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Sample records for abdominal subcutaneous adipose

  1. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: a favorable adipose depot for diabetes?

    PubMed

    Chen, Peizhu; Hou, Xuhong; Hu, Gang; Wei, Li; Jiao, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Siyu; Wu, Jingzhu; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2018-06-26

    Previous studies have documented that visceral adipose tissue is positively associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the association of subcutaneous adipose tissue with diabetes risk is still in dispute. We aimed to assess the associations between different adipose distributions and the risk of newly diagnosed diabetes in Chinese adults. The Shanghai Nicheng Cohort Study was conducted among Chinese adults aged 45-70 years. The baseline data of 12,137 participants were analyzed. Subcutaneous and visceral fat area (SFA and VFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Diabetes was newly diagnosed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of newly diagnosed diabetes per 1-standard deviation increase in SFA and VFA were 1.29 (1.19-1.39) and 1.61 (1.49-1.74) in men, and 1.10 (1.03-1.18) and 1.56 (1.45-1.67) in women, respectively. However, the association between SFA and newly diagnosed diabetes disappeared in men and was reversed in women (OR 0.86 [95% CI, 0.78-0.94]) after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and VFA. The positive association between VFA and newly diagnosed diabetes remained significant in both sexes after further adjustment for BMI and SFA. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of newly diagnosed diabetes predicted by VFA (0.679 [95% CI, 0.659-0.699] for men and 0.707 [95% CI, 0.690-0.723] for women) were significantly larger than by the other adiposity indicators. SFA was beneficial for lower risk of newly diagnosed diabetes in women but was not associated with newly diagnosed diabetes in men after taking general obesity and visceral obesity into account. VFA, however, was associated with likelihood of newly diagnosed diabetes in both Chinese men and women.

  2. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  3. Association of lifestyle factors with abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity: The Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community-based setting. Cross-sectional associations between lifestyle factors (dietary quality, physical activity, smo...

  4. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  5. Differential effect of subcutaneous abdominal and visceral adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2018-03-09

    Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide due to the rise in the obesity epidemic. The metabolic consequences of obesity vary by distribution of adipose tissue. Visceral and ectopic adipose accumulation are associated with adverse cardiometabolic consequences, while gluteal-femoral adipose accumulation are negatively associated with these adverse complications and subcutaneous abdominal adipose accumulation is more neutral in its associations. Gender, race and ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution have been described and could account for the observed differences in risk for cardiometabolic disease. The mechanisms behind the differential impact of adipose tissue on cardiometabolic risk have started to be unraveled and include differences in adipocyte biology, inflammatory profile, connection to systemic circulation and most importantly the inability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue to expand in response to positive energy balance.

  6. Ultrasound Estimates of Visceral and Subcutaneous-Abdominal Adipose Tissues in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Modi, Neena; Uthaya, Sabita; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo; Stolk, Ronald P.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Other imaging techniques to quantify internal-abdominal adiposity (IA-AT) and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposity (SCA-AT) are frequently impractical in infants. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to validate ultrasound (US) visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths in assessing IA-AT and SCA-AT from MRI as the reference method in infants and (b) to analyze the association between US abdominal adiposity and anthropometric measures at ages 3 months and 12 months. Twenty-two infants underwent MRI and US measures of abdominal adiposity. Abdominal US parameters and anthropometric variables were assessed in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), n = 487 infants (23 girls) at age 3 months and n = 495 infants (237 girls) at 12 months. US visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths correlated with MRI quantified IA-AT (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and SCA-AT (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) volumes, respectively. In CBGS, mean US-visceral depths increased by ~20 % between ages 3 and 12 months (P < 0.0001) and at both ages were lower in infants breast-fed at 3 months than in other infants. US-visceral depths at both 3 and 12 months were inversely related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 at 3 and 12 months, resp.; adjusted for current skinfold thickness). In contrast, US-subcutaneous-abdominal depth at 3 months was positively related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.004). US measures can rank infants with higher or lower IA-AT and SCA-AT. Contrasting patterns of association with visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposities indicate that they may be differentially regulated in infancy. PMID:23710350

  7. Impaired preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose of PCOS-like female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Keller, Erica; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Aguilera, Paul; Madrigal, Vanessa; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Dumesic, Daniel A; Abbott, David H

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome women and polycystic ovary syndrome-like, prenatally androgenized (PA) female monkeys worsen with age, with altered adipogenesis of sc abdominal adipose potentially contributing to age-related adverse effects on metabolism. This study examines whether adipocyte morphology and gene expression in sc abdominal adipose differ between late reproductive-aged PA female rhesus monkeys compared with age-matched controls (C). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose of both groups was obtained for histological imaging and mRNA determination of zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a marker of adipose stem cell commitment to preadipocytes, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ as well as C/EBPα/PPARγ as respective markers of early- and late-stage differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. In all females combined, serum testosterone (T) levels positively correlated with fasting serum levels of total free fatty acid (r(2) = 0.73, P < .002). PA females had a greater population of small adipocytes vs C (P < .001) in the presence of increased Zfp423 (P < .025 vs C females) and decreased C/EBPα (P < .003, vs C females) mRNA expression. Moreover, Zfp423 mRNA expression positively correlated with circulating total free fatty acid levels during iv glucose tolerance testing (P < .004, r(2) = 0.66), whereas C/EBPα mRNA expression negatively correlated with serum T levels (P < .02, r(2) = 0.43). Gene expression of PPARδ and PPARγ were comparable between groups (P = .723 and P = .18, respectively). Early-to-mid gestational T excess in female rhesus monkeys impairs adult preadipocyte differentiation to adipocytes in sc abdominal adipose and may constrain the ability of this adipose depot to safely store fat with age.

  8. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  9. Comparison of Dorsocervical With Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Patients With and Without Antiretroviral Therapy–Associated Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Sutinen, Jussi; Greco, Dario; Sievers, Meline; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Perttilä, Julia; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Wågsäter, Dick; Lidell, Martin E.; Enerbäck, Sven; Eriksson, Per; Walker, Ulrich A.; Auvinen, Petri; Ristola, Matti; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with lipodystrophy, i.e., loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdomen, limbs, and face and its accumulation intra-abdominally. No fat is lost dorsocervically and it can even accumulate in this region (buffalo hump). It is unknown how preserved dorsocervical fat differs from abdominal subcutaneous fat in HIV-1–infected cART-treated patients with (cART+LD+) and without (cART+LD−) lipodystrophy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used histology, microarray, PCR, and magnetic resonance imaging to compare dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in cART+LD+ (n = 21) and cART+LD− (n = 11). RESULTS Albeit dorsocervical adipose tissue in cART+LD+ seems spared from lipoatrophy, its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; copies/cell) content was significantly lower (by 62%) than that of the corresponding tissue in cART+LD−. Expression of CD68 mRNA, a marker of macrophages, and numerous inflammatory genes in microarray were significantly lower in dorsocervical versus abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Genes with the greatest difference in expression between the two depots were those involved in regulation of transcription and regionalization (homeobox genes), irrespective of lipodystrophy status. There was negligible mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1, a gene characteristic of brown adipose tissue, in either depot. CONCLUSIONS Because mtDNA is depleted even in the nonatrophic dorsocervical adipose tissue, it is unlikely that the cause of lipoatrophy is loss of mtDNA. Dorsocervical adipose tissue is less inflamed than lipoatrophic adipose tissue. It does not resemble brown adipose tissue. The greatest difference in gene expression between dorsocervical and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is in expression of homeobox genes. PMID:21602514

  10. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  11. Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: The Framingham Heart Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different aspects of diet may be differentially related to body fat distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between whole- and refined- grain intake and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We examined the cross-sectional associati...

  12. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D; Foster, Meredith C; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for

  14. Association of food consumption with total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in a Northern German population.

    PubMed

    Rüttgers, Daniela; Fischer, Karina; Koch, Manja; Lieb, Wolfgang; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-12-14

    Excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases; further, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and the ratio of both (VAT:SAAT ratio) have been discussed as potentially detrimental. Information about the association between diet and adipose tissue is scarce. This study aimed to identify food group intake associated with VAT and SAAT and the VAT:SAAT ratio in a Northern German population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 344 men and 241 women who underwent an MRI to quantify total volumes of VAT and SAAT. Intake of fourteen food groups was assessed with a self-administered 112-item FFQ. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, intake of other food groups and mutual adjustment for VAT and SAAT were calculated to analyse the associations between standardised food group intake and VAT and SAAT, or the VAT:SAAT ratio. Intakes of potatoes (P=0·043) and cakes (P=0·003) were positively and inversely, respectively, associated with both VAT and SAAT. By contrast, intake of cereals was negatively associated with VAT (P=0·045) only, whereas intakes of eggs (P=0·006) and non-alcoholic beverages (P=0·042) were positively associated with SAAT only. The association between eggs and non-alcoholic beverages with SAAT remained significant after further consideration of VAT. Intake of non-alcoholic beverages was also inversely associated with the VAT:SAAT ratio (P=0·001). Our analysis adds to the evidence that intake of foods is independently associated with VAT or SAAT volumes.

  15. Changes of noradrenergic activity and lipolysis in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of hypo- and hyperthyroid patients: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Nedvidkova, Jara; Haluzik, Martin; Bartak, Vladimir; Dostalova, Ivana; Vlcek, Petr; Racek, Pavel; Taus, Michal; Behanova, Magdalena; Svacina, Stepan; Alesci, Salvatore; Pacak, Karel

    2004-06-01

    Thyroid function plays an important role in the regulation of overall metabolic rate and lipid metabolism. However, it is uncertain whether thyroid hormones directly affect lipolysis in adipose tissue and to what extent those changes contribute to overall metabolic phenotype. Our study was designed, using the microdialysis technique, to determine basal and isoprenaline-stimulated local lipolysis and to determine local concentrations of lipolysis-regulating catecholamines in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 12 patients with hypothyroidism, 6 patients with hyperthyroidism, and 12 healthy control subjects. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in hypothyroid subjects were significantly higher than in the control and hyperthyroid groups. In contrast, systemic, adipose NE levels in hypothyroid patients were decreased relative to controls. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, resulted in four-fold higher adipose NE levels. Basal lipolysis measured by glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue was significantly attenuated in hypothyroid patients and markedly increased in hyperthyroid patients in comparison with the control group. In addition to differences in basal lipolysis, hypothyroidism resulted in attenuated, and hyperthyroidism in enhanced, lipolytic response to local stimulation with beta(1,2)-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. These results demonstrate that lipolysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is strongly modulated by thyroid function. We suggest that thyroid hormones regulate lipolysis primarily by affecting local NE concentration and/or adrenergic postreceptor signaling.

  16. Ovariectomy and overeating palatable, energy-dense food increase subcutaneous adipose tissue more than intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Menopause is associated with increased adiposity, especially increased deposition of intra-abdominal (IA) adipose tissue (AT). This differs from common or 'dietary' obesity, i.e., obesity apparently due to environmentally stimulated overeating, in which IAAT and subcutaneous (S) AT increase in similar proportions. The effect of menopause on adiposity is thought to be due to the decreased secretion of ovarian estrogens. Ovariectomy in rats and other animals is a commonly used model of menopause. It is well known that ovariectomy increases adiposity and that this can be reversed by estradiol treatment, but whether ovariectomy selectively increases IAAT has not been measured directly. Therefore, we used micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate this question in both chow-fed and dietary-obese rats. Methods Ovariectomized, ovariectomized and estradiol treated, and sham-operated (intact) rats were fed chow or chow plus Ensure (Abbott Nutrition; n = 7/group). Total (T) AT, IAAT and SAT were measured periodically by microCT. Regional distribution of AT was expressed as IAAT as a percentage of TAT (%IAAT). Excesses in these measures were calculated with respect to chow-fed intact rats to control for normal maturational changes. Chemical analysis of fat was done in chow-fed intact and ovariectomized rats at study end. Data were analyzed by t-tests and planned comparisons. Results Body mass, TAT, total fat mass, fat-free body mass, and %IAAT all increased in chow-fed intact rats during the 41 d study. In chow-fed rats, ovariectomy increased excess body mass, TAT, fat mass, fat-free body mass, and SAT, but had little effect on IAAT, in chow-fed rats, leading to a decrease in %IAAT. Ensure feeding markedly increased SAT, IAAT and TAT and did not significantly affect %IAAT. Ovariectomy had similar effects in Ensure-fed rats as in chow-fed rats, although less statistically reliable. Estradiol treatment prevented all the effects of ovariectomy. Conclusions

  17. Effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation on whole-body and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Jocken, J W E; Goossens, G H; van Hees, A M J; Frayn, K N; van Baak, M; Stegen, J; Pakbiers, M T W; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2008-02-01

    Obesity is characterised by increased triacylglycerol storage in adipose tissue. There is in vitro evidence for a blunted beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of obese individuals and evidence for this at the whole-body level in vivo. We hypothesised that the beta-adrenergically mediated effect on lipolysis in abdominal SAT is also impaired in vivo in obese humans. We investigated whole-body and abdominal SAT glycerol metabolism in vivo during 3 h and 6 h [2H5]glycerol infusions. Arterio-venous concentration differences were measured in 13 lean and ten obese men after an overnight fast and during intravenous infusion of the non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline [20 ng (kg fat free mass)(-1) min(-1)]. Lean and obese participants showed comparable fasting glycerol uptake by SAT (9.7+/-3.4 vs 9.3+/-2.5% of total release, p=0.92). Furthermore, obese participants showed an increased whole-body beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response versus lean participants. However, their fasting lipolysis was blunted [glycerol rate of appearance: 7.3+/-0.6 vs 13.1+/-0.9 micromol (kg fat mass)(-1) min(-1), p<0.01], as was the beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response per unit SAT [Delta total glycerol release: 140+/-71 vs 394+/-112 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p<0.05] compared with lean participants. Net triacylglycerol flux tended to increase in obese compared with lean participants during beta-adrenergic stimulation [Delta net triacylglycerol flux: 75+/-32 vs 16+/-11 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p=0.06]. We demonstrated in vivo that beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response is impaired systematically and in abdominal SAT of obese versus lean men. This may be important in the development or maintenance of increased triacylglycerol stores and obesity.

  18. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F.; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D.; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. Objective We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. Design 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70±7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. Results South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R2 range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. Conclusion We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available. PMID:24069381

  19. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Sophie V; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R(2) range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2) 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R(2) was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  20. Abdominal adiposity and hot flashes among midlife women.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Sowers, MaryFran R; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lewis, Tené T; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    Two competing hypotheses suggest how adiposity may affect menopausal hot flashes. The "thin hypothesis" asserts that aromatization of androgens to estrogens in body fat should be associated with decreased hot flashes. Conversely, thermoregulatory models argue that body fat should be associated with increased hot flashes. The study objective was to examine associations between abdominal adiposity and hot flashes, including the role of reproductive hormones in these associations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Heart Study (2001-2003) is an ancillary study to the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a community-based cohort study. Participants were 461 women (35% African American, 65% white) ages 45 to 58 years with an intact uterus and at least one ovary. Measures included a computed tomography scan to assess abdominal adiposity; reported hot flashes over the previous 2 weeks; and a blood sample for measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin-adjusted estradiol (free estradiol index). Associations were evaluated within multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Every 1-SD increase in total (odds ratio [OR]=1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55) and subcutaneous (OR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.07-1.58) abdominal adiposity was associated with increased odds of hot flashes in age- and site-adjusted models. Visceral adiposity was not associated with hot flashes. Associations were not reduced when models included reproductive hormone concentrations. Increased abdominal adiposity, particularly subcutaneous adiposity, is associated with increased odds of hot flashes, favoring thermoregulatory models of hot flashes. Body fat may not protect women from hot flashes as once thought.

  1. Free Fatty Acid Storage in Human Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asem H.; Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet; Stegall, Mark D.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Taler, Sandra J.; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Bogachus, Lindsey D.; Turcotte, Lorraine P.; Bernlohr, David; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to measure direct FFA storage. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, CD36, fatty acid-binding protein, and fatty acid transport protein 1 were measured. RESULTS Palmitate tracer storage (dpm/g adipose lipid) and calculated palmitate storage rates were greater in omental than abdominal subcutaneous fat in women (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 μmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, P = 0.005) and men (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and both were greater in women than men (P < 0.0001). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue palmitate storage rates correlated with ACS activity (women: r = 0.66, P = 0.001; men: r = 0.70, P = 0.007); in men, CD36 was also independently related to palmitate storage rates. The content/activity of FA storage enzymes/proteins in omental fat was dramatically lower in those with more visceral fat. In women, only omental palmitate storage rates were correlated (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) with ACS activity. CONCLUSIONS Some adipocyte FA storage factors correlate with direct FFA storage, but sex differences in this process in visceral fat do not account for sex differences in visceral fatness. The reduced storage proteins in those with greater visceral fat suggest that the storage factors we measured are not a predominant cause of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. PMID:21810594

  2. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  3. Acute Hypercortisolemia Exerts Depot-Specific Effects on Abdominal and Femoral Adipose Tissue Function

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Michael W.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Arlt, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Context: Glucocorticoids have pleiotropic metabolic functions, and acute glucocorticoid excess affects fatty acid metabolism, increasing systemic lipolysis. Whether glucocorticoids exert adipose tissue depot-specific effects remains unclear. Objective: To provide an in vivo assessment of femoral and abdominal adipose tissue responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. Design and Outcome Measures: Nine healthy male volunteers were studied on two occasions, after a hydrocortisone infusion (0.2 mg/kg/min for 14 hours) and a saline infusion, respectively, given in randomized double-blind order. The subjects were studied in the fasting state and after a 75-g glucose drink with an in vivo assessment of femoral adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) using radioactive xenon washout and of lipolysis and glucose uptake using the arteriovenous difference technique. In a separate study (same infusion design), eight additional healthy male subjects underwent assessment of fasting abdominal ATBF and lipolysis only. Lipolysis was assessed as the net release of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) from femoral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results: Acute hypercortisolemia significantly increased basal and postprandial ATBF in femoral adipose tissue, but the femoral net NEFA release did not change. In abdominal adipose tissue, hypercortisolemia induced substantial increases in basal ATBF and NEFA release. Conclusions: Acute hypercortisolemia induces differential lipolysis and ATBF responses in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue, suggesting depot-specific glucocorticoid effects. Abdominal, but not femoral, adipose tissue contributes to the hypercortisolemia-induced systemic NEFA increase, with likely contributions from other adipose tissue sources and intravascular triglyceride hydrolysis. PMID:28323916

  4. Regional Differences in Adipose Tissue Hormone/Cytokine Production Before and After Weight Loss in Abdominally Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    You, Tongjian; Wang, Xuewen; Murphy, Karin M.; Lyles, Mary F.; Demons, Jamehl L.; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the regional differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue hormone/cytokine production in abdominally obese women during weight loss. Design and Methods Forty-two abdominally obese, older women underwent a 20-week weight loss intervention composed of hypocaloric diet with or without aerobic exercise (total energy expenditure: ~2800 kcal/week). Subcutaneous (gluteal and abdominal) adipose tissue biopsies were conducted before and after the intervention. Results Adipose tissue gene expression and release of leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were determined. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (−10.1 ±0.7 kg, P<0.001). At baseline, gene expression of adiponectin were higher (P<0.01), and gene expression and release of IL-6 were lower (both P<0.05) in abdominal than in gluteal adipose tissue. After intervention, leptin gene expression and release were lower in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue compared to baseline (P<0.05 to P<0.01). Abdominal, but not gluteal, adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression and release increased after intervention (both P<0.05). Conclusion A 20-week weight loss program decreased leptin production in both gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue, but only increased adiponectin production from abdominal adipose tissue in obese women. This depot-specific effect may be of importance for the treatment of health complications associated with abdominal adiposity. PMID:24634403

  5. Endocrine modulators of mouse subcutaneous adipose tissue beige adipocyte markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of subcutaneous adipose tissue contains precursors that can give rise to beige adipocytes. Beige adipocytes are characterized by the expression of specific markers, but it is not clear which markers best evaluate beige adipocyte differentiation. Both regulators of...

  6. Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness in adults - correlation with BMI and recommendations for pen needle lengths for subcutaneous self-injection.

    PubMed

    Ludescher, Burkhard; Rommel, Marc; Willmer, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schick, Fritz; Machann, Juergen

    2011-12-01

    One of the aims of a subcutaneous (SC) injection is to avoid intradermal or intramuscular injections. Pen systems are an alternative solution to single-use syringes and have become standard for example diabetes therapy. Shorter and smaller needles minimize pain and the risk of intramuscular injections. The thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) varies with position and with body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was the creation of a map of SCAT thickness at typical spots for SC self-injection. MRI scans of 116 prospectively enroled volunteers (56 men and 60 women) were analysed. SCAT thickness was determined at 17 spots over the abdominal wall, left thigh, buttocks and upper arm, typical sites for subcutaneous self-injection. SCAT thicknesses were correlated with BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a linear curve fit was performed. The best fitting linear functions for the prediction of the SCAT thickness dependent on BMI and WHR were derived. Correlations between SCAT and BMI were higher (0·67-0·21) than with WHR (-0·67 to 0·09). In women, correlation coefficients between SCAT data at the abdomen and BMI/WHR were higher than in men. On the other hand, data showed better correlations at the extremities in men. The data, with correlation between BMI and fat thickness at different injection sites in relation to gender, provide guidance in selecting an adequate pen needle length for deep and safe subcutaneous self-injection. WHR was a much weaker predictor when compared to BMI. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Relative abdominal adiposity is associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary explorative study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Cristy; Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-08-02

    Although previous research suggests a relationship between chronic low back pain (cLBP) and adiposity, this relationship is poorly understood. No research has explored the relationship between abdominal-specific subcutaneous and visceral adiposity with pain and disability in cLBP individuals. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationship of regional and total body adiposity to pain and disability in cLBP individuals. A preliminary explorative study design of seventy (n = 70) adult men and women with cLBP was employed. Anthropometric and adiposity measures were collected, including body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, total body adiposity and specific ultrasound-based abdominal adiposity measurements. Self-reported pain and disability were measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires respectively. Relationships between anthropometric and adiposity measures with pain and disability were assessed using correlation and regression analyses. Significant correlations between abdominal to lumbar adiposity ratio (A-L) variables and the waist-to-hip ratio with self-reported pain were observed. A-L variables were found to predict pain, with 9.1-30.5 % of the variance in pain across the three analysis models explained by these variables. No relationships between anthropometric or adiposity variables to self-reported disability were identified. The findings of this study indicated that regional distribution of adiposity via the A-L is associated with cLBP, providing a rationale for future research on adiposity and cLBP.

  8. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzedmore » by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency

  9. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (p<0.05). A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  10. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  12. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  13. Characterization of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transcriptome and Biological Pathways in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Evidence for Pregnancy-Related Regional-Specific Differences in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Study Design The transcriptome of paired visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues from pregnant women at term and matched non-pregnant women (n = 11) was profiled with the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Differential expression of selected genes was validated with the use of quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Six hundred forty-four transcripts from 633 known genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.1; fold-change >1.5), while 42 exons from 36 genes showed differential usage (difference in FIRMA scores >2 and FDR<0.1) between the visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women. Fifty-six known genes were differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant subcutaneous fat and three genes in the visceral fat. Enriched biological processes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant women were mostly related to inflammation. Conclusion The transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots reveals pregnancy-related gene expression and splicing differences in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, for the first time, alternative splicing in adipose tissue has been associated with regional differences and human parturition. PMID:26636677

  14. Start of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes the influx of macrophages into subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Jansen, H J; Stienstra, R; van Diepen, J A; Hijmans, A; van der Laak, J A; Vervoort, G M M; Tack, C J

    2013-12-01

    Insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by weight gain characterised by an increase in abdominal fat mass. The expansion of adipose tissue mass is generally paralleled by profound morphological and inflammatory changes. We hypothesised that the insulin-associated increase in fat mass would also result in changes in the morphology of human subcutaneous adipose tissue and in increased inflammation, especially when weight gain was excessive. We investigated the effects of weight gain on adipocyte size, macrophage influx, and mRNA expression and protein levels of key inflammatory markers within the adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 6 months after starting insulin therapy. As expected, insulin therapy significantly increased body weight. At the level of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin treatment led to an influx of macrophages. When comparing patients gaining no or little weight with patients gaining >4% body weight after 6 months of insulin therapy, both subgroups displayed an increase in macrophage influx. However, individuals who had gained weight had higher protein levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, TNF-α and IL-1β after 6 months of insulin therapy compared with those who had not gained weight. We conclude that insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus improved glycaemic control but also induced body weight gain and an influx of macrophages into the subcutaneous adipose tissue. In patients characterised by a pronounced insulin-associated weight gain, the influx of macrophages into the adipose tissue was accompanied by a more pronounced inflammatory status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00781495. The study was funded by European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes and the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation.

  15. Tracking of abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass during childhood. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vogelezang, S; Gishti, O; Felix, J F; van der Beek, E M; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M; Hofman, A; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2016-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in early life tends to track into later life. Not much is known about tracking of abdominal fat. Our objective was to examine the extent of tracking of abdominal fat measures during the first six years of life. We performed a prospective cohort study among 393 Dutch children followed from the age of 2 years (90% range 1.9; 2.3) until the age of 6 years (90% range 5.7; 6.2). At both ages, we performed abdominal ultrasound to measure abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat distances and areas, and we calculated the preperitoneal/subcutaneous fat distance ratio. High abdominal fat measures were defined as values in the upper 15%. Abdominal subcutaneous fat distance and area, and preperitoneal fat area at 2 years were correlated with their corresponding measures at 6 years (all P-values <0.01), with the strongest coefficients for abdominal subcutaneous fat measures. Preperitoneal fat distance at the age of 2 years was not correlated with the corresponding measure at 6 years. The tracking coefficient for preperitoneal/subcutaneous fat distance ratio from 2 to 6 years was r=0.36 (P<0.01). Children with high abdominal subcutaneous fat measures at 2 years had increased risk of having high abdominal subcutaneous fat measures at 6 years (odds ratios 9.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-20.8) and 12.4 (95% CI 5.4-28.6) for subcutaneous fat distance and area, respectively). These associations were not observed for preperitoneal fat measures. Our findings suggest that both abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass measures track during childhood, but with stronger tracking for abdominal subcutaneous fat measures. An adverse abdominal fat distribution in early life may have long-term consequences.

  16. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P < .001). In an age, sex, and WC-adjusted models, VAT area (P < .006) was directly associated with %IHF, while superficial-subcutaneous adipose tissue proportion was inversely associated with %IHF (P < .006). In these models, renal-sinus fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P < .003 for all). In these models, the associations remained robust even within the normal range strata of IHF < 5% for triglycerides and chemerin (P ≤ .004 for all). For the diagnosis of fatty liver, the joint area under the curve of WC, alanine-aminotransferase, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was 0.84(95% CI, 0.79-0.89). Intrahepatic fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the morbidly obese using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Gerald A.; Paton, Barry E.; Maksym, Geoff; Janigan, David; Perey, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (AF) was recorded in the upright and supine positions in the upper and lower abdomen in 22 morbidly obese patients before gastroplasty. Age was 42 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM), weight 135 +/- 7 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 51 +/- 3. Adipose flow expressed as mV was: supine, upper abdomen 647 +/- 23, lower abdomen 604 +/- 24; upright, upper abdomen 621 +/- 27, lower abdomen 607 +/- 29. AF was significantly more in the upper than lower abdomen (supine position) and AF was significantly lower in the lower abdomen upright than the upper abdomen supine. Regression analysis of age indicates that blood flow decreases in the lower abdomen so that in the supine position the difference between upper and lower abdomen AF increases. Similar analysis of BMI did not indicate significant trends. These data indicate that with morbid obesity there is lower tissue blood flow to the lower abdomen. This may explain why such patients may develop areas of painful ischemic necrosis in the dependent region of their anterior abdominal pannus.

  18. Distribution of abdominal adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in yaquis indians from sonora, méxico.

    PubMed

    Brito-Zurita, Olga; Domínguez-Banda, Alberto; Ugalde-Aguirre, Víctor; Cortez-Valenzuela, Ana; Villanueva-Pérez, Rosa; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2007-12-01

    Studies on adiposity in indigenous populations from Mexico are scarce and there are not previous reports that examine the topography of abdominal fat depot and cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we determined the distribution of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and analyzed its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors, in Yaqui Indians. In a cross-sectional population based study, a total of 82 apparently healthy Yaqui Indians (age 44 +/- 14 years and BMI 27.9 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2)) were randomly enrolled from Vicam, Bacum, and Potam, traditional Yaqui communities from Sonora, in northwest Mexico. Anthropometric parameters, single-slice computed tomography scans at the L(2)-L(3) intervertebral space, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. A total of 49 (59.7%) individuals were obese, showing a predominant area of abdominal SAT (319.5 +/- 118.2 cm(2)) over abdominal VAT (134.6 +/- 58.4 cm(2)). Both abdominal VAT (r = 0.54, P = .001; and r = 0.36, P = .01) and SAT (r = 0.15, P = .001; r = 0.47, P = .01) were positively correlated with age and BMI. Abdominal VAT was positively correlated with insulin (r = 0.69, P = .0001) and triglycerides levels (r = 0.42, P = .01). Among Yaquis Indians, obesity with predominant abdominal SAT is common and hyperinsulinemia is the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor. Abdominal VAT, but not abdominal SAT, was related to hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. Secretion of autoimmune antibodies in the human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Thaller, Seth; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

    2018-01-01

    The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we show that the SAT generates autoimmune antibodies. During the development of obesity, reduced oxygen and consequent hypoxia and cell death lead to further release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, “self” protein antigens, cell-free DNA and lipids. All these stimulate class switch and the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies which have been described to be pathogenic. In addition to hypoxia, we have measured cell cytotoxicity and DNA damage mechanisms, which may also contribute to the release of “self” antigens in the SAT. All these processes are significantly elevated in the SAT as compared to the blood. We definitively found that fat-specific IgG antibodies are secreted by B cells in the SAT and that B cells express mRNA for the transcription factor T-bet and the membrane marker CD11c, both involved in the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies. Finally, the SAT also expresses RNA for cytokines known to promote Germinal Center formation, isotype class switch, and plasma cell differentiation. Our results show novel mechanisms for the generation of autoimmune antibody responses in the human SAT and allow the identification of new pathways to possibly manipulate in order to reduce systemic inflammation and autoantibody production in obese individuals. PMID

  20. Secretion of autoimmune antibodies in the human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Thaller, Seth; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2018-01-01

    The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we show that the SAT generates autoimmune antibodies. During the development of obesity, reduced oxygen and consequent hypoxia and cell death lead to further release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, "self" protein antigens, cell-free DNA and lipids. All these stimulate class switch and the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies which have been described to be pathogenic. In addition to hypoxia, we have measured cell cytotoxicity and DNA damage mechanisms, which may also contribute to the release of "self" antigens in the SAT. All these processes are significantly elevated in the SAT as compared to the blood. We definitively found that fat-specific IgG antibodies are secreted by B cells in the SAT and that B cells express mRNA for the transcription factor T-bet and the membrane marker CD11c, both involved in the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies. Finally, the SAT also expresses RNA for cytokines known to promote Germinal Center formation, isotype class switch, and plasma cell differentiation. Our results show novel mechanisms for the generation of autoimmune antibody responses in the human SAT and allow the identification of new pathways to possibly manipulate in order to reduce systemic inflammation and autoantibody production in obese individuals.

  1. Characterization of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue transcriptome in pregnant women with and without spontaneous labor at term: Implication of alternative splicing in the metabolic adaptations of adipose tissue to parturition

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Tarca, Adi L.; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine gene expression and splicing changes associated with parturition and regions (visceral vs subcutaneous) of the adipose tissue of pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN The transcriptome of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from pregnant women at term with (n=15) and without (n=25) spontaneous labor was profiled with Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Overall gene expression changes and differential exon usage rate were compared between patient groups and adipose tissue regions (paired analyses). Selected genes were tested by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Four hundred eighty-two genes were differentially expressed between visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women with spontaneous labor at term (q-value <0.1; fold change >1.5). Biological processes enriched in this comparison included tissue and vasculature development, inflammatory and metabolic pathways. Differential splicing was found for 42 genes (q-value <0.1; difference FIRMA scores >2) between adipose tissue regions of women not in labor. Differential exon usage associated with parturition was found for three genes (LIMS1, HSPA5 and GSTK1) in subcutaneous tissues. CONCLUSION We show for the first time evidence of implication of mRNA splicing and processing machinery in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of women in labor compared to those without labor. PMID:26994472

  2. Characterization of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue transcriptome in pregnant women with and without spontaneous labor at term: implication of alternative splicing in the metabolic adaptations of adipose tissue to parturition.

    PubMed

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Tarca, Adi L; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine gene expression and splicing changes associated with parturition and regions (visceral vs. subcutaneous) of the adipose tissue of pregnant women. The transcriptome of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from pregnant women at term with (n=15) and without (n=25) spontaneous labor was profiled with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Overall gene expression changes and the differential exon usage rate were compared between patient groups (unpaired analyses) and adipose tissue regions (paired analyses). Selected genes were tested by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Four hundred and eighty-two genes were differentially expressed between visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women with spontaneous labor at term (q-value <0.1; fold change >1.5). Biological processes enriched in this comparison included tissue and vasculature development as well as inflammatory and metabolic pathways. Differential splicing was found for 42 genes [q-value <0.1; differences in Finding Isoforms using Robust Multichip Analysis scores >2] between adipose tissue regions of women not in labor. Differential exon usage associated with parturition was found for three genes (LIMS1, HSPA5, and GSTK1) in subcutaneous tissues. We show for the first time evidence of implication of mRNA splicing and processing machinery in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of women in labor compared to those without labor.

  3. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat: A Favorable or Nonfunctional Fat Depot for Glucose Metabolism in Chinese Adults?

    PubMed

    Hou, Xuhong; Chen, Peizhu; Hu, Gang; Wei, Li; Jiao, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Liang, Yebei; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the associations of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue with blood glucose and beta-cell function. In this study, 11,223 participants without known diabetes were selected for this cross-sectional analysis. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and beta-cell function was evaluated. Men had significantly larger VFA but smaller SFA than women. After controlling for age, linear regression showed that SFA was adversely associated with 0-minute, 30-minute, and 2-hour plasma glucose (PG) and early-, first- and second-phase disposition indices (DIs). After further adjustment for BMI and VFA, some associations of SFA with PG indices and DIs disappeared, while the other associations became significantly weaker in men (2-hour PG: 0.05 and DI 2nd : -0.05) or were reversed in women (0-minute, 30-minute, and 2-hour PG: from -0.07 to -0.04; DI 1st : 0.04, P < 0.05). After adjustment for age, BMI, and SFA, VFA was significantly and adversely associated with PG indices and DIs, with the largest standardized regression coefficients with 2-hour PG. The associations of SFA with blood glucose and beta-cell function were clinically insignificant in Chinese adults. VFA had the strongest association with 2-hour PG. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  4. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subtraction of subcutaneous fat to improve the prediction of visceral adiposity: exploring a new anthropometric track in overweight and obese youth.

    PubMed

    Samouda, H; De Beaufort, C; Stranges, S; Van Nieuwenhuyse, J-P; Dooms, G; Keunen, O; Leite, S; Vaillant, M; Lair, M-L; Dadoun, F

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of traditional anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (Waist C) used to replace biomedical imaging for assessing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is still highly controversial in youth. We evaluated the most accurate model predicting VAT in overweight/obese youth, using various anthropometric measurements and their correlation with different body fat compartments, especially by testing, for the first time in youth, the hypothesis that subtracting the anthropometric measurement the most highly correlated with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and less correlated possible with VAT from an anthropometric abdominal measurement highly correlated with visceral and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), predicts VAT with higher accuracy. VAT and SAAT data resulted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis performed on 181 boys and girls (7-17 y) from Diabetes & Endocrinology Care Paediatrics Clinic in Luxembourg. Height, weight, abdominal diameters, waist, hip, and thigh circumferences were measured with a view to developing the anthropometric VAT predictive algorithms. In girls, subtracting proximal thigh circumference (Proximal Thigh C), the most closely correlated anthropometric measurement with SAAT, from Waist C, the most closely correlated anthropometric measurement with VAT was instrumental in improving VAT prediction, in comparison with the most accurate single VAT anthropometric surrogate. [Formula: see text] Residual analysis showed a negligible estimation error (5 cm 2 ). In boys, Waist C was the best VAT predictor. Subtraction of abdominal subcutaneous fat is important to predict VAT in overweight/obese girls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Longitudinal validity of abdominal adiposity assessment by regional bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; García-Romero, Jerónimo C; Carrillo de Albornoz-Gil, Margarita; Jiménez, Manuel; Correas-Gomez, Lorena; Peñaloza, Piero; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A

    2018-03-20

    The main goal of this study was to analyze the longitudinal agreement between changes in trunk and abdominal adiposity variables assessed by DXA and portable bioimpedance device (ViScan). A total of 44 women, enrolled in a 4-month exercise intervention, were included in this analysis. Trunk/abdominal compartments were assessed by ViScan and DXA. Adjusted correlations for age and FM at first assessment (pre) were utilized to perform concurrent validation among methods and completed with an agreement analysis. We observed significant differences between the changes detected by DXA and ViScan for %TFM (difference = -1.41%; p < 0.05), and proportional bias (Kendall's Tau = 0.53; p < 0.0001). Changes in abdominal adiposity were similar (difference = -0.1037 z-score units, p = 0.53), although there was proportional bias (Kendall's Tau = -0.24, p < 0.022). ViScan has a limited capability to evaluated changes in trunk and abdominal adiposity, at least for clinical purposes in adult women.

  7. Lipoprotein lipase regulation by insulin and glucocorticoid in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of obese women and men.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, S K; Russell, C D; Grauso, N L; Brolin, R E

    1993-01-01

    There are marked variations in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) among adipose depots, particularly in women. Consistent with data on LPL activity, the level of expression of LPL mRNA was lower in omental (OM) than subcutaneous (SQ) adipose tissue of women. To investigate the cellular basis of these differences, OM and SQ adipose tissues obtained at surgery from obese men and women were placed in organ culture for 7 d with varying concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone. Insulin increased levels of LPL mRNA and LPL activity in abdominal SQ but not OM adipose tissue. Dexamethasone also increased LPL mRNA and LPL activity, and these effects were more marked in the OM adipose tissue, particularly in men. When insulin and dexamethasone were added together, synergistic increases in LPL activity were seen in both depots, and this was in part explained at the level of LPL mRNA. The SQ depot was more sensitive to the effects of submaximal doses of dexamethasone in the presence of insulin. The maximum activity of LPL induced by insulin or insulin plus dexamethasone was higher in the SQ than in the OM depot of women, and this was associated with higher levels of LPL mRNA. Rates of LPL synthesis paralleled LPL mRNA levels. These data show that insulin and glucocorticoids influence human adipose tissue LPL activity at the level of LPL gene expression, as well as posttranslationally, and that responsiveness to these hormonal effects is dependent on adipose depot and gender. Images PMID:8227334

  8. CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lecke, Sheila B; Morsch, Débora M; Spritzer, Poli M

    2011-11-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypertension has been linked to androgen excess and insulin resistance. Aromatase, an enzyme encoded by the CYP19 gene, affects androgen metabolism and estrogen synthesis, influencing the androgen to estrogen balance. We characterized CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of women with PCOS and normal controls and evaluated the association between subcutaneous fat CYP19 mRNA, circulating hormone levels, and blood pressure. This case-control study was carried out with 31 PCOS patients and 27 BMI-matched normotensive non-hirsute women with regular cycles. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, collection of blood samples, and adipose tissue biopsy (28 PCOS and 19 controls). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg. PCOS patients were divided into normotensive and hypertensive. Main outcome measures were serum estrogen and androgen levels, estrogen-to-androgen ratio, and CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous fat. Subcutaneous CYP19 mRNA was higher in hypertensive PCOS than in control and normotensive PCOS women (p = 0.014). Estrogen-to-androgen ratio was lower in hypertensive PCOS than controls (p < 0.003). Estrogen-to-androgen ratio ≤ 0.06 (median for the three groups) was observed in 91% of hypertensive PCOS women, vs. 37% and 61% in the control and normotensive PCOS groups (p = 0.011). CYP19 gene expression in subcutaneous fat of PCOS patient correlated positively with systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009). Androgen excess and hyperinsulinemia may play a role in the molecular mechanisms that activate aromatase mRNA transcription in abdominal fat tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Are overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity separate or redundant determinants of blood viscosity?

    PubMed

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Brun, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In line with recent literature showing that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are independently associated with the risk of death, we recently reported that body mass index (BMI) and waist-to hip ratio (WHR) were independent predictors of blood viscosity, related to different determinants of viscosity (for BMI: plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation; for WHR: hematocrit). Since this report was challenged by a study showing that abdominal adiposity (as measured with waist circumference WC and not WHR) is the only independent determinant of viscosity, we re-assessed on our previous database correlations among viscosity factors, BMI, WHR and WC. Blood viscosity was correlated to BMI (r = 0.155 p = 0.004), WHR (r = 0.364; p = 0.027) and WC (r = 0.094; p = 0.05). Hematocrit was correlated to WHR (r = 0.524) but neither to BMI (r =-0.021) nor waist circumference (r = 0.053). WC was correlated with plasma viscosity (r = 0.154; p = 0.002) while WHR was not (r =-0.0102 NS). A stepwise regression analysis selected two determinants of whole blood viscosity at high shear rate: BMI (p = 0.0167) and WC (p = 0.0003) excluding WHR. Therefore, in this sample, abdominal fatness expressed by WC and whole body adiposity remain independent determinants of blood viscosity. WHR and WC have not the same meaning, WC measuring the size of abdominal fat while WHR measuring the shape of body distribution regardless the degree of fat excess. Interestingly, hematocrit is rather related to shape (even within a normal range of body size) than the extent of abdominal fatness, and is not related to whole body adiposity.

  10. Increased Depth of Subcutaneous Fat is Protective against Abdominal Injuries in Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Stewart C.; Bednarski, Brian; Patel, Smita; Yan, Alice; Kohoyda-Inglis, Carla; Kennedy, Theresa; Link, Elizabeth; Rowe, Stephen; Sochor, Mark; Arbabi, Saman

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differences in subcutaneous fat depth on adult injury patterns in motor vehicle collisions. Sixty-seven consecutive adult crash subjects aged 19–65 who received computed tomography of their chest, abdomen and pelvis as part of their medical evaluation and who consented to inclusion in the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) study were included. Subcutaneous fat was measured just lateral to the rectus abdominus muscle in a transverse section taken through the subject at the level of L4. Women had significantly greater subcutaneous fat depth than men. Increased subcutaneous fat depth was associated with significantly decreased injury severity to the abdominal region of females. A similar trend was noted in males although it did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that increased subcutaneous fat may be protective against injuries by cushioning the abdominal region against injurious forces in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:12941250

  11. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Correlates with Hyperlipidemia and Steatohepatitis in Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Dongwan; Baek, Min Young; Tchah, Hann; Kim, Yeon Sun; Ryoo, Eell; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9±0.8 cm and 1.9±0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3±0.8 cm and 2.0±0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8±0.8 cm and 2.3±0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1±0.8 cm and 2.8±1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (p<0.01). In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (p<0.01). Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage.

  12. Prognostic Effect of Low Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Survival Outcome in Patients With Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Yasunobu; Sakatoku, Kazuki; Miura, Akiko; Yamamura, Ryosuke; Araki, Taku; Seura, Hirotaka; Okamura, Terue; Koh, Hideo; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Hino, Masayuki; Ohta, Kensuke

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that decreased skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) or adipose tissue assessed using computed tomography (CT) predicts negative outcomes in patients with solid tumors. However, the prognostic value of such an assessment in multiple myeloma (MM) remains unknown. Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic MM were retrospectively analyzed. The cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles and subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue was measured using CT. Body composition indexes (skeletal muscle index, subcutaneous adipose tissue index [SAI], and visceral adipose tissue index) were calculated. The association between these indexes and overall survival (OS) was examined. Of 56 evaluable patients, 37 (66%) had sarcopenia. The 2-year OS in patients with SAI < median was 58% compared with 91% in those with SAI ≥ median (P = .006). In multivariate analyses, SAI < median was significantly associated with poor OS (hazard ratio, 4.05; P = .02). Sarcopenia was not associated with OS. The maximum value of the standardized uptake value was significantly higher in patients with SAI < median (P = .02). The findings of this study suggest that low subcutaneous adipose tissue at baseline predicts poor survival outcome in patients with MM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population.

