasia of the abdominal wall musculature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuin-Chew; Bird, Lynne M

    2004-01-01

    The prune belly syndrome (OMIM 100100) is an association of bladder dilation with hypoplasia of the abdominal wall muscles. This malformation sequence is due to early urethral obstruction. We report a family with abdominal wall muscular hypoplasia as an isolated defect, not associated with the urethral obstruction sequence. The proband is a q3-year-old male who presented with abdominal wall laxity and severe constipation. His mother, maternal grandmother and younger brother had varying degrees of abdominal wall muscular deficiency and constipation. His mother's condition was aggravated by her 2 pregnancies. This family shows vertical transmission (compatible with autosomal dominant or mitochondrial inheritance) of the abdominal phenotype of prune belly sequence without any evidence of urinary tract or renal pathology. The expression in the sons may remain incomplete because abdominal distention due to pregnancy will not occur.

  3. [Unusual abdominal complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Costa, J M; Castelló, I; Claramunt, E; Cardona, E

    2002-10-01

    The most common complications after CSF shunting to treat hydrocephalus are shunt infection and obstruction. Although ventriculoperitoneal (VP) diversion of the CSF using artificial shunt devices is an accepted method for the management of hydrocephalus, high rates of various complications have been reported, ranging from 24% to 47%. Among these, abdominal complications account for approximately 25%. The incidence of bowel perforation by shunt-catheter is known to be as low as 0.1-0.7%. We describe a case of migration af a peritoneal catheter through a congenital hernia of Morgagni.

  4. Should intensivist do routine abdominal ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Soni, Kapil Dev; Aggarwal, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Roundworm infestation is common in tropical climate population with a low socioeconomic status. We describe a case of a young male with polytrauma accident who presented with small bowel dysfunction with a high gastric residual volume during enteral feeding. While searching the etiology, the intensivist performed bedside abdominal ultrasound (USG) as a part of whole body USG screening along with clinical examination using different frequency probes to examine bowel movement and ultimately found ascariasis to be the cause. This case report will boost up the wide use of bedside USG by critical care physicians in their patient workup. PMID:26430346

  5. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital-including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome)-or compressive-including "nutcracker" syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic.

  6. Abdominal Wall Haematoma Complicating Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tate, J. J. T.; Davidson, B. R.; Hobbs, K. E. F.

    1994-01-01

    Of 61 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (6.25%) developed abdominal wall haematomas. This complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy may occur more commonly than existing literature suggests, and manifests in the post-operative period (days 2 to 6) by visible bruising, excessive pain or an asymptomatic drop in haematocrit. It is readily confirmed by ultrasonography. While no specific treatment is necessary apart from replacement of significant blood loss, the patient requires reassurance that this apparently alarming complication will rapidly resolve. PMID:8204548

  7. Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

    2014-04-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia.

  8. THE PRESENT STATUS OF ABDOMINAL FASCIAL TRANSPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, C. L.

    1949-01-01

    In recent years improvements have been made in techniques for transplanting fascia into the muscles of the abdomen to take over the function of paralyzed muscles. The techniques are described in this presentation. Since muscular coordination of pelvis and thorax plays an important part in control of the extremities, better methods of placing transplants across the abdomen to link these regions offer, coincidentally, the benefit of better use of muscles in the arms and legs. If done early and skillfully, abdominal fascial transplants and allied transplants not only aid in restoring function but often prevent deformities. PMID:18149114

  9. Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9 cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

  10. Laser direct writing using submicron-diameter fibers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Yang, Guoguang; Bai, Jian; Xu, Jianfeng; Hou, Changlun; Liang, Yiyong; Wang, Kaiwei

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

  11. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  12. Abdominal Pain Caused by a Potentially Fatal Attraction.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Danielle Claire; Scace, Candace; Shah, Bhairav; Weiner, Evan; Prasad, Rajeev

    2016-11-19

    Abdominal pain is a challenging presentation in children. Examination findings and etiology vary greatly, spanning a vast spectrum from flatulence to frank peritonitis with septic shock. Here, we discuss a 10-year-old boy with 24 hours of progressively worsening lower abdominal pain, nausea, and subjective fevers. History and physical examination findings were consistent with appendicitis. However, physicians were surprised when the single-view abdominal radiograph showed an unanticipated, somewhat perplexing discovery.

