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Sample records for abdominal subcutaneous adipose

  1. Metabolic characteristics of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissueafter overnight fast

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is one of the largest fat depots and contributes the major proportion of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Little is known about aspects of human adipose tissue metabolism in vivo other than lipolysis. Here we collated data from 331 experiments in 255 healthy volunteers over a 23-year period, in which subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was studied by measurements of arterio-venous differences after an overnight fast. NEFA and glycerol were released in a ratio of 2.7:1, different (P < 0.001) from the value of 3.0 that would indicate no fatty acid re-esterification. Fatty acid re-esterification was 10.2 ± 1.4%. Extraction of triacylglycerol (TG) (fractional extraction 5.7 ± 0.4%) indicated intravascular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase, and this contributed 21 ± 3% of the glycerol released. Glucose uptake (fractional extraction 2.6 ± 0.3%) was partitioned around 20–25% for provision of glycerol 3-phosphate and 30% into lactate production. There was release of lactate and pyruvate, with extraction of the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, although these were small numerically compared with TG and glucose uptake. NEFA release (expressed per 100 g tissue) correlated inversely with measures of fat mass (e.g., with BMI, rs = −0.24, P < 0.001). We examined within-person variability. Systemic NEFA concentrations, NEFA release, fatty acid re-esterification, and adipose tissue blood flow were all more consistent within than between individuals. This picture of human adipose tissue metabolism in the fasted state should contribute to a greater understanding of adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:22167523

  2. Association of lifestyle factors with abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity: The Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community-based setting. Cross-sectional associations between lifestyle factors (dietary quality, physical activity, smo...

  3. Ultrasound Estimates of Visceral and Subcutaneous-Abdominal Adipose Tissues in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Modi, Neena; Uthaya, Sabita; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo; Stolk, Ronald P.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Other imaging techniques to quantify internal-abdominal adiposity (IA-AT) and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposity (SCA-AT) are frequently impractical in infants. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to validate ultrasound (US) visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths in assessing IA-AT and SCA-AT from MRI as the reference method in infants and (b) to analyze the association between US abdominal adiposity and anthropometric measures at ages 3 months and 12 months. Twenty-two infants underwent MRI and US measures of abdominal adiposity. Abdominal US parameters and anthropometric variables were assessed in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), n = 487 infants (23 girls) at age 3 months and n = 495 infants (237 girls) at 12 months. US visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal depths correlated with MRI quantified IA-AT (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and SCA-AT (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) volumes, respectively. In CBGS, mean US-visceral depths increased by ~20 % between ages 3 and 12 months (P < 0.0001) and at both ages were lower in infants breast-fed at 3 months than in other infants. US-visceral depths at both 3 and 12 months were inversely related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009 at 3 and 12 months, resp.; adjusted for current skinfold thickness). In contrast, US-subcutaneous-abdominal depth at 3 months was positively related to skinfold thickness at birth (P = 0.004). US measures can rank infants with higher or lower IA-AT and SCA-AT. Contrasting patterns of association with visceral and subcutaneous-abdominal adiposities indicate that they may be differentially regulated in infancy. PMID:23710350

  4. Reproducibility and Repeatability of Computer Tomography-based Measurement of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Hsiao, Hsing-Fen; Yang, Hou-Ting; Huang, Shih-Yi; Chan, Wing P.

    2017-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue is a widely recognized as a major feature of obesity, and it can be quantified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, in a phantom study, the inter- and intra-instrument reliability of DXA remains unpredictable. Thus, we attempted to determine the precision of estimates from computer tomography-based measurements and analysis with AZE Virtual Place software. To determine the inter-rater reproducibility and intra-rater repeatability of adipose tissue area estimates, we used the automatic boundary-tracing function of the AZE Virtual Place to generate cross-sectional areas of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from the abdomen of reconstructed CT images. The variability of inter-rater and intra-rater estimates expressed as the coefficient of variation ranged from 0.47% to 1.43% for subcutaneous adipose tissue and 1.08% to 2.20% for visceral adipose tissue; the optimal coefficient of variation of the fat rate calculation ranged from 0.55% to 1.13%, respectively. There was high and significant correlation between adipose tissue areas as estimated in 40 obese subjects by two raters or repeatedly on 20 obese subjects by either rater. This indicates excellent reproducibility and repeatability via a computer tomography-based measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. PMID:28071718

  5. Gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots as stroma cell source: gluteal cells display increased adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potentials.

    PubMed

    Iwen, Karl Alexander; Priewe, Anna-Christin; Winnefeld, Marc; Rose, Christian; Siemers, Frank; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Cakiroglu, Figen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schepky, Andreas; Klein, Johannes; Kramer, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Human adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) have successfully been employed in explorative therapeutic studies. Current evidence suggests that ADSCs are unevenly distributed in subcutaneous adipose tissue; therefore, the anatomical origin of ADSCs may influence clinical outcomes. This study was designed to investigate proliferation and differentiation capacities of ADSCs from the gluteal and abdominal depot of 8 females. All had normal BMI (22.01 ± 0.39 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (81.13 ± 2.33 cm). Examination by physicians and analysis of 31 laboratory parameters did not reveal possibly confounding medical disorders. Gluteal and abdominal adipose tissue was sampled by en bloc resection on day 7 (±1) after the last menses. Histological examination did not reveal significant depot-specific differences. As assessed by BrdU assay, proliferation of cells from both depots was similar after 24 h and analysis of 15 cell surface markers by flow cytometry identified the isolated cells as ADSCs, again without depot-specific differences. ADSCs from both depots differentiated poorly to chondroblasts. Gluteal ADSCs displayed significantly higher adipogenic differentiation potential than abdominal cells. Osteogenic differentiation was most pronounced in gluteal cells, whereas differentiation of abdominal ADSCs was severely impaired. Our data demonstrate a depot-specific difference in ADSC differentiation potential with abdominal cells failing to meet the criteria of multipotent ADSCs. This finding should be taken into account in future explorations of ADSC-derived therapeutic strategies.

  6. Depot Dependent Effects of Dexamethasone on Gene Expression in Human Omental and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues from Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Gower, Adam; Fried, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days. Dex regulated 32% of the 19,741 genes on the array, while 53% differed by Depot and 2.5% exhibited a Depot*Dex concentration interaction. Gene set enrichment analysis showed Dex regulation of the expected metabolic and inflammatory pathways in both depots. Cluster analysis of the 460 transcripts that exhibited an interaction of Depot and Dex concentration revealed sets of mRNAs for which the responses to Dex differed in magnitude, sensitivity or direction between the two depots as well as mRNAs that responded to Dex only in one depot. These transcripts were also clearly depot different in fresh adipose tissue and are implicated in processes that could affect adipose tissue distribution or functions (e.g. adipogenesis, triacylglycerol synthesis and storage, insulin action). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the depot differences in the effect of Dex on the expression of specific genes and pathways that regulate adipose function may offer novel insights into understanding the biology of visceral adipose tissues and their links to metabolic health. PMID:28005982

  7. Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: The Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different aspects of diet may be differentially related to body fat distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between whole- and refined- grain intake and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We examined the cross-sectional associati...

  8. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C; Feitosa, Mary; Smith, Albert V; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Lohman, Kurt; Johnson, Andrew D; Foster, Meredith C; Greenawalt, Danielle M; Griffin, Paula; Ding, Jinghong; Newman, Anne B; Tylavsky, Fran; Miljkovic, Iva; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Launer, Lenore; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Carr, J Jeffrey; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]). Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI); associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a SNP for

  9. In vivo nitric oxide suppression of lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is greater in obese than lean women.

    PubMed

    Hickner, Robert C; Kemeny, Gabor; Clark, Paige D; Galvin, Vaughna B; McIver, Kerry L; Evans, Chris A; Carper, Michael J; Garry, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests there is a reduced mobilization of stored fat in obese compared to lean women. It has been suggested that this decreased lipid mobilization may lead to, or perpetuate, the obese state; however, there may be a beneficial effect of reduced lipolysis, either by allowing for a sink of excess fatty acids, or by limiting a potentially harmful rise in interstitial and circulating fatty acid concentration. Nitric oxide (NO) may be responsible for a portion of the reduced in vivo rates of lipolysis in obese women because NO reduces adipose tissue lipolysis and adipose tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA is higher in obese than lean individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine if the inhibition of NOS by L-N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in the absence and presence of lipolytic stimulation would result in a larger increase in lipolytic rate in obese (OB) than lean (LN) women. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of seven obese and six lean women to monitor lipolysis. Dialysate glycerol concentration increased in response to L-NMMA in OB (basal 125 ± 26 µmol/l; L-NMMA 225 ± 35 µmol/l) to a greater extent than in LN (basal 70 ± 18 µmol/l; L-NMMA 84 ± 20 µmol/l) women (P < 0.05). Dialysate glycerol increased to a similar extent in OB and LN in response to adrenergic stimulation by isoprenaline or norepinephrine in the presence of L-NMMA. The differential glycerol responses to L-NMMA between obese and lean could not be explained by differential blood flow responses. It can be concluded that NO suppresses basal lipolysis in obese women to a greater extent than in lean women.

  10. Measurement site and the association between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue with metabolic risk in women.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N; Ross, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and metabolic risk may be influenced by measurement site. The aim of this study was to compare the strength of the associations between VAT and ASAT, as assessed by a cross-sectional image (area) or total volume, and prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS). We also examined the association between changes in abdominal AT area and volume with concomitant changes in metabolic risk. Abdominal AT volume and areas were derived using ~35 continuous computed tomography (CT) images from T10-T11 to L5-S1 in overweight or obese postmenopausal women before (n = 67) and after (n = 39) a 6-month exercise intervention. At baseline, measurement site did not influence the inter-relationship between ASAT area and total volume, and between ASAT and MetS. Conversely, VAT areas at L1-L2 and L2-L3 were stronger correlates of VAT volume at baseline (L1-L2 (r = 0.94), L2-L3 (r = 0.95), L4-L5 (r = 0.89)) and changes therein (L1-L2 (r = 0.77), L2-L3 (r = 0.75), L4-L5 (r = 0.55)) as compared to L4-L5, but were not significantly better predictors of MetS as compared to L4-L5 or the total volume (L2-L3: odds ratio (OR) = 2.68 (1.6-4.4), L1-L2: OR = 1.88 (1.2-3.0), L4-L5: OR = 2.56 (1.6-4.1), volume: OR = 2.07 (1.1-3.8)). Changes in VAT and ASAT were not associated with changes in MetS (P > 0.10). Although measurement site has an impact on the prediction of VAT volume, this does not translate into an improved prediction for the MetS. Thus, there is not enough evidence to support changing the current research practice of assessing VAT volume or at L4-L5 for the prediction of metabolic risk.

  11. mRNA concentrations of MIF in subcutaneous abdominal adipose cells are associated with adipocyte size and insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Koska, Juraj; Stefan, Norbert; Dubois, Severine; Trinidad, Cathy; Considine, Robert V.; Funahashi, Tohru; Bunt, Joy C.; Ravussin, Eric; Permana, Paska A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the mRNA concentrations of inflammation response genes in isolated adipocytes and in cultured preadipocytes are related to adipocyte size and in vivo insulin action in obese individuals. Design Cross-sectional inpatient study. Subjects Obese Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance. Measurements Adipocyte diameter (by microscope technique; n=29), expression of candidate genes (by quantitative real-time PCR) in freshly isolated adipocytes (monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP] 1 and MCP2, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP] 1α, MIP1β and MIP2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF], tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin [IL] 6 and IL8; n=22) and cultured preadipocytes (MCP1, MIP1α, MIF, IL6 and matrix metalloproteinase 2; n=33) from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (by aspiration biopsy, n=34), body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, glucose tolerance by 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin action by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (insulin infusion rate 40 mU/m2.min)(all n=34). Results MIF was the only gene whose expression in both freshly isolated adipocytes and cultured preadipocytes was positively associated with adipocytes diameter and negatively associated with peripheral and hepatic insulin action (all P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, the association between adipocyte MIF mRNA concentrations and adipocytes diameter was independent of percent body fat (P=0.03), whereas adipocyte MIF mRNA concentrations but not adipocytes diameter independently predicted peripheral insulin action. The mRNA expression concentrations of MIF gene in adipocytes were not associated with plasma concentrations of MIF, but were negatively associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (P=0.004). In multivariate analysis, adipocyte MIF RNA concentrations (P=0.03) but not plasma adiponectin concentrations (P=0.4) remained a significant predictor of insulin action. Conclusions Increased expression of MIF gene in

  12. Insulin differentially modulates the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from lean and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Murdolo, G; Kempf, K; Hammarstedt, A; Herder, C; Smith, U; Jansson, P-A

    2007-09-01

    Human obesity has been associated with a dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue (AT) endocannabinoid system (ES). The aim of this study was to elucidate the acute in vivo effects of insulin on gene expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) and type 2 (CB-2) receptors, as well as of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the sc abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT). Nine lean (L) and 9 obese (OB), but otherwise healthy males were studied in the fasting state and during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU/m2 * min(-1)). SCAAT biopsies were obtained at baseline and after 270 min of i.v. maintained hyperinsulinemia. The basal SCAAT gene expression pattern revealed an upregulation of the FAAH in the OB (p=0.03 vs L), whereas similar CB-1 and CB-2 mRNA levels were seen. Following hyperinsulinemia, the FAAH mRNA levels significantly increased approximately 2-fold in the L (p=0.01 vs baseline) but not in the OB. In contrast, insulin failed to significantly change both the adipose CB-1 and CB-2 gene expression. Finally, the FAAH gene expression positively correlated with the fasting serum insulin concentration (r 0.66; p=0.01), whereas an inverse association with the whole-body glucose disposal (r -0.58; p<0.05) was seen. Taken together, these first time observations demonstrate that the ES-related genes in the SCAAT differentially respond to hyperinsulinemia in lean/insulin-sensitive and in obese/insulin-resistant individuals. We suggest that insulin may play a key role in the obesity-linked dysregulation of the adipose ES at the gene level.

  13. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  14. Validation of a fast method for quantification of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue for large-scale human studies.

    PubMed

    Borga, Magnus; Thomas, E Louise; Romu, Thobias; Rosander, Johannes; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Bell, Jimmy D

    2015-12-01

    Central obesity is the hallmark of a number of non-inheritable disorders. The advent of imaging techniques such as MRI has allowed for a fast and accurate assessment of body fat content and distribution. However, image analysis continues to be one of the major obstacles to the use of MRI in large-scale studies. In this study we assess the validity of the recently proposed fat-muscle quantitation system (AMRA(TM) Profiler) for the quantification of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) from abdominal MR images. Abdominal MR images were acquired from 23 volunteers with a broad range of BMIs and analysed using sliceOmatic, the current gold-standard, and the AMRA(TM) Profiler based on a non-rigid image registration of a library of segmented atlases. The results show that there was a highly significant correlation between the fat volumes generated by the two analysis methods, (Pearson correlation r = 0.97, p < 0.001), with the AMRA(TM) Profiler analysis being significantly faster (~3 min) than the conventional sliceOmatic approach (~40 min). There was also excellent agreement between the methods for the quantification of IAAT (AMRA 4.73 ± 1.99 versus sliceOmatic 4.73 ± 1.75 l, p = 0.97). For the AMRA(TM) Profiler analysis, the intra-observer coefficient of variation was 1.6% for IAAT and 1.1% for ASAT, the inter-observer coefficient of variation was 1.4% for IAAT and 1.2% for ASAT, the intra-observer correlation was 0.998 for IAAT and 0.999 for ASAT, and the inter-observer correlation was 0.999 for both IAAT and ASAT. These results indicate that precise and accurate measures of body fat content and distribution can be obtained in a fast and reliable form by the AMRA(TM) Profiler, opening up the possibility of large-scale human phenotypic studies.

  15. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis – association with clinical and laboratory data

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Material and methods Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients’ body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Results Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor – TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients’ age. Conclusions We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may

  16. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  17. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. Methods In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). Results A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). Conclusions ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity. PMID:28323901

  18. Assessment of feline abdominal adipose tissue using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyeon; Kim, Mieun; Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Chang, Jinhwa; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats and it increases the risk factors for various diseases. The aim of this study is to suggest a method for the evaluation of feline obesity using computed tomography. The attenuation range from -156 to -106 was determined as the range of feline abdominal adipose tissue. With this range, total (TAT), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues were measured. The best correlation between the adipose tissue in cross-sectional image and entire abdomen volume was obtained at the L3 and L5 levels. The mean VAT/SAT ratio was 1.18±0.32, which was much higher than in humans. The cats with an overweight body condition had a significantly lower VAT/SAT ratio than cats with an ideal body condition. This technique may contribute to both the clinical diagnosis and the experimental study of feline obesity.

  19. A higher response of plasma neuropeptide Y, growth hormone, leptin levels and extracellular glycerol levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue to Acipimox during exercise in patients with bulimia nervosa: single-blind, randomized, microdialysis study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important central orexigenic hormone predominantly produced by the hypothalamus, and recently found to be secreted in adipose tissue (AT). Acipimox (Aci) inhibits lipolysis in AT and reduces plasma glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Exercise and Aci are enhancers of growth hormone (GH) and NPY secretion and exercise may alter leptin levels. We expect to find abnormal neuropeptidergic response in plasma and AT in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). We hypothesize that Aci influences these peptides via a FFA-independent mechanism and that Aci inhibits lipolysis through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. Dysregulations of the AT-brain axis peptides might be involved in binge eating as is the case in BN. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the responses of plasma NPY, GH, leptin, FFA and glycerol levels to exercise in BN patients and healthy women (C) given the anti-lipolytic drug Aci or placebo. The secondary objective of this study was to compare the responses of extracellular glycerol levels and plasma glycerol levels to exercise alone or together with Aci administration in BN patients and C women. Extracellular glycerol was measured in vivo in subcutaneous (sc) abdominal AT using microdialysis. Eight BN and eight C women were recruited for this single-blind, randomized study. Aci or placebo was given 1 hour before the exercise (45 min, 2 W/kg of lean body mass [LBM]). NPY, GH, leptin, FFA, glycerol plasma and AT glycerol levels were measured using commercial kits. Results The primary outcome of this study was that the exercise with Aci administration resulted in plasma NPY and GH increase (after a 45-minute exercise) and leptin (after a 90-minute post-exercise recovering phase) increased more in BN patients. The secondary outcomes of this study were that the exercise with Aci administration induced a higher decrease of extracellular glycerol in BN patients compared to the C group

  20. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  1. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased α-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (Δ56%) and cholesterol epoxide (Δ34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and α-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.