    PubMed

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2016-11-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with incident hypertension in a population-based setting. We hypothesized that VAT, rather than SAT, would be associated with incident hypertension. VAT and SAT were determined by ultrasound imagining in 3363 randomly selected Danes (mean age 49 years, 56% women, mean body mass index 25.8 kg/m 2 ). We constructed multiple logistic regression models to compute standardized odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals per SD increase in SAT and VAT. Of the 2119 normotensive participants at baseline, 1432, with mean SAT of 2.8 cm and mean VAT of 5.7 cm, returned 5 years later for a follow-up examination and among them 203 had developed hypertension. In models including both VAT and SAT, the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score variables (age, sex, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure) and glycated hemoglobin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension for 1 SD increase in VAT and SAT was 1.27 (1.08-1.50, P=0.004) and 0.97 (0.81-1.15, P=0.70), respectively. Adjusting for body mass index instead of SAT attenuated the association between VAT and incident hypertension, but it was still significant (odds ratio, 1.22 [1.01-1.48, P=0.041] for each SD increase in VAT). In conclusion, ultrasound-determined VAT, but not SAT, was associated with incident hypertension in a random sample of Danish adults. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Abdominal adipose tissue compartments vary with ethnicity in Asian neonates: Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Godfrey, Keith M; Shuter, Borys; Kapur, Jeevesh; Rajadurai, Victor S; Agarwal, Pratibha; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Niduvaje, Krishnamoorthy; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin Bin Mohd; Soh, Shu-E; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kramer, Michael S; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung-Seng

    2016-05-01

    A susceptibility to metabolic diseases is associated with abdominal adipose tissue distribution and varies between ethnic groups. The distribution of abdominal adipose tissue at birth may give insights into whether ethnicity-associated variations in metabolic risk originate partly in utero. We assessed the influence of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue compartments in Asian neonates in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. MRI was performed at ≤2 wk after birth in 333 neonates born at ≥34 wk of gestation and with birth weights ≥2000 g. Abdominal superficial subcutaneous tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT) compartment volumes (absolute and as a percentage of the total abdominal volume) were quantified. In multivariate analyses that were controlled for sex, age, and parity, the absolute and percentage of dSAT and the percentage of sSAT (but not absolute sSAT) were greater, whereas absolute IAT (but not the percentage of IAT) was lower, in Indian neonates than in Chinese neonates. Compared with Chinese neonates, Malay neonates had greater percentages of sSAT and dSAT but similar percentages of IAT. Marginal structural model analyses largely confirmed the results on the basis of volume percentages with controlled direct effects of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue; dSAT was significantly greater (1.45 mL; 95% CI: 0.49, 2.41 mL, P = 0.003) in non-Chinese (Indian or Malay) neonates than in Chinese neonates. However, ethnic differences in sSAT and IAT were NS [3.06 mL (95% CI:-0.27, 6.39 mL; P = 0.0712) for sSAT and -1.30 mL (95% CI: -2.64, 0.04 mL; P = 0.057) for IAT in non-Chinese compared with Chinese neonates, respectively]. Indian and Malay neonates have a greater dSAT volume than do Chinese neonates. This finding supports the notion that in utero influences may contribute to higher cardiometabolic risk observed in Indian and Malay persons in our population. If such

  15. IL-15 concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans: local effects of IL-15 on adipose tissue lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Joseph R.; Maples, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2; n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2; n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown. PMID:25921578

  16. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue express and secrete functional alpha2hsglycoprotein (fetuin a) especially in obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Larrosa-García, María; Castelao, Cecilia; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Crujeiras, Ana Belen; Seoane, Luisa María; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, María

    2017-02-01

    The secretion of the hepatokine alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/Fetuin A, implicated in pathological processes including systemic insulin resistance, by adipose tissue has been recently described. Thus, we have recently identified its presence in white adipose tissue secretomes by mass spectrometry. However, the secretion pattern and function of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and secretion of total and active phosphorylated alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein by adipose tissue from visceral and subcutaneous localizations in animals at different physiological and nutritional status including anorexia and obesity. Alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein expression and secretion in visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants from animals under fasting and exercise training, at pathological situations such as anorexia and obesity, and from human obese individuals were assayed by immunoblotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We reveal that visceral adipose tissue expresses and secretes more alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein than subcutaneous adipose tissue, and that this secretion is diminished after fasting and exercise training. Visceral adipose tissue from anorectic animals showed reduced alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein secretion; on the contrary, alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein is over-secreted by visceral adipose tissue in the occurrence of obesity. While secretion of active-PhophoSer321α2HSG by visceral adipose tissue is independent of body mass index, we found that the fraction of active-alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein secreted by subcutaneous adipose tissue increments significantly in situations of obesity. Functional studies show that the inhibition of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein increases insulin sensitivity in differentiated adipocytes. In

  17. Effects of 8 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure on abdominal adiposity in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sivam, Sheila; Phillips, Craig L; Trenell, Michael I; Yee, Brendon J; Liu, Peter Y; Wong, Keith K; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Patients received both therapeutic and sham CPAP in a random order for 2 months each with an intervening 1-month washout. Abdominal subcutaneous, visceral and liver fat were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Liver enzymes and plasma glucose were also determined. Measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of both treatment arms. 38 eligible patients were randomly assigned to a treatment order, with 27 patients having complete MRI/MRS data. No significant difference was observed in subcutaneous (-28.6 cm(3); p=0.49) or visceral (-16.8 cm(3); p=0.59) adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipid (-0.2%; p=0.21), or fasting glucose measurements (-0.1 mmol·L(-1); p=0.46) between treatment modalities. Alkaline phosphatase decreased (-3.1 U·L(-1); p=0.02) while on therapeutic CPAP compared with sham CPAP but other liver enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase (0.3 U·L(-1); p=0.82), alanine aminotransferase (1.34 U·L(-1); p=0.59) and γ-glutamyltransferase (-2.3 U·L(-1); p=0.33), remained unchanged. In this first randomised, sham-controlled trial, there was no change in adipose tissue distribution after 8 weeks of therapeutic CPAP compared with 8 weeks of sham CPAP. Longer duration of CPAP use may be necessary to demonstrate a difference.

  18. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  19. Gene expression changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue due to Cushing's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Harvey, Innocence; Tran, Quynh T; Stephenson, Erin J; Barkan, Ariel L; Saltiel, Alan R; Chandler, William F; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have major effects on adipose tissue metabolism. To study tissue mRNA expression changes induced by chronic elevated endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed RNA sequencing on the subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with Cushing's disease (n=5) compared to patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (n=11). We found a higher expression of transcripts involved in several metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, proteolysis and glucose oxidation as well as a decreased expression of transcripts involved in inflammation and protein synthesis. To further study this in a model system, we subjected mice to dexamethasone treatment for 12 weeks and analyzed their inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads, which led to similar findings. Additionally, mice treated with dexamethasone showed drastic decreases in lean body mass as well as increased fat mass, further supporting the human transcriptomic data. These data provide insight to transcriptional changes that may be responsible for the comorbidities associated with chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. PMID:26150553

  20. Estimating abdominal adipose tissue with DXA and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison M; LaForgia, Joe; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-02-01

    To identify an anatomically defined region of interest (ROI) from DXA assessment of body composition that when combined with anthropometry can be used to accurately predict intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) in overweight/obese individuals. Forty-one postmenopausal women (age, 49 to 66 years; BMI, 26 to 37 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric and body composition assessments. ROI were defined as quadrilateral boxes extending 5 or 10 cm above the iliac crest and laterally to the edges of the abdominal soft tissue. A single-slice computed tomography (CT) scan was measured at the L3 to L4 intervertebral space, and abdominal skinfolds were taken. Forward step-wise regression revealed the best predictor model of IAAT area measured by CT (r(2) = 0.68, standard error of estimate = 17%) to be: IAAT area (centimeters squared) = 51.844 + DXA 10-cm ROI (grams) (0.031) + abdominal skinfold (millimeters) (1.342). Interobserver reliability for fat mass (r = 0.994; coefficient of variation, 2.60%) and lean mass (r = 0.986, coefficient of variation, 2.67%) in the DXA 10-cm ROI was excellent. This study has identified a DXA ROI that can be reliably measured using prominent anatomical landmarks, in this case, the iliac crest. Using this ROI, combined with an abdominal skinfold measurement, we have derived an equation to predict IAAT in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. This approach offers a simpler, safer, and more cost-effective method than CT for assessing the efficacy of lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing IAAT. However, this warrants further investigation and validation with an independent cohort.

  1. Subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue transcriptome differences in lean and obese female dogs.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ryan W; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Ridge, Tonya K; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-12-01

    Canine obesity leads to shortened life span and increased disease incidence. Adipose tissue depots are known to have unique metabolic and gene expression profiles in rodents and humans, but few comparisons of depot gene expression have been performed in the dog. Using microarray technology, our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes and enriched functional pathways between subcutaneous and gonadal adipose of lean and obese dogs to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity in the dog. Because no depot × body weight status interactions were identified in the microarray data, depot differences were the primary focus. A total of 946 and 703 transcripts were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) between gonadal and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese and lean dogs respectively. Of the adipose depot-specific differences in gene expression, 162 were present in both lean and obese dogs, with the majority (85%) expressed in the same direction. Both lean and obese dog gene lists had enrichment of the complement and coagulation cascade and systemic lupus erythematosus pathways. Obese dogs had enrichment of lysosome, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, renin-angiotensin system and hematopoietic cell lineage pathways. Lean dogs had enrichment of glutathione metabolism and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. We have identified a core set of genes differentially expressed between subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue in dogs regardless of body weight. These genes contribute to depot-specific differences in immune function, extracellular matrix remodeling and lysosomal function and may contribute to the physiological differences noted between depots. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. [Positive effects of physical exercise on reducing the relationship between subcutaneous abdominal fat and morbility risk].

    PubMed

    González Calvo, G; Hernández Sánchez, S; Pozo Rosado, P; García López, D

    2011-01-01

    The consequences related to the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels create a considerable organic damage. Among the physiological consequences we can highlight heart diseases, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, which drastically reduce life expectancy and quality. Evidence shows that health improvement is correlated to greater levels of physical activity. However, physical exercise can create oxidative damage on organs and muscular tissue, more relevant in subjects with a high percentage of abdominal fat. This piece of work determines which are the fundamental variables of the exercise program in order to optimize its advantages while minimizing oxidative stress. To know the key variables in the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels, and the role of exercise in prevention and improvement of such issue. SPECIFIC PURPOSES: 1) to identify the key variables in an exercise program aimed at reducing abdominal fat; 2) to understand the relationship between abdominal fat, health and exercise; 3) to review the latest research related to physical exercise and its effect on abdominal adipose tissue. A search and identification of original and reviewed articles will be carried out in indexed impact journals within the main databases. Regular physical exercise, most notably aerobic one, reduces body adipose tissue deposits in general, and abdominal ones in particular, both in obese and overweight subjects.

  3. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, p<0.001). The loss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (p<0.05). The presented fully automatic algorithm showed good performance in abdominal adipose tissue and organ segmentation, and allowed the detection of SAT and VAT subcompartments changes during weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational method for estimating boundary of abdominal subcutaneous fat for absolute electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tohru F; Okamoto, Yoshiwo

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal fat accumulation is considered an essential indicator of human health. Electrical impedance tomography has considerable potential for abdominal fat imaging because of the low specific conductivity of human body fat. In this paper, we propose a robust reconstruction method for high-fidelity conductivity imaging by abstraction of the abdominal cross section using a relatively small number of parameters. Toward this end, we assume homogeneous conductivity in the abdominal subcutaneous fat area and characterize its geometrical shape by parameters defined as the ratio of the distance from the center to boundary of subcutaneous fat to the distance from the center to outer boundary in 64 equiangular directions. To estimate the shape parameters, the sensitivity of the noninvasively measured voltages with respect to the shape parameters is formulated for numerical optimization. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. A 3-dimensional finite element method is used to construct a computer model of the human abdomen. The inverse problems of shape parameters and conductivities are solved concurrently by iterative forward and inverse calculations. As a result, conductivity images are reconstructed with a small systemic error of less than 1% for the estimation of the subcutaneous fat area. A novel method is devised for estimating the boundary of the abdominal subcutaneous fat. The fidelity of the overall reconstructed image to the reference image is significantly improved. The results demonstrate the possibility of realization of an abdominal fat scanner as a low-cost, radiation-free medical device. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of initiating moderate wine intake on abdominal adipose tissue in adults with type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Witkow, Shula; Friger, Michael; Chassidim, Yoash; Liberty, Idit F; Sarusi, Benjamin; Serfaty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-02-01

    To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka-Medical Center and the Nuclear Research Center Negev, Israel. Alcohol-abstaining adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight participants (red wine, n 27; mineral water, n 21) who completed a second MRI measurement were included in the 2-year analysis. Similar weight losses (sd) were observed: red wine 1·3 (3·9) kg; water 1·0 (4·2) kg (P=0·8 between groups). Changes (95 % CI) in abdominal adipose-tissue distribution were similar: red wine, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) -3·0 (-8·0, 2·0) %, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT) +5·2 (-1·1, 11·6) %, superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) -1·9 (-5·0, 1·2) %; water, VAT -3·2 (-8·9, 2·5) %, DSAT +2·9 (-2·8, 8·6) %, SSAT -0·15 (-3·3, 2·9) %. No changes in antidiabetic medication and no substantial changes in energy intake (+126 (sd 2889) kJ/d (+30·2 (sd 690) kcal/d), P=0·8) were recorded. A 2-year decrease in glycated Hb (β=0·28, P=0·05) was associated with a decrease in VAT. Moderate wine consumption, as part of a Mediterranean diet, in persons with controlled diabetes did not promote weight gain or abdominal adiposity.

  6. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane; Martins, Frédéric; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Pisani, Didier F; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Maoret, Jean-José; Iacovoni, Jason; Déjean, Sébastien; Moro, Cédric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique

    2018-01-23

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( < 0.05) included cholesterol concentration of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue (three-fourths Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams < three-fourths Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( < 0.001) was

  8. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D), characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB). Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW) subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p < 0.05), and 2-AG levels 2.3-fold reduced (p < .05), in OBT2D but not in OB subjects. Anandamide, OEA and PEA correlated positively (p < .05) with SAT leptin mRNA and free fatty acid during hyperinsulinaemic clamp, and negatively with SAT LPL activity and plasma HDL-cholesterol, which were all specifically altered in OBT2D subjects. Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners) and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:20426869

  9. Abdominal adipose tissue thickness measured using magnetic resonance imaging is associated with lumbar disc degeneration in a Chinese patient population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Mu, Liangshan; Huang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Tianyi; Mei, Zihan; Zeng, Wenrong; He, Jiawei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaozheng; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan

    2016-12-13

    The relationship between abdominal adiposity and disc degeneration remains largely uninvestigated. Here, we investigated the association between abdominal adipose tissue thickness and lumbar disc degeneration in a cross-sectional study of 2415 participants from The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. All subjects were scanned with a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging system to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that men in the highest quartiles for abdominal diameter (AD), sagittal diameter (SAD), and ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST) were at higher odds ratio for severe lumbar disc degeneration than men in the lowest quartiles. The adjusted model revealed that women in the highest quartiles for AD and SAD were also at higher odds ratio for severe lumbar disc degeneration than women in the lowest quartiles. Our results suggest that abdominal obesity might be one of underlying mechanisms of lumbar disc degeneration, and preventive strategies including weight control could be useful to reduce the incidence of lumbar disc degeneration. Prospective studies are needed to this confirm these results and to identify more deeper underlying mechanisms.

  10. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue development in children by the optical device LIPOMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Sudi, Karl; Berg, Aloys; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Tafeit, Erwin

    2001-10-01

    The new optical device LIPOMETER enables the non-invasive, quick and save determination of the thickness of subcutantous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in nm) at any site of the human body. The topographic specification of 15 evenly distributed body sites allows the precise measurement of subcutaneous body fat distribution, so called subcutaneous adipose tissue topopgraphy (SAT-Top). SAT-Top was determined in more than 1000 children aging from 7 to 21 yr. We describe the SAT-Top development of these subjects through different age groups and the differences between male and female SAT-Top development in each age group. SAT layer profiles (medians of the 15 body sites) for boys and girls in age group (7-9 yr) show a very similar pattern for both sexes, followed by decreasing SAT layer thicknesses in boys and increasing values in girls in the subsequent age groups. Between age group 3 (11-13 yr) and age group 7 (19- 21 yr) male and female SAT-Top is significantly different in (almost) all body sites. We present a precise description of SAT-Top development in boys and girls, providing a basis for further investigations in different fields such as obesity, sport sciences or metabolic disorders, and suggesting the LIPOMETER technique as an appropriate measurement tool.

  11. Humans and Mice Display Opposing Patterns of "Browning" Gene Expression in Visceral and Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue Depots.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Maria A; Fuster, Jose J; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is much more strongly associated with cardiometabolic disease in humans than subcutaneous adiposity. Browning, the appearance of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT), has been shown to protect mice against metabolic dysfunction, suggesting the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. In mice, subcutaneous WAT depots express higher levels of browning genes when compared with visceral WAT, further suggesting that differences in WAT browning could contribute to the differences in the pathogenicity of the two depots. However, the expression of browning genes in different WAT depots of human has not been characterized. Here, it is shown that the expression of browning genes is higher in visceral than in subcutaneous WAT in humans, a pattern that is opposite to what is observed in mice. These results suggest that caution should be applied in extrapolating the results of murine browning gene expression studies to human pathophysiology.

  12. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction =0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction =0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. First-Trimester Abdominal Adipose Tissue Thickness to Predict Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bourdages, Mélodie; Demers, Marie-Élaine; Dubé, Samuel; Gasse, Cédric; Girard, Mario; Boutin, Amélie; Ray, Joel G; Bujold, Emmanuel; Demers, Suzanne

    2018-07-01

    To estimate the discriminative capacity of first-trimester subcutaneous (SATT), visceral (VATT), and total (TATT) adipose tissue thickness in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), including that requiring insulin. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 1048 nulliparous women. Ultrasound images were used to determine abdominal SATT, VATT, and TATT at 11 to 14 weeks' gestation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict GDM, as well as insulin-requiring GDM. Model discrimination was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). SATT (AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.59-0.73), VATT (AUC 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.73), and TATT (AUC 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.76) were each associated with subsequent GDM. The respective AUC values for insulin-requiring GDM were 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.82), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.67-0.84). At a false-positive rate of 10%, the detection rate for insulin-requiring GDM was 19% for maternal age ≥35 years, 31% for a BMI ≥31.6 kg/m 2 , and 31% for TATT ≥61 mm, increasing to 42% in the model comprising all three measures. First-trimester ultrasound measurement of adipose tissue is associated with a higher chance of developing GDM, especially insulin-requiring GDM. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Venous thrombosis after abdominal surgery. A comparison between subcutaneous heparin and antithrombotic stockings, or both

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, A.; Hansen, P.T.; Lindholt, J.

    1988-01-01

    In an open controlled study, 248 consecutive patients (age more than 40 yrs) admitted for major abdominal surgery were randomized to one of three prophylactic antithrombotic treatments. Eighty-five patients received subcutaneous heparin, 74 patients had graduated compression stockings to the knee (TED stockings), and 89 patients had both subcutaneous heparin and stockings. Treatment began on the evening before operation and continued to complete mobilization, or for not less than five days postoperatively. On the fourth or fifth postoperative day, the patients underwent a /sup 99m/Tc-plasmin test of the lower limbs as a test for deep vein thrombosis. There were 29.7%more » positive tests in the stocking group, 29.4% in the group with heparin prophylaxis, and 25.8% in the combined group. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant.« less

  15. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα -/- female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  16. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yi-fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-bing; Wu, Wan-fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα−/− female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue. PMID:27922125

  17. Psoriasis Skin Inflammation-Induced microRNA-26b Targets NCEH1 in Underlying Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Louisa; Fisher, Rachel M; Kuzmina, Natalia; Li, Dongqing; Li, Xi; Werngren, Olivera; Blomqvist, Lennart; Ståhle, Mona; Landén, Ning Xu

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, which is associated with a high risk of developing systemic comorbidities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanistic links between psoriatic skin inflammation and systemic comorbidities remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered gene regulators that play important roles in psoriasis skin inflammation. In this study we aimed to explore whether the skin inflammation in psoriasis affects miRNA expression of the underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue and whether this may be a link between psoriasis and comorbidities. To this end, we compared the miRNA expression profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue underneath lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin. We further validated the differential expression of several miRNAs and characterized their expression patterns in different cell types present in subcutaneous adipose tissue. We focused on miR-26b-5p, which was highly up-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue underneath lesional psoriasis skin. We showed that it targets and down-regulates neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, an enzyme essential for cholesterol efflux, in monocytes/macrophages, adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. We conclude that this miRNA may serve as a mechanistic link between psoriatic skin inflammation and its systemic comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW) gain afte...

  19. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. Aim The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. Materials and Methods The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. Results There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female Conclusion The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of

  20. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  1. Femoral-gluteal subcutaneous and intermuscular adipose tissues have independent and opposing relationships with CVD risk

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine B.; Heymsfield, Steven; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    —Femoral-gluteal adipose tissue (AT) may be cardioprotective through fatty acids uptake. Femoral-gluteal AT has previously been defined as leg fat measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); however, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) are inseparable using DXA. This study investigated the independent relationships between femoral-gluteal SAT, femoral-gluteal IMAT, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors [fasting serum measures of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), triglycerides (TG) and insulin] and whether race differences exist in femoral-gluteal AT distribution. Adult Caucasians (56 men and 104 women), African-Americans (37 men and 76 women), and Asians (11 men and 35 women) had total AT (TAT) including femoral-gluteal AT (upper leg SAT and IMAT) and visceral AT (VAT) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). General linear models identified the independent effects of femoral-gluteal SAT and femoral-gluteal IMAT on each risk factor after covarying for TAT, VAT, age, race, sex, and two-way interactions. Femoral-gluteal IMAT and glucose (P < 0.05) were positively associated independent of VAT. There were also significant inverse associations between femoral-gluteal SAT and insulin (P < 0.01) and TG (P < 0.05), although the addition of VAT rendered these effects nonsignificant, possibly due to collinearity. Asian women had less femoral-gluteal SAT and greater VAT than Caucasians and African-Americans (P < 0.05) and Asian and African-American men had greater femoral-gluteal IMAT than Caucasians, adjusted for age and TAT (P < 0.05 for both). Femoral-gluteal SAT and femoral-gluteal IMAT distribution varies by sex and race, and these two components have independent and opposing relationships with CVD risk factors. PMID:18079271

  2. Adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced in women with cellulite.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Altabas, Karmela; Gaeta, Elio; Altabas, Velimir

    2011-04-01

    Cellulite, which appears as orange peel-type or cottage cheese-like dimpling of the skin on the thighs and buttocks, is a complex, multifactorial, cosmetic disorder of the subcutaneous fat layer and the overlying superficial skin. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone mainly produced by subcutaneous fat that shows important protective anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory effects. We hypothesized that adiponectin expressed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of cellulite. We reasoned that a reduction in the expression of adiponectin - a humoral vasodilator - in the SAT of cellulite areas might contribute to the altered microcirculation frequently found in these regions. A total of 15 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2) ) women with cellulite and 15 age- and BMI-matched women without cellulite participated in this study. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess adiponectin gene expression. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Adiponectin mRNA expression in the SAT of the gluteal region was significantly lower in areas with cellulite compared with those without (12.6 ± 3.1 AU versus 16.6 ± 4.1 AU; P=0.006). However, plasma adiponectin levels did not differ between women with (20.3 ± 7.3 μg/ml) and without (19.3 ± 6.1 μg/ml) cellulite (P=0.69). Adiponectin expression is significantly reduced in the SAT in areas affected by cellulite. Our findings provide novel insights into the nature of cellulite and may give clues to the treatment of this cosmetic issue. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Thomas, Anthony P; Gertz, Erik R; Souza, Elaine C; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Newman, John W; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Van Loan, Marta D

    2013-08-26

    Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.

  4. Investigation of relation between visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes and calcified aortic plaques via multislice computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Efe, Duran; Aygün, Fatih; Acar, Türker; Yildiz, Melda; Gemici, Kazım

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated effect of subcutaneous fat volume and abdominal visceral fat volume on aortic atherosclerosis via multislice computed tomography. The present study comprised 424 subjects who underwent non-contrast-enhanced abdominal CT in our clinic between June 2012 and June 2013. Using dedicated software visceral fat volume was calculated for each individual and then subcutaneous fat volume was calculated by subtracting visceral fat volume from total fat volume. By dividing visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume participants were assigned to three groups according to their mean visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume: Group 1 consisted of subjects with visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume lower than 0.48 (Group 1 < 0.48); Group 2 consisted of subjects with visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume equal to or higher than 0.48 and lower than 0.69 (0.48 ≤ Group 2 < 0.69); and Group 3 consisted of subjects with visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume equal to or higher than 0.69 (Group 3 ≥ 0.69). The mean abdominal aortic calcium scores according to Agatston scoring (au) were 136.8 ± 418.7 au in Group 1, 179.9 ± 463 au in Group 2 and 212.2 ± 486.9 in Group 3, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant correlation between visceral fat volume and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis, while there was absence of significant correlation between subcutaneous fat volume and abdominal atherosclerosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microdialysis of glucose in subcutaneous adipose tissue up to 3 weeks in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, K J; Vonk, P; Vonk-van Klei, Y; Schoonen, A J; Kossen, N W

    1998-09-01

    To measure possible changes in dialysate glucose concentrations over time, to validate the diffusional model for glucose transport from tissue to the probe, and to evaluate the actual glucose concentration in adipose tissue. Glucose concentrations in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of five healthy subjects (age 25 +/- 2.7 years, BMI 23.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 [mean +/- SD]) were measured by the microdialysis technique and compared with blood glucose. We applied microdialysis probes with hollow fibers of various membrane length (10-35 mm), used eight perfusion flow rates (0.5-20 microl/min), and perfused four glucose solutions (0.0, 2.8, 8.3, 11.1 mmol/l). After implantation, a substantial decrease in glucose recovery to the lowest value of 26 +/- 10% of the final plateau value was noted during the first few hours (n = 4). Recovery increased and stabilized after 5-9 days at 84.0 +/- 7.4% of capillary blood glucose when a flow rate of 0.5 microl/min was applied. According to the zero net-flux method, the glucose concentration in equilibrium, Cequi, with the surrounding tissue can be obtained. This concentration also decreases; however, 1 h after recovery, Cequi increases again over 1 or 2 days to a stable value that is not significantly different from the measured capillary blood glucose (P < 0.05). Using various perfusion flow rates and probes (membrane length 10-35 mm), it is shown that diffusion is the rate-limiting process for glucose transport through tissue. Insertion of the microdialysis probes causes damage to the adipose cells and the vascular bed around the probe. Glucose recovery decreases because of a lower blood supply. In 5-9 days, glucose recovery increases; apparently, this time is needed to repair the microstructure of tissue around the probe. After stabilization of the recovery, no loss of probe permeability, which is due to biocompatibility problems, was seen. The change during the 2 days in equilibrium concentration is probably caused by an inflammation

  7. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078-1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323-5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003-1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489-0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC.

  8. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078–1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323–5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003–1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489–0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC. PMID:26904670

  9. Liver fat contents, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The liver fat contents and abdominal adiposity correlate well with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. However, the relationship between liver fat content, abdominal adiposity and IR in non-diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the associations among these factors. This is a cross-sectional, observational study. All patients received abdominal ultrasound for liver fat content. Abdominal adiposity was quantified with the conicity index (Ci) and waist circumference (WC). We checked the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) for IR. A total of 112 patients (60 women) were analyzed. Subjects with higher liver fat contents and WC had higher IR indices. But Ci did not correlate with IR indices. In both the multi-variable linear regression model and the logistic regression model, only higher liver fat content predicted a severe IR status. Liver fat contents have a remarkable correlation with IR; however, abdominal adiposity, measured either by Ci or WC, dose not independently correlate with IR in non-diabetic prevalent HD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in a sample of Mexican children.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, C; Ramos-Ibáñez, N; Azprioz-Leehan, J; Ortiz-Hernández, L

    2017-09-01

    Few studies in Latin American paediatric populations have differentiated fat deposits in specific areas, such as intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF). Research in diverse populations is needed, as patterns of fat accumulation vary by ethnicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether IAF and/or SAF are related to cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of total body fat (TBF), in a group of Mexican schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mexico City with 94 children aged between 5 and 11 years. IAF and SAF were assessed by magnetic resonance using two different estimation methods: (a) at the midpoint of lumbar vertebras 4 and 5 (L4-L5) and (b) the sum of the areas of four slices (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5, which will be referred to as 'total' IAF and SAF). TBF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The following cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood pressure, insulin resistance, number of risk factors and metabolic syndrome score. After adjusting for sex, age and TBF, total SAF was related to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome score. Although IAF at L4-L5 was also related to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors, there was evidence of collinearity with TBF. In this sample of Mexican schoolchildren, TBF and SAF, but not IAF, were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk.

  11. Macrophage infiltration in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of dairy cows with displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Kabara, Ed; Brester, Jill; Neuder, Louis; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), a direct measure of lipolysis, are considered a risk factor for displaced abomasum (DA) and other clinical diseases. In nonruminants, uncontrolled lipolysis is commonly associated with adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. In dairy cows, recent studies report ATM infiltration in specific adipose depots during the first week of lactation. Depending on their phenotype, ATM can be broadly classified as classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). The M1 ATM are considered pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 ATM enhance inflammation resolution. Currently, it is not known whether multiparous transition cows with DA have increased ATM infiltration, and the predominant phenotype of these mononuclear cells remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize ATM infiltration into different adipose tissue depots in transition cows with DA (days in milk=7.8±4.6 d; body condition score=2.95±0.10; n=6). Serum samples and biopsies from omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots were obtained during corrective surgery for DA. In an effort to compare ATM infiltration in DA cows with that of healthy cows in anabolic state (AS), adipose biopsies and blood samples were collected from nonlactating, nongestating dairy cows at the time of slaughter (body condition score=3.75±0.12; n=6). Adipose tissues were digested and cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were analyzed using flow cytometry to establish cell surface expression of specific macrophage markers including CD14, CD11c, CD163, and CD172a. Tissue sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to assess ATM localization. Cows with DA were ketotic and had plasma NEFA above 1.0 mEq/L. The same group of cows had significant infiltration of ATM in OM characterized by increased numbers of SVF cells expressing CD14 and CD172a. At the same time, expression of CD11c, and CD163 was significantly higher in SVF from OM and SC of DA

  12. Liver fat content is linked to inflammatory changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Henry J; Vervoort, Gerald M; van der Graaf, Marinette; Stienstra, Rinke; Tack, Cees J

    2013-11-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are typically overweight and have an increased liver fat content (LFAT). High LFAT may be explained by an increased efflux of free fatty acids from the adipose tissue, which is partly instigated by inflammatory changes. This would imply an association between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. To analyse associations between inflammatory features of the adipose tissue and liver fat content. A cross-sectional study. Twenty-seven obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM were studied. LFAT content was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A subcutaneous (sc) fat biopsy was obtained to determine morphology and protein levels within adipose tissue. In addition to fat cell size, the percentage of macrophages and the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) within sc fat were assessed by CD68-immunohistochemical staining. Mean LFAT percentage was 11·1 ± 1·7% (range: 0·75-32·9%); 63% of the patients were diagnosed with an elevated LFAT (upper range of normal ≤5·5%). Whereas adipocyte size did not correlate with LFAT, 3 of 4 subjects with CLSs in sc fat had elevated LFAT and the percentage of macrophages present in sc adipose tissue was positively associated with LFAT. Protein concentrations of adiponectin within adipose tissue negatively correlated with LFAT. Adipose tissue protein levels of the key inflammatory adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with LFAT. Several pro-inflammatory changes in sc adipose tissue associate with increased LFAT content in obese insulin-treated patients with T2DM. These findings suggest that inflammatory changes at the level of the adipose tissue may drive liver fat accumulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An automated segmentation for direct assessment of adipose tissue distribution from thoracic and abdominal Dixon-technique MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jason E.; Fernandez-Del-Valle, Maria; Hayden, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) together have become the gold standard in the precise quantification of body fat. The study of the quantification of fat in the human body has matured in recent years from a simplistic interest in the whole-body fat content to detailing regional fat distributions. The realization that body-fat, or adipose tissue (AT) is far from being a mere aggregate mass or deposit but a biologically active organ in and of itself, may play a role in the association between obesity and the various pathologies that are the biggest health issues of our time. Furthermore, a major bottleneck in most medical image assessments of adipose tissue content and distribution is the lack of automated image analysis. This motivated us to develop a proper and at least partially automated methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution in the human body, which is to be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The AT considered here is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous) as well as around the internal organs and between muscles (visceral and inter-muscular). There are also special fat depots on and around the heart (pericardial) as well as around the aorta (peri-aortic). Our methods focus on measuring and classifying these various AT deposits in the human body in an intervention study that involves the acquisition of thoracic and abdominal MR images via a Dixon technique.

  14. Impact of Abdominal Adipose Depots and Race on Risk for Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Chaudhry, Vivek; Mar, Winnie; Patel, Bimal; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Freels, Sally; Braunschweig, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Visceral (VAT) but not subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is associated with obesity-related diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). Superficial SAT (SSAT) and deep SAT (DSAT), components of SAT, also appear to independently influence disease risk. These abdominal adipose tissues (AAT) are not extensively studied in connection with CRC and have not been explored in the United States (US) despite known racial variations in body composition. We conducted a case-control study that compared associations between AAT with CRC risk and race of AA and NHW males with incident CRC matched by age, BMI and race (N=158, 79/group). Cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) images were used for assessment of AAT. Overall cases and controls had similar VAT areas (140±192 vs 149±152 cm2, p-value=0.93), however cases had lower SSAT than controls (88±39 vs 112±65 cm2, p<0.01). Among controls, AA had significantly lower VAT (114±168 vs 180±167, p<0.01) than NHW. Conditional logistic regression revealed AA males with greater SSAT had lower odds for CRC (OR: 0.24, 95%CI 0.07–0.85). Our findings indicate VAT does vary between cases and controls by race, however this variation is not a risk factor for CRC. The negative association between CRC and SSAT in AA men warrants further investigation. PMID:28323443

  15. Curcuma longa Extract Associated with White Pepper Lessens High Fat Diet-Induced Inflammation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Memvanga, Patrick B.; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition. PMID:24260564

  16. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  17. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055) in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kadooka, Y; Sato, M; Imaizumi, K; Ogawa, A; Ikuyama, K; Akai, Y; Okano, M; Kagoshima, M; Tsuchida, T

    2010-06-01

    In spite of the much evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics, their anti-obesity effects have not been well examined. We evaluated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other body measures in adults with obese tendencies. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Subjects (n=87) with higher body mass index (BMI) (24.2-30.7 kg/m(2)) and abdominal visceral fat area (81.2-178.5 cm(2)) were randomly assigned to receive either fermented milk (FM) containing LG2055 (active FM; n=43) or FM without LG2055 (control FM; n=44), and were asked to consume 200 g/day of FM for 12 weeks. Abdominal fat area was determined by computed tomography. In the active FM group, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas significantly (P<0.01) decreased from baseline by an average of 4.6% (mean (confidence interval): -5.8 (-10.0, -1.7) cm(2)) and 3.3% (-7.4 (-11.6, -3.1) cm(2)), respectively. Body weight and other measures also decreased significantly (P<0.001) as follows: body weight, 1.4% (-1.1 (-1.5, -0.7) kg); BMI, 1.5% (-0.4 (-0.5, -0.2) kg/m(2)); waist, 1.8% (-1.7 (-2.1, -1.4) cm); hip, 1.5% (-1.5 (-1.8, -1.1) cm). In the control group, by contrast, none of these parameters decreased significantly. High-molecular weight adiponectin in serum increased significantly (P<0.01) in the active and control groups by 12.7% (0.17 (0.07, 0.26) microg/ml) and 13.6% (0.23 (0.07, 0.38) microg/ml), respectively. The probiotic LG2055 showed lowering effects on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures, suggesting its beneficial influence on metabolic disorders.

  18. Subcutaneous adipose tissue macropage infiltration is associated with hepatic and visceral fat deposition, hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of NF-kB stress pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal was to examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), Beta-cell function, and SAT gene expression. SAT biopsies were obtained from...

  19. Estimating DXA total body fat percentage by lipometer subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Tafeit, Erwin; Greilberger, Joachim; Cvirn, Gerhard; Lipp, Rainer Walther; Schnedl, Wolfgang Johann; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna

    2009-06-01

    DXA is an accepted reference method to estimate body composition. However several difficulties in the applicability exist. The equipment is rather expensive, not portable, impractical for measurement of big study populations and it provides a minimal amount of ionizing radiation exposure. The optical device Lipometer (EU Pat.No. 0516251) provides non-invasive, quick, precise and safe measurements of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thicknesses at any site of the human body. Compared to DXA there are some advantages in the Lipometer approach, because this device is portable, quick, not expensive and no radiation is involved. To use these advantages in the field of total body fat% (TBF%) assessment, an acceptable estimation of DXA TBF% by Lipometer SAT thicknesses is necessary, which was the aim of this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, DXA TBF% and Lipometer SAT thicknesses at fifteen defined body sites were measured in 28 healthy men (age: 33.9 +/- 16.6 years) and 52 healthy women (age: 40.1 +/- 10.7 years). To estimate Lipometer TBF% stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied, using DXA TBF% as dependent variable. Using the fifteen Lipometer SAT thicknesses together with age, height, weight and BMI as independent variables provided the best estimations of Lipometer TBF% for both genders with strong correlations to DXA TBF% (R = 0.985 for males and R = 0.953 for females). The limits of agreement were -2.48% to +2.48% for males and -4.28% to + 4.28% for females. For both genders we received a bias of 0.00%. The results of this paper extend the abilities of the Lipometer by a precise estimation of TBF% using DXA as golden standard.

  20. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke: the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study.

    PubMed

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass index (BMI). The association of BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR with stroke was assessed in 31,201 men and 23,516 women, free of vascular disease at baseline, from the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1130 strokes were recorded. Relative risks (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression after stratification for center and adjustment for age, smoking, educational level, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI and model fit was assessed using log-likelihoods. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke in men. After full adjustment including BMI, the relative risks for stroke remained significant for WC (1.19 [1.02 to 1.34] per 1 SD increase in WC), WHR (1.14 [1.03 to 1.26]), and WHtR (1.50 [1.28 to 1.77]). Among women, the extent of the associations with stroke risk was similar for WHtR (1.31 [1.04 to 1.65]), WC (1.19 [0.96 to 1.47]), and WHR (1.08 [0.97 to 1.22]). Further analyses by World Health Organization obesity categories showed that WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke also in lean men and women (BMI<25 kg/m2), independently of confounders, cardiovascular risk factors, and BMI. Indicators of abdominal adiposity, especially WHtR, are more strongly associated with stroke risk than BMI. These results emphasize the importance of measuring abdominal adiposity, especially in lean subjects.

  1. Correlations between quantitative fat–water magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Aliya; Walker, Ronald C.; Towse, Theodore F.; Brian Welch, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Beyond estimation of depot volumes, quantitative analysis of adipose tissue properties could improve understanding of how adipose tissue correlates with metabolic risk factors. We investigated whether the fat signal fraction (FSF) derived from quantitative fat–water magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 3.0 T correlates to CT Hounsfield units (HU) of the same tissue. These measures were acquired in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) at the umbilical level of 21 healthy adult subjects. A moderate correlation exists between MRI- and CT-derived WAT values for all subjects, R2=0.54, p<0.0001, with a slope of −2.6, (95% CI [−3.3,−1.8]), indicating that a decrease of 1 HU equals a mean increase of 0.38% FSF. We demonstrate that FSF estimates obtained using quantitative fat–water MRI techniques correlate with CT HU values in subcutaneous WAT, and therefore, MRI-based FSF could be used as an alternative to CT HU for assessing metabolic risk factors. PMID:26702407

  2. Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Peppler, Willem T; Townsend, Logan K; Knuth, Carly M; Foster, Michelle T; Wright, David C

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. To test this, male C57BL/6 mice were provided access to voluntary wheel running (VWR) or remained as a cage control (SED) for 11 nights after iWAT removal via lipectomy (LIPX) or SHAM surgery. We found that SHAM and LIPX mice with access to VWR ran similar distances and had comparable reductions in body mass, increased food intake, and increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Further, VWR improved indexes of glucose homeostasis and insulin tolerance in both SHAM and LIPX mice. The lack of effect of LIPX in the response to VWR was not explained by compensatory increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle, epididymal white adipose tissue, or interscapular brown adipose tissue. Together, these data demonstrate that mice with and without iWAT have comparable adaptations to VWR, suggesting that iWAT may be dispensable for the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

  3. Enhanced mitogenesis in stromal vascular cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Wagyu compared with those of Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Fu, X; Liang, X; Zhu, M J; Jiang, Z; Parish, S M; Dodson, M V; Zan, L; Du, M

    2015-03-01

    Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling and lower subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with Angus cattle. However, mechanisms for differences in adipose deposition are unknown. The objective of this paper was to evaluate breed differences in the structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipogenesis, and mitogenesis of stromal vascular (SV) cells between Wagyu and Angus cattle. Subcutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from 5 Wagyu (BW = 302 ± 9 kg) and 5 Angus (BW = 398 ± 12 kg) heifers at 12 mo of age, and samples were divided into 3 pieces for histological examination, biochemical analysis, and harvest of SV cells. Adipogenesis of SV cells was assessed by the expression of adipogenic markers and Oil Red-O staining, while mitogenesis was evaluated by an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium dromide) test, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (PKB; AKT). Based on histological analysis, Wagyu had larger adipocytes compared with Angus. At the tissue level, protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in Wagyu was much lower compared with that of Angus. Similarly, a lower mRNA expression of PPARG was found in Wagyu SV cells. No significant difference was observed for the zinc finger protein 423 (ZNF423) expression between Wagyu and Angus. As assessed by Oil Red-O staining, Wagyu SV cells possessed a notable trend of lower adipogenic capability. Interestingly, higher mitogenic ability was discovered in Wagyu SV cells, which was associated with an elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. There was no difference in AKT phosphorylation of SV cells between Wagyu and Angus. Moreover, exogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) enhanced mitogenesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of SV cells to a greater degree in Angus compared with that in Wagyu. Expression of transforming growth factor β 3 (TGFB3) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in Wagyu SV

  4. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L; Paulsen, S K; Pedersen, S B

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate the association between these enzymes and different measures of insulin sensitivity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 60 women, 36 women with PCOS, 17 lean (lean PCOS, LP) and 19 obese (obese PCOS, OP) and 24 age- and weight-matched control women, 8 lean (lean controls, LC) and 16 obese (obese controls, OC). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from the abdomen. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and determined as glucose disposal rate and insulin sensitivity index. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was calculated using homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Body composition was evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Adipose mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin were determined by real-time PCR. Polycystic ovary syndrome (P<0.05) and obesity (P<0.05) were independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1 mRNA. The subgroups LP and OC had increased 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 mRNA expression compared with LC (P<0.05, P<0.05). There were no effects of PCOS or obesity on11beta-HSD2 or H6PDH mRNA expression. Decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity (P<0.001) and increased upper body fat distribution (P<0.01) were associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1, but neither 11beta-HSD2 nor H6PDH. Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity are independently associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1. This may lead to increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol in the peripheral adipose tissue and subsequently increased glucocorticoid activity. Decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity and central obesity was associated with increased expression of 11beta-HSD1.

  5. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, S F; Horska, A; Brancati, F L; Diehl, A M; Smith, S; Clark, J M

    2008-01-01

    To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Feature evaluation and test-retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2-L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test-retest reliability. Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test-retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our results using SliceOmatic, Analyze or NIHImage were comparable and could

  6. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, SF; Horska, A; Brancati, FL; Diehl, AM; Smith, S; Clark, JM

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Design Feature evaluation and test–retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. Subjects A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Measurements Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2–L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test–retest reliability. Results Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test–retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Conclusion Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our

  7. Secular change in the association between urbanisation and abdominal adiposity in China (1993-2011).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yosuke; Howard, Annie Green; Thompson, Amanda L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to how the association between urbanisation and abdominal adiposity changes over the course of economic development in low-income and middle-income countries. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey waves 1993-2011 (seven waves). A mixed linear model was used to investigate the association between community-level urbanisation with waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; an indicator of abdominal adiposity). We incorporated interaction terms between urbanisation and study waves to understand how the association changed over time. The analyses were stratified by age (children vs adults). Adult WHtR was positively associated with urbanisation in earlier waves but became inversely associated over time. More specifically, a 1 SD increase in the urbanisation index was associated with higher WHtR by 0.002 and 0.005 in waves 1993 and 1997, while it was associated with lower WHtR by 0.001 in 2011. Among child participants, the increase in WHtR over time was predominantly observed in more urbanised communities. Our study suggests a shift in adult abdominal adiposity from more urbanised communities to less urbanised communities over a time of rapid economic development in China. Children living in more urbanised communities had higher increase in abdominal obesity with urbanisation over time relative to children living in less urbanised communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP2 receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Comparative Analysis Between Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Dental Pulp.