  13. Modern reconstructive techniques for abdominal wall defects after oncologic resection.

    PubMed

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2015-04-01

    Resection of abdominal wall tumors often leaves patients with debilitating soft tissue defects. Modern reconstructive techniques can be used to restore abdominal wall integrity. In this article, we present an overview of preoperative patient evaluation, analysis of the defect, surgical planning, and the spectrum of available surgical techniques, ranging from simple to complex. The established clinical evidence in the field of abdominal wall reconstruction is summarized and a case example is provided.

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate/polycaprolactone small-diameter vascular graft: Experimental study of integration into organism

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, L. V. Burago, A. Yu.; Matveeva, V. G.; Velikanova, E. A.; Mukhamadiyarov, R. A.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.; Mironov, A. V.

    2015-10-27

    We prepared polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV)/polylcaprolactone (PCL) small-diameter vascular grafts using electrospinning. Surface structure was assessed by scanning electron microscopy whilst physicomechanical properties were investigated by longitudinal uniaxial tension testing. Patency of grafts implanted into the rat abdominal aorta was evaluated using a Doppler ultrasonography at 2 week, 1 month and 12 month postimplantation. In addition, we assessed local histological features, along with IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNFa, TGF-β1, and VEGF serum levels. We revealed that only 2 (25%) grafts were not thrombosed at 2 week and 1 month postimplantation. However, at 12 month postimplantation a satisfactory histological pattern was observed in 50% of all cases, and we detected a monolayer of endothelial cells on the inner graft surface in half the cases. Regarding other grafts, we revealed minor connective tissue hyperplasia in 41.7% of the grafts and an inflammatory infiltrate in the part of the arterial wall in 8.3% of the grafts. We found that the IL-1β serum level was 3.5-fold higher in the group of experimental rats at 12 month postimplantation (p < 0.01). In addition, the IL-2 and IL-4 serum levels at 12 month postimplantation were 2- and 2.8-fold higher as compared to short-term implantation (2 weeks and 1 month) and control rats (p < 0.05) whilst the IL-10 serum level at 1 and 12 month postimplantation was more than 100-fold higher in comparison with 2 week postimplantation and control rats (p < 0.001). Serum VEGF was detected only at 12 month postimplantation. All in all, we created a biocompatible PHBV/PCL small-diameter vascular graft with a high surface area to volume ratio. A long-term patency of biodegradable vascular grafts after implantation into the rat abdominal aorta and the absence of a considerable immune response confirmed a high biocompatibility of such construct and the possibility of its use as a vascular graft.

  15. Polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate/polycaprolactone small-diameter vascular graft: Experimental study of integration into organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, L. V.; Burago, A. Yu.; Mironov, A. V.; Matveeva, V. G.; Velikanova, E. A.; Mukhamadiyarov, R. A.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2015-10-01

    We prepared polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV)/polylcaprolactone (PCL) small-diameter vascular grafts using electrospinning. Surface structure was assessed by scanning electron microscopy whilst physicomechanical properties were investigated by longitudinal uniaxial tension testing. Patency of grafts implanted into the rat abdominal aorta was evaluated using a Doppler ultrasonography at 2 week, 1 month and 12 month postimplantation. In addition, we assessed local histological features, along with IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, TNFa, TGF-β1, and VEGF serum levels. We revealed that only 2 (25%) grafts were not thrombosed at 2 week and 1 month postimplantation. However, at 12 month postimplantation a satisfactory histological pattern was observed in 50% of all cases, and we detected a monolayer of endothelial cells on the inner graft surface in half the cases. Regarding other grafts, we revealed minor connective tissue hyperplasia in 41.7% of the grafts and an inflammatory infiltrate in the part of the arterial wall in 8.3% of the grafts. We found that the IL-1β serum level was 3.5-fold higher in the group of experimental rats at 12 month postimplantation (p < 0.01). In addition, the IL-2 and IL-4 serum levels at 12 month postimplantation were 2- and 2.8-fold higher as compared to short-term implantation (2 weeks and 1 month) and control rats (p < 0.05) whilst the IL-10 serum level at 1 and 12 month postimplantation was more than 100-fold higher in comparison with 2 week postimplantation and control rats (p < 0.001). Serum VEGF was detected only at 12 month postimplantation. All in all, we created a biocompatible PHBV/PCL small-diameter vascular graft with a high surface area to volume ratio. A long-term patency of biodegradable vascular grafts after implantation into the rat abdominal aorta and the absence of a considerable immune response confirmed a high biocompatibility of such construct and the possibility of its use as a vascular graft.