  2. Heterogeneity in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Morphology and Metabolic Complications in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Gracie; Chandalia, Manisha; Jiang, Yongquan; Davila, Himara; Motamedi, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to assess morphological features of intact adipose tissue (AT) ex vivo from both subcutaneous (s.c.) abdominal and gluteal areas using a novel approach of multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) combined with second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM), and to assess the relationship between morphological features in the two AT sites and insulin resistance to peripheral glucose disposal. Method This study was a cross-sectional evaluation of AT morphology feature and peripheral insulin resistance. Subjects Fourteen overweight/obese premenopausal women underwent body composition studies, hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamps, and needle biopsy of both the s.c. abdominal and gluteal AT areas. MPAM combined with SHGM was used to measure adipocyte maximal diameter and collagen fiber bundle thickness within a sampled image volume after three-dimensional visualization. Results Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with larger adipocyte diameter in s.c. abdominal, but not gluteal, AT. Higher adipocyte diameter was associated with higher pericellular collagen thickness. Adipocyte diameter in s.c. abdominal, but not gluteal, AT was associated positively with leptin and negatively with adiponectin plasma levels and peripheral glucose disposal rate. The latter correlation was no longer significant after adjustment for collagen thickness. Conclusion In overweight/obese premenopausal women, larger adipocyte diameter in s.c. abdominal, but not gluteal, AT associates with low plasma adiponectin and systemic insulin resistance, and suggests that increased collagen thickness (obesity-related scarring) could contribute to these findings. PMID:23621112

  3. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine; Lohmann, Tobias; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  4. Adrenal gland volume, intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Schweiger, Ulrich; Pars, Kaweh; Kunikowska, Alicja; Deuschle, Michael; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bleich, Stefan; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Increased intra-abdominal (IAT) and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) have been found in depression, and are discussed as potential mediating factors. IAT and PAT are thought to be the result of a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) with subsequent hypercortisolism. Therefore we examined adrenal gland volume as proxy marker for HPAA activation, and IAT and PAT in depressed patients. Twenty-seven depressed patients and 19 comparison subjects were included in this case-control study. Adrenal gland volume, pericardial, intraabdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Further parameters included factors of the metabolic syndrome, fasting cortisol, fasting insulin, and proinflammatory cytokines. Adrenal gland and pericardial adipose tissue volumes, serum concentrations of cortisol and insulin, and serum concentrations tumor-necrosis factor-α were increased in depressed patients. Adrenal gland volume was positively correlated with intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue, but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our findings point to the role of HPAA dysregulation and hypercortisolism as potential mediators of IAT and PAT enlargement. Further studies are warranted to examine whether certain subtypes of depression are more prone to cardio-metabolic diseases.

  5. Estradiol effects on subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in premenopausal women are adipose tissue depot specific and treatment dependent.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Raymer, Dustin K; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-06-01

    Estrogen has direct effects within adipose tissue and has been implicated in regional adiposity; however, the influence of estrogen on in vivo lipolysis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of local 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) lipolysis in premenopausal women. In vivo lipolysis (dialysate glycerol) was measured in 17 women (age 27.4 ± 2.0 yr, BMI 29.7 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) via microdialysis of abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) SAT. Glycerol was measured at baseline and during acute interventions to increase lipolysis including local perfusion of isoproterenol (ISO, β-adrenergic agonist, 1.0 μmol/l), phentolamine (PHEN, α-adrenergic antagonist, 0.1 mmol/l), and submaximal exercise (60% Vo(2peak), 30 min); all with and without coperfusion of E(2) (500 nmol/l). E(2) coperfusion blunted the lipolytic response to ISO in AB (E(2) 196 ± 31%, control 258 ± 26%, P = 0.003) but not in GL (E(2) 113 ± 14%, control 111 ± 12%, P = 0.43) adipose tissue. At rest, perfusion of PHEN with ISO did not change dialysate glycerol. Submaximal exercise during ISO + PHEN increased dialysate glycerol in the AB (56 ± 9%) and GL (62 ± 12%) regions. Probes perfused with E(2) during exercise and ISO + PHEN had an increased lipolytic response in AB (90 ± 9%, P = 0.007) but a lower response in GL (35 ± 7%, P = 0.05) SAT compared with no-E(2) conditions. E(2) effects on lipolysis are region specific and may work through both adrenergic and adrenergic-independent mechanisms to potentiate and/or blunt SAT lipolysis in premenopausal women.

  6. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  7. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5-11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  8. Characterization of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transcriptome and Biological Pathways in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Evidence for Pregnancy-Related Regional-Specific Differences in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Study Design The transcriptome of paired visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues from pregnant women at term and matched non-pregnant women (n = 11) was profiled with the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Differential expression of selected genes was validated with the use of quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Six hundred forty-four transcripts from 633 known genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.1; fold-change >1.5), while 42 exons from 36 genes showed differential usage (difference in FIRMA scores >2 and FDR<0.1) between the visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women. Fifty-six known genes were differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant subcutaneous fat and three genes in the visceral fat. Enriched biological processes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant women were mostly related to inflammation. Conclusion The transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots reveals pregnancy-related gene expression and splicing differences in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, for the first time, alternative splicing in adipose tissue has been associated with regional differences and human parturition. PMID:26636677

  9. Ethnic and sex differences in body fat and visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Staiano, A E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2012-10-01

    Body fat and the specific depot where adipose tissue (AT) is stored can contribute to cardiometabolic health risks in children and adolescents. Imaging procedures including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allow for the exploration of individual and group differences in pediatric adiposity. This review examines the variation in pediatric total body fat (TBF), visceral AT (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT) due to age, sex, maturational status and ethnicity. TBF, VAT and SAT typically increase as a child ages, though different trends emerge. Girls tend to accumulate more TBF and SAT during and after puberty, depositing fat preferentially in the gynoid and extremity regions. In contrast, pubertal and postpubertal boys tend to deposit more fat in the abdominal region, particularly in the VAT depot. Sexual maturation significantly influences TBF, VAT and SAT. Ethnic differences in TBF are mixed. VAT tends to be higher in white and Hispanic youth, whereas SAT is typically higher in African American youth. Asian youth typically have less gynoid fat but more VAT than whites. Obesity per se may attenuate sex and ethnic differences. Particular health risks are associated with high amounts of TBF, VAT and SAT, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome and hypertension. These risks are affected by genetic, biological and lifestyle factors including physical activity, nutrition and stress. Synthesizing evidence is difficult as there is no consistent methodology or definition to estimate and define depot-specific adiposity, and many analyses compare SAT and VAT without controlling for TBF. Future research should include longitudinal examinations of adiposity changes over time in representative samples of youth to make generalizations to the entire pediatric population and examine variation in organ-specific body fat.

  10. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  11. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the morbidly obese using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Gerald A.; Paton, Barry E.; Maksym, Geoff; Janigan, David; Perey, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (AF) was recorded in the upright and supine positions in the upper and lower abdomen in 22 morbidly obese patients before gastroplasty. Age was 42 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM), weight 135 +/- 7 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 51 +/- 3. Adipose flow expressed as mV was: supine, upper abdomen 647 +/- 23, lower abdomen 604 +/- 24; upright, upper abdomen 621 +/- 27, lower abdomen 607 +/- 29. AF was significantly more in the upper than lower abdomen (supine position) and AF was significantly lower in the lower abdomen upright than the upper abdomen supine. Regression analysis of age indicates that blood flow decreases in the lower abdomen so that in the supine position the difference between upper and lower abdomen AF increases. Similar analysis of BMI did not indicate significant trends. These data indicate that with morbid obesity there is lower tissue blood flow to the lower abdomen. This may explain why such patients may develop areas of painful ischemic necrosis in the dependent region of their anterior abdominal pannus.

  12. FTIR imaging of structural changes in visceral and subcutaneous adiposity and brown to white adipocyte transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Kucuk Baloglu, Fatma; Garip, Sebnem; Heise, Sebastian; Brockmann, Gudrun; Severcan, Feride

    2015-04-07

    Obesity is a heterogeneous disorder which increases risks for multiple metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. The current study aims to characterize and compare visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in terms of macromolecular content and investigate transdifferentiation between white and brown adipocytes. Regarding this aim, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) immunohistological staining were used to investigate gonadal (visceral) and inguinal (subcutaneous) adipose tissues of male Berlin fat mice inbred (BFMI) lines, which are spontaneously obese. The results indicated a remarkable increase in the lipid/protein ratio, accompanied with a decrease of UCP1 protein content which might be due to the transdifferentiation of brown adipocytes to white adipocytes in obese groups. It has been widely reported that brown adipose tissue has a strong effect on fatty acid and glucose homeostasis and it could provide an opportunity for the therapy of obesity. When the amount of brown adipose tissue was decreased, lower unsaturation/saturation ratio, qualitatively longer hydrocarbon acyl chain length of lipids and higher amount of triglycerides were obtained in both adipose tissues of mice lines. The results also revealed that subcutaneous adipose tissue was more prone to obesity-induced structural changes than visceral adipose tissue, which could originate from it possessing a lower amount of brown adipose tissue. The current study clearly revealed the power of FTIR microspectroscopy in the precise determination of obesity-induced structural and functional changes in inguinal and gonadal adipose tissue of mice lines.

  13. Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

  14. Visceral adipose tissue but not subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with urine and serum metabolites.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Inga; Gronwald, Wolfram; Behrens, Gundula; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Hertel, Johannes; Hochrein, Jochen; Zacharias, Helena U; Fischer, Beate; Oefner, Peter J; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex multifactorial phenotype that influences several metabolic pathways. Yet, few studies have examined the relations of different body fat compartments to urinary and serum metabolites. Anthropometric phenotypes (visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the ratio between VAT and SAT (VSR), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and urinary and serum metabolite concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were measured in a population-based sample of 228 healthy adults. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate, were used to associate anthropometric phenotypes with metabolites. We adjusted for potential confounding variables: age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopausal status, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary glucose, and fasting status. In a fully adjusted logistic regression model dichotomized for the absence or presence of quantifiable metabolite amounts, VAT, BMI and WC were inversely related to urinary choline (ß = -0.18, p = 2.73*10-3), glycolic acid (ß = -0.20, 0.02), and guanidinoacetic acid (ß = -0.12, p = 0.04), and positively related to ethanolamine (ß = 0.18, p = 0.02) and dimethylamine (ß = 0.32, p = 0.02). BMI and WC were additionally inversely related to urinary glutamine and lactic acid. Moreover, WC was inversely associated with the detection of serine. VAT, but none of the other anthropometric parameters, was related to serum essential amino acids, such as valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine among men. Compared to other adiposity measures, VAT demonstrated the strongest and most significant relations to urinary and serum metabolites. The distinct relations of VAT, SAT, VSR, BMI, and WC to metabolites emphasize the importance of accurately differentiating between body fat compartments when evaluating the potential role of metabolic regulation in the development of obesity

  15. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ho Cheol; Hwang, Soon Young; Park, Soyeon; Ryu, Ja Young; Choi, Hae Yoon; Yoo, Hye Jin; Seo, Ji-A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored. Method and Results We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR), the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET) in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP), whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR) values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001), whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003). Conclusion This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles. PMID:26270050

  16. IL-15 concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans: local effects of IL-15 on adipose tissue lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Joseph R; Maples, Jill M; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-06-15

    Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown.

  17. Effects of Cryolipolysis on Abdominal Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rodrigo Marcel Valentim; Oliveira, Glenda; Tavares, Maely Azevedo da Silva; Medeiros, Melyssa Lima; Andrada, Camila Procopio; Neto, Luis Gonzaga de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technique of localized fat reduction. Controlled cold exposure is performed in the selective destruction of fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cryolipolysis on adipocytes elimination through histological and sonographic analyses. This study reports the case of a 46-year-old female patient, with complaint of localized abdominal fat and in the preoperative period of abdominoplasty. The patient was submitted to a single 60-minute application of cryolipolysis, temperature of −5°C, on the hypogastrium area, 5 cm below the umbilicus. To study the effects of this treatment, ultrasound images taken before the session and 7, 15, 30, and 45 days after the therapy were analysed. After the abdominoplasty, parts of the treated and the untreated withdrawn abdominal tissues were evaluated macro- and microscopically. In ultrasound images, as well as in macroscopic and histological analyses, significant adipocytes destruction was detected, with consequent fat layer reduction and integrity of areas that were adjacent to the treated tissue. The presence of fibrosis observed during therapy and acknowledged through performed analyses encourages further studies to clarify such finding. PMID:27895944

  18. Paragonimiasis in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Moon, Woo Sung; Lee, Min Ro

    2012-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the lung fluke, Paragonimus spp. Lung flukes may be found in various organs, such as the brain, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues, and retroperitoneum, other than the lungs. Abdominal paragonimiasis raises a considerable diagnostic challenge to clinicians, because it is uncommon and may be confused with other abdominopelvic inflammatory diseases, particularly peritoneal tuberculosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Also, subcutaneous paragonimiasis does not easily bring up clinical suspicion, due to its rarity. We herein report 2 cases of abdominal paragonimiasis and 1 case of subcutaneous paragonimiasis in Korea.

  19. The Effects of Temperature and Seasons on Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans: Evidence for Thermogenic Gene Induction

    PubMed Central

    Finlin, Brian S.; Zhu, Beibei; Rasouli, Neda; McGehee, Robert E.; Westgate, Philip M.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is increased by a cold environment, little is known of the response of human white adipose tissue (WAT) to the cold. Design: We examined both abdominal and thigh subcutaneous (SC) WAT from 71 subjects who were biopsied in the summer or winter, and adipose expression was assessed after an acute cold stimulus applied to the thigh of physically active young subjects. Results: In winter, UCP1 and PGC1α mRNA were increased 4 to 10-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.5 to 2-fold, respectively, along with beige adipose markers, and UCP1 protein was 3-fold higher in the winter. The seasonal increase in abdominal SC WAT UCP1 mRNA was considerably diminished in subjects with a BMI > 30 kg/m2, suggesting that dysfunctional WAT in obesity inhibits adipose thermogenesis. After applying an acute cold stimulus to the thigh of subjects for 30 min, PGC1α and UCP1 mRNA was stimulated 2.7-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.9-fold (p = 0.07), respectively. Acute cold also induced a 2 to 3-fold increase in PGC1α and UCP1 mRNA in human adipocytes in vitro, which was inhibited by macrophage-conditioned medium and by the addition of TNFα. Conclusion: Human SC WAT increases thermogenic genes seasonally and acutely in response to a cold stimulus and this response is inhibited by obesity and inflammation. PMID:25299843

  20. Metabolic and hemodynamic responses to exercise in subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boschmann, M; Rosenbaum, M; Leibel, R L; Segal, K R

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of standardized bicycle exercise on metabolism and blood flow in abdominal ( aSAT) and femoral subcutaneous adipose tissue ( fSAT) and skeletal muscle in eleven women and nine men. Using microdialysis, the respective tissues were perfused with Ringer's solution (+ 50 mM ethanol) and dialysate [ethanol], [glycerol], [lactate] and [pyruvate] were measured in order to estimate blood flow (ethanol dilution technique), lipolysis and glycolysis, respectively. At rest, blood flow tended to be higher in the respective tissues of women when compared to men. During exercise, blood flow was increased significantly in fSAT and muscle, but not in aSAT. Dialysate [glycerol] was increased two- to three-fold in aSAT and fSAT, similarly in men and women. However, in muscle, dialysate [glycerol] was increased five-fold in women and four-fold in men without reaching a steady state in women. Corrected for blood flow, the increase in lipolysis was greater in muscle than in fSAT, and greater in fSAT than in aSAT, and in muscle the increase was greater for women compared with men. Dialysate [lactate] and [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio were much more increased in muscle compared with aSAT and fSAT. It is concluded that lipids stored in muscle are rather used than lipids stored in adipose tissue for fueling the energy metabolism of muscle during exercise. During exercise, lipid mobilization is much greater in women than in men.

  1. Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging of subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolic changes during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Goutham; Warren, Robert V.; Leproux, Anaïs; Compton, Montana; Cutler, Kyle; Wittkopp, Sharine; Tran, Gerard; O’Sullivan, Thomas; Malik, Shaista; Galassetti, Pietro R.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) structure and metabolism have been shown to correlate with the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Measurements of AT physiology could provide new insight into metabolic disease progression and response to therapy. An emerging functional imaging technology, Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging (DOSI), was used to obtain quantitative measures of near infrared (NIR) AT optical and physiological properties. Methods 10 overweight or obese adults were assessed during three-months on calorie-restricted diets. DOSI-derived tissue concentrations of hemoglobin, water, and lipid and the wavelength-dependent scattering amplitude (A) and slope (b) obtained from 30 abdominal locations and three time points (T0, T6, T12) were calculated and analyzed using linear mixed effects models, and were also used to form 3D surface images. Results Subjects lost a mean of 11.7 ± 3.4% of starting weight, while significant changes in A (+0.23 ± 0.04 mm−1, adj. p < 0.001), b (−0.17 ± 0.04, adj. p < 0.001), tissue water fraction (+7.2 ± 1.1%, adj. p < 0.001) and deoxyhemoglobin [HbR] (1.1 ± 0.3 µM, adj. p < 0.001) were observed using mixed effect model analysis. Discussion Optical scattering signals reveal alterations in tissue structure which possibly correlate with reductions in adipose cell volume, while water and hemoglobin dynamics suggest improved AT perfusion and oxygen extraction. These results suggest that DOSI measurements of NIR optical and physiological properties could be used to enhance understanding of the role of AT in metabolic disorders and provide new strategies for diagnostic monitoring of obesity and weight loss. PMID:27089996

  2. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be “epithelial”-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727. PMID:26439686

  3. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2015-10-27

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be "epithelial"-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727.