    PubMed

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Giuliani, Patricia; Pierdomenico, Laura; Marchisio, Marco; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Quaresima, Raimondo; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2017-06-01

    White adipose tissue is a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) that are actively studied for their possible therapeutic use in bone tissue repair/remodeling. To better appreciate the osteogenic potential of these cells, we compared some properties of MSCs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue [subcutaneous-adipose stromal cells (S-ASCs)] and dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs) of third-impacted molars, the latter representing a well-established MSC source. Both undifferentiated cell types showed similar fibroblast-like morphology and mesenchymal marker expression. However, undifferentiated S-ASCs displayed a faster doubling time coupled to greater proliferation and colony-forming ability than DPSCs. Also, the osteogenic differentiation of S-ASCs was greater than that of DPSCs, as evaluated by the higher levels of expression of early osteogenic markers Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) and alkaline phosphatase at days 3-14 and of extracellular matrix mineralization at days 14-21. Moreover, S-ASCs showed a better colonization of the titanium scaffold. In addition, we investigated whether S-ASC osteogenic commitment was enhanced by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) stimulation, as previously shown for DPSCs. Although A1R expression was constant during DPSC differentiation, it increased in S-ASC at day 21 from osteogenesis induction. Accordingly, A1R stimulation by the agonist 2-chloro-N 6 -cyclopentyl-adenosine, added to the cultures at each medium change, stimulated proliferation only in differentiating DPSC and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation earlier in DPSCs than in S-ASCs. These effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with a selective A1R antagonist. Thus, our findings suggest that S-ASCs could be advantageously used in regenerative orthopedics/dentistry, and locally released or exogenously added purines may play a role in bone repair/remodeling, even though this aspect should be more thoroughly evaluated.

  10. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity.

  11. Glyceroneogenesis is inhibited through HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammation in human subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Leroyer, Stéphanie; Vatier, Camille; Kadiri, Sarah; Quette, Joëlle; Chapron, Charles; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Glyceroneogenesis, a metabolic pathway that participates during lipolysis in the recycling of free fatty acids to triglycerides into adipocytes, contributes to the lipid-buffering function of adipose tissue. We investigated whether glyceroneogenesis could be affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) responsible or not for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. We treated explants obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) depots from lean individuals. We observed that the dyslipidemic PIs nelfinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir, but not the lipid-neutral PI atazanavir, increased lipolysis and decreased glyceroneogenesis, leading to an increased release of fatty acids from SAT but not from VAT. At the same time, dyslipidemic PIs decreased the amount of perilipin and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in SAT but not in VAT. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the NFκB pathway, counteracted PI-induced increased inflammation and decreased glyceroneogenesis. IL-6 (100 ng) inhibited the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the key enzyme of glyceroneogenesis, in SAT but not in VAT. Our data show that dyslipidemic but not lipid-neutral PIs decreased glyceroneogenesis as a consequence of PI-induced increased inflammation in SAT that could have an affect on adipocytes and/or macrophages. These results add a new link between fat inflammation and increased fatty acids release and suggest a greater sensitivity of SAT than VAT to PI-induced inflammation. PMID:21068005

  12. Study and classification of the abdominal adiposity throughout the application of the two-dimensional predictive equation Garaulet et al., in the clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Piernas Sánchez, C M; Morales Falo, E M; Zamora Navarro, S; Garaulet Aza, M

    2010-01-01

    The excess of visceral abdominal adipose tissue is one of the major concerns in obesity and its clinical treatment. To apply the two-dimensional predictive equation proposed by Garaulet et al. to determine the abdominal fat distribution and to compare the results with the body composition obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (M-BIA). We studied 230 women, who underwent anthropometry and M-BIA. The predictive equation was applied. Multivariate lineal and partial correlation analyses were performed with control for BMI and % body fat, using SPSS 15.0 with statistical significance P < 0.05. Overall, women were considered as having subcutaneous distribution of abdominal fat. Truncal fat, regional fat and muscular mass were negatively associated with VA/SA(predicted), while the visceral index obtained by M-BIA was positively correlated with VA/SA(predicted). The predictive equation may be useful in the clinical practice to obtain an accurate, costless and safe classification of abdominal obesity.

  13. The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M.; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Methods Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Results Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. Conclusions The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans. PMID:25393240

  14. DNA methylation map in circulating leukocytes mirrors subcutaneous adipose tissue methylation pattern: a genome-wide analysis from non-obese and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Crujeiras, A. B.; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Sandoval, J.; Milagro, F. I.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Carreira, M. C.; Gomez, A.; Hervas, D.; Monteiro, M. P.; Casanueva, F. F.; Esteller, M.; Martinez, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Data were compared between samples from obese (n = 45) and non-obese (n = 8–10) patients by Wilcoxon-rank test, unadjusted for cell type distributions. A global hypomethylation of the differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCpGs) was observed in the obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and leukocytes. The overlap analysis yielded a number of genes mapped by the common DMCpGs that were identified to reflect the obesity state in the leukocytes. Specifically, the methylation levels of FGFRL1, NCAPH2, PNKD and SMAD3 exhibited excellent and statistically significant efficiencies in the discrimination of obesity from non-obesity status (AUC > 0.80; p < 0.05) and a great correlation between both tissues. Therefore, the current study provided new and valuable DNA methylation biomarkers of obesity-related adipose tissue pathogenesis through peripheral blood analysis, an easily accessible and minimally invasive biological material instead of adipose tissue. PMID:28211912

  15. Neonatal overfeeding impairs differentiation potential of mice subcutaneous adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Isabelle; Salviano, Ísis; Mencalha, André; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Thole, Alessandra Alves; Carvalho, Laís; Cortez, Erika; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2018-04-17

    Nutritional changes in the development (intrauterine life and postnatal period) may trigger long-term pathophysiological complications such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic programming leads to organs and tissues modifications, including adipose tissue, with increased lipogenesis, production of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased glucose uptake. However, stem cells participation in adipose tissue dysfunctions triggered by overfeeding during lactation has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was the first to evaluate the effect of metabolic programming on adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) from mice submitted to overfeeding during lactation, using the litter reduction model. Cells were evaluated for proliferation capacity, viability, immunophenotyping, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The content of UCP-2 and PGC1-α was determined by Western Blot. ASC differentiation potential in adipogenic and osteogenic environments was also evaluated, as well the markers of adipogenic differentiation (PPAR-γ and FAB4) and osteogenic differentiation (osteocalcin) by RT-qPCR. Results indicated that neonatal overfeeding does not affect ASC proliferation, ROS production, and viability. However, differentiation potential and proteins related to metabolism were altered. ASC from overfed group presented increased adipogenic differentiation, decreased osteogenic differentiation, and also showed increased PGC1-α protein content and reduced UCP-2 expression. Thus, ASC may be involved with the increased adiposity observed in neonatal overfeeding, and its therapeutic potential may be affected.

  16. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  17. [Sensitivity and specificity of abdominal adiposity with metabolic syndrome in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; García Vega, María Del Mar; García Lavigne, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez Linares, María Victoria; Martínez Blanco, Javier

    It is recognised that abdominal adiposity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, such as intolerance to glucose, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of trunk fat and visceral fat index, obtained by anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance, with metabolic syndrome (SM) in an elderly population. The study included 208 subjects (78 men and 130 women) with a mean age of 82.5 years. Abdominal obesity was assessed by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. ROC curves were calculated in order to assess the ability of these variables to diagnose metabolic syndrome. There are differences between men and women in body mass index, waist to height ratio, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance measurements as trunk fat and visceral fat (p<.05). Also, found differences in anthropometric indices and variables and abdominal bioelectrical impedance between subjects with and without SM (p<.05) and only exist differences in blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (p<.05). There are significant correlations between anthropometric variables and abdominal bioelectrical impedance (p<.05). Areas under the curve (AUC) of waist to height index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, and trunk fat were greater than 0.8 (all p<.01), and in women did not exceed values of 0.65. The cut-off points obtained for BMI were 26.81 and 23.53kg/m 2 , 102 and 91cm for waist circumference, 22.1 and 20.7cm for sagittal abdominal diameter, 34% and 43.7% for trunk fat, and 17 and 11.5 for visceral fat ratio in men and women, respectively. There are different levels of predictive ability for metabolic syndrome according to gender. Trunk fat and visceral fat index and anthropometric measures have higher predictive ability for metabolic syndrome in men than in women. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioactive Androgens and Glucuronidated Androgen Metabolites are Associated with Subcutaneous and Ectopic Skeletal Muscle Adiposity among Older Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A; Dressen, Amy S; Gordon, Christopher L; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kuller, Lewis H; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wheeler, Victor W; Orwoll, Eric S; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with declining serum levels of androgenic hormones and with increased skeletal muscle fat infiltration, an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Androgens regulate fat mass and glucose homeostasis, but the effect of androgenic hormones on skeletal muscle fat infiltration is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine the association of serum androgens and their precursors and metabolites with skeletal muscle fat infiltration and T2DM in a black male population group at high risk of T2DM. Serum androgens, estrogens, and androgen precursors and metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry, and calf skeletal muscle fat distribution [subcutaneous and intermuscular fat; skeletal muscle density] were measured using quantitative computed tomography in 472 Afro-Caribbean men aged 65 and older. Bioactive androgens, testosterone, free testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, were associated with less skeletal muscle fat infiltration (r=−0.14 to −0.18, P<0.05) and increased skeletal muscle density (r=0.10 to 0.14, P<0.05), independent of total adiposity. Additionally, glucuronidated androgen metabolites were associated with less subcutaneous fat (r=−0.11 to −0.15, P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified an increased level of 3α-diol-3 glucuronide (OR=1.38, P<0.01) and a decreased level of dihydrotestosterone (OR=0.66, P<0.01) to be significantly associated with T2DM. Our findings suggest that in elderly black men, independent of total adiposity, bioactive androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites may play previously unrecognized role in skeletal muscle fat distribution. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship between androgens and androgen metabolites with changes in skeletal muscle fat distribution with aging and the incidence of T2DM. PMID:21353258

  19. Relationship of Adipocyte Size with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Ved Prakash; Seenu, V.; Sharma, M. C.; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Nandita; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Luthra, Kalpana; Vikram, Naval K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enlargement of adipocyte is associated with their dysfunction and alterations in metabolic functions. Objectives We evaluated the association of adipocyte size of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians. Methodology Eighty (40 males and 40 females) non-diabetic adult subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery were included. Pre-surgery evaluation included anthropometric measurements, % body fat by bioimpedance, abdominal fat area at L2–3 level (computed tomography) and biochemical investigations (fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipids and hsCRP). During surgery, about 5 grams each of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for adipocyte size determination. Results Females had higher BMI, % body fat, skinfold thickness, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area as compared to males. Overweight was present in 42.5% and 67.5%, and abdominal obesity in 5% and 52.5% males and females, respectively. Subcutaneous adipocyte size was significantly higher than omental adipocyte size. Omental adipocyte size correlated more strongly than subcutaneous adipocyte size with measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, %BF), total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area and biochemical measures (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA-IR), the correlations being stronger in females. The correlation of adipocyte size with metabolic parameters was attenuated after adjusting for measures of adiposity. Conclusion Omental adipocyte size, though smaller than the subcutaneous adipocyte size, was more closely related to measures of adiposity and metabolic parameters. However, the relationship was not independent of measures of adiposity. PMID:25251402

  20. Sea cucumbers with an anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells and subcutaneous but not on epicardial adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Mena-Bueno, Sara; Atanasova, Miroslava; Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Bravo, Susana B; Álvarez, Ezequiel; Fernández, Ángel L; Carrera, Iván; González-Juanatey, José R; Eiras, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) contains higher levels of inflammatory proteins and lower adiponectin levels than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), enhancing the progression of atherosclerosis. Since products from sea cucumber have anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated its effect on EAT, SAT and endothelial cells. stromal cells or explants from EAT and SAT were obtained from patients with cardiovascular disease. Extracts were obtained after hydrolysis by food-grade enzymes at different times. Proteins were identified by LC-MALDI mass spectrometry. Adipogenesis and adiponectin induction were determined on stromal cells in the presence/absence of extracts. The bioavailability of the extracts was tested on a Caco-2 cell culture model in vitro. The bioavailable fraction was probed on endothelial cells and EAT or SAT explants. Vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), IL-6 and adiponectin were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). our results showed that H. forskali and P. tremulus extracts contained compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The bioavailable fraction of P. tremulus reduced VCAM-1 (p < 0.01) and IL-6 (p < 0.05) expression levels in endothelial cells while bioavailable compounds from H. forskali decreased ICAM-1 expression in SAT (p < 0.05). No effect was observed on EAT. these results suggest that sea cucumber extracts might be used for the prevention of endothelial cells and SAT inflammation.

  1. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biologicalmore » mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.« less

  2. Characterisation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human orbital adipose tissue: a comparison with subcutaneous and omental fat

    PubMed Central

    Bujalska, Iwona J; Durrani, Omar M; Abbott, Joseph; Onyimba, Claire U; Khosla, Pamela; Moosavi, Areeb H; Reuser, Tristan T Q; Stewart, Paul M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Walker, Elizabeth A; Rauz, Saaeha

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a profound effect on adipose biology increasing tissue mass causing central obesity. The pre-receptor regulation of GCs by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that activates cortisol from cortisone has been postulated as a fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome mediating adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the omental (OM) depot. Orbital adipose tissue (OF) is the site of intense inflammation and tissue remodelling in several orbital inflammatory disease states. In this study, we describe features of the GC metabolic pathways in normal human OF depot and compare it with subcutaneous (SC) and OM depots. Using an automated histological characterisation technique, OF adipocytes were found to be significantly smaller (parameters: area, maximum diameter and perimeter) than OM and SC adipocytes (P<0·001). Although immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated resident CD68+ cells in all three whole tissue adipose depots, OF CD68 mRNA and protein expression exceeded that of OM and SC (mRNA, P<0·05; protein, P<0·001). In addition, there was higher expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α mRNA in the OF whole tissue depot (P<0·05). Conversely, 11β-HSD1 mRNA together with the markers of late adipocyte differentiation (FABP4 and G3PDH) were significantly lower in OF. Primary cultures of OF preadipocytes demonstrated predominant 11β-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity with minimal dehydrogenase activity. Orbital adipocytes are smaller, less differentiated, and express low levels of 11β-HSD1 but abundant GRα compared with SC and OM. OF harbours a large CD68+ population. These characteristics define an orbital microenvironment that has the potential to respond to sight-threatening orbital inflammatory disease. PMID:17283228

  3. Associations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Sang Geol; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jeongkook; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been linked to type 2 diabetes. As OC pesticides and PCBs mainly accumulate in adipose tissue and there are physiological and clinical differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), we explored if there were associations of OC pesticides and PCBs in VAT or SAT with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Participants were 50 patients with or without type 2 diabetes who underwent surgery for either cancer or benign liver or gallbladder lesions. We analyzed 14 OC pesticides and 22 PCB congeners in both VAT and SAT. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Although concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs were strongly correlated between VAT and SAT, absolute concentrations differed substantially between them. In particular, concentrations of all PCBs were consistently about 5-10 times higher in VAT than SAT, but these patterns were independent of diabetes status. Some OC pesticides or PCBs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordanes, and PCBs with 5 or less chlorides showed significant associations with diabetes or insulin resistance. For example, when tertiles of concentration-based summary measures were used, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 2.3, and 9.0 (P trend=0.02) for DDTs in VAT and 1.0, 2.1, and 5.7 (P trend=0.08) for PCBs with 5 or less chlorides. This study generally confirmed previous findings using serum concentrations. It would be useful to study pharmacodynamics of POPs in VAT and SAT further. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Abdominal adiposity is not a mediator of the protective effect of Mediterranean diet on colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fasanelli, Francesca; Zugna, Daniela; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Caini, Saverio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2017-05-15

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has a preventive effect on colorectal cancer (CRC). Several biological mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this effect, but the involvement of clinical mediators has not been experimentally proven. We examined the role of abdominal adiposity (i.e., waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) as a potential mediator of the relationship between the MD and CRC in the Italian centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We evaluated the effect of the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) on WHR and of WHR on CRC risk. We then estimated the natural indirect effect (NIE, mediated by WHR) and the pure direct effect (PDE, unmediated) of IMI on CRC risk using mediation analyses, considering age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking and EPIC centre as confounders. Increased IMI was associated with significantly decreased odds of high WHR (odds ratio [OR] for an IMI of 6-11 vs. 0-1: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.97). There was a positive relationship between WHR and CRC (hazard ratio [HR] for high vs. low WHR: 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66). The total effect of IMI was protective on CRC risk and was mainly explained by the PDE (HR for an IMI of 6-11 vs. 0-1: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.31-0.83), whereas the NIE was 1.00 (95%CI: 0.94-1.10). In this Mediterranean cohort, the protective effect of the MD on the development of CRC was not mediated by abdominal adiposity. Since this is the first study to investigate the mediating effect of abdominal obesity, other studies are needed to replicate this result. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jennifer L; Castro, Victor M; Moore, Carolyn E; Kaplan, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D (CaD) may play a role in the regulation of abdominal fat mass. Objective: This study investigated the effect of CaD-supplemented orange juice (OJ) on weight loss and reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in overweight and obese adults (mean ± SD age: 40.0 ± 12.9 y). Design: Two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted with either regular or reduced-energy (lite) orange juice. For each 16-wk trial, 171 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment groups consumed three 240-mL glasses of OJ (regular or lite) fortified with 350 mg Ca and 100 IU vitamin D per serving, and the control groups consumed either unfortified regular or lite OJ. Computed tomography scans of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue were performed by imaging a single cut at the lumbar 4 level. Results: After 16 wk, the average weight loss (∼2.45 kg) did not differ significantly between groups. In the regular OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.024) in the CaD group (−12.7 ± 25.0 cm2) than in the control group (−1.3 ± 13.6 cm2). In the lite OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.039) in the CaD group (−13.1 ± 18.4 cm2) than in the control group (−6.4 ± 17.5 cm2) after control for baseline VAT. The effect of calcium and vitamin D on VAT remained highly significant when the results of the 2 trials were combined (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The findings suggest that calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation contributes to a beneficial reduction of VAT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT00386672, NCT01363115. PMID:22170363

  6. Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Ulven, Stine M; Paananen, Jussi; de Mello, Vanessa; Schwab, Ursula; Carlberg, Carsten; Myhrstad, Mari; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Dungner, Elisabeth; Sjölin, Eva; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Akesson, Björn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Hukkanen, Janne; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Dragsted, Lars O; Savolainen, Markku J; Brader, Lea; Hermansen, Kjeld; Risérus, Ulf; Thorsdottir, Inga; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Uusitupa, Matti; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets. The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects. Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration <10 mg/L at the beginning and the end of the intervention, and baseline body mass index (in kg/m²) <38. SAT biopsy specimens were obtained before and after the intervention and subjected to global transcriptome analysis with Gene 1.1 ST Arrays (Affymetrix). Altogether, 128 genes were differentially expressed in SAT between the ND and CD (nominal P < 0.01; false discovery rate, 25%). These genes were overrepresented in pathways related to immune response (adjusted P = 0.0076), resulting mainly from slightly decreased expression in the ND and increased expression in the CD. Immune-related pathways included leukocyte trafficking and macrophage recruitment (e.g., interferon regulatory factor 1, CD97), adaptive immune response (interleukin32, interleukin 6 receptor), and reactive oxygen species (neutrophil cytosolic factor 1). Interestingly, the regulatory region of the 128 genes was overrepresented for binding sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB. A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the

  7. miRNAs in human subcutaneous adipose tissue: Effects of weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Malene M; Davidsen, Peter K; Vigelsø, Andreas; Hansen, Christina N; Jensen, Lars J; Jessen, Niels; Bruun, Jens M; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis. The microarray results were validated with RT-qPCR, and pathway enrichment analysis of in silico predicted targets was performed to elucidate the biological consequences of the miRNA dysregulation. Lastly, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein expression of multiple predicted targets as well as several proteins involved in lipolysis were investigated. The intervention led to upregulation of miR-29a-3p and miR-29a-5p and downregulation of miR-20b-5p. The mRNA and protein expression of predicted targets was not significantly affected by the intervention. However, negative correlations between miR-20b-5p and the protein levels of its predicted target, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, were observed. Several other miRNA-target relationships correlated negatively, indicating possible miRNA regulation, including miR-29a-3p and lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels. Proteins involved in lipolysis were not affected by the intervention. Weight loss influenced several miRNAs, some of which were negatively correlated with predicted targets. These dysregulated miRNAs may affect adipocytokine signaling and forkhead box protein O signaling. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com; CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto; Faria, Gil

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) weremore » collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to

  9. Effect of Pioglitazone on the Fructose-Induced Abdominal Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E.; Rebolledo, Oscar R.; Gagliardino, Juan J.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction. PMID:23091482

  10. Effect of pioglitazone on the fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E; Rebolledo, Oscar R; Gagliardino, Juan J; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction.

  11. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  12. Novel culture system of mesenchymal stromal cells from human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Iwashima, Shigejiro; Ozaki, Takenori; Maruyama, Shoichi; Saka, Yousuke; Kobori, Masato; Omae, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Hirotake; Niimi, Tomoaki; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Yuzuru; Torii, Shuhei; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yuzawa, Yukio; Kitagawa, Yasuo; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2009-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the delivery of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hASCs) has great potential as regenerative therapy. This was performed to develop a method for expanding hASCs by reducing the amount of serum required. We demonstrate that hASCs were able to expand efficiently in media containing 2% serum and fibroblast growth factor-2. These cells, or low serum cultured hASCs (hLASCs), expressed cell surface markers similar to those on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and could be differentiated into cells of mesenchymal lineage. Of interest, hLASCs secreted higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than hASCs cultured in 20% serum (hHASCs). Moreover, hLASC-conditioned media significantly increased endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and decreased EC apoptosis compared to that obtained from hHASCs or control media only. Antibodies against VEGF and HGF virtually negated these effects. When hASCs were administered into the ischemic hindlimbs of nude rats, hLASCs improved blood flow, increased capillary density, and raised the levels of VEGF and HGF in the muscles as compared with hHASCs. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel low serum culture system for hASCs, which may have great potential in regenerative cell therapy for damaged organs in the clinical setting.

  13. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  14. Subcutaneous Infiltration of Carbon Dioxide (Carboxytherapy) for Abdominal Fat Reduction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Alam, Murad; Sadhwani, Divya; Geisler, Amelia; Aslam, Imran; Makin, Inder Raj S; Schlessinger, Daniel I; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Voravutinon, Nataya; Weil, Alexandra; Chen, Brian R; West, Dennis P; Veledar, Emir; Poon, Emily

    2018-04-23

    Non-invasive fat removal is preferred because of decreased downtime and lower perceived risk. It is important to seek new non-invasive fat removal treatments that are both safe and efficacious. To assess the extent to which carboxytherapy, the insufflation of carbon dioxide gas into subcutaneous fat, results in reduction of fat volume. Randomized, sham-controlled, split-body study. Adults (BMI 22-29) were randomized to receive five weekly infusions of 1000 cc CO 2 to one side of the abdomen, and five sham treatments to the contralateral side. Primary outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of fat layer thickness, as well as total circumference before and after treatment. Sixteen participants completed the study. Ultrasound measurement indicated less fat volume on the sides treated with carboxytherapy one week after the last treatment, (p=0.011), but was not maintained at 28 weeks. Total circumference decreased nominally but not significantly at Week 5 compared to baseline (p=0.0697). Participant body weights did not change over the entire course of the study (p=1.00) LIMITATIONS: Limitations included modest sample size and some sources of error in circumference and fat layer measurements. Carboxytherapy provides a transient decrease in subcutaneous fat that may not persist. Treatment is well-tolerated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-01-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in 13C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower 13C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT 3H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic 3H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated 3H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  16. Epigenetic regulation of depot-specific gene expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Sandra; Brueckner, Bodo; Schepky, Andreas; Klein, Johannes; Iwen, Alexander; Bosch, Thomas C G; Wenck, Horst; Winnefeld, Marc; Hagemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In humans, adipose tissue is distributed in subcutaneous abdominal and subcutaneous gluteal depots that comprise a variety of functional differences. Whereas energy storage in gluteal adipose tissue has been shown to mediate a protective effect, an increase of abdominal adipose tissue is associated with metabolic disorders. However, the molecular basis of depot-specific characteristics is not completely understood yet. Using array-based analyses of transcription profiles, we identified a specific set of genes that was differentially expressed between subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue. To investigate the role of epigenetic regulation in depot-specific gene expression, we additionally analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in abdominal and gluteal depots. By combining both data sets, we identified a highly significant set of depot-specifically expressed genes that appear to be epigenetically regulated. Interestingly, the majority of these genes form part of the homeobox gene family. Moreover, genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were also differentially expressed. Therefore we suppose that changes in gene expression profiles might account for depot-specific differences in lipid composition. Indeed, triglycerides and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue were more saturated compared to triglycerides and fatty acids in gluteal adipose tissue. Taken together, our results uncover clear differences between abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue on the gene expression and DNA methylation level as well as in fatty acid composition. Therefore, a detailed molecular characterization of adipose tissue depots will be essential to develop new treatment strategies for metabolic syndrome associated complications.

  17. Characterization of 5α-reductase activity and isoenzymes in human abdominal adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Fouad Mansour, Mohamed; Pelletier, Mélissa; Tchernof, André

    2016-07-01

    The substrate for the generation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is either androstenedione (4-dione) which is first converted to androstanedione and then to DHT through 17-oxoreductase activity, or testosterone, which is directly converted to DHT. Three 5α-reductase isoenzymes have been characterized and designated as types 1, 2 and 3 (SRD5A1, 2 and 3). To define the predominant source of local DHT production in human adipose tissues, identify 5α-reductase isoenzymes and test their impact on preadipocyte differentiation. Cultures of omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes were treated for 0, 6 or 24h with 30nM (14)C-4-dione or (14)C-testosterone, with and without 500nM 5α-reductase inhibitors 17-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5-androstan-3-one (4-MA) or finasteride. Protein level and mRNA abundance of 5α-reductase isoenzymes/transcripts were examined in whole SC and OM adipose tissue. HEK-293 cells stably transfected with 5α-reductase type 1, 2 or 3 were used to test 5α-reductase inhibitors. We also assessed the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors on preadipocyte differentiation. Over 24h, DHT formation from 4-dione increased gradually (p<0.05) and was significantly higher compared to that generated from testosterone (p<0.001). DHT formation from both 4-dione and testosterone was blocked by both 5α-reductase inhibitors. In whole adipose tissue from both fat compartments, SRD5A3 was the most highly expressed isoenzyme followed by SRD5A1 (p<0.001). SRD5A2 was not expressed. In HEK-293 cells, 4-MA and finasteride inhibited activity of 5α-reductases types 2 and 3 but not type 1. In preadipocyte cultures where differentiation was inhibited by 4-dione (p<0.05, n=7) or testosterone (p<0.05, n=5), the inhibitors 4-MA and finasteride abolished these effects. Although 4-dione is the main source of DHT in human preadipocytes, production of this steroid by 5α-reductase isoenzymes mediates the inhibitory effect of both 4-dione and testosterone on

  18. Metabolomics and transcriptomics identify pathway differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in colorectal cancer patients: the ColoCare study.

    PubMed

    Liesenfeld, David B; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F; Salou, Mariam; Scherer, Dominique; Toth, Reka; Habermann, Nina; Böhm, Jürgen; Schrotz-King, Petra; Gigic, Biljana; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis; Herpel, Esther; Schirmacher, Peter; Fiehn, Oliver; Lampe, Johanna W; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the differential functions of their metabolic compositions. Biochemical differences between adipose tissues (VAT compared with SAT) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were investigated by using mass spectrometry metabolomics and gene expression profiling. Metabolite compositions were compared between VAT, SAT, and serum metabolites. The relation between patients' tumor stage and metabolic profiles was assessed. Presurgery blood and paired VAT and SAT samples during tumor surgery were obtained from 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I-IV) of the ColoCare cohort. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure 1065 metabolites in adipose tissue (333 identified compounds) and 1810 metabolites in serum (467 identified compounds). Adipose tissue gene expression was measured by using Illumina's HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChips. Compared with SAT, VAT displayed elevated markers of inflammatory lipid metabolism, free arachidonic acid, phospholipases (PLA2G10), and prostaglandin synthesis-related enzymes (PTGD/PTGS2S). Plasmalogen concentrations were lower in VAT than in SAT, which was supported by lower gene expression of FAR1, the rate-limiting enzyme for ether-lipid synthesis in VAT. Serum sphingomyelin concentrations were inversely correlated (P = 0.0001) with SAT adipose triglycerides. Logistic regression identified lipids in patients' adipose tissues, which were associated with CRC tumor stage. As one of the first studies, we comprehensively assessed differences in metabolic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic profiles between paired human VAT and SAT and their association with CRC tumor stage. We identified markers of inflammation in VAT, which

  19. Metabolomics and transcriptomics identify pathway differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in colorectal cancer patients: the ColoCare study12

    PubMed Central

    Liesenfeld, David B; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F; Salou, Mariam; Scherer, Dominique; Toth, Reka; Habermann, Nina; Böhm, Jürgen; Schrotz-King, Petra; Gigic, Biljana; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis; Herpel, Esther; Schirmacher, Peter; Fiehn, Oliver; Lampe, Johanna W; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the differential functions of their metabolic compositions. Objectives: Biochemical differences between adipose tissues (VAT compared with SAT) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were investigated by using mass spectrometry metabolomics and gene expression profiling. Metabolite compositions were compared between VAT, SAT, and serum metabolites. The relation between patients’ tumor stage and metabolic profiles was assessed. Design: Presurgery blood and paired VAT and SAT samples during tumor surgery were obtained from 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I–IV) of the ColoCare cohort. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure 1065 metabolites in adipose tissue (333 identified compounds) and 1810 metabolites in serum (467 identified compounds). Adipose tissue gene expression was measured by using Illumina’s HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChips. Results: Compared with SAT, VAT displayed elevated markers of inflammatory lipid metabolism, free arachidonic acid, phospholipases (PLA2G10), and prostaglandin synthesis–related enzymes (PTGD/PTGS2S). Plasmalogen concentrations were lower in VAT than in SAT, which was supported by lower gene expression of FAR1, the rate-limiting enzyme for ether-lipid synthesis in VAT. Serum sphingomyelin concentrations were inversely correlated (P = 0.0001) with SAT adipose triglycerides. Logistic regression identified lipids in patients’ adipose tissues, which were associated with CRC tumor stage. Conclusions: As one of the first studies, we comprehensively assessed differences in metabolic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic profiles between paired human VAT and SAT and their association with CRC

  20. Does the Mediterranean diet counteract the adverse effects of abdominal adiposity?

    PubMed

    Eguaras, S; Toledo, E; Buil-Cosiales, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Corella, D; Gutierrez-Bedmar, M; Santos-Lozano, J M; Arós, F; Fiol, M; Fitó, M; Ros, E; Serra-Majem, L; Pintó, X; Martínez, J A; Sorlí, J V; Muñoz, M A; Basora, J; Estruch, R; Martínez-González, M Á

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) could mitigate the well-known harmful effects of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular health. We assessed the relationship between baseline waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and major cardiovascular events during a median follow-up of 4.8 years in the Prevention with Mediterranean Diet (PREDIMED) randomized primary prevention trial, which tested a MeDiet against a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). We also examined whether the MeDiet intervention was able to counteract the detrimental cardiovascular effects of an increased WHtR. The trial included 7447 participants (55-80 years old, 57% women) at high cardiovascular risk but free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at enrollment. An increased risk of CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) was apparent for the highest versus the lowest quartile of WHtR (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 1.98) (95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.57; linear trend: p = 0.019) only in the control-diet group, but not in the two groups allocated to intervention with MeDiet (p for interaction = 0.034). This apparent interaction suggesting that the intervention counterbalanced the detrimental cardiovascular effects of adiposity was also significant for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.01) and waist circumference (p = 0.043). The MeDiet may counteract the harmful effects of increased adiposity on the risk of CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  2. Pilot study: whole body manual subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) therapy improved pain and SAT structure in women with lipedema.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Karen L; Ussery, Christopher; Eekema, Alyna

    2017-09-20

    Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study. Results Weight, resting metabolic rate and BSQ did not change significantly. Limb fat over total body fat mass (p = 0.08) and trunk fat over total body mass trended down from baseline (p = 0.08) by DXA. Leg volume and caliper assessments in eight of nine areas (p < 0.007), LEFS (p = 0.002) and average pain (p = 0.007) significantly decreased from baseline. Fibrosis significantly decreased in the nodules, hips and groin. Ultrasound showed improved SAT structure in some subjects. Side effects included pain, bruising, itching, swelling and gastroesophageal reflux disease. All women said they would recommend SAT therapy to other women with lipedema. Limitations Small number of subjects. Conclusion SAT therapy in 4 weeks improved tissue structure, perceived leg function, and volume although shape was not affected. While side effects of SAT therapy were common, all women felt the therapy was beneficial.

  3. Android subcutaneous adipose tissue topography in lean and obese women suffering from PCOS: comparison with type 2 diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Horejsi, R; Möller, R; Rackl, S; Giuliani, A; Freytag, U; Crailsheim, K; Sudi, K; Tafeit, E

    2004-07-01

    The new optical device, the lipometer, enables the noninvasive, quick, safe, and precise determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers at any given site of the human body. Fifteen anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf describe a SAT topography (SAT-Top) like an individual "fingerprint" of a subject. This SAT-Top was examined in 16 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared to the body fat distribution of 87 age-matched healthy controls and 20 type-2 diabetic women. SAT-Top differences of these three groups were described and, to render the possibility of visual comparison, the 15-dimensional body fat information was condensed to a two-dimensional factor plot by factor analysis. All PCOS patients had an android body fat distribution with significantly thinner SAT layers on the legs as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in two distinctly different groups of PCOS women, a lean (PCOSL) and an obese (PCOSO) cluster: compared to healthy women, lean PCOS patients had significantly lower total SAT development, even though height, weight, and body mass index did not deviate significantly. Especially on the legs, their SAT layers were significantly lowered, indicating a more "apple-like" fat distribution type. Obese PCOS women showed a SAT-Top pattern very similar to that of women with type-2 diabetes, although the mean age difference between these groups was more than 30 years. Compared to healthy controls, the SAT-Top of these obese PCOS patients was strongly shifted into the android direction, appearing as "super-apples" with a significantly increased upper trunk obesity to 237.8% and a significantly decreased leg SAT development to 79.8%. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Marrow Adipose Tissue in Older Men: Association with Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat, Bone Volume, Metabolism, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bani Hassan, Ebrahim; Demontiero, Oddom; Vogrin, Sara; Ng, Alvin; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-03-26

    Marrow (MAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues display different metabolic profiles and varying associations with aging, bone density, and fracture risk. Using a non-invasive imaging methodology, we aimed to investigate the associations between MAT, SAT, and visceral fat (VAT) with bone volume, bone remodeling markers, insulin resistance, and circulating inflammatory mediators in a population of older men. In this cross-sectional study, 96 healthy men (mean age 67 ± 5.5) were assessed for anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum biochemistry, and inflammatory panel. Using single-energy computed tomography images, MAT (in L2 and L3 and both hips), VAT, and SAT (at the level of L2-L3 and L4-L5) were measured employing Slice-O-Matic software (Tomovision), which enables specific tissue demarcation applying previously reported Hounsfield unit thresholds. MAT volume was similar in all anatomical sites and independent of BMI. In all femoral regions of interest (ROIs) there was a strong negative association between bone and MAT volumes (r = - 0.840 to - 0.972, p < 0.001), with location-dependent variations in the lumbar spine. Unlike VAT and SAT, no associations between MAT and serum glucose, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance indicators were found. Bone decline occurred without red marrow expansion; thus lost bone was mainly (if not exclusively) replaced by MAT. In conclusion, strong inverse correlations between MAT and bone mass, which have been previously observed in women, were also confirmed in older men. However, MAT volume in all ROIs was interrelated and unlike women, mainly independent of VAT or SAT. The lack of strong association between MAT vs VAT/SAT, and its discordant associations with metabolic and inflammatory mediators provide further evidence on MAT's distinct attributes in older men.

  5. Prepartal dietary energy alters transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Salin, S; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Kokkonen, T; Elo, K T

    2014-05-01

    Overfeeding during the dry period may predispose cows to increased insulin resistance (IR) with enhanced postpartum lipolysis. We studied gene expression in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 16 Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows fed either a controlled energy diet [Con, 99 MJ/day metabolizable energy (ME)] during the last 6 wk of the dry period or high-energy diet (High, 141 MJ/day ME) for the first 3 wk and then gradually decreasing energy allowance during 3 wk to 99 MJ/day ME before the expected parturition. Tissue biopsies were collected at -10, 1, and 9 days, and blood samples at -10, 1, and 7 days relative to parturition. Overfed cows had greater dry matter, crude protein, and ME intakes and ME balance before parturition. Daily milk yield, live weight, and body condition score were not different between treatments. The High cows tended to have greater plasma insulin and lower glucagon/insulin ratio compared with Con cows. No differences in circulating glucose, glucagon, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and hepatic triglyceride contents were observed between treatments. Overfeeding compared with Con resulted in lower CPT1A and PCK1 and a tendency for lower G6PC and PC expression in the liver. The High group tended to have lower RETN expression in SAT than Con. No other effects of overfeeding on the expression of genes related to IR in SAT were observed. In conclusion, overfeeding energy prepartum may have compromised hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and slightly affected IR in SAT based on gene expression.

  6. Fructose-rich diet-induced abdominal adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in normal male rats.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Raschia, Agustina; Madrid, Viviana; Gaillard, Rolf C; Rebolledo, Oscar; Gagliardino, Juan J; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    We have currently studied the changes induced by administration of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to normal rats in the mass and the endocrine function of abdominal (omental) adipose tissue (AAT). Rats were fed ad libitum a standard commercial chow and tap water, either alone (control diet, CD) or containing fructose (10%, w/vol) (FRD). Three weeks after treatment, circulating metabolic markers and leptin release from adipocytes of AAT were measured. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), leptin, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in FRD than in CD rats. AAT mass was greater in FRD than in CD rats and their adipocytes were larger, they secreted more leptin and showed impaired insulin sensitivity. While leptin mRNA expression increased in AAT from FRD rats, gene expression of insulin receptor substrate, IRS1 and IRS2 was significantly reduced. Our study demonstrates that administration of a FRD significantly affects insulin sensitivity and several AAT endocrine/metabolic functions. These alterations could be part of a network of interacting abnormalities triggered by FRD-induced oxidative stress at the AAT level. In view of the impaired glucose tolerance observed in FRD rats, these alterations could play a key role in both the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and beta-cell failure.

  7. Abdominal and General Adiposity and Level of Asthma Control in Adults with Uncontrolled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Buist, A. Sonia; Strub, Peg; Nadeau, Kari C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Abdominal adiposity may be an important risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in adults, controlling for general obesity. Whether the relationship, if present, is explained by other factors (e.g., asthma onset age, sex, and/or coexisting conditions) is unclear. Objectives: To examine whether clinically applicable anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity—waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)—are related to poorer asthma control in adults with uncontrolled asthma controlling for body mass index (BMI), and whether the relationship (if present) is explained by gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD), sleep quality, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or differs by age of asthma onset or sex. Methods: Patients aged 18 to 70 years with uncontrolled asthma (n = 90) participated in a 6-month randomized clinical trial. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline measures included sociodemographics, standardized anthropometrics, Asthma Control Test (ACT), GERD Symptom Assessment Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Berlin Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea. Participants (mean [SD] age, 52 [12] yr) were racially and ethnically diverse, 67% women, and 69% overweight or obese, and 71% reported their age of asthma onset was 12 years or older. Participants had uncontrolled asthma (mean [SD] ACT score, 14.9 [3.7]) and low GERD symptoms score (0.6 [0.4]); 67% reported poor sleep quality, and 42% had a high OSA risk. General linear regression results showed that worse ACT scores were significantly associated with every SD increase in waist circumference (β= −1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.96 to −0.16; P = 0.02) and waist-to-height ratio (β= −1.16; 95% CI, −2.00 to −0.33; P = 0.008), controlling for sociodemographics. Waist-to-height ratio remained correlated with ACT (β= −2.30; 95% CI, −4.16 to −0.45; P = 0.02) after further adjusting for BMI. The BMI-controlled relationship between WHtR and ACT did not differ by age of asthma

  8. A comparative study of software programmes for cross-sectional skeletal muscle and adipose tissue measurements on abdominal computed tomography scans of rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Jeroen L A; Levolger, Stef; Gharbharan, Arvind; Koek, Marcel; Niessen, Wiro J; Burger, Jacobus W A; Willemsen, Sten P; de Bruin, Ron W F; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2017-04-01

    The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single-slice computed tomography (CT)-based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter-observer, intra-observer, and inter-software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed. Fifty abdominal CT scans were randomly selected from 50 different patients and independently assessed by two observers. Cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA, i.e. rectus abdominis, oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles, and the psoas muscle), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) were segmented by using standard Hounsfield unit ranges and computed for regions of interest. The inter-software, intra-observer, and inter-observer agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements using FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analyses. Cohen's κ was calculated for the agreement of sarcopenia and visceral obesity assessment. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to compare the similarity and diversity of measurements. Bland-Altman analyses and ICC indicated that the CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements between the different software programmes were highly comparable (ICC 0.979-1.000, P < 0.001). All programmes adequately distinguished between the presence or absence of sarcopenia (κ = 0.88-0.96 for one observer and all κ = 1.00 for all comparisons of the other observer) and visceral obesity (all κ = 1.00). Furthermore, excellent intra-observer (ICC 0.999-1.000, P < 0.001) and inter-observer (ICC 0.998-0.999, P < 0.001) agreement for all software programmes were found. Accordingly, excellent Jaccard similarity coefficients were found

  9. A comparative study of software programmes for cross‐sectional skeletal muscle and adipose tissue measurements on abdominal computed tomography scans of rectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Levolger, Stef; Gharbharan, Arvind; Koek, Marcel; Niessen, Wiro J.; Burger, Jacobus W.A.; Willemsen, Sten P.; de Bruin, Ron W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The association between body composition (e.g. sarcopenia or visceral obesity) and treatment outcomes, such as survival, using single‐slice computed tomography (CT)‐based measurements has recently been studied in various patient groups. These studies have been conducted with different software programmes, each with their specific characteristics, of which the inter‐observer, intra‐observer, and inter‐software correlation are unknown. Therefore, a comparative study was performed. Methods Fifty abdominal CT scans were randomly selected from 50 different patients and independently assessed by two observers. Cross‐sectional muscle area (CSMA, i.e. rectus abdominis, oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, paraspinal muscles, and the psoas muscle), visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) were segmented by using standard Hounsfield unit ranges and computed for regions of interest. The inter‐software, intra‐observer, and inter‐observer agreement for CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements using FatSeg, OsiriX, ImageJ, and sliceOmatic were calculated using intra‐class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland–Altman analyses. Cohen's κ was calculated for the agreement of sarcopenia and visceral obesity assessment. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was used to compare the similarity and diversity of measurements. Results Bland–Altman analyses and ICC indicated that the CSMA, VAT, and SAT measurements between the different software programmes were highly comparable (ICC 0.979–1.000, P < 0.001). All programmes adequately distinguished between the presence or absence of sarcopenia (κ = 0.88–0.96 for one observer and all κ = 1.00 for all comparisons of the other observer) and visceral obesity (all κ = 1.00). Furthermore, excellent intra‐observer (ICC 0.999–1.000, P < 0.001) and inter‐observer (ICC 0.998–0.999, P < 0.001) agreement for all software programmes were

  10. Immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by a species-specific panel of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Ana; Grolli, Stefano; Borghetti, Paolo; Ravanetti, Francesca; Conti, Virna; De Angelis, Elena; Macchi, Francesca; Ramoni, Roberto; Martelli, Paolo; Gazza, Ferdinando; Cacchioli, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Immunophenotypical characterization of mesenchymal stem cells is fundamental for the design and execution of sound experimental and clinical studies. The scarce availability of species-specific antibodies for canine antigens has hampered the immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this study was to select a panel of species-specific direct antibodies readily useful for canine mesenchymal stem cells characterization. They were isolated from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples collected during regular surgeries from 8 dogs. Single color flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (P3) deriving from subcutaneous and perivisceral adipose tissue with a panel of 7 direct anti-canine antibodies revealed two largely homogenous cell populations with a similar pattern: CD29 + , CD44 + , CD73 + , CD90 + , CD34 - , CD45 - and MHC-II - with no statistically significant differences among them. Antibody reactivity was demonstrated on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The similarities are reinforced by their in vitro cell morphology, trilineage differentiation ability and RT-PCR analysis (CD90 + , CD73 + , CD105 + , CD44 + , CD13 + , CD29 + , Oct-4 + gene and CD31 - and CD45 - expression). Our results report for the first time a comparison between the immunophenotypic profile of canine MSC deriving from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The substantial equivalence between the two populations has practical implication on clinical applications, giving the opportunity to choose the source depending on the patient needs. The results contribute to routine characterization of MSC populations grown in vitro, a mandatory process for the definition of solid and reproducible laboratory and therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Shaimaa; Elo, Kari; Jaakkola, Seija; Karikoski, Ninja; Boston, Ray; Reilas, Tiina; Särkijärvi, Susanna; Saastamoinen, Markku; Kokkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or semi-natural grassland (NG) from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05) and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM); P=0.02), and larger waist circumference (P=0.03) than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04), but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03) during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05) was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05). Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01). In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season. PMID:25938677

  12. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  13. Visfatin Is Regulated by Rosiglitazone in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Influenced by NFκB and JNK in Human Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Nancy F.; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Creely, Steven J.; Kusminski, Christine M.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Levick, Paul L.; Khanolkar, Manish; Evans, Marc; Chittari, Madhu V.; Patel, Vinod; Kumar, Sudhesh; McTernan, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    Visfatin has been proposed as an insulin-mimicking adipocytokine, predominantly secreted from adipose tissue and correlated with obesity. However, recent studies suggest visfatin may act as a proinflammatory cytokine. Our studies sought to determine the significance of this adipocytokine and its potential role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Firstly, we examined the effects of diabetic status on circulating visfatin levels, and several other adipocytokines, demonstrating that diabetic status increased visfatin*, TNF-α*** and IL-6*** compared with non-diabetic subjects (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, respectively). We then assessed the effects of an insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (RSG), in treatment naïve T2DM subjects, on circulating visfatin levels. Our findings showed that visfatin was reduced post-RSG treatment [vs. pre-treatment (*p<0.05)] accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR**, thus implicating a role for insulin in visfatin regulation. Further studies addressed the intracellular mechanisms by which visfatin may be regulated, and may exert pro-inflammatory effects, in human abdominal subcutaneous (Abd Sc) adipocytes. Following insulin (Ins) and RSG treatment, our in vitro findings highlighted that insulin (100 nM), alone, upregulated visfatin protein expression whereas, in combination with RSG (10 nM), it reduced visfatin*, IKKβ** and p-JNK1/2*. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK protein exacted a significant reduction in visfatin expression (**p<0.01), whilst NF-κB blockade increased visfatin (*p<0.05), thus identifying JNK as the more influential factor in visfatin regulation. Additional in vitro analysis on adipokines regulating visfatin showed that only Abd Sc adipocytes treated with recombinant human (rh)IL-6 increased visfatin protein (*p<0.05), whilst rh visfatin treatment, itself, had no influence on TNF-α, IL-6 or resistin secretion from Sc adipocytes. These data highlight visfatin's regulation by insulin and RSG, potentially acting through NF

  14. Antioxidant treatment prevents the development of fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Juan Pablo; García, María Elisa; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Marra, Carlos Alberto; Spinedi, Eduardo; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we tested the effect of OS (oxidative stress) inhibition in rats fed on an FRD [fructose-rich diet; 10% (w/v) in drinking water] for 3 weeks. Normal adult male rats received a standard CD (commercial diet) or an FRD without or with an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, APO (apocynin; 5 mM in drinking water; CD-APO and FRD-APO). We thereafter measured plasma OS and metabolic-endocrine markers, AAT (abdominal adipose tissue) mass and cell size, FA (fatty acid) composition (content and release), OS status, LEP (leptin) and IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1/IRS-2 mRNAs, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, NADPH oxidase activity and LEP release by isolated AAT adipocytes. FRD-fed rats had larger AAT mass without changes in body weight, and higher plasma levels of TAG (triacylglycerol), FAs, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) and LEP. Although no significant changes in glucose and insulin plasma levels were observed in these animals, their HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) values were significantly higher than those of CD. The AAT from FRD-fed rats had larger adipocytes, higher saturated FA content, higher NADPH oxidase activity, greater ROS production, a distorted FA content/release pattern, lower insulin sensitivity together with higher and lower mRNA content of LEP and IRS-1-/2 respectively, and released a larger amount of LEP. The development of all the clinical, OS, metabolic, endocrine and molecular changes induced by the FRD were significantly prevented by APO co-administration. The fact that APO treatment prevented both changes in NADPH oxidase activity and the development of all the FRD-induced AAT dysfunctions in normal rats strongly suggests that OS plays an important role in the FRD-induced MS (metabolic syndrome) phenotype.