  16. Wireless system for monitoring Intra-abdominal pressure in patient with severe abdominal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskiy, S. S.; Shtotskiy, Y. V.; Leljanov, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses an experimental design of the wireless system for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) using Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The possibility of measuring IAP via the bladder using a wireless pressure sensor with a hydrophobic bacteria filter between the liquid transmitting medium and the sensor element is grounded.

  17. [Abdominal artery aneurysm and associated surgical abdominal diseases: towards optimal timing].

    PubMed

    Stilo, Francesco; Mirenda, Francesco; Mandolfino, Tommaso; La Spada, Michele; D'Alfonso, Mario; Carmignani, Amedeo; De Caridi, Giovanni; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess which modalities offered the best timing in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms associated with other abdominal surgical diseases. From January 1984 to December 2002, 372 patients underwent surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms, 350 men (94%) and 22 women (6%), mean age 72 years. Of these 10% were operated on urgently. The traditional open technique was used in 307 patients, and the endovascular method in the remaining 65 cases. In 40 patients (11%) we observed other associated abdominal diseases which were treated during the same operation in 34 cases (85%). We had three deaths in the 34 cases treated in the same operation (9%). In the remaining cases no perioperative mortality was registered. There were no cases of prosthesis infection. The mean hospital stay was 9 days. Simultaneous treatment appears, on the one hand, to carry an increased operative risk and increased mortality and, on the other, to present the advantage of having to perform only one surgical procedure. The advent of the endovascular method allows us to postpone the treatment of the associated disease without increasing the technical difficulty of the second operation.

  18. Intra-abdominal pulmonary secuestration as an exceptional cause of abdominal mass in the adult☆

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Sanz, C.; Herrero Bogajo, M.L.; Picazo-Yeste, J.; Morandeira Rivas, A.; Manzanera-Diaz, M.; Sedano-Vizcaino, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is an extremely rare malformation defined as a portion of lung tissue isolated from the pulmonary system. PSs are classified into intralobar type and intra-abdominal PS that represents only 2.5% of cases. There are 20 cases of PS reported in adults and only two were managed by laparoscopic approach. We report a case of intra-abdominal PS mimicking a gastroesophageal duplication cyst in an adult. Besides its rarity, this is the first intra-abdominal PS in an adult managed by an anterior laparoscopic approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old female patient had had epigastric and left upper quadrant pain for several days. Physical examination was normal. Image test were consistent with a gastroesophageal duplication. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic exploration and resection. The pathological diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration. DISCUSSION Less than 20 cases of PS have been reported in adults and only two cases were managed by a lateral laparoscopic approach. In contrast to these reports, we used an anterior approach due to the GEJ suspected origin of the mass. CONCLUSION Extralobar intra-abdominal PS is an extremely rare condition during adulthood but this diagnosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a left-sided suprarenal mass. Due to the difficulty in achieving a definitive preoperative diagnosis, surgery is recommended. Laparoscopic resection is safe and effective but careful preoperative imaging studies are recommended in order to plan the most suitable approach. PMID:24091075

  19. Comparison of Liver Tumor Motion With and Without Abdominal Compression Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Patel, Ritesh; Simeonov, Anna K.; Lockwood, Gina; Haider, Masoom; Dawson, Laura A.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients undergoing liver stereotactic body radiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to measure the changes in three-dimensional liver tumor motion with and without compression using cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 patients treated as a part of an institutional research ethics board-approved liver stereotactic body radiotherapy protocol underwent cine T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging through the tumor centroid in the coronal and sagittal planes. A total of 240 cine-magnetic resonance imaging sequences acquired at one to three images each second for 30-60 s were evaluated using an in-house-developed template matching tool (based on the coefficient correlation) to measure the magnitude of the tumor motion. The average tumor edge displacements were used to determine the magnitude of changes in the caudal-cranial (CC) and anteroposterior (AP) directions, with and without AC. Results: The mean tumor motion without AC of 11.7 mm (range, 4.8-23.3) in the CC direction was reduced to 9.4 mm (range, 1.6-23.4) with AC. The tumor motion was reduced in both directions (CC and AP) in 52% of the patients and in a single direction (CC or AP) in 90% of the patients. The mean decrease in tumor motion with AC was 2.3 and 0.6 mm in the CC and AP direction, respectively. Increased motion occurred in one or more directions in 28% of patients. Clinically significant (>3 mm) decreases were observed in 40% and increases in <2% of patients in the CC direction. Conclusion: AC can significantly reduce three-dimensional liver tumor motion in most patients, although the magnitude of the reduction was smaller than previously reported.

  20. The link between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B

    2008-04-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.