  4. Pattern specification and immune response transcriptional signatures of pericardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lau, Frank H; Deo, Rahul C; Mowrer, Gregory; Caplin, Joshua; Ahfeldt, Tim; Kaplan, Adam; Ptaszek, Leon; Walker, Jennifer D; Rosengard, Bruce R; Cowan, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Recent studies suggest that pericardial adipose tissue (PCAT) secretes inflammatory factors that contribute to the development of CVD. To better characterize the role of PCAT in the pathogenesis of disease, we performed a large-scale unbiased analysis of the transcriptional differences between PCAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue, analysing 53 microarrays across 19 individuals. As it was unknown whether PCAT-secreted factors are produced by adipocytes or cells in the supporting stromal fraction, we also sought to identify differentially expressed genes in isolated pericardial adipocytes vs. isolated subcutaneous adipocytes. Using microarray analysis, we found that: 1) pericardial adipose tissue and isolated pericardial adipocytes both overexpress atherosclerosis-promoting chemokines and 2) pericardial and subcutaneous fat depots, as well as isolated pericardial adipocytes and subcutaneous adipocytes, express specific patterns of homeobox genes. In contrast, a core set of lipid processing genes showed no significant overlap with differentially expressed transcripts. These depot-specific homeobox signatures and transcriptional profiles strongly suggest different functional roles for the pericardial and subcutaneous adipose depots. Further characterization of these inter-depot differences should be a research priority.

  5. Dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue endocannabinoid system in human abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB(1) mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes.

  6. Subcutaneous Adipose Cell Size and Distribution: Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, TC; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, SW

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell-size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight/moderately-obese individuals. 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25–38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose concentrations (SSPG) during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell-size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group; according to IR and IS subgroups; and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r=0.26, p=0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with %body fat (r=0.26, p=0.014), female sex (r=0.21, p=0.036), and SSPG (r=0.20, p=0.012). In the highest vs lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7% whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2. Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. PMID:23666871

  7. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p < 0.01) and mean volume of SAT (1,721 ± 803 cm3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p < 0.01) but significantly higher mean volume of VAT (884 ± 416 cm3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p < 0.01). Among women, a one standard deviation increment in VAT was inversely associated with adiponectin (β = − 0.13; p < 0.0001) after controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, education, pack-years of smoking and daily intake of alcohol. The statistically significant inverse association of VAT and adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (β = 0.18; p = 0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of

  8. Dynamic gene expression profiles during postnatal development of porcine subcutaneous adipose

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Long; Liu, Yihui; Zhou, Chaowei; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Lei; Luo, Zonggang; Tang, Qianzi; Jiang, An’an; Wang, Xun; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Zhi; Wang, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of the control of lipogenesis is of critical importance for both human and animal physiology. This requires a better knowledge of the changes of gene expression during the process of adipose tissue development. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine the effects of development on subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression in growing and adult pigs. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of mRNA transcriptomes in porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue across four developmental stages using digital gene expression profiling. We identified 3,274 differential expressed genes associated with oxidative stress, immune processes, apoptosis, energy metabolism, insulin stimulus, cell cycle, angiogenesis and translation. A set of universally abundant genes (ATP8, COX2, COX3, ND1, ND2, SCD and TUBA1B) was found across all four developmental stages. This set of genes may play important roles in lipogenesis and development. We also identified development-related gene expression patterns that are linked to the different adipose phenotypes. We showed that genes enriched in significantly up-regulated profiles were associated with phosphorylation and angiogenesis. In contrast, genes enriched in significantly down-regulated profiles were related to cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization, suggesting an important role for these biological processes in adipose growth and development. These results provide a resource for studying adipose development and promote the pig as a model organism for researching the development of human obesity, as well as being used in the pig industry. PMID:26989614

  9. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  10. Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue is Associated with Myocardial Infarction in Patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Alejandro A.; Young, Tom P.; Kurugol, Sila; Eckbo, Erick; Muralidhar, Nina; Chapman, Joshua K.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Ross, James C.; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Harmouche, Rola; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Budoff, Matthew; Bowler, Russell P.; Hokanson, John; Washko, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are frequent and a major cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, various fat depots including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and liver fat have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that these adipose tissue compartments are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with COPD. Methods We collected measures of VAT and SAT areas and liver attenuation on the computed tomography scan of the chest from 1267 patients with COPD. MI was a self-reported physician-diagnosed outcome. The association between fat depots and self-reported history of MI was assessed by logistic regression analysis in which the patients within the 2 lowest tertiles of VAT and SAT areas were the reference group. Results Eighty three patients (6.6%) reported a history of MI at the time of enrollment. Compared to patients who did not have an MI episode, those who had a prior MI had a higher VAT area (mean ± SD, 303.4 ± 208.5 vs. 226.8 ± 172.6 cm2; P=0.002) with no differences in SAT area and liver fat. After adjustment for age, gender, obesity, pack years of smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes, patients within the upper tertile (vs. those in the lower tertiles) of VAT area had increased odds of MI (odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 – 3.41). Conclusion Increased abdominal visceral fat is independently associated with a history of MI in individuals with COPD. PMID:25914898

  11. Adipose Flap Versus Fascial Sling for Anterior Subcutaneous Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve.

    PubMed

    Verveld, Caroline J; Danoff, Jonathan R; Lombardi, Joseph M; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2016-02-01

    Perineural scarring is a major cause of recurrent symptoms after anterior subcutaneous transposition secured with a fascial sling. Use of a vascularized adipose flap to secure the anteriorly transposed ulnar nerve can help reduce nerve adherence and may enhance nerve recovery. In the study reported here, we retrospectively reviewed the long-term outcomes of ulnar nerve anterior subcutaneous transposition secured with either an adipose flap (16 patients) or a fascial sling (17 patients). The 33 patients underwent physical examinations and completed the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire, visual analog scales (VASs), and the Modified Bishop Rating Scale (MBRS). There were no significant differences in DASH (P = .673), VAS pain (P = .413), or VAS weakness (P = .362) scores between the adipose flap and fascial sling groups. Physical examinations revealed no significant differences in flexion-extension arc (P = .668) or supination-pronation arc (P = .226) between the operated and nonoperated extremities. Lateral pinch strength and grip strength were comparable. On the MBRS, excellent and good outcomes were reported by 62.5% and 37.5% of the adipose flap patients, respectively, and 59% and 41% of the fascial sling patients. The contribution of perineural scarring to postoperative recurrent ulnar neuropathy is well documented. We think the pedicled adipofascial flap benefits the peripheral nerve by providing a scar tissue barrier and an optimal milieu for vascular regeneration. For all patients in the present study, symptoms improved, though the adipose flap and fascial sling groups were not significantly different in their objective outcomes. Subjective results were slightly better for the adipose flap patients but not significantly so. These findings indicate that, compared with the current standard of care, adipose flaps are more efficacious in securing the anteriorly transposed nerve.

  12. Computerized Automated Quantification of Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue From Computed Tomography Scans: Development and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jae; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Jong Wan; Park, Chan-Soo; Gonzalez, John Paul S; Lee, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is often viewed as one of the most accurate methods for measuring visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, measuring VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from CT is a time-consuming and tedious process. Thus, evaluating patients’ obesity levels during clinical trials using CT scans is both cumbersome and limiting. Objective To describe an image-processing-based and automated method for measuring adipose tissue in the entire abdominal region. Methods The method detects SAT and VAT levels using a separation mask based on muscles of the human body. The separation mask is the region that minimizes the unnecessary space between a closed path and muscle area. In addition, a correction mask, based on bones, corrects the error in VAT. Results To validate the method, the volume of total adipose tissue (TAT), SAT, and VAT were measured for a total of 100 CTs using the automated method, and the results compared with those from manual measurements obtained by 2 experts. Dice’s similarity coefficients (DSCs) between the first manual measurement and the automated result for TAT, SAT, and VAT are 0.99, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. The DSCs between the second manual measurement and the automated result for TAT, SAT, and VAT are 0.98, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. Moreover, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the automated method and the results of the manual measurements indicate high reliability as the ICCs for the items are all .99 (P<.001). Conclusions The results described in this paper confirm the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The method is expected to be both convenient and useful in the clinical evaluation and study of obesity in patients who require SAT and VAT measurements. PMID:26846251

  13. Gene expression changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue due to Cushing's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Harvey, Innocence; Tran, Quynh T; Stephenson, Erin J; Barkan, Ariel L; Saltiel, Alan R; Chandler, William F; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have major effects on adipose tissue metabolism. To study tissue mRNA expression changes induced by chronic elevated endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed RNA sequencing on the subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with Cushing's disease (n=5) compared to patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (n=11). We found a higher expression of transcripts involved in several metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, proteolysis and glucose oxidation as well as a decreased expression of transcripts involved in inflammation and protein synthesis. To further study this in a model system, we subjected mice to dexamethasone treatment for 12 weeks and analyzed their inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads, which led to similar findings. Additionally, mice treated with dexamethasone showed drastic decreases in lean body mass as well as increased fat mass, further supporting the human transcriptomic data. These data provide insight to transcriptional changes that may be responsible for the comorbidities associated with chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. PMID:26150553

  14. Rorα deficiency and decreased adiposity are associated with induction of thermogenic gene expression in subcutaneous white adipose and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Goode, Joel M; Thomas, Gethin P; Cowin, Gary J; Pearen, Michael A; Mardon, Karine; Stow, Jennifer L; Muscat, George E O

    2015-01-15

    The Rar-related orphan receptor-α (Rorα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adiposity and is a potential regulator of energy homeostasis. We have demonstrated that the Rorα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mice display a lean and obesity-resistant phenotype. Adaptive Ucp1-dependent thermogenesis in beige/brite and brown adipose tissue serves as a mechanism to increase energy expenditure and resist obesity. DEXA and MRI analysis demonstrated significantly decreased total fat mass and fat/lean mass tissue ratio in male chow-fed sg/sg mice relative to wt mice. In addition, we observed increased Ucp1 expression in brown adipose and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in visceral adipose tissue from Rorα-deficient mice. Moreover, this was associated with significant increases in the expression of the mRNAs encoding the thermogenic genes (i.e., markers of brown and beige adipose) Pparα, Errα, Dio2, Acot11/Bfit, Cpt1β, and Cidea in the subcutaneous adipose in the sg/sg relative to WT mice. These changes in thermogenic gene expression involved the significantly increased expression of the (cell-fate controlling) histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (Ehmt1), which stabilizes the Prdm16 transcriptional complex. Moreover, primary brown adipocytes from sg/sg mice displayed a higher metabolic rate, and further analysis was consistent with increased uncoupling. Finally, core body temperature analysis and infrared thermography demonstrated that the sg/sg mice maintained greater thermal control and cold tolerance relative to the WT littermates. We suggest that enhanced Ucp1 and thermogenic gene expression/activity may be an important contributor to the lean, obesity-resistant phenotype in Rorα-deficient mice.

  15. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2015-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles. PMID:26379751

  16. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2015-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20-60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.

  17. Adipose tissue is the first colonization site of Leptospira interrogans in subcutaneously infected hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Ozuru, Ryo; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Miyahara, Satoshi; Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Murray, Gerald L.; Adler, Ben; Fujii, Jun; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, and its most severe form in humans, “Weil’s disease,” may lead to jaundice, hemorrhage, renal failure, pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome, and sometimes,fatal multiple organ failure. Although the mechanisms underlying jaundice in leptospirosis have been gradually unraveled, the pathophysiology and distribution of leptospires during the early stage of infection are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the hamster leptospirosis model, which is the accepted animal model of human Weil’s disease, by using an in vivo imaging system to observe the whole bodies of animals infected with Leptospira interrogans and to identify the colonization and growth sites of the leptospires during the early phase of infection. Hamsters, infected subcutaneously with 104 bioluminescent leptospires, were analyzed by in vivo imaging, organ culture, and microscopy. The results showed that the luminescence from the leptospires spread through each hamster’s body sequentially. The luminescence was first detected at the injection site only, and finally spread to the central abdomen, in the liver area. Additionally, the luminescence observed in the adipose tissue was the earliest detectable compared with the other organs, indicating that the leptospires colonized the adipose tissue at the early stage of leptospirosis. Adipose tissue cultures of the leptospires became positive earlier than the blood cultures. Microscopic analysis revealed that the leptospires colonized the inner walls of the blood vessels in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, this is the first study to report that adipose tissue is an important colonization site for leptospires, as demonstrated by microscopy and culture analyses of adipose tissue in the hamster model of Weil’s disease. PMID:28245231

  18. Non-invasive Quantitative Analysis of Specific Fat Accumulation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meksiarun, Phiranuphon; Andriana, Bibin B.; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and fat beneath the dermis layer were investigated using a ball lens top hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP). Hamsters were fed with trilinolein (TL) and tricaprin (TC) for six weeks and measurements were carried out every two weeks. The BHRP with an 800 μm diameter fused-silica ball lens was able to obtain information on the subcutaneous fat in a totally non-invasive manner. Changes in the concentration of TL and TC during the treatment were analyzed, and the relationship between fat accumulation and dietary fat was studied. It was found that SAT had, in general, a higher degree of unsaturation than VAT. The accumulation rate of TC found in SAT and VAT was 0.52 ± 0.38 and 0.58 ± 0.4%, respectively, while the TL accumulation rate was 4.45 ± 1.6 and 4.37 ± 2.4%, respectively. The results suggest different metabolic pathways for TC, a typical medium-chain fatty acid, and TL, a long-chain unsaturated fatty acid. Raman subsurface spectra were successfully obtained and used to analyze the subcutaneous fat layer. The accumulation rates of TL and TC found in skin fat were 5.01 ± 3.53% and 0.45 ± 0.36%, respectively. The results demonstrate the high feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive analysis of adipose tissue. PMID:27845402

  19. Indwelling intrathecal catheter with subcutaneous abdominal reservoir: a viable baclofen delivery system in severely cachectic patients.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Mueez; Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Kumar, Ram; Sneade, Christine; Zebian, Bassel; Williams, Dawn; Pettorini, Benedetta L

    2014-10-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a reversible treatment that reduces muscle tone to ameliorate spasticity and dystonia in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The resulting decrease in energy expenditure allows patients to gain much-needed weight, albeit temporarily. Modern techniques require sufficient abdominal musculature and subcutaneous fat to permit the implantation of an indwelling pump. In patients with extremely low muscle bulk, visceral pumps may be impractical or impossible, with increased risks of dehiscence and infection. The authors describe a variation of the classical procedure in a young patient with severe cachexia. A 10-year-old boy with spastic-dystonic quadriplegic CP was admitted to the neuromedical unit. Numerous drug trials had failed, and surgical intervention was deemed necessary but was complicated by his cachectic body habitus. The authors inserted a lumbar intrathecal catheter and subcutaneously tunneled it to the anterolateral abdomen, where it was connected to a subcutaneous injection port. Baclofen was continuously infused into the subcutaneous port using a noncoring needle connected to an external pump. The needle and line were changed every 5 days to minimize the risk of sepsis. Although other techniques, such as intraventricular baclofen delivery, have been described, these are largely dependent upon sufficient musculature to support a visceral pump. A subcutaneous injection port system represents an alternative approach that reduces the risk of sepsis and may be better tolerated in cachectic patients.

  20. Sex differences in the rate of abdominal adipose accrual during adulthood: the Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara M.; Choh, Audrey C.; Lee, Miryoung; Towne, Bradford; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate sex differences in the rate of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) accrual in adults. Secondary analyses examined differences in the rate of VAT and SAT accrual in pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women. Subjects/Methods Participants were 472 (60% female) non-Hispanic whites, aged 18-84 years at baseline in whom abdominal VAT and SAT were assessed using multiple-image magnetic resonance imaging at two time points, with an average follow-up of 7.3 ± 2.6 years. Linear regression models were used to examine the effects of sex, baseline age and their interaction on rate of change per year in body composition measures (ΔBMI, ΔVAT, and ΔVAT/SAT ratio (ΔVSR)) independent of baseline body composition measures, visit year, income, marital status, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake. Secondary analyses examined differences in rate of fat change by menopausal status (pre, peri, post). Results Levels of BMI, VAT, and VSR all increased over the 7 year period on average (p<.001); however, the change in BMI (mean ΔBMI = +0.5%) was far smaller than for VAT (mean ΔVAT= +6.8%), SAT (mean ΔSAT = +2.4%), and VSR (mean ΔVSR = +3.6%). ΔBMI, ΔVAT, and ΔSAT decreased linearly with age in both sexes (p<0.01), such that older individuals had lower rates of BMI, VAT, and SAT gain, and this deceleration in BMI, VAT, and SAT accrual was greater in men than women (p for interaction <0.05). ΔVSR did not vary with age in either sex, but remained higher in men than women throughout adulthood. There were no differences in rate of weight or fat gain by menopausal status after adjustment for age. Conclusions Men and women continue to accrue abdominal adiposity with age, but the rate of weight and fat gain decreases over time, particularly in men. PMID:27005404

  1. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue development in children by the optical device LIPOMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Sudi, Karl; Berg, Aloys; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Tafeit, Erwin

    2001-10-01

    The new optical device LIPOMETER enables the non-invasive, quick and save determination of the thickness of subcutantous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in nm) at any site of the human body. The topographic specification of 15 evenly distributed body sites allows the precise measurement of subcutaneous body fat distribution, so called subcutaneous adipose tissue topopgraphy (SAT-Top). SAT-Top was determined in more than 1000 children aging from 7 to 21 yr. We describe the SAT-Top development of these subjects through different age groups and the differences between male and female SAT-Top development in each age group. SAT layer profiles (medians of the 15 body sites) for boys and girls in age group (7-9 yr) show a very similar pattern for both sexes, followed by decreasing SAT layer thicknesses in boys and increasing values in girls in the subsequent age groups. Between age group 3 (11-13 yr) and age group 7 (19- 21 yr) male and female SAT-Top is significantly different in (almost) all body sites. We present a precise description of SAT-Top development in boys and girls, providing a basis for further investigations in different fields such as obesity, sport sciences or metabolic disorders, and suggesting the LIPOMETER technique as an appropriate measurement tool.