  15. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  17. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Removal of Intra-abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats: Role of Hepatic Triglyceride Storage

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michelle T.; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  19. Association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xu, Wen Ming; Zhang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level. Case-control study. University teaching hospital. In total, 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy control subjects, who underwent laparoscopic surgery, were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was defined based on waist circumference (WC). The homeostasis model index was used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Gene expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the parameters of oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase, enzyme glutathione reductase, and dimethylarginine, were measured, and the expression of protein oxidative damage product 3-nitro-tyrosine residues (nitrotyrosine) in VAT was identified with the use of immunohistochemistry. PCOS was associated with lower expression of GLUT4 and IRS1 and a higher level of oxidative stress in VAT, which was strongly correlated with WC and HOMA-IR. Presence of abdominal obesity further intensified the correlations observed in our measurements. The nitrotyrosine expression in VAT was stronger in PCOS patients. The strong correlation of insulin resistance with oxidative stress at the VAT level suggests that local oxidative stress and abnormalities of insulin signaling in adipose tissue play critical roles in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of a Sub-set of Skinfold Sites for Ultrasound Measurement of Subcutaneous Adiposity and Percentage Body Fat Estimation in Athletes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D C; Cronin, O; O'Neill, S B; Woods, T; Keohane, D M; Molloy, M G; Falvey, E C

    2016-05-01

    Body composition assessment is an integral feature of elite sport as optimization facilitates successful performance. This study aims to refine the use of B-mode ultrasound in the assessment of athlete body composition by determining suitable sites for measurement. 67 elite athletes recruited from the Human Performance Laboratory, University College Cork, Ireland, underwent dual measurement of body composition. Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at 7 anatomical sites were measured using ultrasound and compared to percentage body fat values determined using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Multiple linear regressions were performed and an equation to predict percentage body fat was derived. The present study found subcutaneous adipose tissue depths at the triceps, biceps, anterior thigh and supraspinale sites correlated significantly with percentage body fat by X-ray absorptiometry (all p<0.05). Summation of the depths at these locations correlated strongly with percentage body fat by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (R²=0.879). The triceps, biceps, anterior thigh and supraspinale sites are suitable anatomical landmarks for the estimation of %BF using B-mode ultrasound. Use of B-mode ultrasound in the assessment of athlete body composition confers many benefits including lack of ionising radiation and its potential to be used as a portable field tool. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Comparison of maternal abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and body mass index as markers for pregnancy outcomes: A stratified cohort study.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Ashwin; Liu, Anthony; Poulton, Alison; Quinton, Ann; Amer, Zara; Mongelli, Max; Martin, Andrew; Benzie, Ronald; Peek, Michael; Nanan, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is associated with a number of adverse outcomes. The effects of central versus general obesity in pregnancy have not been well established. To compare subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) with body mass index (BMI) as a marker for pregnancy outcomes. A stratified retrospective cohort study was performed on 1200 pregnancies, selected from a total of 4862 nulliparous, nonsmoking women between 2006 and 2010. SFT was measured on routine ultrasound at 18-22 weeks gestation. BMI and SFT measurements were compared for estimating risks for obesity-related pregnancy outcomes using logistic regression adjusted for maternal age. The median SFT was 18.2 mm (range 6.3-50.9 mm), the median BMI was 23.8 kg/m(2) (range 15.2-52.5), and the correlation between SFT and BMI was 0.53. For every 5 mm increase in SFT and every 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI, the odds ratios for developing gestational diabetes mellitus were 1.40 (CI 1.22-1.61, P < 0.001) and 1.16 (CI 0.95-1.40, P = 0.1), for caesarean section 1.28 (CI 1.16-1.40, P < 0.001) and 1.16 (CI 1.05-1.28, P = 0.003), large for gestational age 1.28 (CI 1.16-1.47, P = 0.001) and 1.10 (CI 0.95-1.28, P = 0.16) and cumulative adverse obesity-related pregnancy outcomes 1.16 (CI 1.10-1.28, P = 0.002) and 1.05 (CI 0.95-1.16, P = 0.45), respectively. SFT at 18-22 weeks gestation is better than BMI as a marker for obesity-related pregnancy outcomes. As SFT is considered a surrogate measure for visceral fat, these results suggest that central obesity is a stronger risk factor than general adiposity in pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. A novel transcutaneous, non-focused ultrasound energy delivering device is able to induce subcutaneous adipose tissue destruction in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Levi, Assi; Amitai, Dan Ben; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    The understanding that adipocytes are greatly influenced by thermal changes combined with the advancement of non-invasive ultrasound technologies have led to the application of ultrasound as an energy source to induce thermal fat destruction. While application of high intensity focused, ultrasound energy have been widely explored, there is far less information regarding the effects of non-focused ultrasound on adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of a novel transcutaneous, multi-elements, non-focused ultrasound energy regimen in an animal model, as a proof-of-concept of its potential to treat non-invasive subcutaneous benign tumors. The non-invasive transcutaneous ultrasound system prototype (LUMENIS, Ltd., Yoqneam, Israel) was applied to thermally induce adipocytes' death. During treatment, the ultrasound energy was transmitted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 12 domestic adult female pigs. Two modes of operation (long and short), which differ in both the acoustic energy applied to the tissue and in their time durations (i.e., differ in their power settings), were used in this study. Efficacy and safety assessments included: Temperature measurement of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) visual inspection and ultrasound imaging of the thermally affected areas, histopathological assessment of tissue samples using hematoxylin & eosin, and Masson's trichrome stains and in situ cell death detection kit for apoptosis assessment. The long and short treatment modes led to a 13.2°C and 17.8°C rise from baseline, respectively, in the SAT, whereas skin surface temperature was practically unaffected. Visual, ultrasonographic, and histopathological evaluation of the treated area showed SAT ablation. No treatment-related changes were observed in the epidermis, dermis subcutaneous muscle and nerves, or in livers and kidneys of treated animals. Additionally, no significant changes from baseline in blood- and urine

  3. Abdominal adiposity, general obesity, and subclinical systolic dysfunction in the elderly: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Sera, Fusako; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-05-01

    General obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity, measured as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), are associated with heart failure and cardiovascular events. However, the relationship of general and abdominal obesity with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is unknown. We assessed the association of general and abdominal obesity with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in a population-based elderly cohort. Participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study underwent measurement of BMI, WC, and WHR. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by two-dimensional echocardiographic LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS). The study population included 729 participants (mean age 71 ± 9 years, 60% women). In multivariate analysis, higher BMI (but not WC and WHR) was associated with higher LVEF (β = 0.11, P = 0.003). Higher WC (β = 0.08, P = 0.038) and higher WHR (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) were associated with lower GLS, whereas BMI was not (P = 0.720). Compared with normal WHR, high WHR was associated with lower GLS in all BMI categories (normal, overweight, and obese), and was associated with subclinical LV dysfunction by GLS both in participants without [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.6, P = 0.020] and with general obesity (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.1-25.9, P = 0.034). WHR was incremental to BMI and risk factors in predicting LV dysfunction. Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction by GLS in all BMI categories. BMI was not associated with LV dysfunction. Increased abdominal adiposity may be a risk factor for LV dysfunction regardless of the presence of general obesity. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol of Ishige okamurae and Caffeine Modified the Expression of Extracellular Fibrillars during Adipogenesis of Mouse Subcutaneous Adipose Derived Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Younmi; Song, Siyoung; Kim, Hagju; Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2013-01-01

    Although, one of the etiologies of localized lipodystrophy of the subcutaneous connective tissue (cellulite) is the histological alternation of adipose tissue, the characteristics of expression of the components of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during adipogenesis are not uncovered. In this study, the effects of caffeine and Ishige okamurae originated diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) on the expression of extracellualr fibers was analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR during differentiation induction of mouse subcutaneous adipose derived stem cells (msADSC) into adipocyte. The expression levels of Col1a, Col3a1, and Col61a were decreased by the adipogenci induction in a time-dependent manners. However, Col2a mRNA and Col4a1 mRNA expressions were oposit to them. Caffeine and DPHC stimulated the changes of the expression of these collagens. Eln mRNA expression was increased by induction. DPHC stimulated the expression of it. Mfap5 mRNA expression was deceased in both adipogenic cell and matured adipocytes. Caffeine suppressed the expression of Mfap5 but the effect of DPHC was different by the concentration. The expression of bioglycan, decorin, and lumican were also modified by caffeine and DPHC in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on this study, we revealed firstly the effects of caffeine and DPHC on the expression of collagens, elastin, and glycoproteins during adipogenesis of msADSCs. Those results suggest that DPHC may have antiadipogenic effect and has more positive effets on normal adipose tissue generation and work as suppressor the abnormality of ECM structure. Such results indicate that DPHC can be applied in keeping the stability of the ECM of adipogenic tissues. PMID:25949143

  5. Changes in visceral adiposity and serum cholesterol with a novel viscous polysaccharide in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Raylene A; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Eller, Lindsay K; Lyon, Michael R; Gahler, Roland J; Kacinik, Veronica; Juneja, Prateek; Wood, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Evidence supports the role of dietary fiber in improving metabolic health. PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a viscous functional polysaccharide improves lipidemia and glycemia in healthy adults. Our objective was to examine the effects of PGX on risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity. Sixty four subjects assigned to 14 weeks of 15 g day(-1) of PGX or placebo were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. At week 0 and 14, primary outcome measures were serum lipids, abdominal adiposity, glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Total and LDL cholesterol were reduced at week 14 with PGX but not placebo (P < 0.05). The reduction in waist circumference at week 14 was greater with PGX versus placebo (P < 0.05). In females, abdominal visceral fat was decreased to a greater extent with PGX versus placebo (P < 0.05). While glucose tolerance worsened with placebo over time, PGX reduced glucose total area under the curve from week 0 to 6 (P = 0.039). Serum concentrations of resistin and IL6 increased slightly in placebo and decreased slightly with PGX . PGX is a functional fiber that shows promise in reducing risk factors related to the metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  6. Comparison of different constitutive models to characterize the viscoelastic properties of human abdominal adipose tissue. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Domínguez, Jaime; Gómez Cía, Tomás; Gómez Ciriza, Gorka; Martínez-Reina, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Knowing the mechanical properties of human adipose tissue is key to simulate surgeries such as liposuction, mammoplasty and many plastic surgeries in which the subcutaneous fat is present. One of the most important surgeries, for its incidence, is the breast reconstruction surgery that follows a mastectomy. In this case, achieving a deformed shape similar to the healthy breast is crucial. The reconstruction is most commonly made using autologous tissue, taken from the patient's abdomen. The amount of autologous tissue and its mechanical properties have a strong influence on the shape of the reconstructed breast. In this work, the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human adipose tissue have been studied. Uniaxial compression stress relaxation tests were performed in adipose tissue specimens extracted from the human abdomen. Two different viscoelastic models were used to fit to the experimental tests: a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model and an internal variables viscoelastic (IVV) model; each one with four different hyperelastic strain energy density functions to characterise the elastic response: a 5-terms polynomial function, a first order Ogden function, an isotropic Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel function and a combination of a neoHookean and an exponential function. The IVV model with the Ogden function was the best combination to fit the experimental tests. The viscoelastic properties are not important in the simulation of the static deformed shape of the breast, but they are needed in a relaxation test performed under finite strain rate, particularly, to derive the long-term behaviour (as time tends to infinity), needed to estimate the static deformed shape of the breast. The so obtained stiffness was compared with previous results given in the literature for adipose tissue of different regions, which exhibited a wide dispersion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dapagliflozin significantly reduced liver fat accumulation associated with a decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurinami, Noboru; Sugiyama, Seigo; Yoshida, Akira; Hieshima, Kunio; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouch, Katsunori; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-05-31

    We examined dapagliflozin-induced changes in liver fat accumulation. We prospectively recruited Japanese patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7.0%]. Dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) or non-sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) was added to the patients' treatment regimen for 6 months. Changes in liver fat accumulation were assessed by the liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio using abdominal computed tomography (CT). This study enrolled 55 Japanese T2DM patients. The L/S ratio significantly increased in the dapagliflozin group compared with the non-SGLT2i group. Abdominal subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area, total fat area assessed by abdominal CT, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase decreased significantly only in the dapagliflozin group. Changes in the L/S ratio showed a significant negative relationship with changes in abdominal SFA, ALT, and non-esterified fatty acid. In sub-group analyses of non-insulin users, hepatic insulin extraction was assessed by the plasma C-peptide-to-insulin ratio, which was significantly increased in the dapagliflozin group but not in the non-SGLT2i group. In patients with inadequately controlled T2DM, additional dapagliflozin-treatment significantly reduced the liver fat accumulation associated with a decrease in abdominal SFA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Secular trends of physical growth and abdominal adiposity of school children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2017-02-01

    Identify changes in physical growth and abdominal adiposity at an interval of 14 years in children and adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. The data comes from two cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Arequipa, Peru, located at a moderate altitude of 2,320 meters. In 2001, 473 males and 482 females were assessed, and in 2015, 432 males and 403 females between 6.0 and 12.9 years old were evaluated. Data were collected in public state schools and measured using the anthropometric variables for weight, height, and waist circumference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to age and sex. Positive trends for weight were identified for both males and females at all ages (p < .001). For height, significant increases were observed in males for all ages. No significant increases (p > .05) occurred in height for females between the ages of 6 and 8 years. However, commencing at age 9 until 12 years, females showed positive and significant increases (p < .001) in height. In 2015, BMI and waist circumference increased significantly for both sexes at all ages. Between 2001 and 2015, positive trends in physical growth and abdominal adiposity were identified for children and adolescents living in Arequipa, Peru. These changes may be associated with the rapid economic development in the country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity) are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR) were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91) p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31) p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for the association of

  10. Abdominal adiposity contributes to adverse glycemic control and albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Ying; Sun, Wanwan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Peng, Kui; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Xu, Min; Wang, Weiqing; Bi, Yufang; Xu, Yu; Ning, Guang

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, few data have suggested its role in the prognosis of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between waist-hip ratio (WHR), glycemic control, and early nephropathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1709 previously- and newly-diagnosed diabetic patients nested in a cohort study consisting of 10 375 participants aged ≥40 years in Shanghai, China. General characteristics through questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and biochemical results were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS v20.0. Each quartile increase in WHR was significantly associated with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dl [OR (95% CI):1.18 (1.06-1.30)], an HbA1c ≥ 7.0% [1.21 (1.08-1.35)], and a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 [1.30 (1.16-1.46)] after multivariable adjustments. WHR was not associated with a 2h PG ≥ 200mg/dl [1.13 (0.97-1.31)]. The risk for increased albuminuria (UACR ≥10.18mg/g) was also significantly associated with higher WHR after adjustment for HbA1c [1.14 (1.02-1.27)]. However, no significant relationship was seen between WHR and an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 90 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . Interactions of sex, or physical activity with WHR in association with glycemic control and increased albuminuria were found (P values for interaction <0.05). These data demonstrated an independent role of abdominal adipose tissue in glycemic control and renal complications of type 2 diabetes. Interventions aiming to reduce abdominal adipose tissue may have additional benefits. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Gene expression of tumour necrosis factor and insulin signalling-related factors in subcutaneous adipose tissue during the dry period and in early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Rahmani, H R; Ghorbani, G R; Morel, I; van Dorland, H A

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression of adipose factors, which may be part of the mechanisms that underlie insulin sensitivity, were studied in dairy cows around parturition. Subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows in week 8 antepartum (a.p.), on day 1 postpartum (p.p.) and in week 5 p.p. In the adipose tissue samples, mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), insulin-independent glucose transporter (GLUT1), insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (p85) and catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin. Plasma parameters followed a pattern typically observed in dairy cows. Gene expression changes were observed, but there were no changes in TNFα concentrations, which may indicate its local involvement in catabolic adaptation of adipose tissue. Changes in GLUT4 and GLUT1 mRNA abundance may reflect their involvement in reduced insulin sensitivity and in sparing glucose for milk synthesis in early lactation. Unchanged gene expression of IRS1, IRS2 and p85 over time may imply a lack of their involvement in terms of insulin sensitivity dynamics. Alternatively, it may indicate that post-transcriptional modifications of these factors came into play and may have concealed an involvement. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. The subcutaneous abdominal fat and not the intraabdominal fat compartment is associated with anovulation in women with obesity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; Zijlstra, Tineke M; Bolster, Johanna H T; Slart, Riemer H J; van der Jagt, Erik J; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)) participated. Body fat distribution was measured by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which fat compartments significantly contributed to anovulation. Anovulatory women had a higher waist circumference (113 +/- 11 vs. 104 +/- 9 cm; P < 0.01) and significantly more trunk fat (23.0 +/- 5.3 vs. 19.1 +/- 4.2 kg; P < 0.01) and abdominal fat (4.4 +/- 1.3 kg vs. 3.5 +/- 0.9 kg; P < 0.05) on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan than ovulatory women despite similar body mass index. The volume of intraabdominal fat on single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan was not significantly different between the two groups (203 +/- 56 vs. 195 +/- 71 cm(3); P = 0.65), but anovulatory women had significantly more sc abdominal fat (SAF) (992 +/- 198 vs. 864 +/- 146 cm(3); P < 0.05). After multiple logistic regression analysis, only trunk fat, abdominal fat, and SAF were associated with anovulation. Abdominal fat is increased in anovulatory women due to a significant increase in SAF and not in intraabdominal fat. SAF and especially abdominal and trunk fat accumulation are associated with anovulation.

  13. Catalpic acid decreases abdominal fat deposition, improves glucose homeostasis and upregulates PPAR alpha expression in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hontecillas, Raquel; Diguardo, Maggie; Duran, Elisa; Orpi, Marcel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-10-01

    Catalpic acid (CAT) is a conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) isomer containing trans-9, trans-11, cis-13 double bonds in an 18-carbon chain and it is found primarily in the seed oil of ornamental and medicinal trees and shrubs of the family Bignoniaceae. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CAT decreases obesity and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice fed high-fat diets. To test the efficacy of CAT in decreasing obesity and diabetes we used both a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and a genetic model of obesity (i.e., mice lacking the leptin receptor). Blood was collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for determining fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in plasma. In addition, a glucose tolerance test was administered on day 28. We found that dietary CAT (1g/100g) decreased fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, ameliorated the glucose normalizing ability following glucose challenge and decreased abdominal white adipose tissue accumulation. In white adipose tissue (WAT), CAT upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and its responsive genes [i.e., stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1) and enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH)], increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. CAT decreased abdominal fat deposition, increased HDL cholesterol, decreased TG concentrations, decreased glucose and insulin homeostasis and modulated WAT gene expression in a manner reminiscent of the actions of the PPAR alpha-activating fibrate class of lipid-lowering drugs.

  14. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  15. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  16. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  17. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Comparing Measures of General and Abdominal Adiposity as Predictors of Blood Pressure in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius A.; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To compare anthropometric measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as predictors of blood pressure in college students. Participants: Students (N = 116) were recruited from November 2012 to May 2014 at an urban university and rural community…

  19. Serum vaspin levels and vaspin mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mm, Wei Qian; Fan, Jianxia; Khor, Shuzin; Song, Mengfan; Hong, Wei; Dai, Xiaobei

    2014-11-01

    To compare serum vaspin level and mRNA and protein levels of vaspin in adipose tissue in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGR), along with the correlation between serum vaspin level with fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and birth-weight. Thirty-seven women with GDM and 36 with NGR were enrolled. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), FINS and vaspin levels were measured. The mRNA and protein levels were detected using RT-PCR and Western blot. Pearson correlation analysis (PCA) was performed to reveal the correlation between serum vaspin level and FINS, HOMA-IR. Spearman correlation analysis (SCA) was conducted to examine the association between serum vaspin level and birth-weight. HDL-C level in GDM was lower than NGR group (P<0.05), and there were no statistical differences in TC, TG, LDL-C, FPG, FINS and HOMA-IR between the two groups. Serum vaspin level, mRNA and protein expression levels of vaspin in GDM were higher than NGR group (P<0.05). Serum vaspin level was not significantly correlated with FINS and HOMA-IR, but had a positive correlation with birth-weight (P=0.023). Serum vaspin level cannot serve as an independent predictor of IR. The increased serum vaspin level and increased vaspin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissues in GDM women indicate that vaspin may be involved in the pathogenesis of GDM, but its exact mechanism needs further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PCOS is associated with increased CD11c expression and crown-like structures in adipose tissue and increased central abdominal fat depots independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi Hua; Manickam, Buvana; Ryvkin, Victoria; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Mazzone, Theodore; Sam, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration is a major pathway for obesity-induced insulin resistance but has not been studied as a mechanism for insulin resistance in PCOS. We tested whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased ATM infiltration, especially of inflammatory subtype identified by the CD11c marker. We conducted a case-control study at an academic medical center in the United States. Fourteen PCOS and 14 control women of similar age and body mass index (BMI) underwent a gluteal fat biopsy. Markers of ATM, integrins, TNF-α, and adiponectin, were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR using a standard curve method. Crown-like structures (CLS) were identified by immunohistochemistry. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging and frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test were performed to assess abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity (SI). Women with PCOS were compared with control women of similar age and BMI for ATM markers, CLS density, adipose tissue expression of inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin, SI, and abdominal fat depots. Women with PCOS had an increase in CD11c expression (P = 0.03), CLS density (P = 0.001), α5 expression (P = 0.009), borderline increase in TNF-α expression (P = 0.08), and a decrease in adiponectin expression (P = 0.02) in gluteal adipose tissue. Visceral (P = 0.009) and sc abdominal fat (P = 0.005) were increased in PCOS. SI was lower in PCOS (P = 0.008). PCOS is associated with an increase in CD11c expression and CLS density and a decrease in adiponectin expression in sc adipose tissue. Additionally, PCOS is associated with higher central abdominal fat depots independent of BMI. These alterations are present among mostly nonobese women and could represent mechanisms for insulin resistance.

  1. Maternal Macronutrient Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Neonatal Abdominal Adiposity: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Kramer, Michael S; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-08-01

    Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic disease risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured by using MRI in a multiethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. The macronutrient intake of mothers was ascertained by using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 wk gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed by using MRI in week 2 of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n = 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models with the use of multivariable linear regressions. Mothers (mean age: 30 y) consumed (mean ± SD) 15.5% ± 4.3% of their energy from protein, 32.4% ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1% ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate or -fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 mL (-0.35, -0.001 mL) per 1% protein-to-carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 mL (-0.46, -0.04 mL) per 1% protein-to-fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interaction < 0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein, but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not associated consistently with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Higher maternal protein intake at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake at 26-28 wk gestation was associated with lower abdominal internal adiposity in neonates. Optimizing maternal dietary balance might be a new

  2. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Prioreschi, Alessandra; Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively). Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  3. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Munthali, Richard J.; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Norris, Shane A.

    2018-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. Objectives To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Methods Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0–2, 2–5, 5–8, 8–18, and 18–22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21–25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Results Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively). Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. Conclusions The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood. PMID:29338002

  4. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I)more » significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.« less

  5. Differential actions of PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ on beige adipocyte formation: A study in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese male mice

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Silva-Veiga, Flavia Maria; Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Bringhenti, Isabele; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Material and methods Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks. Then each group was re-divided to begin the treatments that lasted 4 weeks, totalizing six groups: C, C-α (C plus PPAR-α agonist, 2.5 mg/kg BM), C-β (C plus PPAR-β/δ agonist, 1 mg/kg BM), HF, HF-α (HF plus PPAR-α agonist), HF-β (HF plus PPAR-β/δ agonist). Results HF animals presented with overweight, glucose intolerance and subcutaneous white adipocyte hypertrophy. Both treatments significantly attenuated these parameters. Browning, verified by UCP1 positive beige cells and enhanced body temperature, was just observed in PPAR-α treated groups. PPAR-α agonism also elicited an enhanced gene expression of the thermogenesis effector UCP1, the beige-selective gene TMEM26 and the PRDM16, an essential gene for brown-like phenotype maintenance in the beige adipocytes when compared to their counterparts. The enhanced CIDEA and the reduced UCP1 gene levels might justify the white phenotype predominance after the treatment with the PPAR-β/δ agonist. Conclusions This work provides evidence that the PPAR-β/δ agonist ameliorated metabolic disorders through enhanced beta-oxidation and better tolerance to glucose, whereas the PPAR-α agonism was confirmed as a promising therapeutic target for treating metabolic diseases via beige cell induction and enhanced thermogenesis. PMID:29351550

  6. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus.

    PubMed

    Duncumb, Joseph W; Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto; Malata, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  7. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  8. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  9. A low-protein diet induces body weight loss and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue through enhanced expression of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martí, Albert; Garcia-Guasch, Maite; Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Alexandra; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Marrero, Pedro F; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana

    2017-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD. This diet increased FGF21 production by inducing its overexpression in liver, and this correlated with a body weight decrease without changes in food intake. The LPD also caused FGF21-dependent browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT), as indicated by an increase in the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In a subgroup of 78 individuals from the PREDIMED trial, we observed an inverse correlation between protein intake and circulating FGF21 levels. Our results reinforce the involvement of FGF21 in coordinating energy homeostasis under a range of nutritional conditions. Moreover, here we describe an approach to increase the endogenous production of FGF21, which if demonstrated functional in humans, could generate a treatment for obesity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Improvement of mesh recolonization in abdominal wall reconstruction with adipose vs. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, M; Schubert, T; Guiot, Y; Goebbels, R M; Gianello, P

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction of muscle defects remains a challenge. Our work assessed the potential of an engineered construct made of a human acellular collagen matrix (HACM) seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to reconstruct abdominal wall muscle defects in a rodent model. This study compared 2 sources of MSCs (bone-marrow, BMSCs, and adipose, ASCs) in vitro and in vivo for parietal defect reconstruction. Cellular viability and growth factor release (VEGF, FGF-Beta, HGF, IGF-1, TGF-Beta) were investigated under normoxic/hypoxic culture conditions. Processed and recellularized HACMs were mechanically assessed. The construct was tested in vivo in full thickness abdominal wall defect treated with HACM alone vs. HACM+ASCs or BMSCs (n=14). Tissue remodeling was studied at day 30 for neo-angiogenesis and muscular reconstruction. A significantly lower secretion of IGF was observed with ASCs vs. BMSCs under hypoxic conditions (-97.6%, p<0.005) whereas significantly higher VEGF/FGF secretions were found with ASCs (+92%, p<0.001 and +72%, p<0.05, respectively). Processing and recellularization did not impair the mechanical properties of the HACM. In vivo, angiogenesis and muscle healing were significantly improved by the HACM+ASCs in comparison to BMSCs (p<0.05) at day 30. A composite graft made of an HACM seeded with ASCs can improve muscle repair by specific growth factor release in hypoxic conditions and by in vivo remodeling (neo-angiogenesis/graft integration) while maintaining mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunoexpression of PPAR-γ and osteocalcin proteins for bone repair of critical-size defects treated with fragmented autogenous abdominal adipose tissue graft.

    PubMed

    Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Lopes, Tertuliano Ricardo; Zielak, João César; Moro, Alexandre; Baratto Filho, Flares; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Storrer, Carmen L Mueller

    2014-01-01

    Immunoexpression of PPAR-γ and osteocalcin proteins was evaluated for bone repair of critical-size defects (CSDs), created in rat calvaria (n=42) and treated with fragmented abdominal autogenous adipose tissue graft. Three groups (n=14) were formed: C (control - blood clot), AB (autogenous bone) and AT (fragmented adipose tissue). The groups were divided into subgroups (n=7) for euthanasia at 30 and 90 days. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics (mode). A complete bone closure was observed in Group AB 90 days after surgery. In Group C, repair was achieved by the formation of collagen fiber bundles oriented parallel to the wound surface at both post-surgery periods. In Group AT the type of healing was characterized by dense connective tissue containing collagen fiber bundles arranged amidst the remaining adipose tissue, with rare heterotopic bone formation associated with fibrosis and different types of tissue necrosis. Immunostaining of PPAR-γ was not observed in any specimen from Groups C and AB. In Group AT, the immunostaining of PPAR-γ was more evident 30 days after surgery. Immunostaining of osteocalcin was present in all groups and at both postoperative periods. The fragmented autogenous abdominal adipose tissue graft did not favor the repair of critical-size bone defects created surgically in rat calvaria as evidenced by the positive immunostaining of PPAR-γ protein and the negative immunostaining of osteocalcin in the osteoblast-like cells and bone matrix.

  12. Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, O R; Marra, C A; Raschia, A; Rodriguez, S; Gagliardino, J J

    2008-11-01

    The possible contribution of early changes in lipid composition, function, and antioxidant status of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress (OS) was studied. Wistar rats were fed with a commercial diet with (FRD) or without 10% fructose in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The glucose (G), triglyceride (TG), and insulin (I) plasma levels, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lyposoluble antioxidants, total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation as TBARS, fatty acid (FA) composition of AAT-TG as well as their release by incubated pieces of AAT were measured. Rats fed with a FRD have significantly higher plasma levels of G, TG, and I. Their AAT showed a marked increase in content and ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, TBARS, and catalase, GSH-transferase and GSH-reductase, together with a decrease in superoxide dismutase and GSH-peroxidase activity, and total GSH, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene content. Incubated AAT from FRD released in vitro higher amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) with higher ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Our data suggest that FRD induced an early prooxidative state and metabolic dysfunction in AAT that would favor the overall development of IR and OS and further development of pancreatic beta-cell failure; therefore, its early control would represent an appropriate strategy to prevent alterations such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Vinsky, M; Basarab, J A; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Li, C

    2017-07-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (<0.25 in magnitude). However, relatively stronger genetic correlation coefficients of RFI and RFIf with PUFA traits including the -6:-3 ratio (0.52 ± 0.29 and 0.45 ± 0.31, respectively), 18:2-6 (0.45 ± 0.18 and 0.40 ± 0.19, respectively), -6 (0.43 ± 0.18 and 0.38 ± 0.19, respectively), PUFA (0.42 ± 0.18 and 0.36 ± 0.20, respectively), and 9-16:1 (-0.43 ± 0.20 and -0.33 ± 0.22, respectively) were observed. Hence, selection for low-RFI or more efficient beef cattle will improve fatty acid profiles by lowering the content of -6 PUFA, thus reducing the ratio of -6 to -3 along with increasing the amount of 9-16:1. Moderate to moderately high genetic correlations were also observed for DMI with 9-14:1 (-0.32 ± 0.17) and the sum of CLA analyzed (SumCLA; -0.45 ± 0.21), suggesting that selection of beef cattle with lower DMI will lead to an increase amount of 9-14:1 and SumCLA in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. However

  14. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens. We used the Del-Mar 14 K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray to take time-course snapshots of global gene transcription in abdominal fat of juvenile [1-11 weeks of age (wk)] chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages (8 and 36 wk). Further, a RNA sequencing analysis was completed on the same abdominal fat samples taken from high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) cockerels at 7 wk, the age with the greatest divergence in body weight (3.2-fold) and visceral fatness (19.6-fold). Time-course microarray analysis revealed 312 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05) as the main effect of genotype (HG versus LG), 718 genes in the interaction of age and genotype, and 2918 genes as the main effect of age. The RNA sequencing analysis identified 2410 differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat of HG versus LG chickens at 7 wk. The HG chickens are fatter and over-express numerous genes that support higher rates of visceral adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In abdominal fat of LG chickens, we found higher expression of many genes involved in hemostasis, energy catabolism and endocrine signaling, which likely contribute to their leaner phenotype and slower growth. Many transcription factors and their direct target genes identified in HG and LG chickens could be involved in their divergence in adiposity and growth rate. The present analyses of the visceral fat transcriptome in

  15. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  16. Combined effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2014-05-01

    The cumulative effects of dietary arginine, leucine and protein levels on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig longissimus lumborum muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were investigated. The experiment was performed on fifty-four intact male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace crossbred), with a live weight ranging from 59 to 92 kg. The pigs were randomly assigned to one of six experimental treatments (n 9). The treatments followed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with two levels of arginine supplementation (0 v. 1 %) and three levels of a basal diet (normal protein diet, NPD; reduced protein diet, RPD; reduced protein diet to achieve 2 % of leucine, RPDL). The results showed that dietary arginine supplementation did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and back fat thickness, but increased the total fat in SAT. This effect was associated with an increase in fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in SAT, which suggests that arginine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key lipogenic genes in pig muscle and SAT. The increase in IMF content under the RPD, with or without leucine supplementation, was accompanied by increased FASN and SCD mRNA levels. Arginine supplementation did not influence the percentage of main fatty acids, while the RPD had a significant effect on fatty acid composition in both tissues. Leucine supplementation of RPD did not change IMF, total fat of SAT and back fat thickness, but increased 16 : 0 and 18 : 1cis-9 and decreased 18 : 2n-6 in muscle.

  17. Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women123

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine B; Kenya, Sonjia; He, Qing; Wainwright, Marsha; Berk, Evan S; Heshka, Stanley; Kotler, Donald P; Engelson, Ellen S

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and insulin resistance are growing problems in HIV-positive (HIV+) women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective The objective was to determine the contribution of adipose tissue (AT) enlargement and distribution to the presence of insulin resistance in obese HIV+ women. Design Whole-body intermuscular AT (IMAT), visceral AT (VAT), subcutaneous AT (SAT), and SAT distribution (leg versus upper body) were measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test in obese HIV+ women recruited because of their desire to lose weight (n = 17) and in obese healthy controls (n = 32). Results The HIV+ women had relatively less whole-body SAT and more VAT and IMAT than did the controls (P < 0.05 for all). A significant interaction by HIV status was observed for the relation of total SAT with SI (P < 0.001 for the regression’s slope interactions after adjustment for age, height, and weight). However, relations of IMAT, VAT, and SAT distribution (leg SAT as a percentage of total SAT; leg SAT%) with SI did not differ significantly between groups. For both groups combined, the best model predicting a low SI included significant contributions by both high IMAT and low leg SAT%, independent of age, height, and weight, and no interaction between groups was observed (overall r2 = 0.44, P = 0.0003). Conclusion In obese HIV+ women, high whole-body IMAT and low leg SAT% distribution are independently associated with insulin resistance. PMID:17616768

  18. Repressive effects of oat extracts on intracellular lipid-droplet formation in adipocytes and a three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue model.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Kato, Yuko; Shibata, Hiroki; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the repression of lipid-droplet formation in mouse mesenchymal stromal preadipocytes OP9 by specified oat extracts (Hatomugi, Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen) named "SPH" which were proteolytically and glucosyl-transferredly prepared from finely-milled oat whole-grain. Stimulation of OP9 preadipocytes with insulin-containing serum-replacement promoted differentiation to adipocytes, concurrently with an increase in the intracellular lipid droplets by 51.5%, which were repressed by SPH-bulk or SPH-water-extract at 840ppm, to 33.5% or 46.9%, respectively, but not by SPH-ethanol-extract at the same dose, showing the hydrophilic property of the anti-adipogenetic ingredients. The intracellular lipid droplets were scanty for intact preadipocytes, small-sized but abundant for the SPH-unadministered adipocytes, and large-sized but few for SPH-bulk-administered adipocytes being coexistent with many lipid-droplet-lacking viable cells, suggesting "the all-or-none rule" for lipid-droplet generation in cell-to-cell. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death in human epidermal keratinocytes HaCaT was prevented by SPH-bulk at 100 or 150ppm by 5.6-8.1%, being consistent with higher viabilities of SPH-bulk-administered OP9 cells, together with repressions of both cell shrinkage and cell detachment from the culture substratum. In three-dimensional subcutaneous adipose tissue models reconstructed with HaCaT-keratinocytes and OP9-preadipocytes, lipid droplets were accumulated in dermal OP9-cell-parts, and repressed to 43.5% by SPH-bulk at 840ppm concurrently with marked diminishment of huge aggregates of lipid droplets. Thus SPH-bulk suppresses adipogenesis-associated lipid-droplet accumulation during differentiation of OP9 preadipocytes together with lowered cytotoxicity to either HaCaT keratinocytes or the preadipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A mircroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose...

  20. The relation of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with dyslipidemia in 27 general populations of the WHO MONICA Project.

    PubMed

    Wietlisbach, V; Marques-Vidal, P; Kuulasmaa, K; Karvanen, J; Paccaud, F

    2013-05-01

    The association between adiposity measures and dyslipidemia has seldom been assessed in a multipopulational setting. 27 populations from Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Canada (WHO MONICA project) using health surveys conducted between 1990 and 1997 in adults aged 35-64 years (n = 40,480). Dyslipidemia was defined as the total/HDL cholesterol ratio >6 (men) and >5 (women). Overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 25% in men and 23% in women. Logistic regression showed that dyslipidemia was strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) in men and with waist circumference (WC) in women, after adjusting for region, age and smoking. Among normal-weight men and women (BMI<25 kg/m(2)), an increase in the odds for being dyslipidemic was observed between lowest and highest WC quartiles (OR = 3.6, p < 0.001). Among obese men (BMI ≥ 30), the corresponding increase was smaller (OR = 1.2, p = 0.036). A similar weakening was observed among women. Classification tree analysis was performed to assign subjects into classes of risk for dyslipidemia. BMI thresholds (25.4 and 29.2 kg/m(2)) in men and WC thresholds (81.7 and 92.6 cm) in women came out at first stages. High WC (>84.8 cm) in normal-weight men, menopause in women and regular smoking further defined subgroups at increased risk. standard categories of BMI and WC, or their combinations, do not lead to optimal risk stratification for dyslipidemia in middle-age adults. Sex-specific adaptations are necessary, in particular by taking into account abdominal obesity in normal-weight men, post-menopausal age in women and regular smoking in both sexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The additional effects of a probiotic mix on abdominal adiposity and antioxidant Status: A double-blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aline Corado; de Sousa, Rávila Graziany Machado; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Gomes, Tatyanne Letícia Nogueira; Prada, Patrícia Oliveira; Mota, João Felipe

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether a probiotic mix has additional effects when compared with an isolated dietary intervention on the body composition, lipid profile, endotoxemia, inflammation, and antioxidant profile. Women who had excess weight or obesity were recruited to a randomized, double-blind trial and received a probiotic mix (Lactobacillus acidophilus and casei; Lactococcus lactis; Bifidobacterium bifidum and lactis; 2 × 10 10 colony-forming units/day) (n = 21) or placebo (n = 22) for 8 weeks. Both groups received a dietary prescription. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The lipid profile, lipid accumulation product, plasma fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and the antioxidant enzymes activities were analyzed. In comparison with the dietary intervention group, the dietary intervention + probiotic mix group showed a greater reduction in the waist circumference (-3.40% vs. -5.48%, P = 0.03), waist-height ratio (-3.27% vs. -5.00%, P = 0.02), conicity index (-2.43% vs. -4.09% P = 0.03), and plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (5.65% vs. -18.63%, P = 0.04) and an increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (-16.67% vs. 15.62%, P < 0.01). Supplementation of a probiotic mix reduced abdominal adiposity and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in a more effective way than an isolated dietary intervention. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years) underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9), caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13), or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8). Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P < 0.05). Compared to pre-intervention, CR did not change abdominal, but decreased gluteal CB1 (Δ = -0.82 ± 0.25, P < 0.05) and FAAH (Δ = -0.49 ± 0.14, P < 0.05) gene expression. CRM or CRV alone did not change adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression. However, combined CRM and CRV (CRM+CRV) decreased abdominal adipose tissue FAAH gene expression (Δ = -0.37 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). The changes in gluteal CB1 and abdominal FAAH gene expression levels in the CR alone and the CRM+CRV group were different (P < 0.05) or tended to be different (P = 0.10). Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue

  3. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. OBJECTIVES This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm3 and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. RESULTS The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm3 for SAT and an increase of 703 cm3 for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm3 increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for each additional 5 HU decrease in abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. PMID:27687192

  4. Television, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Gupta, Alok K.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is largely unknown how TV use relates to depot-specific adiposity or cardiometabolic risk in children. Purpose To examine relationships between having a TV in the bedroom and TV viewing time with total fat mass, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study of 369 children and adolescents aged 5–18 years was conducted (2010–2011; analysis 2011–2012). Waist circumference; resting blood pressure; fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and glucose; fat mass by DXA; and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity by MRI were assessed. Cardiometabolic risk was defined as three or more risk factors including adverse levels of waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-C, and glucose. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute ORs of high fat mass, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue mass (top age-adjusted quartile), and cardiometabolic risk, based on self-reported TV present in the bedroom and TV viewing time, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level, and unhealthy diet. Results In multivariable models, presence of a TV in the bedroom and TV viewing time were associated with (p<0.05) higher odds of high waist circumference (OR= 1.9–2.1); fat mass (OR= 2.0–2.5); and subcutaneous adiposity (OR= 2.1–2.9), while viewing TV ≥5 hours/day was associated with high visceral adiposity (OR=2.0). Having a TV in the bedroom was associated with elevated cardiometabolic risk (OR=2.9) and high triglycerides (OR=2.0). Conclusions Having a bedroom TV and TV viewing time were related to high waist circumference, fat mass, and abdominal subcutaneous adiposity. TV viewing time was related to visceral adiposity, and bedroom TV was related to cardiometabolic risk in children, controlling for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and an unhealthy diet. Registration This study is

  5. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  6. Impact of Preoperative Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Area and Nutritional Status on Renal Function After Donor Nephrectomy in Japanese Living Donors for Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Onishi, Kenta; Iida, Kota; Gotoh, Daisuke; Anai, Satoshi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Aoki, Katsuya; Yoneda, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2018-05-29

    BACKGROUND Living kidney donors face the risk of renal dysfunction, resulting in end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, or cerebrovascular disease, after donor nephrectomy. Reducing this risk is important to increasing survival of living donors. In this study, we investigated the effect of preoperative distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and nutritional status on postoperative renal function in living donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy-five living donors were enrolled in this retrospective study. Preoperative unenhanced computed tomography images were used to measure abdominal adipose tissue parameters. Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) was used to assess preoperative nutritional status. Donors were divided into 2 groups according to abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae (<80 or ≥80 cm²). Postoperative renal function was compared in the 2 groups, and prognostic factors for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) G3b were identified using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Donors with a VAT area ≥80 significantly more often had hypertension preoperatively. Although there was no significant difference in preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the 2 groups, postoperative renal function was significantly decreased in donors with a VAT area ≥80 compared to those with a VAT area <80. In multivariate analysis, VAT area ≥80 and PNI <54 were independent factors predicting the development of CKD G3b after 12 months. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that preoperative VAT and PNI affect postoperative renal function. Further research is required to establish appropriate exercise protocols and nutritional interventions during follow-up to improve outcomes in living donors.