  2. Effects of growth hormone in women with abdominal adiposity: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Lin, Eleanor; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Wu, Zida; Rifai, Nader; Utz, Andrea L.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of GH in abdominally obese women on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers. Materials and Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 79 obese premenopausal women received GH vs. placebo for six months. Primary endpoints were: 1) total abdominal (TAT) fat by CT (body composition) and 2) high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (cardiovascular risk marker). Body composition was assessed by CT, DXA and proton MR spectroscopy. Serum cardiovascular risk markers, carotid intima-media thickness and endothelial function were measured. Results Mean 6-month GH dose was 1.7±0.1 mg/day, resulting in a mean IGF-1 SDS increase from −1.7±0.08 to −0.1±0.3 in the GH group. GH administration decreased TAT and hsCRP compared with placebo. In addition, it increased thigh muscle mass and lean body mass, and decreased subcutaneous abdominal and trunk fat, tPA, apoB, and apoB/LDL compared with placebo. Visceral adipose tissue decreased and IMCL increased within the GH group. Six-month change in IGF-1 levels was negatively associated with 6-month decrease in TAT and VAT. One subject had a 2-hour glucose >200 mg/mL at 3 months; four subjects, three of whom were randomized to GH, had 2-hour glucose levels >200 mg/mL at study end. Conclusion GH administration in abdominally obese premenopausal women exerts beneficial effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers, but is associated with a decrease in glucose tolerance in a minority of women. PMID:22275471

  3. Impact of Physical Inactivity on Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Healthy Young Male Offspring of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan; Meldgaard, Jens Bruun; Christensen, Karl Bang; Stallknecht, Bente

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue (AT) metabolism in FDR subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 13 FDR and 20 control (CON) subjects participated in the study. All were studied before and after 10 days of bed rest using the glucose clamp technique combined with measurements of glucose uptake, lipolysis, and lactate release from subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue by the microdialysis technique. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was determined in biopsies from SCAAT. RESULTS Before bed rest, the FDR subjects revealed significantly increased glucose uptake in SCAAT. Furthermore, mRNA expression of lipases was significantly decreased in the SCAAT of FDR subjects. Bed rest significantly decreased lipolysis and tended to increase glucose uptake in the SCFAT of both CON and FDR subjects. In response to bed rest, SCAAT glucose uptake significantly increased in CON subjects but not in FDR subjects. CONCLUSIONS FDR subjects exhibit an abnormal AT metabolism including increased glucose uptake prior to bed rest. However, the differences between FDR and CON subjects in AT metabolism were attenuated during bed rest due to relatively more adverse changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. PMID:20823100

  4. Abdominal Adiposity, Not Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Mediates the Exercise-Induced Change in Insulin Sensitivity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Gifferd; Davidson, Lance E.; Brennan, Andrea M.; Lam, Miu; Ross, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with insulin resistance in older adults. Exercise is associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether this association is mediated by change in CRF and/or abdominal obesity is unclear. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in Kingston, Ontario. Sedentary older adults (60–80 years) (N = 80) who completed the exercise (N = 59) or control (N = 21) conditions for 6 months were included. CRF was measured using a treadmill test, adipose tissue (AT) by magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the iliac crest. Mediation analyses were used to assess whether abdominal AT and/or CRF mediated the exercise-induced change in insulin sensitivity. By comparison to controls, reduction (mean ± SD) was observed for visceral (-0.4 ± 0.4 kg) and abdominal subcutaneous (-0.4 ± 0.4) AT depots, WC (-4.1 ± 3.2 cm) and BMI (-0.9 ± 0.8 kg/m2) (p < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity (4.2 ± 5.2 M/I) and CRF (0.2 ± 0.3 L/min) improved in the exercise group (p < 0.05). All AT variables, BMI and WC were mediators of the change in insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). After adjustment for change in total AT, abdominal AT remained a mediator with an effect ratio of 0.79 (p < 0.05), whereas total AT was not significant when adjusted for abdominal AT (p > 0.05). The effect ratio for change in WC and BMI combined (0.63, p<0.05) was greater than either alone. In conclusion, CRF did not mediate the exercise-induced change in insulin sensitivity in older adults. Abdominal adiposity was a strong mediator independent of change in total adiposity. PMID:27936206

  5. Characterization of alendronic- and undecylenic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of rosiglitazone to subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Katayoun; Tod, Sarah E; Leung, Donna; Nicholson, Kenton E; Andreu, Irene; Buchwalder, Christian; Schmitt, Veronika; Häfeli, Urs O; Gray, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a state of positive energy balance where excess white adipose tissue accumulates to the detriment of metabolic health. Improving adipocyte function with systemic administration of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improves metabolic outcomes in obesity, however TZD use is limited clinically due to undesirable side effects. Here we evaluate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a tool to target rosiglitazone (Rosi) specifically to adipose tissue. Results show Rosi can be adsorbed to MNPs (Rosi-MNPs) with hydrophobic coatings for which we present binding and release kinetics. Rosi adsorbed to MNPs retained the ability to induce PPARγ target gene expression in cells. Biodistribution analysis of radiolabeled Rosi-MNPs revealed a fat-implanted magnet significantly enhanced localization of Rosi to the targeted adipose tissue when administered by subcutaneous injection to obese mice. We propose MNPs for targeted delivery of anti-diabetic agents to superficially located subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  6. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues and M. longissimus dorsi of Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Smith, S B

    1992-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to document the fatty acid composition of tissues from purebred Wagyu cattle from Japan and North American crossbred Wagyu. In experiment 1, subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissues (n = 23) were obtained from Japanese cattle representing the five Japanese fat quality grades. The monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio (MUFA:SFA) was greatest in fat quality grade 5 samples (2·57) and least in the fat quality grade 3 samples (2·08; P < 0·05). In experiment 2, M. longissimus dorsi and the associated intramuscular (i.m.) and s.c. adipose tissues were obtained from carcasses of Wagyu crossbred steers (1/2-7/8) raised in the USA. Fatty acid composition varied among depots, but the MUFA:SFA ratio in s.c. adipose tissue (1·46) was not different from values reported for other breeds of cattle. In experiment 3, samples of M. longissimus dorsi ribsteaks were obtained from three regions in Japan. Samples from the Gunma region had the greatest (P < 0·05) MUFA:SFA ratio (2·10), relative to samples from the Kagoshima (1·82) and Miyazaki (1·65) regions. The data indicate that beef from purebred Wagyu cattle raised in Japan is enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids, and that the degree of enrichment depends upon the region of Japan from which the samples were obtained.

  7. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yi-fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-bing; Wu, Wan-fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα−/− female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue. PMID:27922125

  8. Associations between circulating levels of adipocytokines and abdominal adiposity in patients after acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruma G; Pendharkar, Sayali A; Gillies, Nicola A; Miranda-Soberanis, Victor; Plank, Lindsay D; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-02-06

    Adipocytokines are strongly associated with abdominal adiposity during the course of acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated associations between a panel of adipocytokines and abdominal adiposity in AP patients after hospital discharge, as well as the effect of several covariates. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to measure adiponectin, interleukin 6, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4. Waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, and waist-height ratio (WheightR) were used as measures of abdominal adiposity. Generalised linear models were built, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, diabetes status, aetiology, duration since admission for AP, recurrence, and severity of AP. A total of 93 patients were studied, on average at 22 months after AP. Interleukin 6, TNFα, and leptin were significantly associated with WC in both the unadjusted and all the three adjusted models. Also, they were significantly associated with WheightR in both the unadjusted and the three adjusted models. Other studied adipocytokines did not show a consistent association or were not significantly associated with the abdominal adiposity indices. The results suggest that excess abdominal adiposity favours pro-inflammatory milieu in AP patients after hospital discharge, independent of diabetes and effect of other covariates.

  9. Abdominal adipose tissue compartments vary with ethnicity in Asian neonates: Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes birth cohort study1,2

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Godfrey, Keith M; Shuter, Borys; Kapur, Jeevesh; Rajadurai, Victor S; Agarwal, Pratibha; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Niduvaje, Krishnamoorthy; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin Bin Mohd; Soh, Shu-E; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kramer, Michael S; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background A susceptibility to metabolic diseases is associated with abdominal adipose tissue distribution and varies between ethnic groups. The distribution of abdominal adipose tissue at birth may give insights into whether ethnicity-associated variations in metabolic risk originate partly in utero. Objective We assessed the influence of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue compartments in Asian neonates in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. Design MRI was performed at ≤2 wk after birth in 333 neonates born at ≥34 wk of gestation and with birth weights ≥2000 g. Abdominal superficial subcutaneous tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT) compartment volumes (absolute and as a percentage of the total abdominal volume) were quantified. Results In multivariate analyses that were controlled for sex, age, and parity, the absolute and percentage of dSAT and the percentage of sSAT (but not absolute sSAT) were greater, whereas absolute IAT (but not the percentage of IAT) was lower, in Indian neonates than in Chinese neonates. Compared with Chinese neonates, Malay neonates had greater percentages of sSAT and dSAT but similar percentages of IAT. Marginal structural model analyses largely confirmed the results on the basis of volume percentages with controlled direct effects of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue; dSAT was significantly greater (1.45 mL; 95% CI: 0.49, 2.41 mL, P = 0.003) in non-Chinese (Indian or Malay) neonates than in Chinese neonates. However, ethnic differences in sSAT and IAT were NS [3.06 mL (95% CI: −0.27, 6.39 mL; P = 0.0712) for sSAT and −1.30 mL (95% CI: −2.64, 0.04 mL; P = 0.057) for IAT in non-Chinese compared with Chinese neonates, respectively]. Conclusions Indian and Malay neonates have a greater dSAT volume than do Chinese neonates. This finding supports the notion that in utero influences may contribute to higher cardiometabolic risk observed in

  10. Psoriasis Skin Inflammation-Induced microRNA-26b Targets NCEH1 in Underlying Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Louisa; Fisher, Rachel M; Kuzmina, Natalia; Li, Dongqing; Li, Xi; Werngren, Olivera; Blomqvist, Lennart; Ståhle, Mona; Landén, Ning Xu

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, which is associated with a high risk of developing systemic comorbidities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanistic links between psoriatic skin inflammation and systemic comorbidities remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered gene regulators that play important roles in psoriasis skin inflammation. In this study we aimed to explore whether the skin inflammation in psoriasis affects miRNA expression of the underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue and whether this may be a link between psoriasis and comorbidities. To this end, we compared the miRNA expression profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue underneath lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin. We further validated the differential expression of several miRNAs and characterized their expression patterns in different cell types present in subcutaneous adipose tissue. We focused on miR-26b-5p, which was highly up-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue underneath lesional psoriasis skin. We showed that it targets and down-regulates neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, an enzyme essential for cholesterol efflux, in monocytes/macrophages, adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. We conclude that this miRNA may serve as a mechanistic link between psoriatic skin inflammation and its systemic comorbidities.

  11. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  12. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078-1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323-5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003-1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489-0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC.

  13. Omega-6 Fat Supplementation Alters Lipogenic Gene Expression in Bovine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Pratt, Scott L.; Pavan, Enrique; Rekaya, Romdhane; Duckett., Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to rodents, adipose tissue serves as the major site of lipogenesis and storage reservoir for excess dietary energy in cattle. Research in rodents shows that adding corn oil (57% C18:2 n-6) to the diet alters lipogenesis enhancing deposition of omega-6 fatty acids. This study examines changes in lipogenic gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue from eighteen steers fed increasing levels of dietary corn oil [0 (NONE), 0.31 kg/d (MED) and 0.62 kg/d (HI)] using two platforms, qPCR and microarray. The results show that MED level of oil supplementation up-regulates gene expression of key lipogenic enzymes but that as oil supplementation reaches HI level mRNA encoding lipogenic enzymes responsible for de novo synthesis and desaturation are down-regulated. Changes in specific lipogenic mRNA levels are correlated with changes in tissue fatty acid composition where de novo and desatured fatty acids were reduced with the highest level of oil supplementation. PMID:21072324

  14. Downregulation of de Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Moderately Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Aragonès, Gemma; Aguilar, Carmen; Sabench, Fàtima; Armengol, Sandra; Porras, José Antonio; Martí, Andreu; Jorba, Rosa; Hernández, Mercè; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα), in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m², n = 35) and moderately obese women (BMI 30-38 kg/m², n = 55). In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment in vitro inhibits adipogenesis in human omental but not subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rice, S P L; Zhang, L; Grennan-Jones, F; Agarwal, N; Lewis, M D; Rees, D A; Ludgate, M

    2010-05-14

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor sex steroid, circulates in sulphated form (DHEAS). Serum DHEAS concentrations are inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome components and in vivo/in vitro studies suggest a role in modulating adipose mass. To investigate further, we assessed the in vitro biological effect of DHEA in white (3T3-L1) and brown (PAZ6) preadipocyte cell lines and human primary preadipocytes. DHEA (from 10(-8)M) caused concentration-dependent proliferation inhibition of 3T3-L1 and PAZ6 preadipocytes. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated unaltered apoptosis but indicated blockade at G1/S or G2/M in 3T3-L1 and PAZ6, respectively. Preadipocyte cell-line adipogenesis was not affected. In human primary subcutaneous and omental preadipocytes, DHEA significantly inhibited proliferation from 10(-8)M. DHEA 10(-7)M had opposing effects on adipogenesis in the two fat depots. Subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation was unaffected or increased whereas omental preadipocytes showed significantly reduced adipogenesis. We conclude that DHEA exerts fat depot-specific differences which modulate body composition by limiting omental fat production.

  16. Aging leads to a programmed loss of brown adipocytes in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole H; Landa, Alejandro; Park, Seongjoon; Smith, Roy G

    2012-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity deteriorates with age, but mechanisms remain unclear. Age-related changes in the function of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) are less characterized than those in visceral WAT. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations in sWAT, which in contrast to epididymal WAT, harbors a subpopulation of energy-dissipating UCP1+ brown adipocytes, promote age-dependent progression toward insulin resistance. Indeed, we show that a predominant consequence of aging in murine sWAT is loss of 'browning'. sWAT from young mice is histologically similar to brown adipose tissue (multilocular, UCP1+), but becomes morphologically white by 12 months of age. Correspondingly, sWAT expression of ucp1 precipitously declines (~300-fold) between 3 and 12 months. Loss continues into old age (24 months) and is inversely correlated with the development of insulin resistance. Additional age-dependent changes in sWAT include lower expression of adbr3 and higher expression of maoa, suggesting reduced local adrenergic tone as a potential mechanism. Indeed, treatment with a β3-adrenergic agonist to compensate for reduced tone rescues the aged sWAT phenotype. Age-related changes in sWAT are not explained by the differences in body weight; mice subjected to 40% caloric restriction for 12 months are of body weight similar to 3-month-old ad lib fed mice, but display sWAT resembling that of age-matched ad lib fed mice (devoid of brown adipose-like morphology). Overall, findings identify the loss of 'browning' in sWAT as a new aging phenomenon and provide insight into the pathogenesis of age-associated metabolic disease by revealing novel molecular changes tied to systemic metabolic dysfunction.

  17. The Transcriptome of Human Epicardial, Mediastinal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues in Men with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Piché, Marie-Ève; Fournier, Dominique; Mauriège, Pascale; Mathieu, Patrick; Bossé, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Background The biological functions of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) remain largely unknown. However, the proximity of EAT to the coronary arteries suggests a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objectives of this study were to identify genes differentially regulated among three adipose tissues, namely EAT, mediastinal (MAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) and to study their possible relationships with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Methods and Results Samples were collected from subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries. Gene expression was evaluated in the three adipose depots of six men using the Illumina® HumanWG-6 v3.0 expression BeadChips. Twenty-three and 73 genes were differentially up-regulated in EAT compared to MAT and SAT, respectively. Ninety-four genes were down-regulated in EAT compared to SAT. However, none were significantly down-regulated in EAT compared to MAT. More specifically, the expression of the adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1), involved in myocardial ischemia, was significantly up-regulated in EAT. Levels of the prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) gene, recently associated with the progression of atherosclerosis, were significantly different in the three pairwise comparisons (EAT>MAT>SAT). The results of ADORA1 and PTGDS were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR in 25 independent subjects. Conclusions Overall, the transcriptional profiles of EAT and MAT were similar compared to the SAT. Despite this similarity, two genes involved in cardiovascular diseases, ADORA1 and PTGDS, were differentially up-regulated in EAT. These results provide insights about the biology of EAT and its potential implication in CAD. PMID:21603615

  18. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Thomas, Anthony P; Gertz, Erik R; Souza, Elaine C; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Newman, John W; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Van Loan, Marta D

    2013-08-26

    Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.

  19. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  20. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  1. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wentao; Fang, Jianjun; Yong, Qi; Li, Sufang; Xie, Qingping; Yin, Jingbo; Cui, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group) was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group) and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group) served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  2. Transillumination of subcutaneous adipose tissues using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging in the 1100-1800 nm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Kitayabu, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Honda, N.; Awazu, K.

    2011-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a chemical imaging modality with spectroscopic information. This technique was often used in agricultural or pharmaceutical industries. But there have been a few reports for clinical medical applications. In near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region, the significant absorption peaks are often observed by the overtone of midinfrared molecular vibration. In addition, NIR light has a high penetration because of low scattering and less absorption by water or protein. In this study, we constructed the NIR-HSI system and the high-contrast subcutaneous adipose tissue imaging was conducted in-vitro. In the absorption spectra which are obtained by our NIR-HSI system, the characteristic absorption bands were observed around 1200 nm and 1700 nm. In the processed images using these wavelength bands, subcutaneous adipose tissue was observed through a skin. In a hyperspectral image by another processing using all wavelengths, a high-contrast image of subcutaneous adipose tissue is also obtained. NIR-HSI system is a powerful diagnostic technique for adipose tissues distribution and their morphological change on/inside a tissue.

  3. Macrophage infiltration in the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of dairy cows with displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Kabara, Ed; Brester, Jill; Neuder, Louis; Kiupel, Matti

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), a direct measure of lipolysis, are considered a risk factor for displaced abomasum (DA) and other clinical diseases. In nonruminants, uncontrolled lipolysis is commonly associated with adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) infiltration. In dairy cows, recent studies report ATM infiltration in specific adipose depots during the first week of lactation. Depending on their phenotype, ATM can be broadly classified as classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). The M1 ATM are considered pro-inflammatory, whereas M2 ATM enhance inflammation resolution. Currently, it is not known whether multiparous transition cows with DA have increased ATM infiltration, and the predominant phenotype of these mononuclear cells remains unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize ATM infiltration into different adipose tissue depots in transition cows with DA (days in milk=7.8±4.6 d; body condition score=2.95±0.10; n=6). Serum samples and biopsies from omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots were obtained during corrective surgery for DA. In an effort to compare ATM infiltration in DA cows with that of healthy cows in anabolic state (AS), adipose biopsies and blood samples were collected from nonlactating, nongestating dairy cows at the time of slaughter (body condition score=3.75±0.12; n=6). Adipose tissues were digested and cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were analyzed using flow cytometry to establish cell surface expression of specific macrophage markers including CD14, CD11c, CD163, and CD172a. Tissue sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to assess ATM localization. Cows with DA were ketotic and had plasma NEFA above 1.0 mEq/L. The same group of cows had significant infiltration of ATM in OM characterized by increased numbers of SVF cells expressing CD14 and CD172a. At the same time, expression of CD11c, and CD163 was significantly higher in SVF from OM and SC of DA

  4. Calculating the iodine value for Italian heavy pig subcutaneous adipose tissue from fatty acid methyl ester profiles.

    PubMed

    Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Ulrici, Alessandro; Macchioni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, different equations were compared as for their effectiveness in predicting the iodine value (IV), based on fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs. In particular, six equations were tested: AOCS (1); modified AOCS (2), including all unsaturated FA (UFA); regression models obtained using the stepwise regression procedure as variable selection method, calculated considering only UFA (3) or all the FA (4); regression models obtained using the backward elimination procedure, calculated considering only UFA (5) or all the FA (6). The comparison of the equations performance, estimated using an external test set, showed that the use of regression models led to significant enhancements of prediction accuracy with respect to the AOCS equations. Using both equations 4 and 6, the average paired differences between experimental and predicted IV values were not statistically significant. Therefore, it is possible to use these equations for IV estimation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs.

  5. Evidence for preadipocyte proliferation during culture of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues from Angus and Wagyu crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    May, S G; Savell, J W; Lunt, D K; Wilson, J J; Laurenz, J C; Smith, S B

    1994-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide evidence for preadipocyte proliferation during culture of adipose tissue explants; a secondary objective was to compare the lipogenic activity and cellularity of adipose tissues from American Wagyu crossbred steers. Subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues were obtained at slaughter from the 2nd to 6th lumbar region of the loin from Angus (n = 10) and Wagyu crossbred steers (n = 10) that had been fed for 552 d by typical Japanese production standards. Adipose tissue explants were incubated 36 h with [3H]thymidine in the absence and presence of aphidicolin (a specific inhibitor of genomic DNA replication). Adipocytes were liberated by collagenase treatment and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was measured. Whereas there were no significant differences between adipose tissue depots, Wagyu s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes and stromal-vascular cells exhibited greater (P < .05) [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA than adipocytes from Angus steers. Intramuscular adipose tissue from both breeds exhibited lower (P < .05) rates of lipogenesis from acetate both before and after long-term (36-h) incubation than s.c. adipose tissue. Furthermore, i.m. adipocytes were smaller (P < .05) than s.c. adipocytes. The activities of fatty acid synthetase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were greater (P < .05) in Wagyu s.c. adipose tissue and less in Wagyu i.m. adipose tissue than in corresponding Angus tissues. There were no differences between breed types (P = .17) in rates of lipogenesis from acetate, either before or after explant culture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Lipometer subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) reflects serum leptin levels varying in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Sudi, Karl; Vrecko, Karoline; Horejsi, Renate; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    1998-05-01

    Recent advances in obesity research have shown that the product of the ob-gene named leptin is related to total body fast mass in humans. There is, however, a debate if leptin levels are pulsatile and linked to body fat distribution. In this study we therefore investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) measured by means of the newly developed device Lipometer and leptin levels during a 24 hours beginning at 0715am ending the same time in the next day. Blood samples for measurement of leptin were taken every 3 hours in a male subject. Measurements of SAT-Top were performed at 15 body sites from neck to calf at the left and right body site at the same time interval. We observed an almost symmetrically reaction of the left and right body site with a maximum of the mean value of all body sites in the evening at 0715pm. There was a negative correlation between serum leptin levels and SAT-Top using the set of certain body sites (R2 equals 0.80, p equals 0.01). If these combination of body sites is inversed and set against serum leptin levels, both curves show almost identical shape and time dependence. We conclude that SAT-Top by means of Lipometer is changed in a short time and related to leptin levels in the investigated male subject.

  7. Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Brown and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: Significance with Human

    PubMed Central

    Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. Methodology/Principle Findings The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose

  8. Subcutaneous adipose tissue macropage infiltration is associated with hepatic and visceral fat deposition, hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of NF-kB stress pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal was to examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), Beta-cell function, and SAT gene expression. SAT biopsies were obtained from...

  9. Characterisation of intramuscular, intermuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues in yearling bulls of different genetic groups.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Nájera, A I; Dugan, M E R; Celaya, R; Osoro, K

    2007-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular (IM, Longissimus thoracis muscle), intermuscular (IT) and subcutaneous (SC) fat of one hundred intensively fed yearling bulls with different propensities to fatten were studied. Meat samples were collected from Asturiana de los Valles bulls with different genotypes with respect to the myostatin gene (mh/mh n=24, mh/+ n=26 and +/+ n=25) and from Asturiana de la Montaña (n=25) bulls lacking the mutation responsible for double muscling and characterised by small to medium-frame size adapted to less favoured mountain areas. FA profiles were expressed as percentages of total FA (g/100g of total FA) and organised into groups (saturated (SFA), branched (BFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), C18:1trans, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-6, n-3, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), unsaturated (UFA)) and ratios (MUFA/SFA (M/S), PUFA/SFA (P/S), UFA/SFA (U/S), n-6/n-3). The IT depot was the most saturated and SC depot contained the most monounsaturated FAs, while IM fat had the most polyunsaturated FAs. IM fat showed the highest P/S ratio and for the n-6/n-3 ratio there were no significant differences between adipose tissue depots. In general, genotype effects were more pronounced in IM and SC fat profiles compared to the IT depot, for which no significant differences between genotypes were found in SFA, PUFA (including n-6 and n-3), UFA and most of the ratios. IM fat of mh/mh animals had the highest content of PUFA and thus the highest P/S ratio. Accordingly, the presence of the gene causing double muscling influenced the tendency to deposit carcass fat and its FA composition, mainly in IM fat. In general, when carcass fat decreased, SFA content decreased while PUFA and UFA contents increased due to the changes in their percentages.

  10. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation.

  11. CILAIR-Based Secretome Analysis of Obese Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Reveals Distinctive ECM Remodeling and Inflammation Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Belen Bravo, Susana; Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Alonso, Jana; Isabel Castro, Ana; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Pardo, María

    2015-01-01

    In the context of obesity, strong evidences support a distinctive pathological contribution of adipose tissue depending on its anatomical site of accumulation. Therefore, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) has been lately considered metabolically benign compared to visceral fat (VAT), whose location is associated to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and other associated comorbidities. Under the above situation, the chronic local inflammation that characterizes obese adipose tissue, has acquired a major role on the pathogenesis of obesity. In this work, we have analyzed for the first time human obese VAT and SAT secretomes using an improved quantitative proteomic approach for the study of tissue secretomes, Comparison of Isotope-Labeled Amino acid Incorporation Rates (CILAIR). The use of double isotope-labeling-CILAIR approach to analyze VAT and SAT secretomes allowed the identification of location-specific secreted proteins and its differential secretion. Additionally to the very high percentage of identified proteins previously implicated in obesity or in its comorbidities, this approach was revealed as a useful tool for the study of the obese adipose tissue microenvironment including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammatory status. The results herein presented reinforce the fact that VAT and SAT depots have distinct features and contribute differentially to metabolic disease. PMID:26198096

  12. Enhanced mitogenesis in stromal vascular cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Wagyu compared with those of Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Fu, X; Liang, X; Zhu, M J; Jiang, Z; Parish, S M; Dodson, M V; Zan, L; Du, M

    2015-03-01

    Japanese Wagyu cattle are well known for their extremely high marbling and lower subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with Angus cattle. However, mechanisms for differences in adipose deposition are unknown. The objective of this paper was to evaluate breed differences in the structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipogenesis, and mitogenesis of stromal vascular (SV) cells between Wagyu and Angus cattle. Subcutaneous biopsy samples were obtained from 5 Wagyu (BW = 302 ± 9 kg) and 5 Angus (BW = 398 ± 12 kg) heifers at 12 mo of age, and samples were divided into 3 pieces for histological examination, biochemical analysis, and harvest of SV cells. Adipogenesis of SV cells was assessed by the expression of adipogenic markers and Oil Red-O staining, while mitogenesis was evaluated by an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium dromide) test, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (PKB; AKT). Based on histological analysis, Wagyu had larger adipocytes compared with Angus. At the tissue level, protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in Wagyu was much lower compared with that of Angus. Similarly, a lower mRNA expression of PPARG was found in Wagyu SV cells. No significant difference was observed for the zinc finger protein 423 (ZNF423) expression between Wagyu and Angus. As assessed by Oil Red-O staining, Wagyu SV cells possessed a notable trend of lower adipogenic capability. Interestingly, higher mitogenic ability was discovered in Wagyu SV cells, which was associated with an elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. There was no difference in AKT phosphorylation of SV cells between Wagyu and Angus. Moreover, exogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) enhanced mitogenesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation of SV cells to a greater degree in Angus compared with that in Wagyu. Expression of transforming growth factor β 3 (TGFB3) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in Wagyu SV

  13. Improvement of metabolic disorders by an EP(2) receptor agonist via restoration of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Ryoichi; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2017-03-02

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with co-morbidities. Metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occur also in underweight COPD patients, although the mechanism is uncertain. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) plays an important role in energy homeostasis, since restricted capacity to increase fat cell number with increase in fat cell size occurring instead, is associated with lipotoxicity and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to show the protective role of SAT for the metabolic disorders in pulmonary emphysema of a murine model. We found ectopic fat accumulation and impaired glucose homeostasis with wasting of SAT in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice) reared on a high-fat diet. ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, improved angiogenesis and subsequently adipogenesis, and finally improved ectopic fat accumulation and glucose homeostasis with restoration of the capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT. These results suggest that metabolic disorders like hyperlipidemia and diabetes occured in underweight COPD is partially due to the less capacity for storage of surplus energy in SAT, though the precise mechanism is uncertained. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for metabolic disorders in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the capacity for storage of surplus energy in the subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  14. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-11-14

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  15. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  16. The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M.; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Methods Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Results Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. Conclusions The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans. PMID:25393240

  17. DNA methylation map in circulating leukocytes mirrors subcutaneous adipose tissue methylation pattern: a genome-wide analysis from non-obese and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Crujeiras, A. B.; Diaz-Lagares, A.; Sandoval, J.; Milagro, F. I.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Carreira, M. C.; Gomez, A.; Hervas, D.; Monteiro, M. P.; Casanueva, F. F.; Esteller, M.; Martinez, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. Data were compared between samples from obese (n = 45) and non-obese (n = 8–10) patients by Wilcoxon-rank test, unadjusted for cell type distributions. A global hypomethylation of the differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCpGs) was observed in the obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and leukocytes. The overlap analysis yielded a number of genes mapped by the common DMCpGs that were identified to reflect the obesity state in the leukocytes. Specifically, the methylation levels of FGFRL1, NCAPH2, PNKD and SMAD3 exhibited excellent and statistically significant efficiencies in the discrimination of obesity from non-obesity status (AUC > 0.80; p < 0.05) and a great correlation between both tissues. Therefore, the current study provided new and valuable DNA methylation biomarkers of obesity-related adipose tissue pathogenesis through peripheral blood analysis, an easily accessible and minimally invasive biological material instead of adipose tissue. PMID:28211912

  18. The safe use of epidural anesthesia after subcutaneous injection of low-dose heparin in general abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Jeannine; Fugère, François; Dubé, Serge

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine if epidural anesthesia after the subcutaneous injection of low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) in patients who undergo elective bowel surgery is safe with respect to hemorrhagic complications. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Two hospitals affiliated with the Université de Montréal. Patients Fifty patients scheduled for elective bowel surgery. Intervention Subcutaneous injection of 5000 units of LDUH and elective surgery for colonic carcinoma, chronic diverticulosis or inflammatory bowel disease. Main outcome measures Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), anti-IIa and anti-Xa heparin levels measured before and 2 and 4 hours after injection of LDUH. Results In no case was the heparin anti-IIa or anti-Xa level higher than 0.20 U/mL, which is considered a significant detectable level of heparin. Conclusion LDUH given subcutaneously is not associated with significant detectable heparin levels, so epidural anesthesia should be safe when performed 2 hours after LDUH injection in patients who undergo general abdominal surgery in the absence of any other impairment of hemostasis. PMID:10948690

  19. Growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, altered glucose homeostasis, and no change in white adipose tissue cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Householder, Lara; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L.; List, Edward O.; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests long-lived GH resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine white adipose tissue (WAT) senescence, WAT distribution, and glucose homeostasis in dwarf growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. METHODS 18mo old female GHA mice and wild type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining to quantify the senescent cell burden and real time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. RESULTS GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, 33% reduction in lean mass, and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p<.05) and a 1.7 fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p<.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. CONCLUSIONS Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin

  20. Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Gang, G O; Sawyer, J E; Johnson, B J; Kim, K H; Choi, C W; Smith, S B

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers, and that soybean oil supplementation would depress adipocyte differentiation. Twenty-eight Angus steers were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 9 or 10 steers and fed a basal diet without additional fat (control), with 3% palm oil (rich in palmitic acid), or with 3% soybean oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), for 10 wk, top-dressed daily. Palm oil had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG, food intake, or G:F, whereas soybean oil depressed ADG (P = 0.02), food intake (P = 0.04), and G:F (P = 0.05). Marbling scores tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in palm oil-fed steers (Modest(09)) than in soybean oil-fed steers (Small(55)). Subcutaneous adipocyte mean volume was greater in palm oil-fed steers (515.9 pL) than in soybean-supplemented cattle (395.6 pL; P = 0.01). Similarly, glucose and acetate incorporation into total lipids in vitro was greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers (119.9 and 242.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively) than adipose tissue of soybean oil-fed steers in (48.9 and 95.8 nmol·3h(-1)·10(5) cells, respectively). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activities were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in adipose tissue of control steers. Palm oil did not increase palmitic acid or decrease oleic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue or LM, but decreased (P ≤ 0.05) myristoleic, palmitoleic, and cis-vaccenic acid in adipose tissue, indicating a depression in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity. Soybean oil increased the proportion of α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue and muscle and increased linoleic acid and 18:1trans-10 in muscle. We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef.

  1. Associations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Sang Geol; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jeongkook; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been linked to type 2 diabetes. As OC pesticides and PCBs mainly accumulate in adipose tissue and there are physiological and clinical differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), we explored if there were associations of OC pesticides and PCBs in VAT or SAT with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Participants were 50 patients with or without type 2 diabetes who underwent surgery for either cancer or benign liver or gallbladder lesions. We analyzed 14 OC pesticides and 22 PCB congeners in both VAT and SAT. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Although concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs were strongly correlated between VAT and SAT, absolute concentrations differed substantially between them. In particular, concentrations of all PCBs were consistently about 5-10 times higher in VAT than SAT, but these patterns were independent of diabetes status. Some OC pesticides or PCBs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordanes, and PCBs with 5 or less chlorides showed significant associations with diabetes or insulin resistance. For example, when tertiles of concentration-based summary measures were used, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 2.3, and 9.0 (P trend=0.02) for DDTs in VAT and 1.0, 2.1, and 5.7 (P trend=0.08) for PCBs with 5 or less chlorides. This study generally confirmed previous findings using serum concentrations. It would be useful to study pharmacodynamics of POPs in VAT and SAT further.

  2. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja; Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario; Bergman, Richard N.; McTernan, Philip G.; Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M.S.; Jacobson, Peter

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  3. Abdominal Adiposity Change in White and Black Midlife Women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Innola, Pilvi; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Fattout, Yacob; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The principal objective of this investigation was to compare the naturalistic intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) change among black and white women during midlife. Methods A cohort of 222 (56%) white and 171 (44%) black midlife women were investigated in the Fat Patterning study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. The subjects’ total body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and IAAT by a planimetric computed tomography (at the level of L4–L5) annually over up to 4 years. Results Total body fat at initial evaluation was higher in black women (45.1±8.2%) compared to white women (41.3±8.7%, p<0.001), and did not significantly change over the longitudinal follow up. No significant racial differences were found in the mean annualized gain of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (4.4±0.5%) in models adjusted for total body fat, initial IAAT, age, race, time and race interaction, physical activity, depressive symptoms, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy. Conclusions During a naturalistic observation, black and white midlife women had similar abdominal fat gain adjusted for differences in baseline adiposity. This data informs future research aimed to prevent intra-abdominal adipose tissue gain during the critical midlife period of rising cardiovascular risk. PMID:26523609

  4. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jennifer L; Castro, Victor M; Moore, Carolyn E; Kaplan, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D (CaD) may play a role in the regulation of abdominal fat mass. Objective: This study investigated the effect of CaD-supplemented orange juice (OJ) on weight loss and reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in overweight and obese adults (mean ± SD age: 40.0 ± 12.9 y). Design: Two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted with either regular or reduced-energy (lite) orange juice. For each 16-wk trial, 171 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment groups consumed three 240-mL glasses of OJ (regular or lite) fortified with 350 mg Ca and 100 IU vitamin D per serving, and the control groups consumed either unfortified regular or lite OJ. Computed tomography scans of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue were performed by imaging a single cut at the lumbar 4 level. Results: After 16 wk, the average weight loss (∼2.45 kg) did not differ significantly between groups. In the regular OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.024) in the CaD group (−12.7 ± 25.0 cm2) than in the control group (−1.3 ± 13.6 cm2). In the lite OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.039) in the CaD group (−13.1 ± 18.4 cm2) than in the control group (−6.4 ± 17.5 cm2) after control for baseline VAT. The effect of calcium and vitamin D on VAT remained highly significant when the results of the 2 trials were combined (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The findings suggest that calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation contributes to a beneficial reduction of VAT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT00386672, NCT01363115. PMID:22170363

  5. The association between leptin and depressive symptoms is modulated by abdominal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Canepa, Marco; Gravenstein, Kristofer S; Egan, Josephine M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Guralnik, Jack M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for a role of leptin in depression is limited and conflicting. Inconclusive findings may be explained by the complex effect of obesity on leptin signaling. In particular, both hyperleptinemia due to leptin resistance in obese persons as well as low leptin in lean persons can imply that low leptin biological signaling is associated with an increased risk of significant depressive symptoms. We tested whether the relationship between leptin and depressive symptoms is modulated by abdominal adiposity in two population-based studies. Methods Data were from 851 participants (65–94 years) of the InCHIANTI Study and 1,064 (26–93 years) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Plasma concentrations of leptin, waist circumference and depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) were assessed. In longitudinal InCHIANTI analyses onset of depressed mood (CES-D≥20) was evaluated over a 9-year follow-up. Results In pooled cross-sectional analyses the interaction between leptin and waist circumference was significantly associated with CES-D scores ((log)leptin-by-waist interaction p=0.01). Also in longitudinal analyses, the (log)leptin-by-waist interaction term significantly (p=0.04) predicted depressed mood onset over time; depressed mood risk was especially increased for high levels of both leptin and waist circumference. Conclusions The present findings suggest that low leptin signaling rather than low leptin concentration is a risk factor for depression. Future studies should develop proxy measures of leptin signaling by combining information on abdominal adiposity and leptin level to be used for clinical and research applications. PMID:24636496

  6. Successful application of subcutaneous adipose tissue with fibrin glue in conservative treatment of tracheobronchial rupture.