  7. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Winn, Nathan C; Liu, Ying; Rector, R Scott; Parks, Elizabeth J; Ibdah, Jamal A; Kanaley, Jill A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is commonly prescribed for individuals diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, consensus regarding the volume and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits is lacking. Thus, we determined whether high intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) produced greater reductions in intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content and NAFLD risk factors compared with energy-matched moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) in obese adults with liver steatosis. Eighteen obese adults were randomized to either 4weeks of HIIT (4min 80% VO 2 peak/3min, 50% VO 2 peak) or MICT (55% VO 2 peak, ~60min), matched for energy expenditure (~400kcal/session) and compared to five non-exercising age-matched control subjects. IHL was measured by 1 H-MRS and frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and NEFA levels during a liquid meal test (180min) to characterize metabolic phenotype. Baseline body weight, visceral abdominal adiposity, and fasting insulin concentrations were greater in the MICT vs HIIT group (P<0.05), while IHL was tightly matched between MICT and HIIT subjects (P>0.05), albeit higher than control subjects (P<0.01). Visceral abdominal adiposity, body mass, liver aminotransferases (ALT, AST), and hepatic apoptotic/inflammatory markers (cytokeratin 18 and fetuin a) were not reduced with either exercise training intervention (P>0.05). Both HIIT and MICT lowered IHL (HIIT, -37.0±12.4%; MICT, -20.1±6.6%, P<0.05); however, the reduction in IHL was not statistically different between exercise intensities (P=0.25). Furthermore, exercise training decreased postprandial insulin, c-peptide, and lipid peroxidation levels (iAUC, P<0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that energy-matched high intensity and moderate intensity exercise are effective at decreasing IHL and NAFLD risk that is not contingent upon reductions in abdominal adiposity or body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The severity of nocturnal hypoxia but not abdominal adiposity is associated with insulin resistance in non-obese men with sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Monneret, Denis; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Halimi, Serge; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = -0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia.

  9. The Severity of Nocturnal Hypoxia but Not Abdominal Adiposity Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Men with Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Monneret, Denis; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Halimi, Serge; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. Methods The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour). These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm) were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. Results Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT). The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2). In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = −0.43, p = 0.011) and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. Conclusion Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:23951064

  10. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  11. Pretreatment subcutaneous adipose tissue predicts the outcomes of patients with head and neck cancer receiving definitive radiation and chemoradiation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pai, Ping Ching; Chuang, Chi Cheng; Chuang, Wen Ching; Tsang, Ngan Ming; Tseng, Chen Kan; Chen, Kuan Hung; Yen, Tzu Chen; Lin, Chien Yu; Chang, Kai Ping; Lei, Kin Fong

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to determine whether body composition assessment before treatment can predict outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). All 881 patients with locoregional head and neck cancer treated with curative intent radiotherapy (RT) between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively investigated. Body composition was analyzed via pre-RT planning computed tomography (CT) images. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) indices were measured cross-sectionally at the level of the third thoracic vertebra. Overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis-free survival (MFS) were analyzed by body composition index and body mass index (BMI). Survivors were followed up for a median of 4.68 years. The SAT indices in female patients were significantly higher than those in males (P < 0.001). The median SAT and muscle indices were 18.6 and 34.3 cm 2 /m 2 for women and 6.19 and 51.74 cm 2 /m 2 for men, respectively. The 5- and 10-year MFS, LRC, and OS rates were 83% and 82.1%, 73.4% and 71.4%, and 66.4 and 57.6%, respectively. Higher pretreatment SAT index was associated with MFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65; P = 0.015), LRC (HR: 0.758; P = 0.047), and OS (HR: 0.604; P < 0.001). Higher pretreatment BMI was associated with MFS (HR: 0.642; P = 0.031) and OS (HR: 0.615; P < 0.001). The pretreatment SM index had no significant effect on MFS, LRC, and OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that T-stage, N-stage, lesion sites, age, and RT treatment days are independent factors associated with OS; T-stage, N-stage, and lesion sites are independent factors associated with MFS; and N-stage, smoking history, and betel quid chewing history are independent factors associated with LRC. A higher CT-assessed SAT index predicts superior MSF, LCR, and OS in patients with curative HNC, whereas SM does not predict survival or locoregional control. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  13. Computed tomographic evaluation of abdominal fat in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Chang, Dongwoo; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) exams were conducted to determine the distribution of abdominal fat identified based on the CT number measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and to measure the volume of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat in minipigs. The relationship between the CT-based fat volumes of several vertebral levels and the entire abdomen and anthropometric data including the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference were evaluated. Moreover, the total fat volumes at the T11, T13, L3, and L5 levels were compared with the total fat volume of the entire abdomen to define the landmark of abdominal fat distribution. Using a single-detector CT, six 6-month-old male minipigs were scanned under general anesthesia. Three radiologists then assessed the HU value of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat by drawing the region of interest manually at the T11, T13, L1, L3, and L5 levels. The CT number and abdominal fat determined in this way by the three radiologists was found to be correlated (intra-class coefficient = 0.9). The overall HU ranges for the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots were -147.47 to -83.46 and -131.62 to -90.97, respectively. The total fat volume of the entire abdomen was highly correlated with the volume of abdominal fat at the T13 level (r = 0.97, p < 0.0001). These findings demonstrate that the volume of abdominal adipose tissue measured at the T13 level using CT is a strong and reliable predictor of total abdominal adipose volume.

  14. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Relationship Thereof With Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, Dilek; Gurkan Tocoglu, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sabiye; Korkmaz, Sumeyye; Ergenc, Hasan; Gunduz, Huseyin; Keser, Nurgul; Tamer, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded. Thyroid and metabolic parameters were measured. EAT was measured using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography. The age and gender distributions were similar in the two groups (P = 0.998 and P = 0.121, respectively). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the WC/HC ratio, and the thicknesses of VAAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in the case group than the control group (all P values < 0.01). However, both groups had similar EAT thickness (P = 0.532), which was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, WC, HC, VAAT thickness, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness, and serum triglyceride (TG) level (all P values < 0.01). We found no correlation between EAT thickness and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free thyroxine (FT4) level, or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, and anti-TPO level (all P values > 0.05). We found no difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (P = 0.780), but the levels of LDL-C and TG differed significantly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). The serum TSH level was higher and the FT4 level was lower in the case than the control group (both P values <0.01). Increased abdominal adipose tissue thickness in patients with SH is associated with atherosclerosis. To detemine the risk of atherosclerosis in such patients, EAT measurements are valuable; such assessment is simple to perform.

  15. Quantifying Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Thigh Muscle Volume and Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction: Repeatability and Accuracy of an MR Imaging-based, Semiautomated Analysis Method.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael S; Haufe, William; Hooker, Jonathan; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Tunón, Patrik; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To determine the repeatability and accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based, semiautomated method to quantify abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume and hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF). Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board- approved and HIPAA compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Inclusion criteria were age of 18 years or older and willingness to participate. The exclusion criterion was contraindication to MR imaging. Three-dimensional T1-weighted dual-echo body-coil images were acquired three times. Source images were reconstructed to generate water and calibrated fat images. Abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle were segmented, and their volumes were estimated by using a semiautomated method and, as a reference standard, a manual method. Hepatic PDFF was estimated by using a confounder-corrected chemical shift-encoded MR imaging method with hybrid complex-magnitude reconstruction and, as a reference standard, MR spectroscopy. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF intra- and interexamination repeatability were assessed by using intraclass correlation and coefficient of variation analysis. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF accuracy were assessed by means of linear regression with the respective reference standards. Results Adipose and thigh muscle tissue volumes of 20 subjects (18 women; age range, 25-76 years; body mass index range, 19.3-43.9 kg/m 2 ) were estimated by using the semiautomated method. Intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.996-0.998 and coefficients of variation were 1.5%-3.6%. For hepatic MR imaging PDFF, intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than or equal to 0.994 and coefficients of variation were less than or equal to 7.3%. In the regression analyses of manual versus semiautomated volume and spectroscopy versus MR imaging, PDFF slopes and intercepts were close

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus atropy induces modification of subcutaneous adipose tissue architecture: in vivo visualization by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Josse, G; Gensanne, D; Aquilina, C; Bernard, J; Saint-Martory, C; Lagarde, J M; Schmitt, A M

    2009-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection generally induces lipodystrophy. For targeted treatment a better understanding of its development is necessary. The utility of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is explored. The present study presents a way to visualize the adipose tissue architecture in vivo and to inspect modifications associated with the atrophy. High-resolution MRI scans with surface coils were performed on the calf and at the lumbar region of three groups of patients: HIV patients with lipoatrophy, HIV patients without lipoatrophy and healthy volunteers. All patients underwent a clinical examination. In addition, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were taken. On the MRI scans adipose tissue thickness and adipose nodule size were measured. Results High-resolution MRI enabled identification of a clear disorganization of adipose tissue in patients with lipoatrophy. In addition, these patients presented a very small adipose tissue thickness on the calf and a very small nodule size. led to the hypothesis that adipose tissue disorganization appears before changes in DEXA measurements or clinically visible modifications. High-resolution MRI enabled visualization in vivo of precise changes in tissue organization due to HIV lipoatrophy. This imaging technique should be very informative for better monitoring of the atrophy.

  17. Neutron organ dose and the influence of adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Robert Wayne

    Neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients have been assessed considering the influences of human adipose tissue. Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used to simulate broad parallel beam monoenergetic neutrons ranging in energy from thermal to 10 MeV. Simulated Irradiations were conducted for standard irradiation geometries. The targets were on gender specific mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms modified to approximate human adipose tissue distributions. Dosimetric analysis compared adipose tissue influence against reference anthropomorphic phantom characteristics. Adipose Male and Post-Menopausal Female Phantoms were derived introducing interstitial adipose tissue to account for 22 and 27 kg additional body mass, respectively, each demonstrating a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30. An Adipose Female Phantom was derived introducing specific subcutaneous adipose tissue accounting for 15 kg of additional body mass demonstrating a BMI of 26. Neutron dose was shielded in the superficial tissues; giving rise to secondary photons which dominated the effective dose for Incident energies less than 100 keV. Adipose tissue impact on the effective dose was a 25% reduction at the anterior-posterior incidence ranging to a 10% increase at the lateral incidences. Organ dose impacts were more distinctive; symmetrically situated organs demonstrated a 15% reduction at the anterior-posterior Incidence ranging to a 2% increase at the lateral incidences. Abdominal or asymmetrically situated organs demonstrated a 50% reduction at the anterior-posterior incidence ranging to a 25% increase at the lateral incidences.

  18. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  19. Plasma concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of clusterin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of short-term hyperinsulinemia, very-low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Kloučková, J; Lacinová, Z; Kaválková, P; Trachta, P; Kasalický, M; Haluzíková, D; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2016-07-18

    Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein with wide range of functions. To further explore its possible regulatory role in energy homeostasis and in adipose tissue, we measured plasma clusterin and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 15 healthy lean women, 15 obese women (OB) and 15 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent a 2-week very low-calorie diet (VLCD), 10 obese women without T2DM who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 8 patients with T2DM, 8 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 8 normoglycemic patients who underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). VLCD decreased plasma clusterin in OB but not in T2DM patients while LSG and HEC had no effect. Clusterin mRNA expression in SCAT at baseline was increased in OB and T2DM patients compared with controls. Clusterin mRNA expression decreased 6 months after LSG and remained decreased 12 months after LSG. mRNA expression of clusterin was elevated at the end of HEC compared with baseline only in normoglycemic but not in IGT or T2DM patients. In summary, our data suggest a possible local regulatory role for clusterin in the adipose tissue rather than its systemic involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  20. Longitudinal changes in abdominal fat distribution with menopause.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ruth M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Kanaley, Jill A

    2009-03-01

    Increases in abdominal fat have been reported with menopause, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution (visceral vs subcutaneous) is still unclear. The objective of the study was to determine if abdominal fat content (volume) or distribution is altered with menopause. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 8 healthy women, both in the premenopausal state and 8 years later in the postmenopausal state. Physical activity (PA) and blood lipids were also measured. Body weight and waist circumference did not change with menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: body weight, 63.2 +/- 3.1 vs 63.9 +/- 2.5 kg; waist circumference, 92.1 +/- 4.6 vs 93.4 +/- 3.7 cm); however, total abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat all significantly (P < .05) increased with menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: total, 27 154 +/- 4268 vs 34 717 +/- 3272 cm(3); subcutaneous, 19 981 +/- 3203 vs 24 918 +/- 2521 cm(3); visceral, 7173 +/- 1611 vs 9798 +/- 1644 cm(3)). Although absolute adiposity changed with menopause, relative fat distribution was not significantly different after menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: subcutaneous, 73% +/- 3% vs 71% +/- 3%; visceral, 26% +/- 3% vs 28% +/- 3%). Lean mass, fat mass, and PA, along with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, did not change with menopause. High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein both increased (P < .05), and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein decreased (P < .05) with menopause. As measured longitudinally with magnetic resonance imaging, total abdominal fat content increased with menopause despite no change in PA, body weight, or waist circumference; however, menopause did not affect the relative abdominal fat distribution in these women.

  1. Adipose tissue oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity independently of adiposity in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Gijs H; Vogel, Max A A; Vink, Roel G; Mariman, Edwin C; van Baak, Marleen A; Blaak, Ellen E

    2018-04-23

    Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown that altered AT oxygenation affects adipocyte functionality, but it remains to be elucidated whether altered AT oxygenation is more strongly related to obesity or insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AT oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity rather than adiposity in humans. Thirty-five lean and obese individuals (21 men and 14 women, aged 40-65 years) with either normal or impaired glucose metabolism participated in a cross-sectional single-centre study. We measured abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygenation, body composition and insulin sensitivity. AT oxygenation was higher in obese insulin resistant as compared to obese insulin sensitive (IS) individuals with similar age, body mass index and body fat percentage, both in men and women. No significant differences in AT oxygenation were found between obese IS and lean IS men. Moreover, AT oxygenation was positively associated with insulin resistance (r = 0.465; P = .005), even after adjustment for age, sex and body fat percentage (standardized β = 0.479; P = .005). In conclusion, abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygenation is associated with insulin sensitivity both in men and women, independently of adiposity. AT oxygenation may therefore be a promising target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  3. Identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue from castrated and intact full-sib pair Huainan male pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with obesity in humans. It has been proven that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate adipose tissue metabolism; therefore, we first study the role of lncRNAs on testosterone deficiency-induced fat deposition using castrated male pigs as the model animal. The ...

  4. Ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate versus low-dose pioglitazone-flutamide-metformin for adolescent girls with androgen excess: divergent effects on CD163, TWEAK receptor, ANGPTL4, and LEPTIN expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Marta; Chacón, Matilde R; López-Bermejo, Abel; Maymó-Masip, Elsa; Salvador, Cristina; Vendrell, Joan; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of a traditional therapy (an oral estroprogestagen) to those of a novel treatment (a low-dose combination of generics) in adolescent girls with androgen excess. In an open-label trial over 1 yr, 34 adolescents (age, 16 yr; body mass index, 23 kg/m2) with hyperinsulinemic androgen excess and without pregnancy risk were randomized to receive daily ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate (EE-CA; Diane 35 Diario) or a low-dose combination of pioglitazone 7.5 mg/d, flutamide 62.5 mg/d, and metformin 850 mg/d (PioFluMet). Markers of androgen excess, C-reactive protein, high molecular weight adiponectin, lipids, carotid intima media thickness, body composition (absorptiometry), abdominal fat partitioning (magnetic resonance imaging), and gene expression in longitudinal biopsies of sc adipose tissue at the abdominal level (RT-PCR) were assessed at baseline and after 1 yr. EE-CA and low-dose PioFluMet reduced androgen excess comparably, but had divergent effects on C-reactive protein, high molecular weight adiponectin, lipids, carotid intima media thickness, lean mass, abdominal and visceral fat, and on the expression of CD163, leptin, TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis receptor, and angiopoietin-like protein 4, respectively, related to macrophage activation, fat accretion, inflammation, and lipoprotein metabolism in adipose tissue. All these divergences pointed to a healthier condition on low-dose PioFluMet. EE-CA and PioFluMet are similarly effective in reversing androgen excess over 1 yr, but low-dose PioFluMet is superior in reversing inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular anomalies that are often associated with androgen excess.

  5. Quantitative CT imaging for adipose tissue analysis in mouse model of obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Tafani, J.-P.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.

    2011-03-01

    In obese humans CT imaging is a validated method for follow up studies of adipose tissue distribution and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. Equivalent methods in murine models of obesity are still lacking. Current small animal micro-CT involves long-term X-ray exposure precluding longitudinal studies. We have overcome this limitation by using a human medical CT which allows very fast 3D imaging (2 sec) and minimal radiation exposure. This work presents novel methods fitted to in vivo investigations of mice model of obesity, allowing (i) automated detection of adipose tissue in abdominal regions of interest, (ii) quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. For each mouse, 1000 slices (100μm thickness, 160 μm resolution) were acquired in 2 sec using a Toshiba medical CT (135 kV, 400mAs). A Gaussian mixture model of the Hounsfield curve of 2D slices was computed with the Expectation Maximization algorithm. Identification of each Gaussian part allowed the automatic classification of adipose tissue voxels. The abdominal region of interest (umbilical) was automatically detected as the slice showing the highest ratio of the Gaussian proportion between adipose and lean tissues. Segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous fat compartments was achieved with 2D 1/2 level set methods. Our results show that the application of human clinical CT to mice is a promising approach for the study of obesity, allowing valuable comparison between species using the same imaging materials and software analysis.

  6. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  7. Central adiposity is negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Baym, Carol L; Monti, Jim M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Moore, R Davis; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-02-01

    To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (age 7-9 years; n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th percentile body mass index [BMI]-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th percentile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks. Performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (ie, percent whole-body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Backward regression identified significant (P < .05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, oxygen consumption, and BMI z-score. Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with SES jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of SES and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Regional, but not whole-body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  9. Dietary Sodium, Adiposity, and Inflammation in Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K.; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A.; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. RESULTS: The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps < .05). No relation was found between dietary sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mean sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. PMID:24488738

  10. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Hirani, V

    2011-06-01

    To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102 cm, men; > 88 cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and WC categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases. Analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys, the Health Survey for England (HSE). Non-institutionalised men and women aged ≥ 65 years (in HSE 2005, 1512 men and 1747 women). Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure measurements were taken according to standardised HSE protocols. Information collected on socio-demographic, health behaviour and doctor diagnosed health conditions. Generalised obesity and abdominal obesity increased among men and women from 1993 to 2008. In 2005, the HSE 2005 focussed on older people. 72% of men and 68% of women aged over 65 were either overweight or obese. Prevalence of raised WC was higher in women (58%) than in men (46%). The prevalence of diabetes and arthritis was higher in people with generalised obesity in both sexes. Men were more likely to have had a joint replacement and had a higher prevalence of stroke if they were overweight only but women were more likely to have had a joint replacement only if they were obese (13%) and had a higher risk of falls with generalised obesity. The pattern was similar for the prevalence of chronic diseases by raised WC. Multivariate analysis showed that generalised and abdominal obesity was independently associated with risk of hypertension, diabetes and arthritis in both men and women. In women only, there was an association between generalised obesity and having a fall in the last year (OR: 1.5), and between abdominal obesity and having a joint replacement (OR: 1.9, p=0.01). Complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension and arthritis, are more common in men and women aged over 65 who are

  11. Metabolic and Structural Effects of Phosphatidylcholine and Deoxycholate Injections on Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Reeds, Dominic N.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel; Boswell, Craig Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (PC-DC) injections are a popular nonsurgical method to eliminate unwanted fat. The safety and efficacy of this approach is uncertain. Objective: The authors evaluate the effects of PC-DC treatments on body composition, adipocyte function, and mechanisms responsible for fat loss. Methods: This randomized, open-label study enrolled 13 women with a body mass index (BMI) ≤30 kg/m2 and lower abdominal subcutaneous fat suitable for small-volume liposuction. Patients were randomized by the final digit of their Social Security numbers and received between 2 and 4 PC-DC treatments, spaced 8 weeks apart. One side below the umbilicus was injected with PC-DC. The contralateral, control side received no treatment. Adipose tissue biopsies were performed on the treated side at baseline, 1 week after the first treatment, and 8 weeks after the final treatment. The primary outcome was change in adipose tissue thickness at baseline and 8 weeks after the final treatment. Results: Seven women completed the study. Treatment with PC-DC significantly reduced the thickness of the anterior subcutaneous abdominal fat (P = .004). Adipose tissue showed rapid increases in crown-like structures, macrophage infiltration, and reduced expression of leptin, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose tissue triglyceride lipase, and CD36. Plasma C-reactive protein, lipid profile, and plasma glucose concentrations were unchanged. Conclusions: PC-DC injections can effectively reduce abdominal fat volume and thickness by inducing adipocyte necrosis. These treatments do not appear to increase circulating markers of inflammation or affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:23439063

  12. Divergent responses to thermogenic stimuli in BAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue from interleukin 18 and interleukin 18 receptor 1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Tovar, Sulay; González-Touceda, David; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C.

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipocytes recruitment in brown (BAT) or white adipose tissue, mainly in the inguinal fat pad (iWAT), meet the need for temperature adaptation in cold-exposure conditions and protect against obesity in face of hypercaloric diets. Using interleukin18 (Il18) and Il18 receptor 1- knockout (Il18r1-KO) mice, this study aimed to investigate the role of IL18 signaling in BAT and iWAT activation and thermogenesis under both stimuli. Il18-KO, extremely dietary obesity-prone as previously described, failed to develop diet-induced thermogenesis as assessed by BAT and iWAT Ucp1 mRNA levels. Overweight when fed standard chow but not HFD, HFD-fed Il18r1-KO mice exhibited increased iWAT Ucp1 gene expression. Energy expenditure was reduced in pre-obese Il18r1-KO mice and restored upon HFD-challenge. Cold exposure lead to similar results; Il18r1-KO mice were protected against acute body temperature drop, displaying a more brown-like structure, alternative macrophage activation and thermogenic gene expression in iWAT than WT controls. Opposite effects were observed in Il18-KO mice. Thus, Il18 and Il18r1 genetic ablation disparate effects on energy homeostasis are likely mediated by divergent BAT responses to thermogenic stimuli as well as iWAT browning. These results suggest that a more complex receptor-signaling system mediates the IL18 adipose-tissue specific effects in energy expenditure. PMID:26656097

  13. Divergent responses to thermogenic stimuli in BAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue from interleukin 18 and interleukin 18 receptor 1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Tovar, Sulay; González-Touceda, David; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C

    2015-12-10

    Brown and beige adipocytes recruitment in brown (BAT) or white adipose tissue, mainly in the inguinal fat pad (iWAT), meet the need for temperature adaptation in cold-exposure conditions and protect against obesity in face of hypercaloric diets. Using interleukin18 (Il18) and Il18 receptor 1- knockout (Il18r1-KO) mice, this study aimed to investigate the role of IL18 signaling in BAT and iWAT activation and thermogenesis under both stimuli. Il18-KO, extremely dietary obesity-prone as previously described, failed to develop diet-induced thermogenesis as assessed by BAT and iWAT Ucp1 mRNA levels. Overweight when fed standard chow but not HFD, HFD-fed Il18r1-KO mice exhibited increased iWAT Ucp1 gene expression. Energy expenditure was reduced in pre-obese Il18r1-KO mice and restored upon HFD-challenge. Cold exposure lead to similar results; Il18r1-KO mice were protected against acute body temperature drop, displaying a more brown-like structure, alternative macrophage activation and thermogenic gene expression in iWAT than WT controls. Opposite effects were observed in Il18-KO mice. Thus, Il18 and Il18r1 genetic ablation disparate effects on energy homeostasis are likely mediated by divergent BAT responses to thermogenic stimuli as well as iWAT browning. These results suggest that a more complex receptor-signaling system mediates the IL18 adipose-tissue specific effects in energy expenditure.

  14. [Evaluate the Efficacy of Electroacupuncture Therapy on Abdominal Fat in Obese Women by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging].

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Dong-Gang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Feng, Li-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Li, Fang

    2016-10-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on abdominal fat in obese women by using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Thirty abdominal obesity women patients were randomly divided into control group ( n =15) and EA group ( n =15). The obesity patients of the control group did not receive any treatment for weight reduction, and those of the EA group were treated by EA stimulation of bilateral Neiting (ST 44), Fenglong (ST 40), Zusanli (ST 36), Huaroumen (ST 24), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Shuidao (ST 28), Fujie (SP 14), Daheng (SP 13), etc. for 25 min, once every other day, 3 times per week for 3 months. The patient's body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) were mea-sured with different devices, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 and S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the total abdominal fat volume between the L 4 and S 3 levels were detected using MRI systems before and after the treatment. The effects of the EA group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering difference values (between pre- and post-treatment) of BMI, WC and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 , S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis(all P <0.01)and in reducing total abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 (all P <0.01). After the treatment, the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the superior edge of the pubic symphysis ( P <0.01) and the total abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 ( P <0.05) were significantly decreased in the EA group compared to pre-treatment. There were no significant differences between post- and pre-treatment in BMI, WC, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the L 4 , L 5 and S 3 in both EA and control groups and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the level of the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the

  15. Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Quality is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rosenquist, Klara J.; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M.; Therkelsen, Kate E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether computed tomography (CT) attenuation, as a measure of fat quality, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors above and beyond fat quantity. Background Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are pathogenic fat depots associated with cardiometabolic risk. Adipose tissue attenuation in CT images is variable, similar to adipose tissue volume. However, whether the quality of abdominal fat attenuation is associated to cardiometabolic risk independent of the quantity is uncertain. Methods Participants were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study CT sub-study. VAT and SAT volumes were acquired by semi-quantitative assessment. Fat quality was measured by CT attenuation and recorded as mean Hounsfield Units (HU) within each fat depot. Sex-specific linear and logistic multivariable regression models were used to assess the association between standard deviation (SD) decrease in HU and each risk factor. Results Lower CT attenuation of VAT and SAT was correlated with higher BMI levels in both sexes. Risk factors were generally more adverse with decreasing HU values. For example, in women, per 1-SD decrease in VAT HU, the odds ratio (OR) was increased for hypertension (OR 1.80), impaired fasting glucose (OR 2.10), metabolic syndrome (OR 3.65) and insulin resistance (OR 3.36) (all p<0.0001). In models that further adjusted for VAT volume, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance remained significant. Trends were similar but less pronounced in SAT and in men. There was evidence of an interaction between HU and fat volume among both women and men. Conclusion Lower CT attenuation of VAT and SAT is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk above and beyond total adipose tissue volume. Qualitative indices of abdominal fat depots may provide insight regarding cardiometabolic risk independent of fat quantity. PMID:23664720

  16. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat Quantity and Quality With Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane J; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-10-04

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm(3) and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm(3) for SAT and an increase of 703 cm(3) for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5 HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm(3) increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for each additional 5 HU decrease in abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Predictors for cecal insertion time: the impact of abdominal visceral fat measured by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Several factors affect the risk for longer cecal insertion time. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of longer insertion time and to evaluate the effect of visceral fat measured by CT. This is a retrospective observational study. Outpatients for colorectal cancer screening who underwent colonoscopies and CT were enrolled. Computed tomography was performed in individuals who requested cancer screening and in those with GI bleeding. Information on obesity indices (BMI, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue area), constipation score, history of abdominal surgery, poor preparation, fellow involvement, diverticulosis, patient discomfort, and the amount of sedation used was collected. The cecal insertion rate was 95.2% (899/944), and 899 patients were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis showed that female sex, lower BMI, lower visceral adipose tissue area, lower subcutaneous adipose tissue area, higher constipation score, history of surgery, poor bowel preparation, and fellow involvement were independently associated with longer insertion time. When obesity indices were considered simultaneously, smaller subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p = 0.038), but not lower BMI (p = 0.802) or smaller visceral adipose tissue area (p = 0.856), was associated with longer insertion time; the other aforementioned factors remained associated with longer insertion time. In the subanalysis of normal-weight patients (BMI <25 kg/m), a smaller subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p = 0.002), but not a lower BMI (p = 0.782), was independently associated with a longer insertion time. Longer insertion time had a positive correlation with a higher patient discomfort score (ρ = 0.51, p < 0.001) and a greater amount of midazolam use (ρ = 0.32, p < 0.001). This single-center retrospective study includes a potential selection bias. In addition to BMI and intra-abdominal fat, female sex, constipation, history of abdominal surgery, poor preparation, and fellow

  18. Dietary xenosterols lead to infertility and loss of abdominal adipose tissue in sterolin-deficient mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Solca, Curzio; Tint, G. Stephen; Patel, Shailendra B.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the human disease sitosterolemia (MIM 210250) has shed light not only on the pathways by which dietary sterols may traffic but also on how the mammalian body rids itself of cholesterol and defends against xenosterols. Two genes, ABCG5 and ABCG8, located at the sitosterolemia locus, each encodes a membrane-bound ABC half-transporter and constitutes a functional unit whose activity has now been shown to account for biliary and intestinal sterol excretion. Knockout mice deficient in Abcg5 or Abcg8 recapitulate many of the phenotypic features of sitosterolemia. During the course of our studies to characterize these knockout mice, we noted that these mice, raised on normal rodent chow, exhibited infertility as well as loss of abdominal fat. We show that, although sitosterolemia does not lead to any structural defects or to any overt endocrine defects, fertility could be restored if xenosterols are specifically blocked from entry and that the loss of fat is also reversed by a variety of maneuvers that limit xenosterol accumulation. These studies show that xenosterols may have a significant biological impact on normal mammalian physiology and that the Abcg5 or Abcg8 knockout mouse model may prove useful in investigating the role of xenosterols on mammalian physiology. PMID:23180829

  19. Serum concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of omentin in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of very-low-calorie diet, physical activity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, M; Dostálová, I; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinová, Z; Mráz, M; Kasalický, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated serum omentin levels and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 11 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 obese non-diabetic women (OB) and 26 healthy lean women (C) before and after various weight loss interventions: 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), 3-month regular exercise and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). At baseline, both T2DM and OB groups had decreased serum omentin concentrations compared with C group while omentin mRNA expression in SCAT did not significantly differ among the groups. Neither VLCD nor exercise significantly affected serum omentin concentrations and its mRNA expression in SCAT of OB or T2DM group. LSG significantly increased serum omentin levels in OB group. In contrast, omentin mRNA expression in SCAT was significantly reduced after LSG. Baseline fasting serum omentin levels in a combined group of the studied subjects (C, OB, T2DM) negatively correlated with BMI, CRP, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin and were positively related to HDL-cholesterol. Reduced circulating omentin levels could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. The increase in circulating omentin levels and the decrease in omentin mRNA expression in SCAT of obese women after LSG might contribute to surgery-induced metabolic improvements and sustained reduction of body weight.

  20. Fat accumulation in the tongue is associated with male gender, abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Ivan R. B.; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar Leonardo; Eajazi, Alireza; Genta, Pedro R.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. Methods We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular-hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area. Metabolic syndrome was determined from available clinical and laboratory data. Results We identified 206 patients (104 females, 102 males) with mean age 56±17y and mean body mass index (BMI) 28±6kg/m2 (range 16–47kg/m2). Males had lower TA values (P=0.0002) and higher upper airway measures (P< 0.0001) independent of age and BMI (P<0.001). In all subjects, TA was negatively associated with upper airway measures (P<0.001). TA was negatively associated with body composition parameters (all P<0.0001), most notably with VAT (r=−0.53) and NC (r=−0.47). TA values were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001). Conclusion Increased tongue adiposity is influenced by gender and is associated with abnormal upper airway patency and body composition parameters. PMID:27733254

  1. Fat accumulation in the tongue is associated with male gender, abnormal upper airway patency and whole-body adiposity.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ivan R B; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar Leonardo; Eajazi, Alireza; Genta, Pedro R; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2016-11-01

    To examine associations between tongue adiposity with upper airway measures, whole-body adiposity and gender. We hypothesized that increased tongue adiposity is higher in males and positively associated with abnormal upper airway measures and whole-body adiposity. We studied subjects who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography to obtain tongue attenuation (TA) values and cross-sectional area, pharyngeal length (PL) and mandibular plane to hyoid distance (MPH), as well as abdominal circumference, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue areas, neck circumference (NC) and neck adipose tissue area. Metabolic syndrome was determined from available clinical and laboratory data. We identified 206 patients (104 females, 102 males) with mean age 56±17years and mean body mass index (BMI) 28±6kg/m 2 (range 16-47kg/m 2 ). Males had lower TA values (P=0.0002) and higher upper airway measures (P<0.0001) independent of age and BMI (P<0.001). In all subjects, TA was negatively associated with upper airway measures (P<0.001). TA was negatively associated with body composition parameters (all P<0.0001), most notably with VAT (r=-0.53) and NC (r=-0.47). TA values were lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001). Increased tongue adiposity is influenced by gender and is associated with abnormal upper airway patency and body composition parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Protein Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Correlate with Levels in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue within Samples Differing by HIV and Lipoatrophy Status

    PubMed Central

    Gerschenson, Mariana; Chow, Dominic; Libutti, Daniel E.; Willis, John H.; Murray, James; Capaldi, Roderick A.; Marusich, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded respiratory chain proteins in subcutaneous (SC) fat from patients with HIV lipoatrophy have clearly demonstrated the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in this syndrome. Research in HIV lipoatrophy, however, has been severely hampered by the lack of a suitable surrogate marker in blood or other easily obtained clinical specimens as fat biopsies are invasive and mtDNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) do not consistently correlate with the disease process. We used a simple, rapid, quantitative 2-site dipstick immunoassay to measure OXPHOS enzymes Complex I (CI) and Complex IV (CIV), and rtPCR to measure mtDNA in 26 matched SC fat and PBMC specimens previously banked from individuals on potent antiretroviral (ARV) therapy with HIV lipoatrophy, on similar ARV therapy without lipoatrophy, and in HIV seronegative controls. Significant correlations were found between the respective PBMC and fat levels for both CI (r = 0.442, p = 0.024) and for CIV (r = 0.507, p = 0.008). Both CI and CIV protein levels were also significantly reduced in both PBMCs and fat in lipoatrophic subjects compared to HIV seronegative controls (p ≤ 0.05), while a comparative reduction in mtDNA levels in lipoatrophic subjects was observed only in fat. We conclude that CI and CIV levels in PBMCs correlate to their respective levels in fat and may have utility as surrogate markers of mitochondrial dysfunction in lipoatrophy. PMID:18844460

  3. High enantiomeric excess of the flavor relevant 4-alkyl-branched Fatty acids in milk fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue of sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Heid, Carolina; Kayademir, Yasemin; Eibler, Dorothee; Vetter, Walter

    2015-01-21

    Volatile 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids are characteristic flavor compounds of sheep and goat. Due to the methyl branch, the carbon C-4 represents a stereogenic center with the possible presence of one or both enantiomers in the respective samples. In this study, we used enantioselective gas chromatography to study the enantiomeric composition of 4-methyloctanoic acid (4-Me-8:0) and 4-ethyloctanoic acid (4-Et-8:0) in milk and dairy products from sheep and goat as well as in goat subcutaneous tissue. Different columns coated with modified cyclodextrins were tested to resolve racemic 4-alkyl-branched fatty acid methyl ester standards. The best enantiomer resolution was obtained on 25% octakis(2,3,6-tri-O-ethyl)-γ-cyclodextrin (γ-TECD) diluted in OV-1701. For analysis of the food samples, the lipids were extracted and fatty acids in the extracts were converted into fatty acid methyl esters. Non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to fractionate the samples in order to gain one solution enriched in 4-Me-8:0 methyl ester and one solution enriched with 4-Et-8:0 methyl ester. Subsequent analysis by enantioselective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry allowed only the detection of one enantiomer of 4-Me-8:0 and 4-Et-8:0 in the samples. By means of a non-racemic standard of 4-Me-8:0, it was found that the predominant enantiomer was (R)-4-Me-8:0.

  4. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcoval, Joaquim; Moreno, Abelardo; Mañá, Juan; Peyri, Jordi

    2008-10-01

    Subcutaneous sarcoidosis has been reported to occur in 1.4% to 6% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Most reported cases are in women, most often in their fifth and sixth decades, and appear as multiple, asymptomatic, hardly indurated subcutaneous nodules without changes in the overlying epidermis. The lesions are characteristically located in the upper extremities, mainly in the forearms, and usually are bilateral and asymmetric. In most cases the lesions appear at the beginning of systemic sarcoidosis and are not associated with chronic fibrotic disease. Histopathologically, sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating naked granulomas involving fat lobules, with minimal to no septal involvement.

  5. Abdominal Subcutaneous Mass After Laser-Assisted Lipolysis and Immediate Multiple Treatments with a Dual-Wavelength Laser, Vacuum and Massage Device.

    PubMed

    Gentileschi, Stefano; Servillo, Maria; D'Ettorre, Marco; Salgarello, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    Body contouring by means of minimally invasive procedures is a growing trend. Current approaches to body contouring often involve a combination of surgical techniques (eg, laser-assisted liposuction) and a series of noninvasive device-based treatments aimed at accelerating recovery and improving aesthetic outcomes. In this case study, we describe a 38-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal-wall mass that resembled a tumor when assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-six months before presenting to our office, the patient had undergone laser lipolysis and a series of treatments with a device that delivered dual-wavelength laser energy and vacuum-assisted massage. To address the patient's concerns, we removed the mass and performed abdominal dermolipectomy. No postoperative complications occurred, and the patient was highly satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. The results of histologic studies indicated that the mass was pseudocystic and fluid-filled, surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and characterized as a foreign-body granuloma. Further analysis is warranted regarding the safety of laser lipolysis without aspiration combined with a device delivering dual-wavelength laser energy and vacuum-assisted massage. 5 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Clinical usefulness of the thickness of preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat layer in the abdomen estimated by ultrasonography for diagnosing abdominal obesity in each type of impaired glucose tolerance in man.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akiko; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Ishizuka, Toshiharu; Ito, Hiroko; Saito, Jun; Yagi, Kazuo; Saito, Yasushi

    2005-04-01

    For this study we enrolled 1,615 males who were admitted to our hospital for a general health check-up. Plasma glucose (PG) and insulin were measured during 75 g OGTT, and abdominal obesity was assessed by ultrasonography in all subjects. We divided them into several groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), high-normal glucose tolerance (h-NGT) who showed >10.0 nmol/l at 1 hr PG among those with NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG + IGT, and DM, according to the results of 75 g OGTT. The aim of the present study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of pre-diabetic disorders relating to metabolic syndrome by comparing various parameters including body mass index (BMI), blood levels of various lipids and abdominal wall fat index (AFI) calculated from the thickness of preperitoneal (Pmax) and subcutaneous (Smin) fat layer in the abdomen estimated by ultrasonography with insulin sensitivity determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) in each type of abnormal glucose regulation as classified by PG changes in 75 g OGTT. We also investigated the relationship between insulin secretion capability and insulin sensitivity to delineate the characteristics of each type of abnormal glucose regulation, and compared the area under the insulin curve (AUCins) and the time axis, and the ability of early insulin secretion by glucose loading (insulinogenic index: I.I.) in each type of abnormal glucose regulation. There was a significant positive correlation between HOMA-IR and Smin or Pmax, suggesting that Smin and Pmax may reflect insulin sensitivity. Abdominal obesity, which was diagnosed from the data of AFI, was present in the h-NGT and IFG + IGT groups, suggesting that those groups belong to the clinical entity of metabolic syndrome. HOMA-IR was higher in IFG than in IGT, although I.I. was reduced and AUCins was increased in IFG as well as in IGT. h-NGT demonstrated a slightly lower I.I. and higher AUCins, compared with IGT

  7. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    PubMed

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a two-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M.; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine if a high fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower fat diet in sedentary non-lean men. Subjects/Methods Six participants (healthy males: 18-40 yrs old: body mass index 25-37 kg/m2) underwent two weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar caloric content (approx. 1600 kcal) in randomized order with a ten-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both two-week diet sessions. Results Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher following the high-fat diet (210.8 ±27.9 μM) than following a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μM; P = 0.026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. Conclusions These results demonstrate that healthy non-lean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. PMID:21040937

  9. Anatomy of the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Markman, B; Barton, F E

    1987-08-01

    Dissections on 8 fresh and 10 embalmed cadavers were used to determine the anatomy of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the trunk and extremities. These dissections, along with CT scans, confirmed Gray's original description of the subcutaneous tissue consisting of a superficial and deep adipose layer. The superficial adipose layer is contained within organized, compact fascial septa. The deep adipose layer demonstrated regional variations with respect to its fascial framework, but was contained within a relatively loose, less organized, and more widely spaced fascial septa. We observed that the adipose layers are partitioned by a discrete subcutaneous fascia which fuses with the underlying muscle fascia at particular anatomic locations. The deep layer is thus contained by the subcutaneous fascia above and the muscle fascia below to form what we termed the deep adipose compartments. The deep adipose compartments contributed significantly to overall adipose thickness, are bilateral, and are found in the abdomen and paralumbar and gluteal-thigh regions.

  10. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  11. Improvement in arm and post-partum abdominal and flank subcutaneous fat deposits and skin laxity using a bipolar radiofrequency, infrared, vacuum and mechanical massage device.

    PubMed

    Brightman, Lori; Weiss, Elliot; Chapas, Anne M; Karen, Julie; Hale, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Leonard; Geronemus, Roy G

    2009-12-01

    Skin laxity of the body is a growing cosmetic concern. Laxity can result from chronological or photoaging and changes in body dimensions during pregnancy or weight loss. The end result is loose, sagging skin, and localized fat deposits. Liposuction and abdominoplasty or brachioplasty are established approaches to these issues. Patient desire for alternatives to surgical correction has spawned the development of non-invasive body contouring devices. The combination of infrared light (IR), bipolar radiofrequency (RF), vacuum and mechanical massage (Velashape, Syneron Medical Ltd, Israel) has demonstrated efficacy in improving skin appearance and circumference of the thighs [Goldberg et al., Derm Surg 2008; 34:204-209; Fisher et al., Derm Surg 2005; 31:1237-1241; Arnoczky and Aksan, J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000; 8:305-313; Alster and Tanzi, J Cosmetic Laser Therapy 2005; 7:81-85; Wanitphakdeedecha and Manuskiatti, J Cosmet Dermatol 2006; 5:284-288; Nootheti et al., Lasers Surg Med 2006; 38: 908-912], but only anecdotal evidence has supported its use on other anatomic locations. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Velashape on additional body sites and more rigorously examine the technology's impact on upper arm as well as abdominal and flank circumference. Subjects were 28-70 years old, skin types I-V. Nineteen subjects underwent 5 weekly treatments of the upper arms, and 10 subjects underwent 4 weekly treatments of the abdomen and flanks. Treatments were performed using Velashape. Circumference measurements, photographs, and subject weights were performed prior to treatment and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Subjects were asked to record their treatment satisfaction level. Change in arm circumference, at the 5th treatment was statistically significant with a mean loss of 0.625 cm. At 1- and 3-month follow-ups, mean loss was 0.71 and 0.597 cm respectively. Reduction of abdominal circumference at 3rd treatment was statistically significant with

  12. Subcutaneous jejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, F; Bignami, P; Cozzaglio, L

    1992-01-01

    When the surgeon must obviate to an impending obstruction because of an unresectable tumor of the supramesocolic space and an intestinal bypass is not feasible, a jejunostomy is usually indicated. We describe a new method to provide enteral nutrition via a subcutaneous jejunostomy without any external device, which can be used only when the patient is at risk for developing an obstruction or dysphagia. The feeding tube is inserted into the jejunum and then connected to a Port-a-Cath lodged in a subcutaneous pocket. Subsequently, the nutrition can be delivered via a Huber needle inserted in the port, or, to minimize the need for strict aseptic surveillance, the tube can be exteriorized from the pocket and used as the usual tube jejunostomy. This procedure allows placing a precautionary jejunostomy without distortion of the body-image.

  13. The effect of moderate weight loss, with or without (1, 3)(1, 6)-β-glucan addition, on subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression in young subjects with uncomplicated obesity.

    PubMed

    Strączkowski, Marek; Nikołajuk, Agnieszka; Majewski, Radosław; Filarski, Remigiusz; Stefanowicz, Magdalena; Matulewicz, Natalia; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika

    2018-05-08

    Obesity is characterized by insulin resistance and low-grade systemic and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. It remains unclear whether beneficial effects of weight loss are related to AT inflammation. We aimed to assess the effect of weight loss during low-calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, AT expression of genes associated with inflammation in young subjects with obesity. Furthermore, we estimated the effects of immunomodulatory (1, 3)(1, 6)-β-glucan (BG) on the above parameters. The study group comprised 52 subjects with obesity. Twelve-week dietary intervention was applied, with randomization to receive or not 500 mg BG daily. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, subcutaneous AT biopsy were performed before and after the program. Twenty normal-weight subjects, examined at baseline, served as a control group. At baseline, obese subjects had lower insulin sensitivity, lower AT ADIPOQ, JAK1, and JAK2 expression and higher AT expression of LEP, IL6ST, STAT3, MIF, CCL2, MMP9, and IL18. Forty obese subjects completed dietary intervention program, which resulted in 11.3% weight loss and 27% increase in insulin sensitivity (both p < 0.0001). AT IL6R, IL6ST, JAK1, and JAK2 expression increased, whereas MIF, CCL2, MMP9, and IL18 gene expression did not change in response to weight loss. BG addition had no effect on any of the parameters studied. Our data indicate that reduction in AT inflammation is not required for an improvement in insulin action during weight loss in subjects with uncomplicated obesity. BG does not have effects during dietary intervention.

  14. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  15. Abdominal fat and insulin resistance in normal and overweight women: Direct measurements reveal a strong relationship in subjects at both low and high risk of NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Carey, D G; Jenkins, A B; Campbell, L V; Freund, J; Chisholm, D J

    1996-05-01

    Insulin resistance appears to be central to obesity, NIDDM, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. While obese women with abdominal (android) fat distribution are more insulin resistant than those with peripheral (gynecoid) obesity, in nonobese women, the relationship between abdominal fat and insulin resistance is unknown. By measuring regional adiposity with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in 22 healthy women, with a mean +/- SE body BMI of 26.7 +/- 0.9 kg/m2 and differing risk factors for NIDDM, we found a strong negative relationship between central abdominal (intra-abdominal plus abdominal subcutaneous) fat and whole-body insulin sensitivity (r = -0.89, P < 0.0001) and nonoxidative glucose disposal (r = -0.77, P < 0.001), independent of total adiposity, family history of NIDDM, and past gestational diabetes. There was a large variation in insulin sensitivity, with a similar variation in central fat, even in those whose BMI was <25 kg/m2. Abdominal fat had a significantly stronger relationship with insulin sensitivity than peripheral nonabdominal fat (r2 = 0.79 vs. 0.44), and higher levels were associated with increased fasting nonesterified fatty acids, lipid oxidation, and hepatic glucose output. Because 79% of the variance in insulin sensitivity in this heterogeneous population was accounted for by central fat, abdominal adiposity appears to be a strong marker and may be a major determinant of insulin resistance in women.

  16. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P < 0.0001). Thus, WheiR was used to evaluate the association between AbAd with HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P < 0.0001). The cutoff point for WheiR as a predictor for high HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed

  17. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.; McKenna, Cristin

    2017-01-01

    Background Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Results Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (p<0.01) and 112±8 mg/dl (p<0.05), respectively]. VLDL-P concentration was significantly elevated in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [74±4 vs. 58±4 (p<0.05) and 55±4 μmol/l (p<0.05)]. VAT volume was significantly higher in both SCI groups than in the AB group, and HOMA-IR was higher and approached significance in the SCI groups compared to the AB group. A linear relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Conclusions Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than

  18. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial1,2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. Design: We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype–dietary fat interaction was also examined. Results: The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene–dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype–dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  19. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Effects of nanoporous anodic titanium oxide on human adipose derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Malec, Katarzyna; Góralska, Joanna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Głowacz, Paulina; Jarosz, Magdalena; Brzewski, Pawel; Sulka, Grzegorz D; Jaskuła, Marian; Wybrańska, Iwona

    The aim of current bone biomaterials research is to design implants that induce controlled, guided, successful, and rapid healing. Titanium implants are widely used in dental, orthopedic, and reconstructive surgery. A series of studies has indicated that cells can respond not only to the chemical properties of the biomaterial, but also, in particular, to the changes in surface topography. Nanoporous materials remain in focus of scientific queries due to their exclusive properties and broad applications. One such material is nanostructured titanium oxide with highly ordered, mutually perpendicular nanopores. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films were fabricated by a three-step anodization process in propan-1,2,3-triol-based electrolyte containing fluoride ions. Adipose-derived stem cells offer many interesting opportunities for regenerative medicine. The important goal of tissue engineering is to direct stem cell differentiation into a desired cell lineage. The influence of nanoporous TiO 2 with pore diameters of 80 and 108 nm on cell response, growth, viability, and ability to differentiate into osteoblastic lineage of human adipose-derived progenitors was explored. Cells were harvested from the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue by a simple, minimally invasive, and inexpensive method. Our results indicate that anodic nanostructured TiO 2 is a safe and nontoxic biomaterial. In vitro studies demonstrated that the nanotopography induced and enhanced osteodifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells from the abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue.

  1. A Common Variant of NGEF Is Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seungbok; Son, Ho-Young; Hwang, Jinha; Chae, Jeesoo; Yun, Jae Moon; Kwon, Hyuktae; Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Belong

    2015-01-01

    Central adiposity, rather than body mass index (BMI), is a key pathophysiological feature of the development of obesity-related diseases. Although genetic studies by anthropometric measures such as waist circumference have been widely conducted, genetic studies for abdominal fat deposition measured by computed tomography (CT) have been rarely performed. A total of 1,243 participants who were recruited from two health check-up centers were included in this study. We selected four and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NGEF and RGS6, respectively, and analyzed the associations between the seven SNPs and central adiposity measured by CT using an additive, dominant, or recessive model. The participants were generally healthy middle-aged men (50.7 ± 5.3 years). In the additive model, the rs11678490 A allele of NGEF was significantly associated with total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (all P < 0.05). The AA genotype of this SNP in the recessive model showed a more significant association with all adiposity traits, and its association with VAT remained significant even after adjustment for BMI (P = 0.005). In the overall or visceral obesity group analysis, the AA genotype of rs11678490 showed no association with overall obesity (P = 0.148), whereas it was significantly associated with visceral obesity both before (P = 0.010) and after (P = 0.029) adjustment for BMI. In particular, an AA genotype effect was conspicuous between lower and upper groups with 5% extreme VAT phenotypes (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 1.50-61.31). However, we found no significant association between SNPs of RGS6 and central adiposity. We identified a visceral-fat-associated SNP, rs11678490 of NGEF, in Korean men. This study suggests that the genetic background of central adiposity and BMI is different, and that additional efforts should be made to find the unique genetic architecture of intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  2. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  3. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Vernochet, Cecile; Damilano, Federico; Mourier, Arnaud; Bezy, Olivier; Mori, Marcelo A.; Smyth, Graham; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue occurs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of lipodystrophy, but whether this dysfunction contributes to or is the result of these disorders is unknown. To investigate the physiological consequences of severe mitochondrial impairment in adipose tissue, we generated mice deficient in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in adipocytes by using mice carrying adiponectin-Cre and TFAM floxed alleles. These adiponectin TFAM-knockout (adipo-TFAM-KO) mice had a 75–81% reduction in TFAM in the subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), causing decreased expression and enzymatic activity of proteins in complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain (ETC). This mitochondrial dysfunction led to adipocyte death and inflammation in WAT and a whitening of BAT. As a result, adipo-TFAM-KO mice were resistant to weight gain, but exhibited insulin resistance on both normal chow and high-fat diets. These lipodystrophic mice also developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. Thus, isolated mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue can lead a syndrome of lipodystrophy with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications.—Vernochet, C., Damilano, F., Mourier, A., Bezy, O., Mori, M. A., Smyth, G., Rosenzweig, A., Larsson, N.-G., Kahn, C. R. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:25005176

  4. Successful isolation of viable adipose-derived stem cells from human adipose tissue subject to long-term cryopreservation: positive implications for adult stem cell-based therapeutics in patients of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Sean M; Carter, Cynthia M; Dierov, Raia; Weiss, Scott; Gersch, Robert P; Percec, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2-1159 days) from patients of varying ages (26-62 years). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved <1 year than from tissue cryopreserved >2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages.

  5. Responses to peripheral neuropeptide Y in avian adipose tissue are diet, depot, and time specific.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this research was to determine the effect of dietary macronutrient composition on peripheral neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced changes in adipose tissue dynamics in chicks. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric diets from the day of hatch: high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF), or high protein (HP). On day 4 post-hatch, 0 (vehicle), 60, or 120 µg/kg BW of NPY was injected intraperitoneally, and subcutaneous, clavicular and abdominal adipose tissue samples were collected at 1 and 3 h post-injection. The effect of NPY was most pronounced in chicks fed the HF or HP diet. In the subcutaneous fat at 1 h post-injection, 60 µg/kg BW of NPY was associated with an increase in NPY receptor 2 (NPYR2) mRNA in chicks fed the HP diet and a decrease in 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2) mRNA in chicks fed the HC diet. In response to 120 µg/kg BW of NPY, there was greater AGPAT2 mRNA in the clavicular fat of chicks that consumed the HP diet and less CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in the abdominal fat of chicks that were provided the HF diet. There were no gene expression changes in the abdominal fat at 3 h post-injection, whereas there were decreases in AGPAT2, adipose triglyceride lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4 and NPY mRNA in the clavicular fat of chicks fed the HP diet. Results demonstrate that diet affects exogenous NPY-dependent physiological effects in a time- and depot-dependent manner in chick adipose tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncovering Suitable Reference Proteins for Expression Studies in Human Adipose Tissue with Relevance to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; López, Juan A.; García-Santos, Eva; Camafeita, Emilio; Gómez-Serrano, María; Ortega-Delgado, Francisco J.; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José M.; Peral, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein expression studies based on the two major intra-abdominal human fat depots, the subcutaneous and the omental fat, can shed light into the mechanisms involved in obesity and its co-morbidities. Here we address, for the first time, the identification and validation of reference proteins for data standardization, which are essential for accurate comparison of protein levels in expression studies based on fat from obese and non-obese individuals. Methodology and Findings To uncover adipose tissue proteins equally expressed either in omental and subcutaneous fat depots (study 1) or in omental fat from non-obese and obese individuals (study 2), we have reanalyzed our previously published data based on two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four proteins (12 in study 1 and 12 in study 2) with similar expression levels in all conditions tested were selected and identified by mass spectrometry. Immunoblotting analysis was used to confirm in adipose tissue the expression pattern of the potential reference proteins and three proteins were validated: PARK7, ENOA and FAA. Western Blot analysis was also used to test customary loading control proteins. ENOA, PARK7 and the customary loading control protein Beta-actin showed steady expression profiles in fat from non-obese and obese individuals, whilst FAA maintained steady expression levels across paired omental and subcutaneous fat samples. Conclusions ENOA, PARK7 and Beta-actin are proper reference standards in obesity studies based on omental fat, whilst FAA is the best loading control for the comparative analysis of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues either in obese and non-obese subjects. Neither customary loading control proteins GAPDH and TBB5 nor CALX are adequate standards in differential expression studies on adipose tissue. The use of the proposed reference proteins will facilitate the adequate analysis of proteins differentially expressed in the context of obesity

  7. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p < 0.0001), abdominal total adipose tissue volume by 10.45% (p = 0.001), and abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio by 10.59% (p = 0.007). Decreases in body weight (-2.13%), waist circumference (-1.44%), hip circumference (-0.33%), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (-0.99%), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume (-5.63%), and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content (-9.03%) were also observed, although these were not significant (p > 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in

  8. The Associations between Adiposity, Cognitive Function, and Achievement in Children.

    PubMed

    Raine, Lauren; Drollette, Eric; Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; Khan, Naiman; Hillman, Charles

    2018-04-27

    Although obesity has been related to measures of academic achievement and cognition in children, the influence of fat distribution, specifically visceral adiposity, on select aspects of achievement and cognitive function remains poorly characterized among preadolescent children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue, on achievement and cognitive function among children. Children with obesity (ages 7-9 years old, N= 55, 35 females) completed cognitive and academic tests. Normal weight children (N= 55, 35 females) were matched to this group on demographic characteristics and aerobic fitness. Covariate analyses included age, Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA), SES, and fat free VO2 (VO2 peak adjusted for lean mass; ml/kg lean/min). Adiposity (i.e., whole body percent fat, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)) was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results of this study revealed that, relative to their normal weight counterparts, children with obesity had significantly lower performance on tests of reading and math. Analyses revealed that among children with obesity, %Fat and SAAT were not related to cognitive abilities. However, higher VAT was associated with poorer intellectual abilities, p's≤0.04; and cognitive performance (i.e. Thinking Ability and Cognitive Efficiency), p's≤0.04. However, among normal weight children, VAT was positively associated with intellectual abilities and cognitive efficiency. In conclusion, the results suggest that VAT was selectively and negatively related with cognition among children with obesity. Along with the dangerous metabolic nature of VAT, its detrimental relationship with obese children's intellectual and cognitive functioning is concerning.

  9. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ekelund, Ulf; Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian'an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-03-01

    The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16-30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which suggests that efforts to encourage even small increases

  10. Regulation of the Fibrosis and Angiogenesis Promoter SPARC/Osteonectin in Human Adipose Tissue by Weight Change, Leptin, Insulin, and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Katrina; Wong, Steve; Tan, Bee; Gummesson, Anders; Jernas, Margareta; Franck, Niclas; Kerrigan, David; Nystrom, Fredrik H.; Carlsson, Lena M.S.; Randeva, Harpal S.; Pinkney, Jonathan H.; Wilding, John P.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Matricellular Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC), originally discovered in bone as osteonectin, is a mediator of collagen deposition and promotes fibrosis. Adipose tissue collagen has recently been found to be linked with metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SPARC in human adipose tissue is influenced by glucose metabolism and adipokines. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from morbidly obese nondiabetic subjects undergoing bariatric surgery and lean control subjects for analysis of metabolic markers, SPARC, and various cytokines (RT-PCR). Additionally, 24 obese subjects underwent a very-low-calorie diet of 1,883 kJ (450 kcal)/day for 16 weeks and serial subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose tissue (SCAT) biopsies (weight loss: 28 ± 3.7 kg). Another six lean subjects underwent fast-food–based hyperalimentation for 4 weeks (weight gain: 7.2 ± 1.6 kg). Finally, visceral adipose tissue explants were cultured with recombinant leptin, insulin, and glucose, and SPARC mRNA and protein expression determined by Western blot analyses. RESULTS SPARC expression in human adipose tissue correlated with fat mass and was higher in SCAT. Weight loss induced by very-low-calorie diet lowered SPARC expression by 33% and increased by 30% in adipose tissue of subjects gaining weight after a fast-food diet. SPARC expression was correlated with leptin independent of fat mass and correlated with homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance. In vitro experiments showed that leptin and insulin potently increased SPARC production dose dependently in visceral adipose tissue explants, while glucose decreased SPARC protein. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that SPARC expression is predominant in subcutaneous fat and its expression and secretion in adipose tissue are influenced by fat mass, leptin, insulin, and glucose. The profibrotic effects of SPARC may contribute to metabolic dysregulation in

  11. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 shRNA ameliorates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis in mouse abdominal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Chaoying; Liu, Limei; Wang, Wei; Du, Hanze; Fan, Winnie; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Jiang, Meisheng; Friedman, Theodore C; Liu, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid exposure increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Prereceptor activation of glucocorticoid availability in target tissue by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is an important mediator of the metabolic syndrome. We explored whether the tissue-specific modulation of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH in adipose tissue mediates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis and analyzed the effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition on the key lipid metabolism genes and insulin-signaling cascade. We observed that corticosterone (CORT) treatment increased expression of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and induced lipase HSL and ATGL with suppression of p-Thr(172) AMPK in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CORT induced adipose insulin resistance, as reflected by a marked decrease in IR and IRS-1 gene expression with a reduction in p-Thr(308) Akt/PKB. Furthermore, 11β-HSD1 shRNA attenuated CORT-induced 11β-HSD1 and lipase expression and improved insulin sensitivity with a concomitant stimulation of pThr(308) Akt/PKB and p-Thr(172) AMPK within adipose tissue. Addition of CORT to 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and impaired p-Thr(308) Akt/PKB, leading to lipolysis. Knockdown of 11β-HSD1 by shRNA attenuated CORT-induced lipolysis and reversed CORT-mediated inhibition of pThr(172) AMPK, which was accompanied by a parallel improvement of insulin signaling response in these cells. These findings suggest that elevated adipose 11β-HSD1 expression may contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and adipolysis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Clare; Doolan, Anne; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Sheridan-Pereiraet, Margaret; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue as surrogate markers of fetal nutritional status and correlate them with neonatal total body composition. This prospective longitudinal study of 62 singleton pregnancies obtained serial biometry and subcutaneous tissue measurements at 28, 33 and 38 weeks gestation. These measurements were then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA). At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002). We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  14. Adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction triggers a lipodystrophic syndrome with insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cardiovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Vernochet, Cecile; Damilano, Federico; Mourier, Arnaud; Bezy, Olivier; Mori, Marcelo A; Smyth, Graham; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue occurs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of lipodystrophy, but whether this dysfunction contributes to or is the result of these disorders is unknown. To investigate the physiological consequences of severe mitochondrial impairment in adipose tissue, we generated mice deficient in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in adipocytes by using mice carrying adiponectin-Cre and TFAM floxed alleles. These adiponectin TFAM-knockout (adipo-TFAM-KO) mice had a 75-81% reduction in TFAM in the subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), causing decreased expression and enzymatic activity of proteins in complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport chain (ETC). This mitochondrial dysfunction led to adipocyte death and inflammation in WAT and a whitening of BAT. As a result, adipo-TFAM-KO mice were resistant to weight gain, but exhibited insulin resistance on both normal chow and high-fat diets. These lipodystrophic mice also developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. Thus, isolated mitochondrial dysfunction in adipose tissue can lead a syndrome of lipodystrophy with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. © FASEB.

  15. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Femoral adipose tissue may accumulate the fat that has been recycled as VLDL and nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Siobhán E; Humphreys, Sandy M; Hodson, Leanne; Fielding, Barbara A; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N

    2010-10-01

    Gluteo-femoral, in contrast to abdominal, fat accumulation appears protective against diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that this reflects differences in the ability of the two depots to sequester fatty acids, with gluteo-femoral fat acting as a longer-term "sink." A total of 12 healthy volunteers were studied after an overnight fast and after ingestion of a mixed meal. Blood samples were taken from veins draining subcutaneous femoral and abdominal fat and compared with arterialized blood samples. Stable isotope-labeled fatty acids were used to trace specific lipid fractions. In 36 subjects, adipose tissue blood flow in the two depots was monitored with (133)Xe. Blood flow increased in response to the meal in both depots, and these responses were correlated (r(s) = 0.44, P < 0.01). Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) release was suppressed after the meal in both depots; it was lower in femoral fat than in abdominal fat (P < 0.01). Plasma triacylglycerol (TG) extraction by femoral fat was also lower than that by abdominal fat (P = 0.05). Isotopic tracers showed that the difference was in chylomicron-TG extraction. VLDL-TG extraction and direct NEFA uptake were similar in the two depots. Femoral fat shows lower metabolic fluxes than subcutaneous abdominal fat, but differs in its relative preference for extracting fatty acids directly from the plasma NEFA and VLDL-TG pools compared with chylomicron-TG.

  17. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  18. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  19. Reduced Adipose Tissue Oxygenation in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Sereda, Olga R.; Redman, Leanne M.; Albarado, Diana C.; Hymel, David T.; Roan, Laura E.; Rood, Jennifer C.; Burk, David H.; Smith, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Based on rodent studies, we examined the hypothesis that increased adipose tissue (AT) mass in obesity without an adequate support of vascularization might lead to hypoxia, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Oxygen partial pressure (AT pO2) and AT temperature in abdominal AT (9 lean and 12 overweight/obese men and women) was measured by direct insertion of a polarographic Clark electrode. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Abdominal subcutaneous tissue was used for staining, quantitative RT-PCR, and chemokine secretion assay. RESULTS— AT pO2 was lower in overweight/obese subjects than lean subjects (47 ± 10.6 vs. 55 ± 9.1 mmHg); however, this level of pO2 did not activate the classic hypoxia targets (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). AT pO2 was negatively correlated with percent body fat (R = −0.50, P < 0.05). Compared with lean subjects, overweight/obese subjects had 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower VEGF, suggesting AT rarefaction (capillary drop out). This might be due to lower peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ1 and higher collagen VI mRNA expression, which correlated with AT pO2 (P < 0.05). Of clinical importance, AT pO2 negatively correlated with CD68 mRNA and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α secretion (R = −0.58, R = −0.79, P < 0.05), suggesting that lower AT pO2 could drive AT inflammation in obesity. CONCLUSIONS— Adipose tissue rarefaction might lie upstream of both low AT pO2 and inflammation in obesity. These results suggest novel approaches to treat the dysfunctional AT found in obesity. PMID:19074987

  20. Reliability of Central Adiposity Assessments Using B-Mode Ultrasound: A Comparison of Linear and Curved Array Transducers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Lee; Geoffron, Morgane; Cornwall, Jon; Chinn, Victoria; Gram, Martin; Credeur, Daniel; Fryer, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Recently, it was reported that intra-abdominal thickness (IAT) assessments using ultrasound are most reliable if measured from the linea alba to the anterior vertebral column. These 2 anatomical sites can be simultaneously visualized using a linear array transducer. Linear array transducers have different operational characteristics when compared with conventional curved array transducers and are more reliable for some ultrasound-derived measures such as abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. However, it is unknown whether linear array transducers facilitate more reliable IAT measurements than curved array transducers. The purpose of the current study was to (1) compare the reliability of linear and curved array transducer assessments of IAT and maximal abdominal ratio (MAR) and (2) use the findings to update central adiposity measurement guidelines. Fifteen healthy adults (mean [SD], 27 [10] years; 60% female) with a range of somatotypes (body mass index: mean [SD], 24 [4]; range, 19-33 kg/m; waist circumference: mean [SD], 75 [11]; range, 61-96 cm) were tested on 3 mornings under standardized conditions. Intra-abdominal thickness was assessed 2 cm above the umbilicus (transverse plane), measuring from linea alba to the anterior vertebral column. Maximal abdominal ratio was defined as the ratio of IAT to abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. The IAT range was 25 to 87 mm, and the MAR range was 0.15 to 0.77. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficient values for IAT measurements made were comparable (0.96-0.97) for both transducers, as were MAR values (0.95). In conclusion, while both transducers provided equally reliable measurement of IAT, the use of a single linear array transducer simplifies the assessment of central adiposity.

  1. VAT=TAAT-SAAT: innovative anthropometric model to predict visceral adipose tissue without resort to CT-Scan or DXA.

    PubMed

    Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m(-2) . Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C - 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI - 92.713; R(2) = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C - 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age - 213.65; R(2) = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R(2) = 76%; Men: R(2) = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France). Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. VAT=TAAT-SAAT: Innovative Anthropometric Model to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue Without Resort to CT-Scan or DXA

    PubMed Central

    Samouda, Hanen; Dutour, Anne; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Panuel, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Dadoun, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a combination of a selected but limited number of anthropometric measurements predicts visceral adipose tissue (VAT) better than other anthropometric measurements, without resort to medical imaging. Hypothesis Abdominal anthropometric measurements are total abdominal adipose tissue indicators and global measures of VAT and SAAT (subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). Therefore, subtracting the anthropometric measurement the more correlated possible with SAAT while being the least correlated possible with VAT, from the most correlated abdominal anthropometric measurement with VAT while being highly correlated with TAAT, may better predict VAT. Design and Methods BMI participants' range was from 16.3 to 52.9 kg m−2. Anthropometric and abdominal adipose tissues data by computed tomography (CT-Scan) were available in 253 patients (18-78 years) (CHU Nord, Marseille) and used to develop the anthropometric VAT prediction models. Results Subtraction of proximal thigh circumference from waist circumference, adjusted to age and/or BMI, predicts better VAT (Women: VAT = 2.15 × Waist C − 3.63 × Proximal Thigh C + 1.46 × Age + 6.22 × BMI − 92.713; R2 = 0.836. Men: VAT = 6 × Waist C − 4.41 × proximal thigh C + 1.19 × Age − 213.65; R2 = 0.803) than the best single anthropometric measurement or the association of two anthropometric measurements highly correlated with VAT. Both multivariate models showed no collinearity problem. Selected models demonstrate high sensitivity (97.7% in women, 100% in men). Similar predictive abilities were observed in the validation sample (Women: R2 = 76%; Men: R2 = 70%). Bland and Altman method showed no systematic estimation error of VAT. Conclusion Validated in a large range of age and BMI, our results suggest the usefulness of the anthropometric selected models to predict VAT in Europides (South of France). PMID:23404678

  3. Impact of hypercortisolism on skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue mass in patients with adrenal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Delivanis, Danae A; Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Zeb, Muhammad H; Moynagh, Michael R; Takahashi, Naoki; McKenzie, Travis J; Thomas, Melinda A; Gogos, Charalambos; Young, William F; Bancos, Irina; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsana

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal visceral adiposity and central sarcopenia are markers of increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. To assess whether central sarcopenia and adiposity can serve as a marker of disease severity in patients with adrenal adenomas and glucocorticoid secretory autonomy. Retrospective cohort study. Twenty-five patients with overt Cushing's syndrome (CS), 48 patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE) and 32 patients with a nonfunctioning adrenal tumour (NFAT) were included. Medical records were reviewed, and body composition measurements (visceral fat [VAT], subcutaneous fat [SAT], visceral/total fat [V/T], visceral/subcutaneous [V/S] and total abdominal muscle mass) were calculated based on abdominal computed tomography (CT). In patients with overt CS, when compared to patients with NFAT, the V/T fat and the V/S ratio were increased by 0.08 (P < .001) and by 0.3 (P < .001); however, these measurements were decreased by 0.04 (P = .007) and 0.2 (P = .01), respectively, in patients with MACE. Total muscle mass was decreased by -10 cm 2 (P = .02) in patients with overt CS compared to patients with NFAT. Correlation with morning serum cortisol concentrations after dexamethasone suppression testing revealed that for every 28 nmol/L cortisol increase there was a 0.008 increase in V/T (P < .001), 0.02 increase in the V/S fat ratio (P < .001) and a 1.2 cm 2 decrease in mean total muscle mass (P = .002). The severity of hypercortisolism was correlated with lower muscle mass and higher visceral adiposity. These CT-based markers may allow for a more reliable and objective assessment of glucocorticoid-related disease severity in patients with adrenal adenomas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Total and Regional Adiposity and Cognitive Change in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Alka M.; Lindquist, Karla; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore; Rosano, Caterina; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Whether total and regional adiposity measured by anthropometry and radiographic studies influences cognitive decline in older adults and whether this association is explained by hormones and inflammatory factors known to be secreted by adipose tissue. Design: Prospective cohort study Setting: Two clinical centers; Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis, TN Participants: 3,054 elders enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, sagittal diameter, total fat mass by DEXA, subcutaneous and visceral fat by abdominal CT. We examined the association between baseline body fat measures and change in 3MS score, sequentially adjusting for confounding and mediating variables including comorbid diseases, adipocytokines, and sex hormones. Main Outcome Measure: The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) administered at the first, 3rd, 5th, and 8th annual clinical examination. Results: All baseline adiposity measures varied significantly by sex. In mixed effects models, the association between total and regional adiposity and change in 3MS score varied significantly by sex, with the highest adiposity tertile being associated with greater cognitive declines in men (p<0.05 for each adiposity measure) but not in women (p-for-interaction<0.05). Total fat mass was significantly associated with greater change in 3MS score among men (lowest tertile −1.5, middle tertile −2.4, highest tertile −2.6, p-for-trend=0.005) even after adjusting for mediators. Conclusions: Higher levels of all adiposity measures were associated with worsening cognitive function in men after controlling for metabolic disorders, adipocytokines and sex hormone levels. Conversely, there was no association between adiposity and cognitive change in women. PMID:19273751

  5. A microarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Grove, KL; Fried, SK; Greenberg, AS; Xiao, XQ; Clegg, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Objective A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose tissue and gene expression, comparing differentially expressed genes in diet-induced obese mice with mice maintained on a chow diet. Research Design and Methods We used a microarray approach to determine whether there are sexual dimorphisms in gene expression in age-matched male, female or ovariectomized female (OVX) C57/BL6 mice maintained on a high-fat (HF) diet. We then compared expression of validated genes between the sexes on a chow diet. Results After exposure to a high fat diet for 12 weeks, females gained less weight than males. The microarray analyses indicate in intra-abdominal/gonadal adipose tissue in females 1642 genes differ by at least twofold between the depots, whereas 706 genes differ in subcutaneous/inguinal adipose tissue when compared with males. Only 138 genes are commonly regulated in both sexes and adipose tissue depots. Inflammatory genes (cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions and acute-phase protein synthesis) are upregulated in males when compared with females, and there is a partial reversal after OVX, where OVX adipose tissue gene expression is more ′male-like′. This pattern is not observed in mice maintained on chow. Histology of male gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) shows more crown-like structures than females, indicative of inflammation and adipose tissue remodeling. In addition, genes related to insulin signaling and lipid synthesis are higher in females than males, regardless of dietary exposure. Conclusions These data suggest that male and female adipose tissue differ between the sexes regardless of diet. Moreover, HF diet exposure elicits a much greater inflammatory response in males when compared with females

  6. Effects of Male Hypogonadism on Regional Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage and Lipogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1) underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2) consumed an experimental meal containing [3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation); 3) received infusions of [U-13C]palmitate and [1-14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (F)FA storage (adipose biopsies). Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT) activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05). Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans. PMID:22363653

  7. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  8. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Seretis, Konstantinos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Koliakos, Georgios; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ, which is developed in specific depots, distinguished either as subcutaneous or visceral. Lipectomy, by means of liposuction or abdominoplasty, is a common plastic surgery procedure, which can remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of surgical removal of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue on body weight and fat mass in females in the short- and long-term. A systematic review was conducted using a predetermined protocol established according to the Cochrane Handbook's recommendations. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2014. Eligible studies were prospective studies with ≥1 month of follow-up that included female only individuals who underwent lipectomy of the abdominal region and reported on body weight, body mass index (BMI), or fat mass. Ten studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 231 individuals. A significant weight loss and BMI improvement were reported in 4 out of 5 studies with a mean follow-up of 1-2 months, but in none of the 5 studies with a longer follow-up (3-20 months). Fat mass showed a similar to weight change. The risk of bias was low for the two clinical trials but high for the observational studies included in the review. This systematic review revealed only a transient effect of abdominal lipectomy in body fat and weight in women, which fades a few months after the operation. These results corroborate the evidence from experimental and clinical studies, which support fat redistribution and compensatory fat growth, as a result of feedback mechanisms, triggered by fat removal. Additional clinical studies, with adequate follow-up, may further elucidate the long-term effects of abdominal lipectomy in body weight and composition. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42015017564 ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ).

  9. Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue of obese patients show changes in their transcriptomic profile that indicate loss in stemcellness and increased commitment to an adipocyte-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adipose tissue is an endocrine regulator and a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease when by excessive accumulation induces obesity. Although the adipose tissue is also a reservoir for stem cells (ASC) their function and “stemcellness” has been questioned. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms by which obesity affects subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) stem cells. Results Transcriptomics, in silico analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blots were performed on isolated stem cells from subcutaneous abdominal WAT of morbidly obese patients (ASCmo) and of non-obese individuals (ASCn). ASCmo and ASCn gene expression clustered separately from each other. ASCmo showed downregulation of “stemness” genes and upregulation of adipogenic and inflammatory genes with respect to ASCn. Moreover, the application of bioinformatics and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that the transcription factor Smad3 was tentatively affected in obese ASCmo. Validation of this target confirmed a significantly reduced Smad3 nuclear translocation in the isolated ASCmo. Conclusions The transcriptomic profile of the stem cells reservoir in obese subcutaneous WAT is highly modified with significant changes in genes regulating stemcellness, lineage commitment and inflammation. In addition to body mass index, cardiovascular risk factor clustering further affect the ASC transcriptomic profile inducing loss of multipotency and, hence, capacity for tissue repair. In summary, the stem cells in the subcutaneous WAT niche of obese patients are already committed to adipocyte differentiation and show an upregulated inflammatory gene expression associated to their loss of stemcellness. PMID:24040759

  10. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  11. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption is Associated With Change of Visceral Adipose Tissue Over 6 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; McKeown, Nicola M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Hoffmann, Udo; Jacques, Paul F.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been linked to abnormal abdominal adipose tissue. We examined the prospective association of habitual SSB intake and change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods and Results The quantity (volume, cm3) and quality (attenuation, Hounsfield Unit) of abdominal adipose tissue were measured using computed tomography in 1,003 participants (mean age 45.3 years, 45.0% women) at exam 1 and 2 in the Framingham’s Third Generation cohort. The 2 exams were approximately 6 years apart. At baseline, SSB and diet soda intake were assessed using a valid food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: none to <1 serving/month (non-consumers), 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to 1 serving/day, and ≥1 serving/day (daily consumers) of either SSB or diet soda. After adjustment for multiple confounders including change in body weight, higher SSB intake was associated with greater change in VAT volume (P-trend<0.001). VAT volume increased by 658 cm3 (95%CI: 602–713), 649 cm3 (95%CI: 582–716), 707 cm3 (95%CI: 657–757), and 852 cm3 (95%CI: 760–943) from non-consumers to daily consumers. Higher SSB intake was also associated with greater decline of VAT attenuation (P-trend=0.007); however, the association became non-significant after additional adjustment for VAT volume change. In contrast, diet soda consumption was not associated with change in abdominal adipose tissue. Conclusions Regular SSB intake was associated with adverse change in both VAT quality and quantity, whereas we observed no such association for diet soda. PMID:26755505

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated With Change of Visceral Adipose Tissue Over 6 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiantao; McKeown, Nicola M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Hoffmann, Udo; Jacques, Paul F; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-01-26

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been linked to abnormal abdominal adipose tissue. We examined the prospective association of habitual SSB intake and change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The quantity (volume, cm(3)) and quality (attenuation, Hounsfield Unit) of abdominal adipose tissue were measured using computed tomography in 1003 participants (mean age 45.3 years, 45.0% women) at examination 1 and 2 in the Framingham's Third Generation cohort. The 2 exams were ≈ 6 years apart. At baseline, SSB and diet soda intake were assessed using a valid food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: none to <1 serving/mo (nonconsumers), 1 serving/mo to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to 1 serving/d, and ≥ 1 serving/d (daily consumers) of either SSB or diet soda. After adjustment for multiple confounders including change in body weight, higher SSB intake was associated with greater change in VAT volume (P trend<0.001). VAT volume increased by 658 cm(3) (95% confidence interval [CI], 602 to 713), 649 cm(3) (95% CI, 582 to 716), 707 cm(3) (95% CI, 657 to 757), and 852 cm(3) (95% CI, 760 to 943) from nonconsumers to daily consumers. Higher SSB intake was also associated with greater decline of VAT attenuation (P trend=0.007); however, the association became nonsignificant after additional adjustment for VAT volume change. In contrast, diet soda consumption was not associated with change in abdominal adipose tissue. Regular SSB intake was associated with adverse change in both VAT quality and quantity, whereas we observed no such association for diet soda. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Deregulation of obesity-relevant genes is associated with progression in BMI and the amount of adipose tissue in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative impact of three phenotypes often used to characterize obesity on perturbation of molecular pathways involved in obesity. The three obesity-related phenotypes are (1) body mass index (BMI), (2) amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATa), and (3) amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPATa). Although it is generally accepted that increasing amount of RPATa is 'unhealthy', a direct comparison of the relative impact of the three obesity-related phenotypes on gene expression has, to our knowledge, not been performed previously. We have used multiple linear models to analyze altered gene expression of selected obesity-related genes in tissues collected from 19 female pigs phenotypically characterized with respect to the obesity-related phenotypes. Gene expression was assessed by high-throughput qPCR in RNA from liver, skeletal muscle and abdominal adipose tissue. The stringent statistical approach used in the study has increased the power of the analysis compared to the classical approach of analysis in divergent groups of individuals. Our approach led to the identification of key components of cellular pathways that are modulated in the three tissues in association with changes in the three obesity-relevant phenotypes (BMI, SATa and RPATa). The deregulated pathways are involved in biosynthesis and transcript regulation in adipocytes, in lipid transport, lipolysis and metabolism, and in inflammatory responses. Deregulation seemed more comprehensive in liver (23 genes) compared to abdominal adipose tissue (10 genes) and muscle (3 genes). Notably, the study supports the notion that excess amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue is associated with a greater metabolic disease risk. Our results provide molecular support for this notion by demonstrating that increasing amount of RPATa has a higher impact on perturbation of cellular pathways influencing obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits compared to increase

  14. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  15. Androgens inhibit adipogenesis during human adipose stem cell commitment to predipocyte formation

    PubMed Central

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Singh, Prapti; Irge, Dana; Shah, Amy; Abbott, David H; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Androgens play a pivotal role in the regulation of body fat distribution. Adipogenesis is a process whereby multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) initially become preadipocytes (ASC commitment to preadipocytes) before differentiating into adipocytes. Androgens inhibit human (h) subcutaneous (SC) abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in both sexes, but their effects on hASC commitment to preadipocyte formation is unknown. We therefore examined whether androgen exposure to human (h) ASCs, isolated from SC abdominal adipose of nonobese women, impairs their commitment to preadipocyte formation and/or subsequent differentiation into adipocytes. For this, isolated hASCs from SC abdominal lipoaspirate were cultured in adipogenesis-inducing medium for 0.5–14 days in the presence of testosterone (T, 0–100 nM) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 0–50 nM). Adipogenesis was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and by quantification of adipogenically relevant transcriptional factors, PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ. We found that a 3-day exposure of hASCs to T (50 nM) or DHT (5 nM) in adipogenesis-inducing medium impaired lipid acquisition and decreased PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ gene expression. The inhibitory effects of T and DHT at this early-stage of adipocyte differentiation, were partially and completely reversed by flutamide (F, 100 nM), respectively. The effect of androgens on hASC commitment to a preadipocyte phenotype was examined via activation of BMP4 signaling. T (50 nM) and DHT (5nM) significantly inhibited the stimulatory effect of BMP4-induced ASC commitment to the preadipocyte phenotype, as regards PPARγ and C/EBPα gene expression. Our findings indicate that androgens, in part through androgen receptor action, impair BMP4-induced commitment of SC hASCs to preadipocytes and also reduce early-stage adipocyte differentiation, perhaps limiting adipocyte numbers and fat storage in SC abdominal adipose. PMID:23707571

  16. Investigating the mincing method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells from pregnant women fat.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Pao-Jen; Wu, Li-Wei; Chou, Pei-Wen; Sun, Li-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2018-02-01

    The success of stem cell application in regenerative medicine, usually require a stable source of stem or progenitor cells. Fat tissue represents a good source of stem cells because it is rich in stem cells and there are fewer ethical issues related to the use of such stem cells, unlike embryonic stem cells. Therefore, there has been increased interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, we aim to provide an easy processing method for isolating adult stem cells from human adipose tissue harvested from the subcutaneous fat of the abdominal wall during gynecologic surgery. We used a homogenizer to mince fat and compared the results with those obtained from the traditional cut method involving a sterile scalpel and forceps. Our results showed that our method provides another stable and quality source of stem cells that could be used in cases with a large quantity of fat. Furthermore, we found that pregnancy adipose-derived stem cells (P-ADSCs) could be maintained in vitro for extended periods with a stable population doubling and low senescence levels. P-ADSCs could also differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and insulin-producing cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, like human lipoaspirates, adipose tissues obtained from pregnant women contain multipotent cells with better proliferation and showed great promise for use in both stem cell banking studies as well as in stem cell therapy.

  17. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P < 0.0001). Whereas reduced subcutaneous fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  19. Subcutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.

    1985-03-01

    The simultaneously recorded disappearance rates of /sup 133/xe from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the crus were studied in 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris using atraumatic labeling of the tissue in lesional skin (LS) areas and symmetrical, nonlesional skin (NLS) areas. Control experiments were performed bilaterally in 10 younger, healthy subjects. The subcutaneous washout rate constant was significantly higher in LS, 0.79 +/- 0.05 min-1 x 10(2) compared to the washout rate constant of NLS, 0.56 +/- 0.07 min-1. 10(2), or the washout rate constant in the normal subjects, 0.46 +/- 0.17 min-1 x 10(2). The mean washout rate constant inmore » NLS was 25% higher than the mean washout rate constant in the normal subjects. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Differences in the washout rate constants might be due to abnormal subcutaneous tissue-to-blood partition (lambda) in the LS--and therefore not reflecting the real differences in the subcutaneous blood flow (SBF). The lambda for /sup 133/Xe was therefore measured--using a double isotope washout method (/sup 133/Xe and (/sup 131/I)antipyrine)--in symmetrical sites of the lateral crus in LS and NLS of 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and in 10 legs of normal subjects. In LS the lambda was 4.52 +/- 1.67 ml/g, which was not statistically different from that of NLS, 5.25 +/- 2.19 ml/g, nor from that of normal subcutaneous tissue, 4.98 +/- 1.04 ml/g. Calculations of the SBF using the obtained lambda values gave a significantly higher SBF in LS, 3.57 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g/min, compared to SBF in the NLS, 2.94 +/- 0.37 ml/100 g/min. There was no statistically significant difference between SBF in NLS and SBF in the normal subjects. The increased SBF in LS of psoriatics might be a secondary phenomenon to an increased heat loss in the lesional skin.« less

  20. Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jaime; Duque, Juan; Carreño, Marisol; Acero, Edward; Pérez, Máximo; Ramirez, Sergio; Umaña, Juan; Obando, Carlos; Guerrero, Albert; Sandoval, Néstor; Rodríguez, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases. PMID:29209367

  1. Age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution in Japanese adults in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Masako; Oka, Rie; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Moriuchi, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Early studies have indicated that body fat shifts from peripheral stores to central stores with aging. The objective of this study was to investigate age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution of Japanese men and women of the general population over a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). A total of 2,220 non-diabetic, apparently healthy Japanese adults (1,240 men and 980 women; age range 40-69 years) were included in the study sample. All subjects underwent a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus, and the areas of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and subcutaneous AT were quantified. When the subjects were stratified by BMI into 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2), and 27.5 kg/m(2) or higher, visceral AT was positively correlated with age in all of the BMI strata in both genders (p<0.01). In contrast, subcutaneous AT was negatively correlated with age in men with BMIs in excess of 23.0 kg/m(2) (p<0.01) and not at all in women. The mean levels of subcutaneous AT were over 2-fold greater than visceral AT in women aged 60-69 years in any BMI stratum. In Japanese men and women, visceral AT was increased with age in all BMI strata in both genders, whereas subcutaneous AT was decreased with age in men with BMIs in excess of 23.0 kg/m(2) and not at all in women. Even with these age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution, women retained the subcutaneous-dominant type of fat distribution up to 70 years.

  2. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Alemán, José O; Iyengar, Neil M; Walker, Jeanne M; Milne, Ginger L; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N; Hudis, Clifford A; Breslow, Jan L; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Prospective cohort study. Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β -hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites ( i.e. , lactate, β -hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss.