    PubMed

    Tokuishi, Keita; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Anami, Kentaro; Moroga, Toshihiko; Miyawaki, Michiyo; Chujo, Masao; Yamashita, Shin-Ichi; Kawahara, Katsunobu

    2012-11-01

    An 84-year-old woman underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. After weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, hemorrhage was observed in the endobronchial tube. The bleeding bronchus was isolated to protect the airway using the blocker cuff of a Univent tube (Fuji Systems Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Computed tomography showed a pulmonary pseudoaneurysm in the left upper lobe. She underwent selective pulmonary angiography and embolization of the pseudoaneurysm. Bronchoscopy revealed a 5-mm bronchial rupture at the left upper lobe bronchus. The laceration was filled with adipose tissue and fibrin glue. Bronchoscopy showed a completely reepithelialized membrane, and she was discharged 38 days postoperatively.

  7. Extensive characterization of feline intra-abdominal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Ryang; Lee, Jienny; Byeon, Jeong Su; Gu, Na-Yeon; Lee, Jiyun; Cho, In-Soo; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-25

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from various tissues and well characterized for therapeutic application to clinical diseases. However, in contrast to MSCs from other animal species, the characteristics of feline MSCs have not been well documented. In this study, we attempted to conduct extensive characterization of feline adipose tissue-derived MSCs (fAD-MSCs). fAD-MSCs were individually isolated from the intra-abdominal adipose tissues of six felines. The expression levels of cell surface markers and pluripotent markers were evaluated. Next, the proliferation capacity was analyzed by cumulative population doubling level (CPDL) and doubling time (DT) calculation assays. Differentiation potentials into mesodermal cell lineages of fAD-MSCs were further analyzed by specific staining and molecular markers. All of fAD-MSCs positively expressed cell surface markers such as CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD166, and MHC-I, while CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD73 were negatively expressed. The CPDL of the fAD-MSCs was maintained until passage 5 to 6 (P5 to P6) and DT increased after P5 to P6. Also, stem cell specific pluripotent markers (Oct3/4, Nanog, and SSEA-4) were detected. Importantly, all of the fAD-MSCs demonstrated mesodermal differentiation capacity. These results suggest that well characterized fAD-MSCs could be beneficial, when considering these cells for researches of feline diseases.

  8. Effect of Pioglitazone on the Fructose-Induced Abdominal Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E.; Rebolledo, Oscar R.; Gagliardino, Juan J.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction. PMID:23091482

  9. Microarray profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from obese vs non-obese Pima Indians: increased expression of inflammation-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. H.; Nair, S.; Rousseau, E.; Tataranni, P. A.; Bogardus, C.; Allison, D. B.; Page, G. P.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Obesity increases the risk of developing major diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue, particularly adipocytes, may play a major role in the development of obesity and its comorbidities. The aim of this study was to characterise, in adipocytes from obese people, the most differentially expressed genes that might be relevant to the development of obesity. Methods: We carried out microarray gene profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from 20 non-obese (BMI 25±3 kg/m2) and 19 obese (BMI 55± 8 kg/m2) non-diabetic Pima Indians using Affymetrix HG-U95 GeneChip arrays. After data analyses, we measured the transcript levels of selected genes based on their biological functions and chromosomal positions using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The most differentially expressed genes in adipocytes of obese individuals consisted of 433 upregulated and 244 downregulated genes. Of these, 410 genes could be classified into 20 functional Gene Ontology categories. The analyses indicated that the inflammation/immune response category was over-represented, and that most inflammation-related genes were upregulated in adipocytes of obese subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the transcriptional upregulation of representative inflammation-related genes (CCL2 and CCL3) encoding the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α. The differential expression levels of eight positional candidate genes, including inflammation-related THY1 and C1QTNF5, were also confirmed. These genes are located on chromosome 11q22-q24, a region with linkage to obesity in the Pima Indians. Conclusions/interpretation: This study provides evidence supporting the active role of mature adipocytes in obesity-related inflammation. It also provides potential candidate genes for susceptibility to obesity. PMID:16059715

  10. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  11. Altered MicroRNA Expression in Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissues from Cattle under Different Diet

    PubMed Central

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of molecular regulators found to participate in numerous biological processes, including adipogenesis in mammals. This study aimed to evaluate the differences of miRNA expression between bovine subcutaneous (backfat) and visceral fat depots (perirenal fat) and the dietary effect on miRNA expression in these fat tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings Fat tissues were collected from 16 Hereford×Aberdeen Angus cross bred steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (5.85% fat, n = 8) or control diet (1.95% fat, n = 8). Total RNA from each animal was subjected to miRNA microarray analysis using a customized Agilent miRNA microarray containing 672 bovine miRNA probes. Expression of miRNAs was not equal between fat depots as well as diets: 207 miRNAs were detected in both fat depots, while 37 of these were found to be tissue specific; and 169 miRNAs were commonly expressed under two diets while 75 were diet specific. The number of miRNAs detected per animal fed the high fat diet was higher than those fed control diet (p = 0.037 in subcutaneous fat and p = 0.002 visceral fat). Further qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of some miRNAs was highly influenced by diet (miR-19a, -92a, -92b, -101, -103, -106, -142–5p, and 296) or fat depot (miR-196a and -2454). Conclusions/Significance Our results revealed that the miRNA may differ among adipose depots and level of fat in the diet, suggesting that miRNAs may play a role in the regulation of bovine adipogenesis. PMID:22815773

  12. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene expression and fatty acid composition in calf- and yearling-fed Angus steers.

    PubMed

    Brooks, M A; Choi, C W; Lunt, D K; Kawachi, H; Smith, S B

    2011-08-01

    We proposed that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity dictates fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in beef cattle, regardless of ruminal or hepatic fatty acid hydrogenation or desaturation. Twelve Angus steers were assigned to a calf-fed (CF) group and slaughtered at weaning (8 mo of age; n=4), 12 mo of age (n=4), or 16 mo of age (n=4). Twelve steers were assigned to a yearling-fed (YF) group and slaughtered at 12 mo of age (n=4), 16 mo of age (n=4), and 17.5 mo of age (n=4; 525 kg, market weight). Data were analyzed based on time on the corn-based finishing diet, with terminal age as a covariate, and orthogonal polynomial contrasts were tested on the main effects of treatment group and time on the finishing diet. Fatty acids from duodenal digesta, plasma, liver, LM, and subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue were measured, and SCD gene expression was measured in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. In duodenal digesta, palmitic and linoleic acids increased by 100% over the sampling period, α-linolenic acid decreased over the sampling period, and trans-vaccenic acid was greater in YF than in CF steers (all P < 0.01). The proportion of α-linolenic acid decreased over time in all tissues, including liver. The SCD index (ratio of SCD fatty acid products to SCD fatty acid substrates) increased over time in LM and in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. The SCD:glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA ratio was virtually undetectable at the initial sampling periods in subcutaneous adipose tissue of YF and CF steers, and it increased over time (P < 0.01). The SCD index and SCD:glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ratio were greater in intramuscular adipose tissue of CF steers than in that of YF steers. The SCD index did not change over time in liver and decreased over time in duodenal digesta. We conclude that, unlike essential fatty acids, the SFA and MUFA composition of adipose tissue is regulated by adipose

  13. Transcript profiles in longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue: a comparison of pigs with different postweaning growth rates.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Jones, C K; Schroyen, M; Severin, A J; Patience, J F; Tuggle, C K; Koltes, J E

    2015-05-01

    Although most pigs recover rapidly from stresses associated with the transition of weaning, a portion of the population lags behind their contemporaries in growth performance. The underlying biological and molecular mechanisms involved in postweaning differences in growth performance are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs was reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG (tADG) was calculated as the ADG for the 3-wk period postweaning. Nine pigs from both the lowest 10th percentile (low tADG) and the 60th to 70th percentile (high tADG) were harvested at 3 wk postweaning. Differential expression analysis was conducted in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue using RNA-Seq methodology. In LM, 768 transcripts were differentially expressed (DE), 327 with higher expression in low tADG and 441 with higher expression in high tADG pigs (q < 0.10). Expression patterns measured in LM by RNA-Seq were verified in 30 of 32 transcripts using quantitative PCR. No DE transcripts were identified in adipose tissue. To identify biological functions potentially underlying the effects of tADG on skeletal muscle metabolism and physiology, functional annotation analysis of the DE transcripts was conducted using DAVID and Pathway Studio analytic tools. The group of DE genes with lower expression in LM of low tADG pigs was enriched in genes with functions related to muscle contraction, glucose metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, muscle development, and response to hormone stimulus (enrichment score > 1.3). The list of DE genes with higher expression in low tADG LM was enriched in genes with functions related to protein catabolism (enrichment score > 1.3). Analysis of known gene-gene interactions identified

  14. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana; and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  15. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  17. Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor (The 5A Study): Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Daniel Cuevas; Mehta, Roopa; De La Luz Castro, Julieta; Limones, Rutila Castañeda; Rubí, Ernesto García; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Awareness of Abdominal Adiposity as a Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Study assesses the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women) and evaluates how physicians manage these patients. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study. Internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists contributed patients to the study. A standardized questionnaire was completed and registered demographics, anthropometric measurements, lab results from the medical files, and any treatment utilized to manage dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Results: A total of 1312 patients was included. The mean age was 49.3 ± 14.6 years and 834 (63.6%) were female. The primary reason for the physician consultation was treatment of obesity (47.5%), followed by management of arterial hypertension (27.7%), diabetes (18.3%), dyslipidemia (14.2%), and cardiovascular disease (7.1%). The majority of patients identified excess body weight as a health problem (81.4%). However, patients had lost a mean of 4.3 ± 3.5 kg. Only 63.4% of patients with arterial hypertension were on drug therapy. Few of them had reached target values for diastolic (24.1%) and systolic/diastolic (13.3%) pressure. Less than half of the patients with dyslipidemia were receiving lipid-lowering medication. Only 32.2% were at their target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean fasting plasma glucose level (8.9 ± 3.4 mmol/L) was above the threshold recommended by current guidelines. Conclusions: The study describes the medical care given to individuals with abdominal obesity during daily clinical practice by general practitioners, cardiologists, and endocrinologists in urban Mexico. Our data confirm that a large proportion of patients are undertreated. Only a small percentage of patients with obesity-related comorbidities reach treatment targets

  18. Prepartal dietary energy alters transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Salin, S; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Kokkonen, T; Elo, K T

    2014-05-01

    Overfeeding during the dry period may predispose cows to increased insulin resistance (IR) with enhanced postpartum lipolysis. We studied gene expression in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 16 Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows fed either a controlled energy diet [Con, 99 MJ/day metabolizable energy (ME)] during the last 6 wk of the dry period or high-energy diet (High, 141 MJ/day ME) for the first 3 wk and then gradually decreasing energy allowance during 3 wk to 99 MJ/day ME before the expected parturition. Tissue biopsies were collected at -10, 1, and 9 days, and blood samples at -10, 1, and 7 days relative to parturition. Overfed cows had greater dry matter, crude protein, and ME intakes and ME balance before parturition. Daily milk yield, live weight, and body condition score were not different between treatments. The High cows tended to have greater plasma insulin and lower glucagon/insulin ratio compared with Con cows. No differences in circulating glucose, glucagon, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and hepatic triglyceride contents were observed between treatments. Overfeeding compared with Con resulted in lower CPT1A and PCK1 and a tendency for lower G6PC and PC expression in the liver. The High group tended to have lower RETN expression in SAT than Con. No other effects of overfeeding on the expression of genes related to IR in SAT were observed. In conclusion, overfeeding energy prepartum may have compromised hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and slightly affected IR in SAT based on gene expression.

  19. The production and distribution of IL-6 and TNF-α in subcutaneous adipose tissue and their correlation with serum concentrations in Welsh ponies with equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Nicpoń, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    A main symptom of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) in ponies is pathological obesity characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat deposits and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the correlation with serum concentrations in peripheral blood of Welsh ponies. Based on clinical examination findings, the animals were divided into two groups: ponies affected with EMS (n = 8) and obese ponies (n = 8). The adipose tissue was examined using immunohistochemical analysis while concentrations IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Additionally, histological characterization of the adipose tissue was performed. The results obtained showed that IL-6 expression in adipose tissue biopsies derived from animals with EMS was enhanced while TNF-α levels of both groups were comparable. Compared to the obese ponies, EMS animals also had significantly elevated levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α. Histological analysis revealed macrophage infiltration and fibrosis in adipose tissue preparations from the EMS group. These data suggest that IL-6 may play a key role in the course of EMS in Welsh ponies. Our findings also demonstrated that analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum may serve as an additional tool for diagnosing EMS. PMID:25269712

  20. Abdominal adiposity and obstructive airway disease: testing insulin resistance and sleep disordered breathing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined associations of abdominal adiposity with lung function, asthma symptoms and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and mediation by insulin resistance (IR) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Methods A random sample of 2500 households was drawn from the community of Whyalla, South Australia (The Whyalla Intergenerational Study of Health, WISH February 2008 - July 2009). Seven-hundred twenty-two randomly selected adults (≥18 years) completed clinical protocols (32.2% response rate). Lung function was measured by spirometry. Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was used to measure airway obstruction and reversibility of FEV1 was calculated. Current asthma was defined by self-reported doctor-diagnosis and evidence of currently active asthma. Symptom scores for asthma (CASS) and SDB were calculated. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). IR was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results The prevalence of current doctor-diagnosed asthma was 19.9% (95% CI 16.7 – 23.5%). The ratio of observed to expected cases given the age and sex distribution of the population was 2.4 (95%CI 2.1, 2.9). IAF was not associated with current doctor-diagnosed asthma, FEV1/FVC or FEV1 reversibility in men or women but was positively associated with CASS independent of IR and SDB in women. A 1% increase in IAF was associated with decreases of 12 mL and 20 mL in FEV1 and FVC respectively in men, and 4 mL and 7 mL respectively in women. SDB mediated 12% and 26% of these associations respectively in men but had minimal effects in women. Conclusions In this population with an excess of doctor-diagnosed asthma, IAF was not a major factor in airway obstruction or doctor-diagnosed asthma, although women with higher IAF perceived more severe asthma symptoms which did not correlate with lower FEV1. Higher IAF was significantly associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and in men SDB mechanisms may

  1. Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability of Abdominal Once-Yearly Histrelin Acetate Subcutaneous Implants in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woolen, Sean; Holzmeyer, Cameron; Nesbitt, Emily; Siami, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Long-term assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implants that have been inserted for more than two years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective data collected over a six-year period at a single center from charts of 113 patients who received the subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implant. Results. Following insertion of the first implant, 92.1% and 91.8% of patients had a serum testosterone level of ≤30 ng/dL at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. Serum testosterone levels remained at <30 ng/dL for 96% of patients at two years and for 100% of patients at 3, 4, and 5 years. The testosterone levels remained significantly less than baseline (P < 0.05). Six patients (5.3%) had androgen-independent progression when followed up on the long term, increasing the mean serum PSA at 3, 4, and 5 years to 35.0 µg/L (n = 22), 30.7 µg/L (n = 13), and 132.9 µg/L (n = 8), respectively. The mean serum PSA was significantly greater than baseline during these years (P < 0.05). Eight patients (7.1%) experienced minor, but not serious, adverse events from the histrelin acetate. Conclusion. Subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implants are an effective long-term and well-tolerated administration method for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25548680

  2. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  3. Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity in early pregnancy together predict impaired glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, L R; Berger, H; Retnakaran, R; Vlachou, P A; Maguire, J L; Nathens, A B; Connelly, P W; Ray, J G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11–14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24–28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3–18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8–21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy. PMID:27643724

  4. Differential gene expressions in subcutaneous adipose tissue pointed to a delayed adipocytic differentiation in small pig fetuses compared to their heavier siblings.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Perruchot, M H; Tacher, S; Bérard, J; Bee, G

    2011-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth retardation in piglets is associated to neonatal losses and a greater susceptibility to fat deposition in the long term. Dietary l-arginine supplementation to gilts during early gestation has been proposed as a way to enhance fetal survival. This study aims to investigate the effects of variation in fetal growth within litters and dietary l-arginine treatment during early gestation in pregnant sows on expression levels of several genes involved in early adipose tissue development and lipid deposition in the fetuses. At day 75 of pregnancy, sows fed a standard gestation diet throughout pregnancy and sows fed 26g L-arginine daily from days 14 to 28 of gestation in supplement to the standard diet were sacrificed. Six pairs of littermates in each dietary group with the smallest or the heaviest fetal weights within each litter were collected (total: 24 fetuses). Expression levels of DLK1/PREF1 and FZD7 were significantly greater in subcutaneous backfat of the smallest fetuses. Conversely, transcriptional adipogenic regulators PPARG, SREBP1, and CEBPA, and genes involved in terminal adipocytic differentiation LPL, ME1, and FABP4 were less expressed in those piglets. Fetal weight has no effect on expression levels of genes involved in cell cycle progression and DNA content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Maternal dietary L-arginine treatment did not affect subcutaneous adipose tissue features in 75-day old fetuses. The gene expression changes observed in the smallest fetuses are likely associated to a lower body fat content at birth, and could predispose to catch-up fat growth during the postnatal period.