  3. Effects of Rapid Weight Loss on Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolism in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Neil M.; Walker, Jeanne M.; Milne, Ginger L.; Da Rosa, Joel Correa; Liang, Yupu; Giri, Dilip D.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Pollak, Michael N.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Breslow, Jan L.; Holt, Peter R.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Obesity is associated with subclinical white adipose tissue inflammation, as defined by the presence of crown-like structures (CLSs) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes encircled by macrophages. In humans, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss leads to a decrease in CLSs, but the effects of rapid diet-induced weight loss on CLSs and metabolism are unclear. Objective: To determine the effects of rapid very-low-calorie diet-induced weight loss on CLS density, systemic biomarkers of inflammation, and metabolism in obese postmenopausal women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Rockefeller University Hospital, New York, NY. Participants: Ten obese, postmenopausal women with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, ±3.6 years). Main Outcome Measures: Effects on CLS density and gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, cardiometabolic risk factors, white blood count, circulating metabolites, and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostane-M) were measured. Results: Obese subjects lost approximately 10% body weight over a mean of 46 days. CLS density increased in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an associated increase in proinflammatory gene expression. Weight loss was accompanied by decreased fasting blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, lactate, and kynurenine, and increased circulating levels of free fatty acids, glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Levels of urinary isoprostane-M declined. Conclusion: Rapid weight loss stimulated lipolysis and an increase in CLS density in subcutaneous adipose tissue in association with changes in levels of circulating metabolites, and improved systemic biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The observed change in levels of metabolites (i.e., lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, 25 hydroxyvitamin D) may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of rapid weight loss. PMID:29264516

  4. Epicardial adipose tissue volume and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Hirata, Yoichiro; Tabata, Minoru; Dagvasumberel, Munkhbaatar; Sato, Hiromi; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Fukuda, Daiju; Soeki, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Sata, Masataka

    2013-05-01

    The impact of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) over abdominal or overall adiposity on coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently unknown. We compared the association among EAT volume (EATV), cytokine/adipocytokine profiles in EAT and subcutaneous fat, and atherogenic CAD. Paired samples were obtained from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue during elective cardiac surgery for CAD (n=50) or non-CAD (n=50). EATV was the sum of cross-sectional EAT areas, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were determined at the umbilicus level on computed tomography scans. CD68(+), CD11c(+), and CD206(+) cells were counted using immunohistochemical staining. Cytokine/adipocytokine expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate analysis indicated that male sex, age, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and EATV index (EATV/body surface area, cm(3)/m(2)) were significant CAD predictors (corrected R(2)=0.401; P<0.001); visceral fat area, hypertension, smoking, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (140 mg/dL [3.63 mmol/L]) or statin use were not predictors. The EATV index positively correlated with the CD68(+) and CD11c(+) cell numbers and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3), interleukin-1β, and interleukin-1R expression; and negatively correlated with adiponectin expression in EAT. A multivariate analysis model, including CD68(+) cells and interleukin-1β, and adiponectin expression in EAT strongly predicted CAD (corrected R(2)=0.756; P<0.001). EATV and macrophage and cytokine/adipocytokine signals in EAT strongly correlated with CAD. Our findings suggest that EATV and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis.

  5. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells enhance bioprosthetic mesh repair of ventral hernias.

    PubMed

    Altman, Andrew M; Abdul Khalek, Feras J; Alt, Eckhard U; Butler, Charles E

    2010-09-01

    Bioprosthetic mesh used for ventral hernia repair becomes incorporated into the musculofascial edge by cellular infiltration and vascularization. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote tissue repair and vascularization and may increase the rate or degree of tissue incorporation. The authors hypothesized that introducing these cells into bioprosthetic mesh would result in adipose tissue-derived stem cell engraftment and proliferation and enhance incorporation of the bioprosthetic mesh. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of syngeneic Brown Norway rats, expanded in vitro, and labeled with green fluorescent protein. Thirty-six additional rats underwent inlay ventral hernia repair with porcine acellular dermal matrix. Two 12-rat groups had the cells (1.0 x 10(6)) injected directly into the musculofascial/porcine acellular dermal matrix interface after repair or received porcine acellular dermal matrix on which the cells had been preseeded; the 12-rat control group received no stem cells. At 2 weeks, adipose tissue-derived stem cells in both stem cell groups engrafted, survived, migrated, and proliferated. Mean cellular infiltration into porcine acellular dermal matrix at the musculofascial/graft interface was significantly greater in the preseeded and injected stem cell groups than in the control group. Mean vascular infiltration of the porcine acellular dermal matrix was significantly greater in both stem cell groups than in the control group. Preseeded and injected adipose tissue-derived stem cells engraft, migrate, proliferate, and enhance the vascularity of porcine acellular dermal matrix grafts at the musculofascial/graft interface. These cells can thus enhance incorporation of porcine acellular dermal matrix into the abdominal wall after repair of ventral hernias.

  6. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  7. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an Ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4.5 year old children – Results from the GUSTO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R.; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S. Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P.; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F.P.; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but less is known about the relationship between children’s eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesized that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). Body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n=153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r=0.61, p<0.001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children’s BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75% more calories than slower eating children (Δ131 kcal, 95%CI [107.6, 154.4], p<0.001), and had higher whole-body (p<0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118.3 cc; 95%CI [24.0, 212.7], p=0.014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b=13.59, 95% CI [7.48, 21.83]). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMIz and adiposity. PMID:28462734

  8. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  9. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-10-01

    We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. Data were collected as part of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal substitution modeling was used to analyze the association between substitution of 1 h of sedentary time to light- or moderate-intensity PA and 1 h light-intensity PA to moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), SAT, and VAT. A negative linear association was found for total PAEE and BMI, WC, VAT, and SAT. Exchanging 1 h of sedentary time with light-intensity PA was associated with lower WC (-0.6 cm, P = 0.01), SAT (-0.08 cm, P < 0.001), and VAT (-0.04 cm, P = 0.359). Exchanging light-intensity PA with vigorous-intensity PA resulted in -6.1-cm lower WC (P < 0.001), -0.7-cm lower VAT (P = 0.018) and -0.7-cm lower SAT (P < 0.001). When further adjusting for BMI, the associations were attenuated; however, most of them remained significant, and the directions were mostly unchanged. All 1-, 5-, and 10-min bouts of MVPA were negatively associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with lower BMI, WC, and abdominal fat among Greenland Inuit. The importance of promoting an upward shift of the whole PA intensity distribution and to spur even short bouts of MVPA to limit excessive accumulation of SAT and VAT is highlighted.

  10. Adipogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells within three-dimensional hollow fiber-based bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Lin, Yen-Chih; Brayfield, Candace A; Minteer, Danielle M; Li, Han; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2012-01-01

    To further differentiate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into mature adipocytes and create three-dimensional (3D) adipose tissue in vitro, we applied multicompartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor technology with decentral mass exchange for more physiological substrate gradients and integral oxygenation. We hypothesize that a dynamic 3D perfusion in such a bioreactor will result in longer-term culture of human adipocytes in vitro, thus providing metabolically active tissue serving as a diagnostic model for screening drugs to treat diabetes. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and then inoculated into dynamic 3D culture bioreactors to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from the medium was assessed with and without TNF-alpha. 3D adipose tissue was generated in the 3D-bioreactors. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3D-bioreactor culture displayed multiple mature adipocyte markers with more unilocular morphologies as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed 3D-bioreactor treatment had more efficient differentiation in fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression. Repeated insulin stimulation resulted in increased glucose uptake, with a return to baseline between testing. Importantly, TNF-alpha inhibited glucose uptake, an indication of the metabolic activity of the tissue. 3D bioreactors allow more mature adipocyte differentiation of ASCs compared with traditional 2D culture and generate adipose tissue in vitro for up to 2 months. Reproducible metabolic activity of the adipose tissue in the bioreactor was demonstrated, which is potentially useful for drug discovery. We present here, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the development of a coherent 3D high density fat-like tissue consisting of unilocular structure from primary adipose stem cells in vitro.

  11. Adipogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Within Three-Dimensional Hollow Fiber-Based Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Jörg C.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Brayfield, Candace A.; Minteer, Danielle M.; Li, Han; Rubin, J. Peter

    2012-01-01

    To further differentiate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into mature adipocytes and create three-dimensional (3D) adipose tissue in vitro, we applied multicompartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor technology with decentral mass exchange for more physiological substrate gradients and integral oxygenation. We hypothesize that a dynamic 3D perfusion in such a bioreactor will result in longer-term culture of human adipocytes in vitro, thus providing metabolically active tissue serving as a diagnostic model for screening drugs to treat diabetes. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and then inoculated into dynamic 3D culture bioreactors to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from the medium was assessed with and without TNF-alpha. 3D adipose tissue was generated in the 3D-bioreactors. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3D-bioreactor culture displayed multiple mature adipocyte markers with more unilocular morphologies as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed 3D-bioreactor treatment had more efficient differentiation in fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression. Repeated insulin stimulation resulted in increased glucose uptake, with a return to baseline between testing. Importantly, TNF-alpha inhibited glucose uptake, an indication of the metabolic activity of the tissue. 3D bioreactors allow more mature adipocyte differentiation of ASCs compared with traditional 2D culture and generate adipose tissue in vitro for up to 2 months. Reproducible metabolic activity of the adipose tissue in the bioreactor was demonstrated, which is potentially useful for drug discovery. We present here, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the development of a coherent 3D high density fat-like tissue consisting of unilocular structure from primary adipose stem cells in vitro. PMID:21902468

  12. The effect of very-low-calorie diet on mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral monocytes of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mraz, M; Lacinova, Z; Drapalova, J; Haluzikova, D; Horinek, A; Matoulek, M; Trachta, P; Kavalkova, P; Svacina, S; Haluzik, M

    2011-04-01

    Low-grade inflammation links obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases. To explore the expression profile of genes involved in inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue and peripheral monocytes (PM) of obese patients with and without T2DM at baseline and after dietary intervention. Two-week intervention study with very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). University hospital. Twelve obese females with T2DM, 8 obese nondiabetic females (OB) and 15 healthy age-matched females. Two weeks of VLCD (2500 kJ/d). Metabolic parameters, circulating cytokines, hormones, and mRNA expression of 39 genes in sc adipose tissue (SCAT) and PM. Both T2DM and OB group had significantly increased serum concentrations of circulating proinflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8), mRNA expression of macrophage antigen CD68 and proinflammatory chemokines (CCL-2, -3, -7, -8, -17, -22) in SCAT and complementary chemokine receptors (CCR-1, -2, -3, -5) and other proinflammatory receptors (toll-like receptor 2 and 4, TNF receptor superfamily 1A and 1B, IL-6R) in PM, with OB group showing less pronounced chemoattracting and proinflammatory profile compared to T2DM group. In T2DM patients VLCD decreased body weight, improved metabolic profile, and decreased mRNA expression of up-regulated CCRs in PM and chemokines [CCL 8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10] in SCAT. VLCD markedly increased mRNA expression of T-lymphocyte attracting chemokine CCL-17 in SCAT. Obese patients with and without T2DM have increased mRNA expression of chemotactic and proinflammatory factors in SCAT and expression of corresponding receptors in PM. Two weeks of VLCD significantly improved this profile in T2DM patients.

  13. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii . This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α ( C/EBPα ), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ ( PPARγ ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C ( SREBP-1c ) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 ( Prdm16 ), uncoupling protein 1 ( UCP1 ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α ( PGC-1α ), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  14. Effect of combined thermal and electrical muscle stimulation on cardiorespiratory fitness and adipose tissue in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Rostrup, Espen; Slettom, Grete; Seifert, Reinhard; Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Rolf K; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik

    2014-10-01

    To better understand how prolonged electrical muscle stimulation can improve cardiorespiratory risk markers in obese subjects, we investigated the effect of prolonged combined thermal and electrical muscle stimulation (cTEMS) on peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and body composition with subsequent lipolytic and mitochondrial activity in adipocytes. Eleven obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) individuals received cTEMS in three 60-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Activity levels and dietary habits were kept unchanged. Before and after the stimulation period, functional capacity was assessed by VO2peak, and body composition was analysed. Lipolytic activity was determined in abdominal adipose tissue by 24 hours of microdialysis on a sedentary day, and adipose tissue biopsies were taken for the gene expression analysis. Eight weeks of cTEMS significantly increased VO2peak from 28.9 ± 5.7 to 31.7 ± 6.2 ml/kg/min (p < 0.05), corresponding to an average increase of 1.2% per week. Oxygen uptake and work capacity also increased at the anaerobic threshold. Mean microdialytic glycerol concentration over 24 hours, an index of sedentary lipolytic activity, increased from 238 ± 60 to 306 ± 55 µM (p < 0,0001), but no significant changes in body composition were observed. In addition, PGC-1α and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2 mRNAs were significantly upregulated in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. In obese individuals with unchanged lifestyles, 8 weeks of cTEMS significantly improved functional capacity towards a higher fatigue resistance. This increase also gave rise to elevated lipolytic activity and increased mitochondrial activity in abdominal adipose tissue. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Is local or central adiposity more strongly associated with incident knee osteoarthritis than the body mass index in men or women?

    PubMed

    Culvenor, A G; Felson, D T; Wirth, W; Dannhauer, T; Eckstein, F

    2018-05-25

    To determine whether central (abdominal) or peripheral (thigh) adiposity measures are associated with incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) independent of body mass index (BMI) and whether their relation to RKOA was stronger than that of BMI. 161 Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants (62% female) with incident RKOA (Kellgren/Lawrence grade 0/1 at baseline, developing an osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) grade ≥1 by year-4) were matched to 186 controls (58% female) without incident RKOA. Baseline waist-height-ratio (WHtR), and anatomical cross-sectional areas of thigh subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular fat (IMF) were measured, the latter using axial magnetic resonance images. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between each adiposity measure and incident RKOA before and after adjustment for BMI, and area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for each adiposity measure was compared to that of BMI using chi-squared tests. BMI, WHtR, subcutaneous fat (SCF) and IMF were all significantly associated with incident RKOA when analysed separately, with similar effect sizes (odds ratio range 1.30-1.53). After adjusting for BMI, odds ratios (ORs) for WHtR, SCF and IMF were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. No measure of central or peripheral adiposity was significantly more strongly associated with incident RKOA than BMI. Results were similar for men and women. Although both central (WHtR) and peripheral (SCF and IMF) adiposity were significantly associated with incident RKOA, neither was more strongly associated with incident RKOA than BMI. The simple measure of BMI appears sufficient to capture the elevated risk of RKOA associated with greater amounts of localised adiposity. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM.

  17. Impact of brown adipose tissue on body fatness and glucose metabolism in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, M; Yoneshiro, T; Aita, S; Kameya, T; Sugie, H; Saito, M

    2014-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is involved in the regulation of whole-body energy expenditure and adiposity. Some clinical studies have reported an association between BAT and blood glucose in humans. To examine the impact of BAT on glucose metabolism, independent of that of body fatness, age and sex in healthy adult humans. Two hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (184 males and 76 females, 20-72 years old) underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography after 2 h of cold exposure to assess maximal BAT activity. Blood parameters including glucose, HbA1c and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured by conventional methods, and body fatness was estimated from body mass index (BMI), body fat mass and abdominal fat area. The impact of BAT on body fatness and blood parameters was determined by logistic regression with the use of univariate and multivariate models. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 125 (48%) out of 260 subjects. When compared with subjects without detectable BAT, those with detectable BAT were younger and showed lower adiposity-related parameters such as the BMI, body fat mass and abdominal fat area. Although blood parameters were within the normal range in the two subject groups, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the BAT-positive group. Blood glucose also tended to be lower in the BAT-positive group. Logistic regression demonstrated that BAT, in addition to age and sex, was independently associated with BMI, body fat mass, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. For blood parameters, multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex and body fatness revealed that BAT was a significantly independent determinant of glucose and HbA1c. BAT, independent of age, sex and body fatness, has a significant impact on glucose metabolism in adult healthy humans.

  18. Expression of Innate Immune Response Genes in Liver and Three Types of Adipose Tissue in Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The pig has been proposed as a relevant model for human obesity-induced inflammation, and cloning may improve the applicability of this model. We tested the assumptions that cloning would reduce interindividual variation in gene expression of innate immune factors and that their expression would remain unaffected by the cloning process. We investigated the expression of 40 innate immune factors by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR in samples from liver, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and neck SAT in cloned pigs compared to normal outbred pigs. The variation in gene expression was found to be similar for the two groups, and the expression of a small number of genes was significantly affected by cloning. In the VAT and abdominal SAT, six out of seven significantly differentially expressed genes were downregulated in the clones. In contrast, most differently expressed genes in both liver and neck SAT were upregulated (seven out of eight). Remarkably, acute phase proteins (APPs) dominated the upregulated genes in the liver, whereas APP expression was either unchanged or downregulated in abdominal SAT and VAT. The general conclusion from this work is that cloning leads to subtle changes in specific subsets of innate immune genes. Such changes, even if minor, may have phenotypic effects over time, e.g., in models of long-term inflammation related to obesity. PMID:22928970

  19. Depot-specific characteristics of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janice Siu Chong; Chu, Wai Kit; Li, Benjamin Fuk-Loi; Pang, Chi-Pui; Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung

    2018-04-17

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) causes inflammatory fibroproliferation of periocular connective tissues. We compared adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs) from three adipose depots of each patient with TAO on mesenchymal, myofibrogenic, adipogenic properties and associated hyaluronan (HA) synthesis. ADSCs were generated from periocular (eyelid, orbital) and subcutaneous (abdominal) adipose tissues of three patients with TAO. Mesenchymal markers were characterised by reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescent staining. A 3-week adipogenic induction was evaluated by Nile red staining and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), adiponectin and hyaluronan synthase (HAS)-2. A 7-day myofibrogenic induction was assayed by immunofluorescent staining and qPCR of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). ADSCs from all depots expressed similar levels of mesenchymal markers CD44, CD90 and CD105 (p=0.288, p=0.43 and p=0.837, respectively). After adipogenic induction, intracellular lipid increased for more than 32% and PPARγ mRNA showed more than twofold increase from all three depots. However, adiponectin and HAS-2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the eyelid and orbital ADSCs than those from the subcutaneous ADSCs after induction (2.4×10 7 , 3.9×10 6  folds vs below detection limit; 63.3-fold, 26.1-fold, vs 33% reduction, respectively; all p=0.002). Significantly more myofibroblasts and higher mRNA level of α-SMA were obtained from the orbital and eyelid compared with the subcutaneous ADSCs during myofibrogenic induction (80.2%, 70.6% vs 29.3%; 30.2-fold, 24.2-fold vs 1.7-fold, respectively; all p=0.002). ADSCs from different adipose depots of the same donors exhibited similar mesenchymal phenotypes but differed significantly in adipogenic, myofibrogenic potentials and associated HA synthesis. These depot-specific characteristics of ADSCs may contribute to site-specific adipose tissue involvement in TAO.

  20. Association of abdominal fat with serum amylase in an older cohort: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Schrack, Jennifer A; Shardell, Michelle D; Egan, Josephine M; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal fat is a major determinant of metabolic diseases in older individuals. Obesity and diabetes are associated with low serum amylase (SA) levels, but the association between SA and metabolic disease is poorly understood. We investigated the association of low SA with diabetes and sex-specific associations of serum amylase with abdominal fat in older adults. In community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (778 participants, age 66.8±13.6years), we assessed abdominal fat by computed tomography and diabetes status using the American Diabetes Association criteria. Linear regression analyses assessed the cross-sectional associations between abdominal fat and SA, and logistic regression assessed the odds of diabetes, given low SA. In unadjusted analyses, individuals in the lowest SA quartile (<48μ/L) had 1.97 greater odds of diabetes, (95%CI, 1.01-3.83) than those in the highest quartile (⩾80μ/L). This association was no longer significant after adjusting for visceral adipose tissue area (VAT, dm(2)), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, dm(2)) or BMI. In adjusted analyses, VAT and SAT were significantly associated with SA in both sexes. Among women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with SAT or BMI; VAT (β=-0.117±0.048, P<0.001), SAT (β=-0.023±0.025, P=0.346) and BMI (β=-0.0052±0.075, P=0.49). The association between SA and diabetes was explained mainly by abdominal visceral fat. In women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with BMI or SAT. These findings provide motivation for future mechanistic studies on SA's role in metabolic diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Association of abdominal fat with serum amylase in an older cohort: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Egan, Josephine M.; Studenski, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Aims Abdominal fat is a major determinant of metabolic diseases in older individuals. Obesity and diabetes are associated with low serum amylase (SA) levels, but the association between SA and metabolic disease is poorly understood. We investigated the association of low SA with diabetes and sex-specific associations of serum amylase with abdominal fat in older adults. Methods In community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (778 participants, age 66.8 ± 13.6 years), we assessed abdominal fat by computed tomography and diabetes status using the American Diabetes Association criteria. Linear regression analyses assessed the cross-sectional associations between abdominal fat and SA, and logistic regression assessed the odds of diabetes, given low SA. Results In unadjusted analyses, individuals in the lowest SA quartile (<48 μ/L) had 1.97 greater odds of diabetes, (95%CI, 1.01–3.83) than those in the highest quartile (≥80 μ/L). This association was no longer significant after adjusting for visceral adipose tissue area (VAT, dm2), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, dm2) or BMI. In adjusted analyses, VAT and SAT were significantly associated with SA in both sexes. Among women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with SAT or BMI; VAT (β = −0.117 ± 0.048, P < 0.001), SAT (β = −0.023 ± 0.025, P = 0.346) and BMI (β = −0.0052 ± 0.075, P = 0.49). Conclusions The association between SA and diabetes was explained mainly by abdominal visceral fat. In women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with BMI or SAT. These findings provide motivation for future mechanistic studies on SA’s role in metabolic diseases. PMID:27321338

  2. Ursodeoxycholic Acid but Not Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Inhibits Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mališová, Lucia; Kováčová, Zuzana; Koc, Michal; Kračmerová, Jana; Štich, Vladimír; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ERS) is one of the molecular triggers of adipocyte dysfunction and chronic low inflammation accompanying obesity. ERS can be alleviated by chemical chaperones from the family of bile acids (BAs). Thus, two BAs currently used to treat cholestasis, ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA and TUDCA), could potentially lessen adverse metabolic effects of obesity. Nevertheless, BAs effects on human adipose cells are mostly unknown. They could regulate gene expression through pathways different from their chaperone function, namely through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5, G-coupled receptor. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze effects of UDCA and TUDCA on human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes derived from paired samples of two distinct subcutaneous adipose tissue depots, abdominal and gluteal. While TUDCA did not alter proliferation of cells from either depot, UDCA exerted strong anti-proliferative effect. In differentiated adipocytes, acute exposition to neither TUDCA nor UDCA was able to reduce effect of ERS stressor tunicamycin. However, exposure of cells to UDCA during whole differentiation process decreased expression of ERS markers. At the same time however, UDCA profoundly inhibited adipogenic conversion of cells. UDCA abolished expression of PPARγ and lipogenic enzymes already in the early phases of adipogenesis. This anti-adipogenic effect of UDCA was not dependent on FXR or TGR5 activation, but could be related to ability of UDCA to sustain the activation of ERK1/2 previously linked with PPARγ inactivation. Finally, neither BAs did lower expression of chemokines inducible by TLR4 pathway, when UDCA enhanced their expression in gluteal adipocytes. Therefore while TUDCA has neutral effect on human preadipocytes and adipocytes, the therapeutic use of UDCA different from treating cholestatic diseases should be considered with caution because UDCA alters functions of human adipose cells

  3. Evaluation of abdominal fat index by ultrasonography and its relationship with psoriasis and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Tatar, İdil; Canpolat, Filiz; Işıl Kurmus, Gökçe; Ergin, Can; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2017-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that psoriasis is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis and obesity share similar inflammatory mediators, and obesity may potentiate some inflammatory cytokines seen in psoriasis. Body fat distribution, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is an important factor in metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic diseases. An association has been demonstrated between psoriasis and abdominal VAT measured by computed tomography (CT). To measure abdominal VAT noninvasively by ultrasonography (USG) in patients with psoriasis and investigated its relation to psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. The study population consisted of 41 psoriasis patients and 41 control subjects matched for age, sex, and body mass index. The maximal preperitoneal fat thickness (Pmax) at the anterior surface of the liver and the minimal subcutaneous fat thickness (Smin) of the abdomen were measured by USG. The abdominal fat index (AFI = Pmax/Smin ratio) was calculated and the results were compared between groups. The rate of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in psoriasis patients ( p = 0.0018). The mean AFI was similar in both groups. AFI was not associated with psoriasis in subjects with metabolic syndrome ( p = 0.495) or with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index ( r = 0.123, p = 0.443). This is the first study to evaluate abdominal VAT by USG. Computed tomography may be more reliable than USG, but its high cost and radiation exposure are major disadvantages. Further studies are required to determine the relationships between psoriasis and VAT.

  4. Unusual presentation of gastric perforation in a neonate: subcutaneous emphysema and scrotal pneumatocele.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Derya

    2013-04-01

    Gastric perforation in neonates is an uncommon condition. A four-day-male neonate was referred with respiratory distress, abdominal distention, right scrotal swelling and extensive emphysema of the abdominal wall. Abdominal X-ray findings showed bilateral sub-diaphragmatic free air, right scrotal pneumatocele and subcutaneous emphysema of the abdominal wall. During the operation, pre-pyloric perforation was determined. Primary repair by single layer suture was performed and postoperative period was uneventful.

  5. Significant associations of age, menopausal status and lifestyle factors with visceral adiposity in African-American and European-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Rogers, Nikki L; Reed, Derek; Lee, Miryoung; Choh, Audrey C; Siervogel, Roger M; Chumlea, Wm Cameron; Towne, Bradford; Czerwinski, Stefan A

    2011-05-01

    Elevated visceral adiposity is strongly predictive of cardiometabolic disease, but, due to the high cost of biomedical imaging, assessment of factors contributing to normal variation in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue partitioning in large cohorts of healthy individuals are few, particularly in ethnic and racial minority populations. To describe age, menopausal status, smoking and physical activity differences in VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) mass in African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) women. Magnetic resonance imaging measures of VAT and ASAT mass and VAT% (VAT/VAT+ASAT, %) were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 617 EA and 111 AA non-diabetic women aged 18-80 years. Multivariate linear regression was used to test independent effects of the covariates. VAT and VAT% were higher in EA than AA women (p < 0.01). Differences in VAT, ASAT and VAT% across age groups began in early adulthood in both ethnic groups, but the association of age with VAT% was stronger in EA women (p for interaction = 0.03). Current smokers had higher VAT and VAT% (p < 0.01) and lower TBF than non-smokers. Frequent participation in sports activities was associated with ∼30% lower VAT in older (>55 years) as well as younger ( < 40 years) women (p < 0.0001). Greater allocation of abdominal adipose tissue into the visceral compartment occurs in EA than AA women and in older than younger women. Avoidance of cigarette smoking and frequent participation in sports activities may partially counteract this deleterious phenomenon of ageing.

  6. Computer-aided Assessment of Regional Abdominal Fat with Food Residue Removal in CT

    PubMed Central

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Materials and Methods Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. Results We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Conclusions Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. PMID:24119354

  7. Computer-aided assessment of regional abdominal fat with food residue removal in CT.

    PubMed

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Pleiotropic QTL on chromosome 19q13 for triglycerides and adiposity: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Mary F; Rice, Treva; North, Kari E; Kraja, Aldi; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Blangero, John; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D C

    2006-04-01

    Motivated by strong correlations between plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) and adiposity traits, we conducted a series of bivariate genome-wide linkage analyses of TG with body mass index (BMI), total fat mass (FAT), percentage of body fat (FATPC), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF). Maximum lod scores of 3.3, 3.0, 2.2 and 2.4, respectively, were found on chromosome 19q13. This linkage region includes the APOE gene, a predictor of variation in lipid-lipoprotein levels, and the hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) gene, a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores. In addition, the adiposity measures together with the APOE marker showed significant association with TG levels (p = 0.02 to p = 0.03). In summary, these results suggest that one or more QTLs in the 19q13 region jointly influence TG levels and adiposity. Polymorphisms in the APOE gene, and possibly LIPE gene, appear to be strong candidates for the source of this pleiotropic QTL.

  9. Triglyceride dependent differentiation of obesity in adipose tissues by FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Kucuk Baloglu, Fatma; Baloglu, Onur; Heise, Sebastian; Brockmann, Gudrun; Severcan, Feride

    2017-10-01

    The excess deposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue is the main reason of obesity and causes excess release of fatty acids to the circulatory system resulting in obesity and insulin resistance. Body mass index and waist circumference are not precise measure of obesity and obesity related metabolic diseases. Therefore, in the current study, it was aimed to propose triglyceride bands located at 1770-1720 cm -1 spectral region as a more sensitive obesity related biomarker using the diagnostic potential of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in subcutaneous (SCAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues. The adipose tissue samples were obtained from 10 weeks old male control (DBA/2J) (n = 6) and four different obese BFMI mice lines (n = 6 per group). FTIR spectroscopy coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectra of triglyceride bands as a diagnostic tool in the discrimination of the samples. Successful discrimination of the obese, obesity related insulin resistant and control groups were achieved with high sensitivity and specificity. The results revealed the power of FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric approaches in internal diagnosis of abdominal obesity based on the spectral differences in the triglyceride region that can be used as a spectral marker. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p < 0.01)] and lower REE/kg [by 8% (19.6 ± 3 kcal/kg vs. 21.2 ± 2 kcal/kg; p < 0.01)] than men. Exercise and total PAEE were positively associated with REE/kg (p < 0.01 for both) and a positive correlation between NEAT and REE/kg was borderline (p = 0.056). Participants, in whom abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p < 0.01) and higher REE∖kg (22.2 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/day vs. 19.6 ± 2.5 kcal/kg/day; p < 0.01) than participants in whom superficial-SAT was the largest proportional depot. In multivariate models, adjusted for age, gender and residual BMI, increased VAT proportion was independently associated with higher REE (β = 0.181; p = 0.05). Likewise, increased VAT proportion (β = 0.482; p < 0.01) remained independently associated with higher REE/kg. In this

  11. Femoral Adipose Tissue May Accumulate the Fat That Has Been Recycled as VLDL and Nonesterified Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Siobhán E.; Humphreys, Sandy M.; Hodson, Leanne; Fielding, Barbara A.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gluteo-femoral, in contrast to abdominal, fat accumulation appears protective against diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that this reflects differences in the ability of the two depots to sequester fatty acids, with gluteo-femoral fat acting as a longer-term “sink.” RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 healthy volunteers were studied after an overnight fast and after ingestion of a mixed meal. Blood samples were taken from veins draining subcutaneous femoral and abdominal fat and compared with arterialized blood samples. Stable isotope-labeled fatty acids were used to trace specific lipid fractions. In 36 subjects, adipose tissue blood flow in the two depots was monitored with 133Xe. RESULTS Blood flow increased in response to the meal in both depots, and these responses were correlated (rs = 0.44, P < 0.01). Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) release was suppressed after the meal in both depots; it was lower in femoral fat than in abdominal fat (P < 0.01). Plasma triacylglycerol (TG) extraction by femoral fat was also lower than that by abdominal fat (P = 0.05). Isotopic tracers showed that the difference was in chylomicron-TG extraction. VLDL-TG extraction and direct NEFA uptake were similar in the two depots. CONCLUSIONS Femoral fat shows lower metabolic fluxes than subcutaneous abdominal fat, but differs in its relative preference for extracting fatty acids directly from the plasma NEFA and VLDL-TG pools compared with chylomicron-TG. PMID:20682685

  12. Adipose Tissue in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R

    2017-09-12

    HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling. HIV viral proteins persist in circulation and locally within adipose tissue despite suppression of plasma viremia on ART, and exposure to these proteins impairs preadipocyte maturation and reduces adipocyte expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and other genes involved in cell regulation. Several early nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor antiretroviral drugs demonstrated substantial adipocyte toxicity, including reduced mitochondrial DNA content and respiratory chain enzymes, reduced PPAR-γ and other regulatory gene expression, and increased proinflammatory cytokine production. Newer-generation agents, such as integrase inhibitors, appear to have fewer adverse effects. HIV infection also alters the balance of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in adipose tissue, with effects on macrophage activation and local inflammation, while the presence of latently infected CD4+ T cells in adipose tissue may constitute a protected viral reservoir. This review provides a synthesis of the literature on how HIV virus, ART treatment, and host characteristics interact to affect adipose tissue distribution, immunology, and contribution to metabolic health, and adipocyte maturation, cellular regulation, and energy storage. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1339-1357, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  14. Peri-muscular adipose tissue may play a unique role in determining insulin sensitivity/resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon A; Goss, Amy M; Azziz, Ricardo; Raju, Dheeraj A; Gower, Barbara A

    2017-01-01

    Do the determinants of insulin sensitivity/resistance differ in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Peri-muscular thigh adipose tissue is uniquely associated with insulin sensitivity/resistance in women with PCOS, whereas adiponectin and thigh subcutaneous adipose are the main correlates of insulin sensitivity/resistance in women without PCOS. In subject populations without PCOS, insulin sensitivity/resistance is determined by body fat distribution and circulating concentrations of hormones and pro-inflammatory mediators. Specifically, visceral (intra-abdominal) adipose tissue mass is adversely associated with insulin sensitivity, whereas thigh subcutaneous adipose appears protective against metabolic disease. Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by healthy subcutaneous adipose that may mediate the protective effect of thigh subcutaneous adipose. Testosterone, which is elevated in PCOS, may have an adverse effect on insulin sensitivity/resistance. Cross-sectional study of 30 women with PCOS and 38 women without PCOS; data were collected between 2007 and 2011. Participants were group-matched for obesity, as reflected in BMI (Mean ± SD; PCOS: 31.8 ± 6.0 kg/m 2 ; without PCOS: 31.5 ± 5.0 kg/m 2 ). The whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) was assessed using a mixed-meal tolerance test; Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined from fasting insulin and glucose values. Adipose tissue distribution was determined by computed tomography (CT) scan. Partial correlation analysis, adjusting for total fat mass, was used to identify correlates of WBISI and HOMA-IR within each group of women from measures of body composition, body fat distribution, reproductive-endocrine hormones and adipokines/cytokines. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the variables that best predicted WBISI and HOMA-IR. Among women with PCOS, both WBISI and HOMA-IR were best predicted by peri

  15. Neck circumference as a measure of neck fat and abdominal visceral fat in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Fen; Zhao, Dong; Xin, Zhong; Guo, Shu-Qin; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yan; Yang, Guang-Ran; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2014-04-04

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a unique pathogenic fatty deposit, in that it is closely correlated with risk of cardiovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the usefulness of neck circumference (NC) to indicate VAT. Participants aged 35 to 75 years who had taken abdomen and neck computer tomography (CT) examination were included in this study. Neck adipose tissue, abdominal VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas, as well as sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured by CT. Body anthropometrics and metabolic parameters including blood glucose, lipid profiles and blood pressure were also measured. A lower abdomen CT examination was carried out on a total of 177 patients (87 male and 90 female) with a mean age of 59 years. Of the 177 participants, 15 men and 15 women also took a neck CT examination. With a comparable age and BMI, neck adipose area was correlated with abdominal VAT area significantly in men (r = 0.57, p = 0.028) and women (r = 0.53, p = 0.041). NC is positively correlated with VAT both in men (r = 0.49, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.25, p = 0.012). Meanwhile, SAD is the best predictor for visceral fat both in men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) correlated significantly with VAT both in men and women (r = 0.68, 0.42, 0.46 in men and 0.50, 0.23, 0.39 in women, p < 0.001), while waist hip ratio (WHR) displayed the weakest least correlation in men (r = 0.32, p = 0.001) and no correlation in women (r = 0.08, p = 0.442). Additionally, BMI was more strongly correlated with VAT than NC in both sexes (both p < 0.01). Significant correlation between NC and VAT was present in Chinese men and women, which may be accounted by the fact that neck fat area is significantly correlated with abdominal VAT. Meanwhile, SAD is the best predictor for visceral fat in

  16. Neck circumference as a measure of neck fat and abdominal visceral fat in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a unique pathogenic fatty deposit, in that it is closely correlated with risk of cardiovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the usefulness of neck circumference (NC) to indicate VAT. Methods Participants aged 35 to 75 years who had taken abdomen and neck computer tomography (CT) examination were included in this study. Neck adipose tissue, abdominal VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas, as well as sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured by CT. Body anthropometrics and metabolic parameters including blood glucose, lipid profiles and blood pressure were also measured. Results A lower abdomen CT examination was carried out on a total of 177 patients (87 male and 90 female) with a mean age of 59 years. Of the 177 participants, 15 men and 15 women also took a neck CT examination. With a comparable age and BMI, neck adipose area was correlated with abdominal VAT area significantly in men (r = 0.57, p = 0.028) and women (r = 0.53, p = 0.041). NC is positively correlated with VAT both in men (r = 0.49, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.25, p = 0.012). Meanwhile, SAD is the best predictor for visceral fat both in men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) correlated significantly with VAT both in men and women (r = 0.68, 0.42, 0.46 in men and 0.50, 0.23, 0.39 in women, p < 0.001), while waist hip ratio (WHR) displayed the weakest least correlation in men (r = 0.32, p = 0.001) and no correlation in women (r = 0.08, p = 0.442). Additionally, BMI was more strongly correlated with VAT than NC in both sexes (both p < 0.01). Conclusion Significant correlation between NC and VAT was present in Chinese men and women, which may be accounted by the fact that neck fat area is significantly correlated with abdominal VAT. Meanwhile, SAD is

  17. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.

    PubMed

    Rødgaard, Tina; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-02-15

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw minipigs behave more similarly to obese humans than the other two pig breeds investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tumurbaatar, Batbayar; Poole, Aaron T; Olson, Gayle; Makhlouf, Michel; Sallam, Hanaa S; Thukuntla, Shwetha; Kankanala, Sucharitha; Ekhaese, Obos; Gomez, Guillermo; Chandalia, Manisha; Abate, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1. AT biopsies and blood were collected from body mass index-matched obese pregnant women non-GDM (n = 6), GDM (n = 7), and nonpregnant controls (n = 6) undergoing cesarian section or elective surgeries, respectively. We measured the following: (1) Expression of key molecules involved in insulin signaling and glucose-lipid metabolism in AT; (2) Plasma glucose and insulin levels and calculation of homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR); (3) Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in AtENPP1 Tg pregnant mice. We found that: (1) Obese GDM patients have higher AT ENPP1 expression than obese non-GDM patients, or controls (P = 0.01-ANOVA). (2) ENPP1 expression level correlated negatively with glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and positively with insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, and to other adipocyte functional proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (P < 0.05 each), (3) AT ENPP1 expression levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (P = 0.01-ANOVA). (4) Pregnant AT ENPP1 Tg mice showed higher plasma glucose than wild type animals (P = 0.046-t test on area under curve [AUC] glucose ). Our results provide evidence of a causative link between ENPP1 and alterations in insulin signaling, glucose uptake, and lipid metabolism in subcutaneous abdominal AT of GDM, which may mediate IR and hyperglycemia in GDM.

  19. Applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to segment and quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat areas from CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with a number of diseases and accurately assessment of subtypes of adipose tissue volume plays a significant role in predicting disease risk, diagnosis and prognosis. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning models to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral (VFA) fat areas depicting on CT images. A dataset involving CT images from 40 patients were retrospectively collected and equally divided into two independent groups (i.e. training and testing group). The new CAD scheme consisted of two sequential convolutional neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. Selection-CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to automatically select CT slices belonging to abdomen areas and SegmentationCNN was trained using 84,000 fat-pixel patches to classify fat-pixels as belonging to SFA or VFA. Then, data from the testing group was used to evaluate the performance of the optimized CAD scheme. Comparing to manually labelled results, the classification accuracy of CT slices selection generated by Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using Segmentation-CNN yielded 96.8%. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using deep learning based CAD scheme to recognize human abdominal section from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from CT slices with high agreement compared with subjective segmentation results.

  20. Sonographic assessment of abdominal fat distribution during the first year of infancy.

    PubMed

    Brei, Christina; Much, Daniela; Heimberg, Ellen; Schulte, Verena; Brunner, Stefanie; Stecher, Lynne; Vollhardt, Christiane; Bauer, Jan S; Amann-Gassner, Ulrike; Hauner, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal data regarding the fat distribution in the early postnatal period is sparse. We performed ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive approach to investigate the development of abdominal subcutaneous (SC) and preperitoneal (PP) fat depots in infants ≤1 y and compared longitudinal US data with skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements and anthropometry in 162 healthy children at 6 wk, 4 mo, and 1 y postpartum. US was found to be a reproducible method for the quantification of abdominal SC and PP adipose tissue (AT) in this age group. Thickness of SC fat layers significantly increased from 6 wk to 4 mo and decreased at 1 y postpartum, whereas PP fat layers continuously increased. Girls had a significantly higher SC fat mass compared to boys, while there was no sex-specific difference in PP fat thickness. SC fat layer was strongly correlated with SFT measurements, while PP fat tissue was only weakly correlated with anthropometric measures. US is a feasible and reproducible method for the quantification of abdominal fat mass in infants ≤1 y of age. PP and SC fat depots develop differentially during the first year of life.

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

  2. Coordinated release of acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and triacylglycerol clearance by human adipose tissue in vivo in the postprandial period.

    PubMed

    Saleh, J; Summers, L K; Cianflone, K; Fielding, B A; Sniderman, A D; Frayn, K N

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) is generated in vivo by human adipose tissue during the postprandial period. After a fat meal, samples from 12 subjects were obtained (up to 6 h) from an arterialized hand vein and an anterior abdominal wall vein that drains adipose tissue. Veno-arterial (V-A) gradients across the subcutaneous adipose tissue bed were calculated. The data demonstrate that ASP is produced in vivo (positive V-A gradient) With maximal production at 3-5 h postprandially. The plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) clearance was evidenced by a negative V-A gradient. It increased substantially after 3 h and remained prominent until the final time point. There was, therefore, a close temporal coordination between ASP generation and TAG clearance. In contrast, plasma insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) had an early (1-2 h) postprandial change. Fatty acid incorporation into adipose tissue (FIAT) was calculated from V-A glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) differences postprandially. FIAT was negative during the first hour, implying net fat mobilization. FIAT then became increasingly positive, implying net fat deposition, and overall followed the same time course as ASP and TAG clearance. There was a direct positive correlation between total ASP production and total FIAT (r = 0.566, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that ASP is generated in vivo by human adipocytes and that this process is accentuated postprandially, supporting the concept that ASP plays an important role in clearance of TAG from plasma and fatty acid storage in adipose tissue.

  3. Abdominal elephantiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.

  4. Subcutaneous Infraorbital Dirofilariasis

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Anil S; Bilahari, N; Savithry; Ambooken, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Dirofilariasis is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquitoes from domestic and wild animals. Humans accidentally get infected and can present with a lung nodule, subcutaneous mass or an ocular lesion which will be either subconjunctival or periorbital. Proper microbiological and histopathological examinations aid in proper diagnosis. Herein, we present a case report of a 64-year-old female patient from Kerala with an infraorbital mass diagnosed as dirofilariasis. PMID:26288429

  5. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  6. Epicardial fat gene expression after aerobic exercise training in pigs with coronary atherosclerosis: relationship to visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Company, Joseph M; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Sacks, Harold S; Bahouth, Suleiman W; Fain, John N

    2010-12-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is contiguous with coronary arteries and myocardium and potentially may play a role in coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). Exercise is known to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on the expression of 18 genes, measured by RT-PCR and selected for their role in chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte metabolism, in peri-coronary epicardial (cEAT), peri-myocardial epicardial (mEAT), visceral abdominal (VAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from a castrate male pig model of familial hypercholesterolemia with CAD. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training for 16 wk would reduce the inflammatory profile of mRNAs in both components of EAT and VAT but would have little effect on SAT. Exercise increased mEAT and total heart weights. EAT and heart weights were directly correlated. Compared with sedentary pigs matched for body weight to exercised animals, aerobic exercise training reduced the inflammatory response in mEAT but not cEAT, had no effect on inflammatory genes but preferentially decreased expression of adiponectin and other adipocyte-specific genes in VAT, and had no effect in SAT except that IL-6 mRNA went down and VEGFa mRNA went up. We conclude that 1) EAT is not homogeneous in its inflammatory response to aerobic exercise training, 2) cEAT around CAD remains proinflammatory after chronic exercise, 3) cEAT and VAT share similar inflammatory expression profiles but different metabolic mRNA responses to exercise, and 4) gene expression in SAT cannot be extrapolated to VAT and heart adipose tissues in exercise intervention studies.