  5. Immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by a species-specific panel of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Ana; Grolli, Stefano; Borghetti, Paolo; Ravanetti, Francesca; Conti, Virna; De Angelis, Elena; Macchi, Francesca; Ramoni, Roberto; Martelli, Paolo; Gazza, Ferdinando; Cacchioli, Antonio

    2017-02-27

    Immunophenotypical characterization of mesenchymal stem cells is fundamental for the design and execution of sound experimental and clinical studies. The scarce availability of species-specific antibodies for canine antigens has hampered the immunophenotypical characterization of canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this study was to select a panel of species-specific direct antibodies readily useful for canine mesenchymal stem cells characterization. They were isolated from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples collected during regular surgeries from 8 dogs. Single color flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (P3) deriving from subcutaneous and perivisceral adipose tissue with a panel of 7 direct anti-canine antibodies revealed two largely homogenous cell populations with a similar pattern: CD29(+), CD44(+), CD73(+), CD90(+), CD34(-), CD45(-) and MHC-II(-) with no statistically significant differences among them. Antibody reactivity was demonstrated on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The similarities are reinforced by their in vitro cell morphology, trilineage differentiation ability and RT-PCR analysis (CD90(+), CD73(+), CD105(+), CD44(+), CD13(+), CD29(+), Oct-4(+) gene and CD31(-) and CD45(-) expression). Our results report for the first time a comparison between the immunophenotypic profile of canine MSC deriving from perivisceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The substantial equivalence between the two populations has practical implication on clinical applications, giving the opportunity to choose the source depending on the patient needs. The results contribute to routine characterization of MSC populations grown in vitro, a mandatory process for the definition of solid and reproducible laboratory and therapeutic procedures.

  6. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase enzyme activity and mRNA levels are not different in subcutaneous adipose tissue from Angus and American Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P J; Rogers, M; Oman, J; May, S G; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    1994-10-01

    We proposed that greater stearoyl coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase enzyme activity caused the elevated monounsaturated fatty acids observed in American Wagyu adipose tissue. Stearoyl CoA desaturase mRNA concentrations and enzyme activities were measured in subcutaneous adipose samples from Angus (n = 5) and American Wagyu (n = 5), fed to the Japanese market end point. A rat liver stearoyl CoA desaturase cDNA clone was used to measure the relative amounts of stearoyl CoA desaturase mRNA. Enzyme activities and mRNA concentrations, as measured by laser densitometry of slot-blot autoradiograms, were not significantly different between the two breeds at this stage of growth. This investigation has demonstrated that, at this stage of maturity, differences in fatty acid composition between Angus and American Wagyu steers cannot be attributed to differences in stearoyl CoA desaturase enzyme activity.

  7. Subcutaneous Adipose Fatty Acid Profiles and Related Rumen Bacterial Populations of Steers Fed Red Clover or Grass Hay Diets Containing Flax or Sunflower-Seed

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Mike E. R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH) or red clover silage (RC), and either sunflower-seed (SS) or flaxseed (FS), providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05) subcutaneous trans (t)-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA) and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH) in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05) for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA) profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid. PMID:25093808

  8. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  9. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Giera, Martin; Bouazzaoui, Fatiha El; Lips, Mirjam A; Pijl, Hanno; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-09-11

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  10. Application of a Sub-set of Skinfold Sites for Ultrasound Measurement of Subcutaneous Adiposity and Percentage Body Fat Estimation in Athletes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D C; Cronin, O; O'Neill, S B; Woods, T; Keohane, D M; Molloy, M G; Falvey, E C

    2016-05-01

    Body composition assessment is an integral feature of elite sport as optimization facilitates successful performance. This study aims to refine the use of B-mode ultrasound in the assessment of athlete body composition by determining suitable sites for measurement. 67 elite athletes recruited from the Human Performance Laboratory, University College Cork, Ireland, underwent dual measurement of body composition. Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at 7 anatomical sites were measured using ultrasound and compared to percentage body fat values determined using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Multiple linear regressions were performed and an equation to predict percentage body fat was derived. The present study found subcutaneous adipose tissue depths at the triceps, biceps, anterior thigh and supraspinale sites correlated significantly with percentage body fat by X-ray absorptiometry (all p<0.05). Summation of the depths at these locations correlated strongly with percentage body fat by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (R²=0.879). The triceps, biceps, anterior thigh and supraspinale sites are suitable anatomical landmarks for the estimation of %BF using B-mode ultrasound. Use of B-mode ultrasound in the assessment of athlete body composition confers many benefits including lack of ionising radiation and its potential to be used as a portable field tool.

  11. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol of Ishige okamurae and Caffeine Modified the Expression of Extracellular Fibrillars during Adipogenesis of Mouse Subcutaneous Adipose Derived Stem Cell.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Younmi; Song, Siyoung; Kim, Hagju; Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2013-09-01

    Although, one of the etiologies of localized lipodystrophy of the subcutaneous connective tissue (cellulite) is the histological alternation of adipose tissue, the characteristics of expression of the components of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during adipogenesis are not uncovered. In this study, the effects of caffeine and Ishige okamurae originated diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) on the expression of extracellualr fibers was analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR during differentiation induction of mouse subcutaneous adipose derived stem cells (msADSC) into adipocyte. The expression levels of Col1a, Col3a1, and Col61a were decreased by the adipogenci induction in a time-dependent manners. However, Col2a mRNA and Col4a1 mRNA expressions were oposit to them. Caffeine and DPHC stimulated the changes of the expression of these collagens. Eln mRNA expression was increased by induction. DPHC stimulated the expression of it. Mfap5 mRNA expression was deceased in both adipogenic cell and matured adipocytes. Caffeine suppressed the expression of Mfap5 but the effect of DPHC was different by the concentration. The expression of bioglycan, decorin, and lumican were also modified by caffeine and DPHC in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on this study, we revealed firstly the effects of caffeine and DPHC on the expression of collagens, elastin, and glycoproteins during adipogenesis of msADSCs. Those results suggest that DPHC may have antiadipogenic effect and has more positive effets on normal adipose tissue generation and work as suppressor the abnormality of ECM structure. Such results indicate that DPHC can be applied in keeping the stability of the ECM of adipogenic tissues.

  12. Subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) by means of the optical device lipometer highly correlated to plasma leptin levels in obese boys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudi, Karl; Moeller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Reiterer, Elke; Borkenstein, Martin; Vrecko, Karoline; Horejsi, Renate; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Hofmann, Peter

    1998-05-01

    The product of the ob-gene named leptin is correlated with body fat mass in humans. Little evidence exists if the same holds true for body fat distribution. In this study we therefore investigated plasma leptin levels and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) by means of the newly developed optical device Lipometer before and after a 3 week weight reduction camp. Thirty four obese boys (mean age 12a) took part in this study. Body fat distribution were assessed by means of Lipometer to measure the thickness of a subcutaneous fat layer at 15 standardized body sites (SAT- Top). Plasma leptin levels (LL) were measured by radioimmunoassay. All measurements were taken at the beginning and at the end of the camp. By dividing all boys according chronological age (group A: age less than 12a, n equals 17/group B: greater than 12a, n equals 17) we found correlations with the combination of measured body sites (MBS) before (A: MBS vs. LL, R2 equals 0.79; p less than 0.01/B: MBS vs. LL, R2 equals 0.35; n.s.) and after (A: MBS vs. LL, R2 equals 0.83; p less than 0.01/B: MBS vs. LL, R2 equals 0.70; p less than 0.01) the intervention. Our study confirms that the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT- Top) by means of the optical device Lipometer serves as a marker of plasma leptin levels in obese boys and highlights the use of this optical device in a predictive manner.

  13. Positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols from subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, corn oil, or beef tallow.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Behrends, J M; Jenschke, B E; Rhoades, R D; Smith, S B

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary beef tallow, corn oil, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the distribution of fatty acids among positions within triacylglycerols. Crossbred barrows (n=6 per treatment group) received diets containing 1.5% beef tallow, 1.5% corn oil, or 1.5% CLA for 5 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately postmortem. The fatty acid composition was determined for the sn-2 positions of the triacylglycerols by digestion with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. Fatty acids in the sn-1/3 position were calculated from these data. Feeding CLA increased (P<0.05) the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA, especially 16:0) and isomers of CLA in adipose tissue lipids, but reduced (P<0.05) the concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, especially 18:1n-9). Dietary CLA caused an accumulation of total SFA in the sn-1/3 position, with a proportional decrease in total MUFA and 18:2n-6 in the outer positions. Correspondingly, lipids extracted from CLA-fed pigs had slip points that were 10 °C higher (P<0.05) than those from corn oil- or tallow-fed pigs. These data suggest that dietary CLA increases the melting point of lipids in porcine adipose tissue by increasing the proportion of SFA at the sn-1/3 position of lipids.

  14. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Wietecha, Tomasz; Houston, Barbara; Omer, Mohamed; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Subramanian, Savitha; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Chait, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. Objective We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. Methods Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. Results By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. Conclusions These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter

  15. Lipid characteristics of subcutaneous adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis of Angus and Wagyu steers fed to US and Japanese endpoints.

    PubMed

    Chung, K Y; Lunt, D K; Choi, C B; Chae, S H; Rhoades, R D; Adams, T H; Booren, B; Smith, S B

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and cholesterol of adipose tissue and M. longissimus thoracis would not differ between Angus and American Wagyu steers when fed to a typical US live weight, but would diverge when fed to a Japanese live weight. To test this, 8 steers of each breed type were assigned to a high-energy, corn-based diet, and another 8 steers of each breed type were fed coastal bermuda grass hay diet, supplemented with the corn-based diet to achieve a daily gain of 0.9kg/d. Targeted final body weights were 525kg for steers fed for 8 or 12mo the corn- or hay-based diets, respectively, and were 650kg for steers fed for 16 or 20mo the corn- or hay-based diets. Digesta concentrations of stearic (18:0) and trans-vaccenic acid decreased, whereas linoleic acid (18:2n-6) increased between the US and Japanese endpoints (all P⩽0.03). α-Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) increased in digesta only in the hay-fed steers during this time. Plasma concentrations of palmitic (16:0) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and the 16:1:18:0 ratio, were higher in Angus steers than in Wagyu steers. Also, the plasma 16:1:18:0 ratio was decreased by hay feeding in Angus steers, but increased in Wagyu steers, when fed to the Japanese endpoint. Concentrations of oleic (18:1n-9), linoleic, α-linolenic, and 18:2trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid all were higher in Wagyu than in Angus subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue, whereas myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid were higher in Angus s.c. adipose tissue (P⩽0.05). All MUFA increased, and saturated fatty acids decreased, between the US and Japanese endpoints. Slip points of lipids in s.c. adipose tissue were over 10°C lower (P=0.01) in Japanese-endpoint steers than in US endpoint steers, consistent with the overall increase in MUFA with time on feed. The concentration of cholesterol in the M. longissimus thoracis increased with time, which may have been related to the increase in oleic acid

  16. The link between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B

    2008-04-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and adiposity and risk of intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, Femke Ng; Vaucher, Julien; Holmes, Michael V; de Wilde, Arno; Baas, Annette F; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Hofman, Albert; Kiemeney, Lambertus Alm; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Vermeulen, Sita H; Rinkel, Gabriël Je; de Bakker, Paul Iw; Ruigrok, Ynte M

    2017-04-05

    Epidemiological studies show that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inversely associated with intracranial aneurysms (IA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Although adiposity has not been considered a risk factor for IA, there have been inconsistent reports relating adiposity to AAA risk. We assessed whether these observations have a genetic, causal basis. To this end, we extracted genotypes of validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with T2D (n=65), body mass index (BMI) (n=97) and waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) (n=47) from genotype data collected in 717 IA cases and 1988 controls, and in 818 AAA cases and 3004 controls, all of Dutch descent. For each of these three traits, we computed genetic risk scores (GRS) for each individual in these case-control data sets by summing the number of risk alleles weighted by their published effect size, and tested whether these GRS were associated with risk of aneurysm. We divided the cohorts into GRS quartiles, and compared IA and AAA risk in the highest with the lowest GRS quartile using logistic regression. We found no evidence for association in IA or AAA risk between top and bottom quartiles for the genetic risk scores for T2D, BMI and WHRadjBMI. However, additional Mendelian randomization analyses suggested a trend to potentially causal associations between BMI and WHRadjBMI and risk of AAA. Overall, our results do not support epidemiological observations relating T2D to aneurysm risk, but may indicate a potential role of adiposity in AAA that requires further investigation.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 April 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.48.

  18. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  19. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  20. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  1. Plasma 8-isoprostane concentrations and adipogenic and adipokine gene expression patterns in subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues of fattening Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that fattening Wagyu cattle fed conventional low-vitamin fattening diets are exposed to oxidative stress. In this experiment, we studied the plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostane and the fat depot-specific effects of the diet-induced adipogenic (C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ2) and adipokine (VEGF, FGF-2, leptin and adiponectin) gene expressions in fattening Wagyu steers. Animals were fed a high-vitamin (α-tocopherol and β-carotene) diet (HV) or a control diet (CT) during the fattening period (from 10 to 30 months of age). The plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly lower in the HV group than in the CT group. In mesenteric adipose tissue, the expressions of the adipogenic and adipokine genes in the HV group were significantly lower than those in the CT group. In contrast, there were no differences in the expression of the adipogenic and adipokine genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue between groups. These results suggest that higher intake of dietary α-tocopherol and β-carotene affects the expression patterns of adipogenic and adipokine genes in a fat depot-specific manner with the reduction of plasma 8-isoprostane concentrations.

  2. Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal abdominal adiposity: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study1-4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V.; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. Objective We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Methods Macronutrient intakes of mothers were ascertained using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 weeks gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed using MRI in the second week of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n= 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models using multivariable linear regressions. Results Mothers [mean age: 30 y; 44% Chinese, 38% Malay, 18% Indians] consumed 15.5 ± 4.3% (mean ± SD) of their energy intakes from protein, 32.4 ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1 ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher protein, lower carbohydrate/fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 (-0.35, -0.001) mL per 1% protein to carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 (-0.46, -0.04) mL per 1% protein to fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interactions <0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein [-0.26 (-0.47, -0.05) mL for fat substitution], but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not consistently associated with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Conclusions Higher maternal protein intake (at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake

  3. Differences in Gene Expression and Cytokine Release Profiles Highlight the Heterogeneity of Distinct Subsets of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in the Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Perrini, Sebastio; Ficarella, Romina; Picardi, Ernesto; Cignarelli, Angelo; Barbaro, Maria; Nigro, Pasquale; Peschechera, Alessandro; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; De Fazio, Michele; Natalicchio, Annalisa; Laviola, Luigi; Pesole, Graziano; Giorgino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the inherent properties of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) may contribute to the biological specificity of the subcutaneous (Sc) and visceral (V) adipose tissue depots. In this study, three distinct subpopulations of ASC, i.e. ASCSVF, ASCBottom, and ASCCeiling, were isolated from Sc and V fat biopsies of non-obese subjects, and their gene expression and functional characteristics were investigated. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of ASCSVF, ASCBottom and ASCCeiling from Sc fat were significantly different as compared to their homologous subsets of V-ASCs. Furthermore, ASCSVF, ASCCeiling and ASCBottom from the same fat depot were also distinct from each other. In this respect, both principal component analysis and hierarchical clusters analysis showed that ASCCeiling and ASCSVF shared a similar pattern of closely related genes, which was highly different when compared to that of ASCBottom. However, larger variations in gene expression were found in inter-depot than in intra-depot comparisons. The analysis of connectivity of genes differently expressed in each ASC subset demonstrated that, although there was some overlap, there was also a clear distinction between each Sc-ASC and their corresponding V-ASC subsets, and among ASCSVF, ASCBottom, and ASCCeiling of Sc or V fat depots in regard to networks associated with regulation of cell cycle, cell organization and development, inflammation and metabolic responses. Finally, the release of several cytokines and growth factors in the ASC cultured medium also showed both inter- and intra-depot differences. Thus, ASCCeiling and ASCBottom can be identified as two genetically and functionally heterogeneous ASC populations in addition to the ASCSVF, with ASCBottom showing the highest degree of unmatched gene expression. On the other hand, inter-depot seem to prevail over intra-depot differences in the ASC gene expression assets and network functions, contributing to the high degree of specificity

  4. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT. Methods 120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years) were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data. Results Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%). Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness. Conclusion We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI

  5. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  6. Common SIRT1 variants modify the effect of abdominal adipose tissue on aging-related lung function decline.

    PubMed

    Curjuric, Ivan; Imboden, Medea; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Gerbase, Margaret W; Haun, Margot; Keidel, Dirk; Kumar, Ashish; Pons, Marco; Rochat, Thierry; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kronenberg, Florian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Lung function is an independent predictor of mortality and serves as an aging marker in never smokers. The protein sirtuin-1 of gene SIRT1 has profound anti-inflammatory effects and regulates metabolic pathways. Its suggested longevity effects on lower organisms remain poorly studied in humans. In 1132 never smokers of the population-based SAPALDIA cohort, we investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs730821, rs10997868, rs10823116) of SIRT1 and aging-related lung function decline over 11 years in terms of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 % of FVC (FEF25-75) using multiple linear regression models. Interactions between the SIRT1 SNPs and adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI), its change and weight gain) were tested by including multiplicative interaction terms into the models. SIRT1 polymorphisms exhibited no main effects, but modified the association between obesity measures and FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 decline (p = 0.009-0.046). Per risk allele, FEV1/FVC decline was accelerated up to -0.5 % (95 % CI -1.0 to 0 %) and -0.7 % (-1.3 to -0.2 %) over interquartile range increases in BMI (2.4 kg/m(2)) or weight (6.5 kg), respectively. For FEF25-75 decline, corresponding estimates were -57 mL/s (-117 to 4 mL/s) and -76 mL/s (-1429 to -9 mL/s). Interactions were not present in participants with genetically lowered C-reactive protein concentrations. Genetic variation in SIRT1 might therefore affect lung function and human longevity by modifying subclinical inflammation arising from abdominal adipose tissue.