  7. Epicardial fat gene expression after aerobic exercise training in pigs with coronary atherosclerosis: relationship to visceral and subcutaneous fat

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Frank W.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Sacks, Harold S.; Bahouth, Suleiman W.; Fain, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is contiguous with coronary arteries and myocardium and potentially may play a role in coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). Exercise is known to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on the expression of 18 genes, measured by RT-PCR and selected for their role in chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte metabolism, in peri-coronary epicardial (cEAT), peri-myocardial epicardial (mEAT), visceral abdominal (VAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from a castrate male pig model of familial hypercholesterolemia with CAD. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training for 16 wk would reduce the inflammatory profile of mRNAs in both components of EAT and VAT but would have little effect on SAT. Exercise increased mEAT and total heart weights. EAT and heart weights were directly correlated. Compared with sedentary pigs matched for body weight to exercised animals, aerobic exercise training reduced the inflammatory response in mEAT but not cEAT, had no effect on inflammatory genes but preferentially decreased expression of adiponectin and other adipocyte-specific genes in VAT, and had no effect in SAT except that IL-6 mRNA went down and VEGFa mRNA went up. We conclude that 1) EAT is not homogeneous in its inflammatory response to aerobic exercise training, 2) cEAT around CAD remains proinflammatory after chronic exercise, 3) cEAT and VAT share similar inflammatory expression profiles but different metabolic mRNA responses to exercise, and 4) gene expression in SAT cannot be extrapolated to VAT and heart adipose tissues in exercise intervention studies. PMID:20947714

  8. Amyloid Precursor Protein and Proinflammatory Changes Are Regulated in Brain and Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Kendra L.; Floden, Angela M.; Adhikari, Ramchandra; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Combs, Colin K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Middle age obesity is recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) although a mechanistic linkage remains unclear. Based upon the fact that obese adipose tissue and AD brains are both areas of proinflammatory change, a possible common event is chronic inflammation. Since an autosomal dominant form of AD is associated with mutations in the gene coding for the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and recent evidence demonstrates increased APP levels in adipose tissue during obesity it is feasible that APP serves some function in both disease conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether diet-induced obesity produced proinflammatory changes and altered APP expression in brain versus adipose tissue, 6 week old C57BL6/J mice were maintained on a control or high fat diet for 22 weeks. Protein levels and cell-specific APP expression along with markers of inflammation and immune cell activation were compared between hippocampus, abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral pericardial fat. APP stimulation-dependent changes in macrophage and adipocyte culture phenotype were examined for comparison to the in vivo changes. Conclusions/Significance Adipose tissue and brain from high fat diet fed animals demonstrated increased TNF-α and microglial and macrophage activation. Both brains and adipose tissue also had elevated APP levels localizing to neurons and macrophage/adipocytes, respectively. APP agonist antibody stimulation of macrophage cultures increased specific cytokine secretion with no obvious effects on adipocyte culture phenotype. These data support the hypothesis that high fat diet-dependent obesity results in concomitant pro-inflammatory changes in brain and adipose tissue that is characterized, in part, by increased levels of APP that may be contributing specifically to inflammatory changes that occur. PMID:22276186

  9. Potential Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Expression of Perilipin 3 in the Adipose Tissue of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Jeffrey D.; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Moro, Cedric; Tchoukalova, Yourka D.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Burk, David H.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reduced adipose tissue lipolysis that can be rescued by aerobic exercise. We aimed to identify differences in gene expression of perilipins and associated targets in adipose tissue in women with PCOS before and after exercise. Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in 8 women with PCOS and 8 women matched for BMI and age with normal cycles. Women with PCOS also completed a 16-week prospective aerobic exercise-training study. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and primary adipose-derived stromal/stem cell cultures were established from women with PCOS before 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training (n=5) and controls (n=5). Gene expression was measured using real time PCR, in vitro lipolysis was measured using radiolabeled oleate, and PLIN3 protein content was measured by western blotting. Results The expression of PLIN1, PLIN3, and PLIN5, along with coatomers ARF1, ARFRP1, and βCOP were ~80% lower in women with PCOS (all p<0.05). Following exercise training, PLIN3 was the only perilipin to increase significantly (p<0.05), along with coatomers ARF1, ARFRP1, βCOP, and Sec23a (all p<0.05). Furthermore, PLIN3 protein expression was undetectable in the cell cultures from women with PCOS vs. controls. Following exercise training, in vitro adipose oleate oxidation, glycerol secretion, and PLIN3 protein expression were increased, along with reductions in triglyceride content and absence of large lipid droplet morphology. Conclusions These findings suggest that PLIN3 and coatomer GTPases are important regulators of lipolysis and triglyceride storage in the adipose tissue of women with PCOS. PMID:25342854

  10. Metabolism of sex steroids is influenced by acquired adiposity-A study of young adult male monozygotic twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Vihma, Veera; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Mikkola, Tomi S; Tikkanen, Matti J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H

    2017-09-01

    Obesity and ageing are associated with lower serum testosterone levels in men. How fat distribution or adipose tissue metabolism, independent of genetic factors and age, are related to sex steroid metabolism is less clear. We studied the associations between adiposity and serum sex hormone concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes regulating sex hormone metabolism in adipose tissue in young adult male monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The subjects [n=18 pairs; mean age, 32 years; individual body mass indexes (BMIs) 22-36kg/m 2 ] included 9 male MZ twin pairs discordant for BMI [intra-pair difference (Δ) in BMI ≥3kg/m 2 ]. Sex steroid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA expressions from subcutaneous adipose tissue by Affymetrix. In BMI-discordant pairs (mean ΔBMI=5.9kg/m 2 ), serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was lower [mean 1.9 (SD 0.7) vs. 2.4 (1.0) nmol/l, P=0.040] and mRNA expressions of DHT-inactivating AKR1C2 (P=0.021) and cortisol-producing HSD11B1 (P=0.008) higher in the heavier compared to the leaner co-twins. Serum free 17β-estradiol (E2) was higher [2.3 (0.5) vs. 1.9 (0.5) pmol/l, P=0.028], and in all twin pairs, serum E2 and estrone concentrations were higher in the heavier than in the leaner co-twins [107 (28) vs. 90 (22) pmol/l, P=0.006; and 123 (43) vs. 105 (27) pmol/l, P=0.025]. Within all twin pairs, i.e. independent of genetic effects and age, 1) the amount of subcutaneous fat inversely correlated with serum total and free testosterone, DHT, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (P<0.01 for all), 2) intra-abdominal fat with total testosterone and SHBG (P<0.05), and 3) liver fat with SHBG (P=0.006). Also, 4) general and intra-abdominal adiposity correlated positively with mRNA expressions of AKR1C2, HSD11B1, and aromatase in adipose tissue (P<0.05). In conclusion, acquired adiposity was

  11. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An Approximation to the Temporal Order in Endogenous Circadian Rhythms of Genes Implicated in Human Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    GARAULET, MARTA; ORDOVÁS, JOSÉ M.; GÓMEZ-ABELLÁN, PURIFICACIÓN; MARTÍNEZ, JOSE A.; MADRID, JUAN A.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well established that human adipose tissue (AT) shows circadian rhythmicity, published studies have been discussed as if tissues or systems showed only one or few circadian rhythms at a time. To provide an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human AT including genes implicated in metabolic processes such as energy intake and expenditure, insulin resistance, adipocyte differentiation, dyslipidemia, and body fat distribution. Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbid obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). To investigate rhythmic expression pattern, AT explants were cultured during 24-h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 08:00, 14:00, 20:00, 02:00 h using quantitative real-time PCR. Clock genes, glucocorticoid metabolism-related genes, leptin, adiponectin and their receptors were studied. Significant differences were found both in achrophases and relative-amplitude among genes (P <0.05). Amplitude of most genes rhythms was high (>30%). When interpreting the phase map of gene expression in both depots, data indicated that circadian rhythmicity of the genes studied followed a predictable physiological pattern, particularly for subcutaneous AT. Interesting are the relationships between adiponectin, leptin, and glucocorticoid metabolism-related genes circadian profiles. Their metabolic significance is discussed. Visceral AT behaved in a different way than subcutaneous for most of the genes studied. For every gene, protein mRNA levels fluctuated during the day in synchrony with its receptors. We have provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. PMID:21520059

  13. Ultrasound Applied to Subcutaneous Fat Tissue Measurements in International Elite Canoeists.

    PubMed

    Kopinski, S; Engel, T; Cassel, M; Fröhlich, K; Mayer, F; Carlsohn, A

    2015-12-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) measurements with ultrasound have recently been introduced to assess body fat in elite athletes. However, appropriate protocols and data on various groups of athletes are missing. We investigated intra-rater reliability of SAT measurements using ultrasound in elite canoe athletes. 25 international level canoeists (18 male, 7 female; 23±4 years; 81±11 kg; 1.83±0.09 m; 20±3 training h/wk) were measured on 2 consecutive days. SAT was assessed with B-mode ultrasound at 8 sites (ISAK): triceps, subscapular, biceps, iliac crest, supraspinal, abdominal, front thigh, medial calf, and quantified using image analysis software. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean±SD, [range]). Coefficient of variation (CV%), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, 2.1) and absolute (LoA) and ratio limits of agreement (RLoA) were calculated for day-to-day reliability. Mean sum of SAT thickness was 30.0±19.4 mm [8.0, 80.1 mm], with 3.9±1.8 mm [1.2 mm subscapular, 8.0 mm abdominal] for individual sites. CV for the sum of sites was 4.7%, ICC 0.99, LoA 1.7±3.6 mm, RLoA 0.940 ( *  /÷1.155). Measuring SAT with ultrasound has proved to have excellent day-to-day reliability in elite canoe athletes. Recommendations for standardization of the method will further increase accuracy and reproducibility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Excess Visceral Adipose Tissue Worsens the Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    Objective Visceral fat obesity and metabolic syndrome correlate with atherosclerosis in part due to insulin resistance and various other factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods In 71 T2DM patients, the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was measured using an Endo-PAT 2000, and VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured via CT. We also measured various metabolic markers, including high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-AN). Results VAT correlated negatively with the natural logarithm of RHI (L_RHI), the primary endpoint (p=0.042, r=-0.242). L_RHI did not correlate with SAT, VAT/SAT, abdominal circumference, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, urinary C-peptide reactivity, HMW-AN, or alanine amino transferase, the secondary endpoints. A linear multivariate analysis via the forced entry method using age, sex, VAT, and smoking history as independent variables and L_RHI as the dependent variable revealed a lack of any determinants of L_RHI. Conclusion Excess VAT worsens the vascular endothelial function, represented by RHI which was analyzed using Endo-PAT, in Japanese patients with T2DM.

  15. Adolescent Obesity and Insulin Resistance: Roles of Ectopic Fat Accumulation and Adipose Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Caprio, Sonia; Perry, Rachel; Kursawe, Romy

    2017-05-01

    As a consequence of the global rise in the prevalence of adolescent obesity, an unprecedented phenomenon of type 2 diabetes has emerged in pediatrics. At the heart of the development of type 2 diabetes lies a key metabolic derangement: insulin resistance (IR). Despite the widespread occurrence of IR affecting an unmeasurable number of youths worldwide, its pathogenesis remains elusive. IR in obese youth is a complex phenomenon that defies explanation by a single pathway. In this review we first describe recent data on the prevalence, severity, and racial/ethnic differences in pediatric obesity. We follow by elucidating the initiating events associated with the onset of IR, and describe a distinct "endophenotype" in obese adolescents characterized by a thin superficial layer of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, increased visceral adipose tissue, marked IR, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Further, we provide evidence for the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with this peculiar endophenotype and its relations to IR in the obese adolescent. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Downregulation of Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Trafficking in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Siobhán E.; Hodson, Leanne; Neville, Matthew J.; Dennis, A. Louise; Cheeseman, Jane; Humphreys, Sandy M.; Ruge, Toralph; Gilbert, Marjorie; Fielding, Barbara A.; Frayn, Keith N.; Karpe, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lipotoxicity and ectopic fat deposition reduce insulin signaling. It is not clear whether excess fat deposition in nonadipose tissue arises from excessive fatty acid delivery from adipose tissue or from impaired adipose tissue storage of ingested fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate this we used a whole-body integrative physiological approach with multiple and simultaneous stable-isotope fatty acid tracers to assess delivery and transport of endogenous and exogenous fatty acid in adipose tissue over a diurnal cycle in lean (n = 9) and abdominally obese men (n = 10). RESULTS Abdominally obese men had substantially (2.5-fold) greater adipose tissue mass than lean control subjects, but the rates of delivery of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were downregulated, resulting in normal systemic NEFA concentrations over a 24-h period. However, adipose tissue fat storage after meals was substantially depressed in the obese men. This was especially so for chylomicron-derived fatty acids, representing the direct storage pathway for dietary fat. Adipose tissue from the obese men showed a transcriptional signature consistent with this impaired fat storage function. CONCLUSIONS Enlargement of adipose tissue mass leads to an appropriate downregulation of systemic NEFA delivery with maintained plasma NEFA concentrations. However the implicit reduction in adipose tissue fatty acid uptake goes beyond this and shows a maladaptive response with a severely impaired pathway for direct dietary fat storage. This adipose tissue response to obesity may provide the pathophysiological basis for ectopic fat deposition and lipotoxicity. PMID:20943748

  17. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  18. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere lengthmore » of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.« less

  19. Trunk muscle quality assessed by computed tomography: Association with adiposity indices and glucose tolerance in men.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Alexandre; Alméras, Natalie; Lemieux, Isabelle; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-12

    Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement of mid-thigh fat content requires the assessment of another region of interest beyond the usual abdominal scan required to measure levels of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle fat measured from a single abdominal scan (L 4 -L 5 ) would also provide information relevant to the estimation of muscle fat infiltration as it relates to cardiometabolic risk. Abdominal (L 4 -L 5 ) and mid-thigh CT scans were performed in a sample of 221 sedentary men covering a wide range of adiposity values. Trunk muscles on the L 4 -L 5 scan were classified into 2 groups: 1) psoas and 2) core muscles. The two scans were segmented to calculate muscle areas, mean attenuation values as well as low-attenuation muscle (LAM) areas, the latter being considered as an index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Body mass index (BMI), body composition and waist circumference were assessed and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Mid-thigh, psoas and core LAM areas were all significantly associated with body composition indices (0.46 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, p < 0.0001) whereas trunk muscle indices were more strongly associated with visceral adiposity and waist circumference (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.79, p < 0.0001) than were mid-thigh muscle variables (0.44 ≤ r ≤ 0.62, p < 0.0001). Mid-thigh LAM area as well as psoas and core LAM areas were significantly associated with fasting glucose, 2-h plasma glucose levels, the glucose area under the curve and with the HOMA-IR index (mid-thigh LAM area: 0.18 ≤ r ≤ 0.25, p < 0.01; psoas LAM area: 0

  20. Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia secondary to cryolipolysis: An underreported entity?

    PubMed

    Singh, Selina M; Geddes, Elizabeth R C; Boutrous, Sean G; Galiano, Robert D; Friedman, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Cryolipolysis is a non-invasive, safe, and effective treatment for localized fat reduction. Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia (PAH) is a rare adverse effect in which patients develop painless, firm, and well-demarcated tissue masses in the treatment areas approximately 3-6 months following cryolipolysis. The incidence of PAH has been estimated at 0.0051% or 1 in 20,000 treated patients. We report two cases of PAH seen in our practice, which may suggest the incidence is greater than previously reported. A 44-year-old man underwent cryolipolysis for unwanted fat in the pectoral region. At 4 month follow-up, the patient had well-demarcated tissue growth in the treatment areas. He elected to undergo additional cryolipolysis treatment to the areas. Two months later, he was found to have further tissue growth in the treatment areas. The patient then underwent corrective treatment with liposuction. A 52-year-old man underwent cryolipolysis for unwanted lower abdominal fat. At one year follow-up, he had a well-demarcated, subcutaneous mass on the lower abdomen corresponding to the treatment site. The patient elected to undergo corrective treatment with liposuction. Adipose tissue samples from the treated and non-treated areas, for control, were collected, processed, and stained to evaluate cellularity and tissue structure. In our practice, the incidence of PAH is 0.47% or 2 in 422 cryolipolysis treatments. This is 100 times greater than the device manufacturer's reported incidence. Histopathologic examination of the subcutaneous tissue mass showed an increased number of adipocytes, fibrosis, and scar tissue in the treated areas when compared to controls. No lipoblasts, a marker of malignant neoplastic proliferation, were identified on the histopathologic examination of the affected tissues. The incidence of PAH is likely underreported. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate its mechanism of action. By understanding the pathogenesis, this rare adverse effect may be

  1. Molecular adaptations of adipose tissue to 6 weeks of morning fasting vs. daily breakfast consumption in lean and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Javier T.; Richardson, Judith D.; Chowdhury, Enhad A.; Koumanov, Francoise; Holman, Geoffrey D.; Cooper, Scott; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Key points In lean individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases the expression of genes involved in lipid turnover (ACADM) and insulin signalling (IRS2) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue.In obese individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases IRS2 expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue.The content and activation status of key proteins involved in insulin signalling and glucose transport (GLUT4, Akt1 and Akt2) were unaffected by extended morning fasting. Therefore, any observations of altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity with extended morning fasting do not necessarily require changes in insulin signalling proximal to Akt.Insulin‐stimulated adipose tissue glucose uptake rates are lower in obese versus lean individuals, but this difference is abolished when values are normalised to whole‐body fat mass. This suggests a novel hypothesis which proposes that the reduced adipose glucose uptake in obesity is a physiological down‐regulation to prevent excessive de novo lipogenesis. Abstract This study assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty‐nine healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after 6 weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 12.00 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 11.00 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. Basal and insulin‐stimulated Akt activation and tissue glucose uptake rates were also determined. In lean individuals, lipid turnover and insulin signalling genes (ACADM and IRS2) were up‐regulated with FAST versus BFAST (ACADM: 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97–1.30) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64–0.96), P = 0.007; IRS2: 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33–2.16) versus 1.09 (95% CI: 0.67–1.51), P = 0.03, respectively). In obese individuals, no differential (FAST versus BFAST) expression was observed in

  2. Molecular adaptations of adipose tissue to 6 weeks of morning fasting vs. daily breakfast consumption in lean and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Koumanov, Francoise; Holman, Geoffrey D; Cooper, Scott; Thompson, Dylan; Tsintzas, Kostas; Betts, James A

    2018-02-15

    In lean individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases the expression of genes involved in lipid turnover (ACADM) and insulin signalling (IRS2) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. In obese individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases IRS2 expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. The content and activation status of key proteins involved in insulin signalling and glucose transport (GLUT4, Akt1 and Akt2) were unaffected by extended morning fasting. Therefore, any observations of altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity with extended morning fasting do not necessarily require changes in insulin signalling proximal to Akt. Insulin-stimulated adipose tissue glucose uptake rates are lower in obese versus lean individuals, but this difference is abolished when values are normalised to whole-body fat mass. This suggests a novel hypothesis which proposes that the reduced adipose glucose uptake in obesity is a physiological down-regulation to prevent excessive de novo lipogenesis. This study assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty-nine healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after 6 weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 12.00 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 11.00 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. Basal and insulin-stimulated Akt activation and tissue glucose uptake rates were also determined. In lean individuals, lipid turnover and insulin signalling genes (ACADM and IRS2) were up-regulated with FAST versus BFAST (ACADM: 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97-1.30) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64-0.96), P = 0.007; IRS2: 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33-2.16) versus 1.09 (95% CI: 0.67-1.51), P = 0.03, respectively). In obese individuals, no differential (FAST versus BFAST) expression was observed in genes involved in lipid turnover (all

  3. Is epicardial adipose tissue, assessed by echocardiography, a reliable method for visceral adipose tissue prediction?

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Poantă, Laura; Valea, Ana; Pais, Raluca; Silaghi, Horatiu

    2011-03-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is an ectopic fat storage at the heart surface in direct contact with the coronary arteries. It is considered a metabolically active tissue, being a local source of pro-inflammatory factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The AIM of our study was to establish correlations between echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue and anthropometric and ultrasound measurements of the central and peripheral fat depots. The study was conducted on 22 patients with or without coronaropathy. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured using Aloka Prosound α 10 machine with a 3.5-7.5 MHz variable-frequency transducer and subcutaneous and visceral fat with Esaote Megas GPX machine and 3.5-7.5 MHz variable frequency transducer. Epicardial adipose tissue measured by echocardiography is correlated with waist circumference (p < 0.05), visceral adipose tissue thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and is not correlated with body mass index (p = 0.315), hip and thigh circumference or subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US. Our study confirms that US assessment of epicardial fat correlates with anthropometric and US measurements of the central fat, representing an indirect but reliable marker of the visceral fat.

  4. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Bani, Daniele; Quattrini Li, Alessandro; Freschi, Giancarlo; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2013-09-01

    In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P < 0.001), the appearance of micropores and triglyceride leakage and release in the conditioned medium (P < 0.05 at 15 min), or adipose tissue interstitium, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal, and epidermal components and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes.

  5. Physiological Aging: Links Among Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, Diabetes, and Frailty.

    PubMed

    Stout, Michael B; Justice, Jamie N; Nicklas, Barbara J; Kirkland, James L

    2017-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These processes synergistically promote chronic sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid redistribution away from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Without intervention, these effects contribute to age-related systemic metabolic dysfunction, physical limitations, and frailty. Thus adipose tissue dysfunction may be a fundamental contributor to the elevated risk of chronic disease, disability, and adverse health outcomes with advancing age. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  6. Physiological Aging: Links Among Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, Diabetes, and Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Michael B.; Justice, Jamie N.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Kirkland, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These processes synergistically promote chronic sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid redistribution away from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Without intervention, these effects contribute to age-related systemic metabolic dysfunction, physical limitations, and frailty. Thus adipose tissue dysfunction may be a fundamental contributor to the elevated risk of chronic disease, disability, and adverse health outcomes with advancing age. PMID:27927801

  7. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Azuma, Koichiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Saitoh, Yoshino; Torii, Sayuki; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-12-01

    Studies from Western countries suggest that smokers tend to display greater abdominal obesity than non-smokers, despite showing lower weight. Whether this holds true in a leaner population requires clarification. Using indices of abdominal obesity including visceral adipose tissue, we examined whether lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with unfavorable fat distribution among Japanese men. From 2006 to 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional investigation of a community-based sample of Japanese men at 40-64 years old, free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Areas of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were calculated using computed tomography. We divided participants into four groups: never-smokers; and tertiles of pack-years of smoking among ever-smokers. Using multivariable linear regression, we calculated adjusted means of obesity indices (VAT, SAT, VAT-SAT ratio [VSR], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) for each group, and mean differences between consecutive groups. We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%). Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (median, 23.5 kg/m(2)). Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = 0.005) and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009-0.073; P = 0.012) after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated.

  8. I148M variant in PNPLA3 reduces central adiposity and metabolic disease risks while increasing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ho; Cho, BeLong; Kwon, Hyuktae; Prilutsky, Daria; Yun, Jae Moon; Choi, Ho Chun; Hwang, Kyu-Baek; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Jong-Il; Kong, Sek Won

    2015-12-01

    The I148M variant because of the substitution of C to G in PNPLA3 (rs738409) is associated with the increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In liver, I148M variant reduces hydrolytic function of PNPLA3, which results in hepatic steatosis; however, its association with the other clinical phenotype such as adiposity and metabolic diseases is not well established. To identify the impact of I148M variant on clinical risk factors of NAFLD, we recruited 1363 generally healthy Korean males after excluding alcoholic and secondary causes of hepatic steatosis. Central adiposity was assessed by computed tomography, and hepatic steatosis was evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography. The participants were predominantly middle-aged (49.0 ± 7.1 years; range 30-60 years), and the frequency of NAFLD was 44.2%. The rs738409-G allele carriers had a 1.19-fold increased risk for NAFLD (minor allele frequency 0.43; allelic odds ratio 1.38; P = 4.3 × 10(-5) ). Interestingly, the rs738409 GG carriers showed significantly lower levels of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity (P < 0.001 and = 0.015, respectively), BMI (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.001) and insulin resistance (P = 0.002) compared to CC carriers. These negative associations between clinical risk factors and rs738409-G dosage were more prominent in non-NAFLD group compared to those in NAFLD group. The I148M variant, although increasing the risk of NAFLD, was associated with reduced levels of central adiposity, BMI, serum triglycerides and insulin resistance, suggesting differential roles in fat storage and distribution according to cell types and metabolic status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Effects of Exercise on Abdominal Fat and Liver Enzymes in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Katherine; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Peterson, Mark D; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of supervised exercise interventions on abdominal fat (visceral and subcutaneous fat), liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase), and intrahepatic fat. Fourteen clinical trials (1231 youths) were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference [SMD] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Exercise was associated with a significant reduction in visceral (SMD = -0.661; 95% CI, -0.976 to -0.346; p < 0.001), subcutaneous (SMD = -0.352; 95% CI, -0.517 to -0.186; p < 0.001) and intrahepatic fat (SMD = -0.802; 95% CI, -1.124 to -0.480; p < 0.001), as well as gamma-glutamyl transferase (SMD = -0.726; 95% CI, -1.203 to -0.249; p < 0.001), but did not alter any other liver enzyme. Subgroup analysis recommends exercise programs that involve aerobic exercise longer than three sessions per week. This meta-analysis supports current recommendation for physical exercise, mainly aerobic, as an effective intervention for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression by targeting hepatic lipid composition, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016042163.

  10. Depot-specific Regulation of the Conversion of Cortisone to Cortisol in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Fried, Susan K.; Mundt, Steven S.; Wang, Yanxin; Sullivan, Sean; Stefanni, Alice; Daugherty, Bruce L.; Hermanowski-Vosatka, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our main objective was to compare the regulation of cortisol production within omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abd sc) human adipose tissue. Methods and Procedures Om and Abd sc adipose tissue were obtained at surgery from subjects with a wide range of BMI. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity (3H-cortisone and 3H-cortisol interconversion) and expression were measured before and after organ culture with insulin and/or dexamethasone. Results Type 1 HSD (HSD1) mRNA and reductase activity were mainly expressed within adipocytes and tightly correlated with adipocyte size within both depots. There was no depot difference in HSD1 expression or reductase activity, while cortisol inactivation and HSD2 mRNA expression (expressed in stromal cells) were higher in Om suggesting higher cortisol turnover in this depot. Culture with insulin decreased HSD reductase activity in both depots. Culture with dexamethasone plus insulin compared to insulin alone increased HSD reductase activity only in the Om depot. This depot-specific increase in reductase activity could not be explained by an alteration in HSD1 mRNA or protein, which was paradoxically decreased. However, in Om only, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA levels were increased by culture with dexamethasone plus insulin compared to insulin alone, suggesting that higher nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) production within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributed to the higher HSD reductase activity. Discussion We conclude that in the presence of insulin, glucocorticoids cause a depot-specific increase in the activation of cortisone within Om adipose tissue, and that this mechanism may contribute to adipocyte hypertrophy and visceral obesity. PMID:18388900

  11. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Glass, Daniel; Viñuela, Ana; Davies, Matthew N; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Parts, Leopold; Knowles, David; Brown, Andrew A; Hedman, Asa K; Small, Kerrin S; Buil, Alfonso; Grundberg, Elin; Nica, Alexandra C; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O; Ryten, Mina; Durbin, Richard; McCarthy, Mark I; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Weale, Michael E; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim D

    2013-07-26

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and/or α-lipoic acid on adipose tissue transcriptomic profile of healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Ana E; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Escoté, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2017-01-02

    In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach. At the end of the intervention, a total of 33,297 genes were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. EPA promoted changes in extracellular matrix remodeling gene expression, besides a rise of genes associated with either chemotaxis or wound repair. α-Lipoic acid decreased expression of genes related with cell adhesion and inflammation. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid, especially in combination with EPA, upregulated the expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism while downregulated genes involved in lipids storage. Together, all these data suggest that some of the metabolic effects of EPA and α-lipoic acid could be related to their regulatory actions on adipose tissue metabolism. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):117-131, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Efficacy of thigh volume ratios assessed via stereovision body imaging as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The research examined the efficacy of regional volumes of thigh ratios assessed by stereovision body imaging (SBI) as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body measurements obtained via SBI also were utilized to explore disparities of body size and shape in men and women. Method 121 participants were measured for total/regional body volumes and ratios via SBI and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas by MRI. Results Thigh to torso and thigh to abdomen-hip volume ratios were the most reliable parameters to predict the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue depots compared to other body measurements. Thigh volume in relation to torso [odds ratios (OR) 0.44] and abdomen-hip (OR 0.41) volumes were negatively associated with increased risks of greater visceral adipose tissue depots, even after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Irrespective of BMI classification, men exhibited greater total body (80.95L vs. 72.41L), torso (39.26L vs. 34.13L), and abdomen-hip (29.01L vs. 25.85L) volumes than women. Women had higher thigh volumes (4.93L vs. 3.99L) and lower-body volume ratios [thigh to total body (0.07 vs. 0.05), thigh to torso (0.15 vs. 0.11), and thigh to abdomen-hip (0.20 vs. 0.15); p<0.05]. Conclusions The unique parameters of the volumes of thigh in relation to torso and abdomen-hip, by SBI were highly effective in predicting visceral adipose tissue deposition. The SBI provided an efficient method for determining body size and shape in men and women via total and regional body volumes and ratios. PMID:25645428

  14. Efficacy of thigh volume ratios assessed via stereovision body imaging as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2015-01-01

    The research examined the efficacy of regional volumes of thigh ratios assessed by stereovision body imaging (SBI) as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body measurements obtained via SBI also were utilized to explore disparities of body size and shape in men and women. One hundred twenty-one participants were measured for total/regional body volumes and ratios via SBI and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas by MRI. Thigh to torso and thigh to abdomen-hip volume ratios were the most reliable parameters to predict the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue depots compared to other body measurements. Thigh volume in relation to torso [odds ratios (OR) 0.44] and abdomen-hip (OR 0.41) volumes were negatively associated with increased risks of greater visceral adipose tissue depots, even after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Irrespective of BMI classification, men exhibited greater total body (80.95L vs. 72.41L), torso (39.26L vs. 34.13L), and abdomen-hip (29.01L vs. 25.85L) volumes than women. Women had higher thigh volumes (4.93L vs. 3.99L) and lower-body volume ratios [thigh to total body (0.07 vs. 0.05), thigh to torso (0.15 vs. 0.11), and thigh to abdomen-hip (0.20 vs. 0.15); P < 0.05]. The unique parameters of the volumes of thigh in relation to torso and abdomen-hip, by SBI were highly effective in predicting visceral adipose tissue deposition. The SBI provided an efficient method for determining body size and shape in men and women via total and regional body volumes and ratios. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:445-457, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  16. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution: a cross-sectional pooled study in Inuit, Africans and Europeans.

    PubMed

    Rønn, Pernille F; Andersen, Gregers S; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Dirk L; Aadahl, Mette; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2017-06-01

    Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology. A total of 5275 individuals (3083 Inuit, 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage. The associations between conventional anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution varied by ethnicity in almost all models. Europeans had the highest levels of VAT in adjusted analyses and Africans the lowest with ethnic differences most apparent at higher levels of the anthropometric measures. Similar ethnic differences were seen in the associations with SAT for a given anthropometric measure. Conventional anthropometric measures like BMI and waist circumference do not reflect the same amount of VAT and SAT across ethnic groups. Thus, the obesity level at which Inuit and Africans are at increased cardiometabolic risk is likely to differ from that of Europeans. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Absorption Kinetics of Subcutaneously Administered Ceftazidime in Hypoperfused Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Shinji; Okita, Mitsuyoshi; Shiina, Sayumi; Negishi, Akio; Ohara, Kousuke; Ohshima, Shigeru; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Yoneyama, Akira; Kitazumi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID), and intravenous ceftazidime (CAZ) is a widely used treatment for such infections. However, intravenous administration in patients with SMID may be difficult because of insufficient vascular development. The aim of our study was to determine the feasibility of subcutaneous drug administration by mentholated warm compresses (WMCs) as an alternative delivery method for ceftazidime in patients with SMID. CAZ was subcutaneously administered to the abdominal region of naphazoline-treated hypoperfused guinea pigs, which were used as a hemodynamic model of patients with SMID. MWCs or warm compresses (WCs) were applied to the injection site to increase blood flow. We calculated the cumulative CAZ absorption over time by using the deconvolution method. Application of MWCs or WCs increased blood flow at the administration site and increased CAZ plasma levels. Application of MWCs or WCs after subcutaneous CAZ injection led to higher CAZ plasma levels than the mutant prevention concentration for a longer period than was observed for CAZ administration without the application of MWCs or WCs. The application of MWCs or WCs enhanced subcutaneous CAZ absorption by increasing blood flow. MWCs and WCs are considered to be safe and routine methods to induce defecation after surgery on the digestive system; thus, the combination of these methods and subcutaneous CAZ administration is a potential method for treating pneumonia in patients with SMID.

  18. Subcutaneous electrode structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A subcutaneous electrode structure suitable for a chronic implant and for taking a low noise electrocardiogram of an active animal, comprises a thin inflexible, smooth disc of stainless steel having a diameter as of 5 to 30 mm, which is sutured in place to the animal being monitored. The disc electrode includes a radially directed slot extending in from the periphery of the disc for approximately 1/3 of the diameter. Electrical connection is made to the disc by means of a flexible lead wire that extends longitudinally of the slot and is woven through apertures in the disc and held at the terminal end by means of a spot welded tab. Within the slot, an electrically insulative sleeve, such as silicone rubber, is placed over the wire. The wire with the sleeve mounted thereon is captured in the plane of the disc and within the slot by means of crimping tabs extending laterally of the slot and over the insulative wire. The marginal lip of the slot area is apertured and an electrically insulative potting material such as silicone rubber, is potted in place overlaying the wire slot region and through the apertures.

  19. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor gene variants in relation to resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and adiposity-related phenotypes in the Quebec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Loos, Ruth J F; Ruchat, Stéphanie; Rankinen, Tuomo; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Despite adiponectin's presumed role in fatty acid oxidation and energy homeostasis, little is known about the effect of gene variants on substrate oxidation, energy expenditure, and adiposity-related phenotypes. We examined the effects of genetic variation in adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) on resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient (RQ), and adiposity-related phenotypes. We studied the associations of ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 polymorphisms with resting metabolic rate, RQ, and body mass index, percentage body fat, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 759 participants in the Québec Family Study. The ADIPOQ 45T-->G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly (P = 0.0002 to 0.04) associated with overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity; the rare homozygotes (G/G) had a leaner phenotype than did the carriers of the common allele. One SNP each in the putative promoter of ADIPOR1 (ie, -3882T-->C) and ADIPOR2 (ie, IVS1 -1352G-->A) was associated with RQ (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively), and the association was even stronger in nonobese persons (P = 0.02 and 0.003). Carriers of the common alleles (ADIPOR1 T and ADIPOR2 G alleles) had a lower RQ than did the rare homozygotes. A significant genotype-by-genotype interaction (P = 0.0002 to 0.02) was found between SNPs in the promoters of ADIPOQ (-3971A-->G) and ADIPOR1 (-3882T-->C). Subjects carrying the minor ADIPOQ allele (G allele) who were rare homozygotes (C/C) for the ADIPOR1 SNP had a higher RQ (P = 0.003) and greater overall (P < 0.03) and abdominal (P < 0.05) adiposity than did persons with other genotype combinations. Previous findings that the ADIPOQ 45T-->G variant contributes to overall fatness and abdominal obesity are confirmed. Moreover, variants in the promoter region of both ADIPOR genes contribute to substrate oxidation.

  20. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  1. Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Serena, Carolina; Ejarque, Miriam; Petriz, Jordi; Duran, Xevi; Oliva-Olivera, W.; Simó, Rafael; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n = 8; body mass index [BMI]: 23 ± 1 kg/m2) and obese (n = 8; BMI: 35 ± 5 kg/m2). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor’s BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension. Significance The obesity-related hypoxic environment may have latent effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal

  2. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  3. Adipose tissue and inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christopher; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2012-08-01

    Creeping fat has long been recognized as an indicator of Crohn's disease (CD) activity. Although most patients with CD have normal or low body mass index (BMI), the ratio of intraabdominal fat to total abdominal fat is far greater than that of controls. The obesity epidemic has instructed us on the inflammatory nature of hypertrophic adipose tissue and similarities between mesenteric depots in obese and CD patients can be drawn. However, several important physiological differences exist between these two depots as well. While the molecular basis of the crosstalk between mesenteric adipose and the inflamed intestine in CD is largely unknown, novel evidence implicates neuropeptides along with adipocyte-derived paracrine mediators (adipokines) as potential targets for future investigations and highlight adipose tissue physiology as a potential important determinant in the course of IBD. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  4. An unusual subcutaneous breast cancer metastasis in a 86-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Metere, A; Di Cosimo, C; Chiesa, C; Esposito, A; Giacomelli, L; Redler, A

    2012-04-01

    The most common metastasis site of breast cancer are the local and distant lymph nodes, bone, lungs, liver and brain. We report a 86-year-old woman with an unusual abdominal subcutaneous metastasis of breast cancer. The patient was diagnosed with invasive lobular breast cancer and had been treated six months earlier with modified radical mastectomy. Later she presented a painless mass on the middle upper abdominal wall. She was subsequently admitted to the hospital to perform a whole body CT scan, confirming the presence of the abdominal mass in epigastric region, causing a partial compression of the stomach. Histopathological studies confirmed that the abdominal mass was a rare subcutaneous metastatic lesion of breast origin. The patient underwent a surgical intervention to remove the metastasis and she recovered fully.

  5. Recent Advances in Human Genetics and Epigenetics of Adiposity: Pathway to Precision Medicine?

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Mendelson, Michael; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the past decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions now are known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist-to-hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Gene expression associated with general adiposity is enriched in the nervous system. In contrast, genes associated with abdominal adiposity function in adipose tissue. Recent population-based epigenetic analyses have highlighted additional distinct loci. We discuss how associated genetic variants can lead to understanding causal mechanisms, and to disentangling reverse causation in epigenetic analyses. Discoveries emerging from population genomics are identifying new disease markers and potential novel drug targets to better define and combat obesity and related diseases. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modifying Influence of Dietary Sugar in the Relationship Between Cortisol and Visceral Adipose Tissue in Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Allayee, Hooman; Goran, Michael I.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cortisol has been associated with preferential visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition; however findings in humans are mixed, which may be clarified when diet is considered. Design and Methods Participants included 165 African American and Latino, overweight adolescents (BMI% 97.2±3.2%, ages 13-18, 67% Latino, 66% female). Body composition was determined by DEXA, abdominal fat depots (VAT, subcutaneous (SAT)) by multiple-slice MRI, time-controlled serum sample to measure cortisol, and 2-day multi-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Linear regression analysis examined the cross-sectional relationship between cortisol, and the interaction of diet and cortisol on adiposity measures. Sex, race, age and total body fat were a priori covariates. Results There was a significant interaction between cortisol and sugar (total and added) in the prediction of VAT (pinteraction<=0.05). Amongst participants with high total or added-sugar intake, cortisol was significantly associated with VAT (β=0.031 p<0.001; β=0.026 p<0.001), with no relationship in low consumers of total or added-sugar. Conclusion Dietary sugar may play an important role in modifying the relationship between cortisol and VAT, such that cortisol is significantly associated with elevated VAT under conditions of high sugar intake. PMID:23929660

  7. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Handling Protocols. Lipid Droplets and Proteins Double-Staining

    PubMed Central

    Gojanovich, Aldana D.; Gimenez, María C.; Masone, Diego; Rodriguez, Tania M.; Dewey, Ricardo A.; Delgui, Laura R.; Bustos, Diego M.; Uhart, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Human Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are of great interest because of their potential for therapeutic approaches. The method described here covers every single step necessary for hASCs isolation from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, multicolor phenotyping by flow cytometry, and quantitative determination of adipogenic differentiation status by means of lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, to simultaneously analyze both LDs accumulation and cellular proteins localization by fluorescence microscopy, we combined Oil Red O (ORO) staining with immunofluorescence detection. For LDs quantification we wrote a program for automatic ORO-stained digital image processing implemented in Octave, a freely available software package. Our method is based on the use of the traditional low cost neutral lipids dye ORO, which can be imaged both by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy. The utilization of ORO instead of other more expensive lipid-specific dyes, together with the fact that the whole method has been designed employing cost-effective culture reagents (standard culture medium and serum), makes it affordable for tight-budget research laboratories. These may be replaced, if necessary or desired, by defined xeno-free reagents for clinical research and applications. PMID:29670879

  8. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Handling Protocols. Lipid Droplets and Proteins Double-Staining.

    PubMed

    Gojanovich, Aldana D; Gimenez, María C; Masone, Diego; Rodriguez, Tania M; Dewey, Ricardo A; Delgui, Laura R; Bustos, Diego M; Uhart, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Human Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are of great interest because of their potential for therapeutic approaches. The method described here covers every single step necessary for hASCs isolation from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, multicolor phenotyping by flow cytometry, and quantitative determination of adipogenic differentiation status by means of lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, to simultaneously analyze both LDs accumulation and cellular proteins localization by fluorescence microscopy, we combined Oil Red O (ORO) staining with immunofluorescence detection. For LDs quantification we wrote a program for automatic ORO-stained digital image processing implemented in Octave, a freely available software package. Our method is based on the use of the traditional low cost neutral lipids dye ORO, which can be imaged both by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy. The utilization of ORO instead of other more expensive lipid-specific dyes, together with the fact that the whole method has been designed employing cost-effective culture reagents (standard culture medium and serum), makes it affordable for tight-budget research laboratories. These may be replaced, if necessary or desired, by defined xeno-free reagents for clinical research and applications.

  9. Substantial Metabolic Activity of Human Brown Adipose Tissue during Warm Conditions and Cold-Induced Lipolysis of Local Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Weir, Graeme; Ramage, Lynne E; Akyol, Murat; Rhodes, Jonathan K; Kyle, Catriona J; Fletcher, Alison M; Craven, Thomas H; Wakelin, Sonia J; Drake, Amanda J; Gregoriades, Maria-Lena; Ashton, Ceri; Weir, Nick; van Beek, Edwin J R; Karpe, Fredrik; Walker, Brian R; Stimson, Roland H

    2018-06-05

    Current understanding of in vivo human brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology is limited by a reliance on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanning, which has measured exogenous glucose and fatty acid uptake but not quantified endogenous substrate utilization by BAT. Six lean, healthy men underwent 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT scanning to localize BAT so microdialysis catheters could be inserted in supraclavicular BAT under CT guidance and in abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Arterial and dialysate samples were collected during warm (∼25°C) and cold exposure (∼17°C), and blood flow was measured by 133 xenon washout. During warm conditions, there was increased glucose uptake and lactate release and decreased glycerol release by BAT compared with WAT. Cold exposure increased blood flow, glycerol release, and glucose and glutamate uptake only by BAT. This novel use of microdialysis reveals that human BAT is metabolically active during warm conditions. BAT activation substantially increases local lipolysis but also utilization of other substrates such as glutamate. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adipose tissue metabolic and inflammatory responses to a mixed meal in lean, overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Travers, Rebecca L; Motta, Alexandre C; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-02-01

    Most of what we know about adipose tissue is restricted to observations derived after an overnight fast. However, humans spend the majority of waking hours in a postprandial (fed) state, and it is unclear whether increasing adiposity impacts adipose tissue responses to feeding. The aim of this research was to investigate postprandial responses in adipose tissue across varying degrees of adiposity. Thirty males aged 35-55 years with waist circumference 81-118 cm were divided equally into groups categorized as either lean, overweight or obese. Participants consumed a meal and insulinaemic, glycaemic and lipidaemic responses were monitored over 6 h. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 h to examine changes in gene expression and adipose tissue secretion of various adipokines. Following consumption of the meal, insulin and glucose responses were higher with increased adiposity (total AUC effects of group; p = 0.058 and p = 0.027, respectively). At 6 h, significant time effects reflected increases in IL-6 (F = 14.7, p = 0.001) and MCP-1 (F = 10.7, p = 0.003) and reduction in IRS2 adipose tissue gene expression (F = 24.6, p < 0.001), all independent of adiposity. Ex vivo adipokine secretion from adipose tissue explants remained largely unchanged after feeding. Increased systemic measures of postprandial metabolism with greater adiposity do not translate into increased inflammatory responses within adipose tissue. Instead, postprandial adipose tissue changes may represent a normal response to feeding or a (relatively) normalized response with increased adiposity due to either similar net exposure (i.e. per g of adipose) or reduced adipose tissue responsiveness.

  11. Cutaneous and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Russo, Juan Pedro; Raffaeli, Rocío; Ingratta, Stella Maris; Rafti, Patricia; Mestroni, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Case 1: A 17-year-old male rural worker from Bolivia living in La Plata (Argentina) for the past year had a lesion on the flexor side of his right forearm (6 x 4 cm). The lesion was formed by several confluent nodular areas, wine-red in color, some fistulized, with hemopurulent drainage. The area was hot and painless (Figure 1). On physical examination, no regional adenomegalies were reported. The following analyses were requested and results reported. Soft tissue ultrasound: material of solid consistency with layered liquid areas, located in the subcutaneous cellular tissue, with fistulous tract, connecting through superficial planes. Evidence of peripheral edema. Bacteriologic analysis (puncture aspiration): methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Mycologic analysis (puncture aspiration): negative; laboratory results: eosinophilia; and human immunodeficiency virus: nonreactive. Histopathologic examination: lesions of necrosis with granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Fungi techniques (periodic acid-Schiff, Grocott stains): negative. Bacilos acid-alcohol resistentes (acid-alcohol resistant bacillus) (BAAR) techniques (Kinyoun, Ziehl-Neelsen): negative. Foreign body examination tested with polarized light: negative. Mycologic and bacteriologic examinations were repeated, including a search for mycobacterium species using material obtained from the biopsy performed on the cutaneous lesion. Macromorphology: the colony was initially black and of creamy consistency, to later become velvety. Micromorphology: dark blastoconidia, then cylindrical phialides with elliptical conidia (Figure 2). Exophiala dermatitidis infection. On the basis of these characteristics, the diagnosis is phaeohyphomycosis due to Edermatitidis. The patient is treated with antimycotic therapy, with oral itraconazole (400 mg/d), plus indication of surgical procedure to remove the lesion. The patient's condition evolves favorably with no recidivant episodes after the sixth month post

  12. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are