  7. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  8. Angiotensin II and 1-7 during aging in Metabolic Syndrome rats. Expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas receptors in abdominal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruíz, M E; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; Castrejón-Tellez, V; Carreón-Torres, E; Díaz-Díaz, E; Guarner-Lans, V

    2014-07-01

    Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and in aging. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has opposite effects to Ang II. All of the components of RAS are expressed locally in adipose tissue and there is over-activation of adipose RAS in obesity and hypertension. We determined serum and abdominal adipose tissue Ang II and Ang 1-7 in control and MS rats during aging and the expression of AT1, AT2 and Mas in white adipose tissue. MS was induced by sucrose ingestion during 6, 12 and 18 months. During aging, an increase in body weight, abdominal fat and dyslipidemia were found but increases in aging MS rats were higher. Control and MS concentrations of serum Ang II from 6-month old rats were similar. Aging did not modify Ang II seric concentration in control rats but decreased it in MS rats. Ang II levels increased in WAT from both groups of rats. Serum and adipose tissue Ang 1-7 increased during aging in MS rats. Western blot analysis revealed that AT1 expression increased in the control group during aging while AT2 and Mas remained unchanged. In MS rats, AT1 and AT2 expression decreased significantly in aged rats. The high concentration of Ang 1-7 and adiponectin in old MS rats might be associated to an increased expression of PPAR-γ. PPAR-γ was increased in adipose tissue from MS rats. It decreased with aging in control rats and showed no changes during aging in MS rats. Ang 1-7/Mas axis was the predominant pathway in WAT from old MS animals and could represent a potential target for therapeutical strategies in the treatment of MS during aging.

  9. Differentiation and characterization of human facial subcutaneous adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Su-Hyoun; Pappas, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with the loss of facial subcutaneous fat and with increased abdominal subcutaneous fat. Site specific differences in adipocyte phenotype and/or gene expression may play a role in these age-related changes. In this study, we isolated and characterized human facial preadipocytes and investigated distinct metabolic properties such as a differentiation pattern in relation to abdominal preadipocytes. Subcutaneous preadipocytes were isolated from human facial and abdominal skin and cultured in the presence of differentiation factors including rosiglitazone, a known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, isobutyl-methyl xanthine (IBMX) and insulin. Differentiation was characterized microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR. Unexpected superior adipogenic capacity of facial preadipocytes was observed; more facial preadipocytes differentiated in response to rosiglitazone than abdominal preadipocytes and facial preadipocytes retained their ability to differentiate through passage 11 compared with passage 5 for abdominal preadipocytes. Experiments confirmed a reduced lipolysis response in facial versus abdominal adipocytes after exposure to isoproterenol, which was consistent with the reduced β2-adrenergic receptor expression by 60% in the facial cells. The expression of other lipid metabolic gene markers was similar in both facial and abdominal adipocytes with the exception of β3-adrenergic receptor which was only found in abdominal adipose tissue. Gene profiling, by microarray analysis, identified that several HOX genes are robustly reduced in facial adipocytes compared to abdominal adipocytes, suggesting different characteristics between the 2 fat depots. These differences may have implications for development of treatments for facial fat loss during aging. PMID:26167398

  10. Sympathetic nervous system activity and anti-lipolytic response to iv-glucose load in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese and obese type 2 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Uwe; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Alt, Andreas; Zügel, Martina; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Flechtner-Mors, Marion

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10−4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0.5 g/kg lean body mass) was given. Local blood flow was monitored by means of the ethanol technique. Norepinephrine and norfenefrine induced a four and three fold rise in glycerol dialysate concentration (p<0.001, each), with a similar pattern in adipose tissue. Following agonist stimulation and glucose infusion, endogenous insulin release inhibited lipolysis in the presence of norepinephrine, which was more rapid and pronounced in healthy obese controls than in T2D subjects (p = 0.024 obese vs T2D subjects). Insulin-induced inhibition of lipolysis in the presence of norfenefrine was similar in all study participants. In the presence of terbutaline the lipolysis rate increased two fold until the effect of endogenous insulin (p<0.001). A similar insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was observed for each of the norfenefrine groups and the terbutaline groups, respectively. Adipose tissue blood flow remained unchanged after the iv-glucose load. Both norepinephrine and norfenefrine diminished blood flow slightly, but insulin reversed this response (p<0.001 over the entire time). Terbutaline alone and terbutaline plus increased endogenous insulin augmented local blood flow (p<0.001 over the entire time). In conclusion, a difference in insulin-induced inhibition of lipolysis was observed in obese T2D subjects compared to obese healthy controls following modulation of sympathetic nervous system activity and is assumed to be due to ß1-adrenoceptor

  11. Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, O R; Marra, C A; Raschia, A; Rodriguez, S; Gagliardino, J J

    2008-11-01

    The possible contribution of early changes in lipid composition, function, and antioxidant status of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress (OS) was studied. Wistar rats were fed with a commercial diet with (FRD) or without 10% fructose in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The glucose (G), triglyceride (TG), and insulin (I) plasma levels, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lyposoluble antioxidants, total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation as TBARS, fatty acid (FA) composition of AAT-TG as well as their release by incubated pieces of AAT were measured. Rats fed with a FRD have significantly higher plasma levels of G, TG, and I. Their AAT showed a marked increase in content and ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, TBARS, and catalase, GSH-transferase and GSH-reductase, together with a decrease in superoxide dismutase and GSH-peroxidase activity, and total GSH, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene content. Incubated AAT from FRD released in vitro higher amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) with higher ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Our data suggest that FRD induced an early prooxidative state and metabolic dysfunction in AAT that would favor the overall development of IR and OS and further development of pancreatic beta-cell failure; therefore, its early control would represent an appropriate strategy to prevent alterations such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  13. Lower “Awake and Fed Thermogenesis” Predicts Future Weight Gain in Subjects With Abdominal Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Piaggi, Paolo; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Thearle, Marie S.

    2013-01-01

    Awake and fed thermogenesis (AFT) is the energy expenditure (EE) of the nonactive fed condition above the minimum metabolic requirement during sleep and is composed of the thermic effect of food and the cost of being awake. AFT was estimated from whole-room 24-h EE measures in 509 healthy subjects (368 Native Americans and 141 whites) while subjects consumed a eucaloric diet. Follow-up data were available for 290 Native Americans (median follow-up time: 6.6 years). AFT accounted for ∼10% of 24-h EE and explained a significant portion of deviations from expected energy requirements. Energy intake was the major determinant of AFT. AFT, normalized as a percentage of intake, was inversely related to age and fasting glucose concentration and showed a nonlinear relationship with waist circumference and BMI. Spline analysis demonstrated that AFT becomes inversely related to BMI at an inflection point of 29 kg/m2. The residual variance of AFT, after accounting for covariates, predicted future weight change only in subjects with a BMI >29 kg/m2. AFT may influence daily energy balance, is reduced in obese individuals, and predicts future weight gain in these subjects. Once central adiposity develops, a blunting of AFT may occur that then contributes to further weight gain. PMID:23974925

  14. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    PubMed

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects.

  15. in vitro development of bioimplants made up of elastomeric scaffolds with peptide gel filling seeded with human subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Castells-Sala, Cristina; Martínez-Ramos, Cristina; Vallés-Lluch, Ana; Monleón Pradas, Manuel; Semino, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Myocardial tissue lacks the ability to regenerate itself significantly following a myocardial infarction. Thus, new strategies that could compensate this lack are of high interest. Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) strategies are a relatively new approach that aims to compensate the tissue loss using combination of biomaterials, cells and bioactive molecules. The goal of the present study was to evaluate cell survival and growth, seeding capacity and cellular phenotype maintenance of subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells in a new synthetic biomaterial scaffold platform. Specifically, here we tested the effect of the RAD16-I peptide gel in microporous poly(ethyl acrylate) polymers using two-dimensional PEA films as controls. Results showed optimal cell adhesion efficiency and growth in the polymers coated with the self-assembling peptide RAD16-I. Importantly, subATDPCs seeded into microporous PEA scaffolds coated with RAD16-I maintained its phenotype and were able to migrate outwards the bioactive patch, hopefully toward the infarcted area once implanted. These data suggest that this bioimplant (scaffold/RAD16-I/cells) can be suitable for further in vivo implantation with the aim to improve the function of affected tissue after myocardial infarction.

  16. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p < 0.0001). Decreases in abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, DSAT and SSAT, respectively). Adipose tissue areas at midthigh also decreased (-18%, -18%, -17%, p < 0.0001 for total, deep, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively). A reduction (-9%, p < 0.0001) in low-attenuation muscle area and an increase (+1%, p < 0.05) in normal-attenuation muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) or SSAT (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). Although absolute changes in DSAT were greater than changes in SSAT, relative changes in both depots were similar, independent of changes in visceral adipose tissue. The 1-year lifestyle modification program therefore improved the body fat distribution pattern and midthigh muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  17. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Suppress Elastase-Induced Murine Abdominal Aortic Inflammation and Aneurysm Expansion Through Paracrine Factors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Jones, Thomas J; Feng, Dongni; Cook, Todd G; Jester, Andrea A; Yi, Ru; Jawed, Yameena T; Babbey, Clifford; March, Keith L; Murphy, Michael P

    2017-02-16

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a potentially lethal disease associated with immune activation-induced aortic degradation. We hypothesized that xenotransplantation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) would reduce aortic inflammation and attenuate expansion in a murine AAA model. Modulatory effects of ADSCs on immune cell subtypes associated with AAA progression were investigated using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMNCs) cocultured with ADSCs. Murine AAA was induced through elastase application to the abdominal aorta in C57BL/6 mice. ADSCs were administered intravenously, and aortic changes were determined by ultrasonography and videomicrometry. Circulating monocytes, aortic neutrophils, CD28- T cells, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), and CD206+ M2 macrophages were assessed at multiple terminal time points. In vitro, ADSCs induced M2 macrophage and Treg phenotypes while inhibiting neutrophil transmigration and lymphocyte activation without cellular contact. Intravenous ADSC delivery reduced aneurysmal expansion starting from day 4 [from baseline: 54.8% (saline) vs. 16.9% (ADSCs), n = 10 at baseline, n = 4 at day 4, p < 0.001], and the therapeutic effect persists through day 14 (from baseline: 64.1% saline vs. 24.6% ADSCs, n = 4, p < 0.01). ADSC administration increased aortic Tregs by 20-fold (n = 5, p < 0.01), while decreasing CD4+CD28- (-28%), CD8+CD28- T cells (-61%), and Ly6G/C+ neutrophils (-43%, n = 5, p < 0.05). Circulating CD115+CXCR1-LY6C+-activated monocytes decreased in the ADSC-treated group by day 7 (-60%, n = 10, p < 0.05), paralleled by an increase in aortic CD206+ M2 macrophages by 2.4-fold (n = 5, p < 0.05). Intravenously injected ADSCs transiently engrafted in the lung on day 1 without aortic engraftment at any time point. In conclusion, ADSCs exhibit pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects in vitro as well as in vivo during the development of AAA. The temporal evolution

  18. Bowel perforation presenting with acute abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema in a 14-year-old girl with an abandoned distal peritoneal shunt catheter: case report.

    PubMed

    Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.

  19. Lipolysis, lipogenesis, and adiposity are reduced while fatty acid oxidation is increased in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes of endurance-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Pistor, Kathryn E; Sepa-Kishi, Diane M; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the alterations in triglyceride (TG) breakdown and storage in subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) and epididymal (Epid) fat depots following chronic endurance training. Male Wistar rats were either kept sedentary (Sed) or subjected to endurance training (Ex) at 70–85% peak VO2 for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 3, and 6 blood was collected at rest and immediately after a bout of submaximal exercise of similar relative intensity to assess whole-body lipolysis. At week 6, adipocytes were isolated from Epid and SC Ing fat pads for the determination of lipolysis under basal or isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated conditions, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Body weight, fat pad mass, and insulin were reduced by endurance training. Also, circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were 33% lower in Ex than Sed rats when exercising at the same relative intensity. This coincided with reduced isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the Epid (27%) and SC Ing (25%) adipocytes in Ex rats. Similarly, forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was reduced in Epid (51%) and SC Ing (49%) adipocytes from Ex rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes from both fat depots from Ex rats was also lower (∼43%) than Sed controls. Conversely, FAO was increased in Epid (1.71-fold) and SC Ing (1.82-fold) adipocytes of Ex rats. In conclusion, chronic endurance exercise reduced lipolysis and lipogenesis while increasing FAO in Epid and SC Ing adipocytes. These are compatible with an energy-sparing adaptive response to reduced adiposity under chronic endurance training conditions. PMID:26167399

  20. Changes in the MicroRNA Profile Observed in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Patients after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Pilone, Vincenzo; Dodaro, Concetta Anna; Forestieri, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) results in significant lasting weight loss and improved metabolism in obese patients. To evaluate whether epigenetic factors could concur to these benefits, we investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) microRNA (miRNA) profile before (T0) and three years (T1) after LAGB in three morbidly obese women. Case Reports. SAT miRNA profiling, evaluated by TaqMan Array, showed four downexpressed (miR-519d, miR-299-5p, miR-212, and miR-671-3p) and two upexpressed (miR-370 and miR-487a) miRNAs at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that these miRNAs regulate genes belonging to pathways associated with the cytoskeleton, inflammation, and metabolism. Western blot analysis showed that PPAR-alpha, which is the target gene of miR-519d, increased after LAGB, thereby suggesting an improvement in SAT lipid metabolism. Accordingly, the number and diameter of adipocytes were significantly higher and lower, respectively, at T1 versus T0. Bioinformatics predicted that the decreased levels of miR-212, miR-299-5p, and miR-671-3p at T1 concur in reducing SAT inflammation. Conclusion. We show that the miRNA profile changes after LAGB. This finding, although obtained in only three cases, suggests that this epigenetic mechanism, by regulating the expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism, could concur to improve SAT functionality in postoperative obese patients. PMID:28386478

  1. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, Jens

    2008-03-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined with local infusion of the alpha2-blocker phentolamine in superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in preperitoneal adipose tissue was studied in seven healthy subjects. The interstitial glycerol concentration in the three adipose tissue depots was measured by the microdialysis method. Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data previously published). Phentolamine infusion did not augment lipolysis in the subcutaneous depots while it increased the lipolytic rate in the preperitoneal depot. It is concluded that alpha2-adrenergic receptors do not have a significant effect on subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis during high circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays a role for the lipolytic rate obtained during prolonged adrenaline stimulation.

  2. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  3. Colonic hydrogen generated from fructan diffuses into the abdominal cavity and reduces adipose mRNA abundance of cytokines in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naomichi; Tanabe, Hiroki; Adachi, Misato; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen (H2) protects against inflammation-induced oxidative stress. Nondigestible saccharides (NDSs) enhance colonic H2 production. We examined whether colonic H2 transfers to tissues in the abdominal cavity and whether it affects expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In Expts. 1 and 2, rats were fed diets containing fructooligosaccharides [FOSs; 25 (Expt. 1) and 50 g/kg (Expts. 1 and 2)] for 7 and 14 d, respectively. The no-FOS diet was used as the control diet. At the end of the experiment, H2 excretion and the portal H2 concentration were significantly greater in the FOS group than in the control group. In the FOS group, the arterial H2 concentration was no more than 1.5% of the portal H2 concentration (P = 0.03). The H2 concentration in abdominal cavity tissues, especially adipose tissue, in the FOS group was 5.6- to 43-fold of that in the control group (P < 0.05). The H2 content in the abdominal cavity in the FOS group was 11-fold of that in the control group (P < 0.05). In Expt. 3, rats were fed a high-fat diet containing FOS and inulin (50 g/kg) for 28 d. The area under the curve for H2 excretion between 0 and 28 d and portal and adipose H2 concentrations were significantly higher in the FOS and inulin groups than in the high-fat control group. Adipose mRNA abundance of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 1 was lower in the FOS group than in the control group (P = 0.02) and those of interleukin-6 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 tended to be lower (P < 0.11). Colonic H2 generated from NDS diffuses to the abdominal cavity before transferring to abdominal tissues. Reduced cytokine expression by FOS feeding might be dependent on increased colonic H2. Colonic H2 may have important implications in the suppressive effect on metabolic syndrome via oxidative stress.

  4. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  5. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    PubMed

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  6. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. PMID:25891652

  7. Comparative expression profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs among human mesenchymal stem cells derived from breast, face, and abdominal adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Kao, An-Pei; Singh, Sher; Yu, Sung-Liang; Kao, Li-Pin; Tsai, Zong Yun; Lin, Sin-Daw; Li, Steven Shoei-Lung

    2010-03-01

    We determined the expression of both mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) from human mesenchymal stem cells BM19, FM30, and AM3, which is derived from breast, face, and abdominal adipose tissues, respectively. BM19, FM30, and AM3 cells exhibited considerably similar mRNA profiles, and their 1,038 abundantly common genes were involved in regulating six cell adhesion and three cytoskeleton remodeling processes among the top ten GeneGo canonical pathway maps. The 39 most abundant miRNAs in AM3 cells were expressed at very similar levels in BM19 cells. However, seven abundant miRNAs (miR-19b, miR-320, miR-186, miR-199a, miR-339, miR-99a, and miR-152) in AM3 cells were expressed at much lower levels than that in FM30 cells, and 38 genes targeted by these miRNAs were consequently upregulated more than 3-fold in FM30 cells compared with AM3 cells. Therefore, autologous abdominal adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are suitable for tissue engineering of breast reconstruction because of very similar expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs between AM3 and BM19 cells. Conversely, abdominal AM3 cells might not be suitable for facial rejuvenation, since the 38 highly expressed genes targeted by miRNAs in FM30 cells might play an important role(s) in the development of facial tissue.

  8. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  9. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  10. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  11. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulates gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barradas, César M; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca E; Domínguez-López, Aarón; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Godínez, María de-Los-Á; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Miliar-García, Ángel

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on metabolic state and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese adolescents. Obese adolescents (n = 26, 10 girls and 16 boys) aged 12.4 ± 2.1 years were assigned to a 12-week regimen of n-3 PUFA intake. Five times per day, subjects received a food supplement consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (3 g per day, 944 mg EPA, and 2,088 mg DHA). Blood parameters were measured, and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed to determine gene expression at baseline and after 12 weeks. Student's t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to estimate differences in arithmetic means of pre- and post-dietary supplementation for various anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and gene expression parameters. After 12 weeks, n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with decreased body mass index (29.7 ± 4.6 vs. 27.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), waist circumference (93.2 ± 9.9 vs. 90.5 ± 10.0 cm; P < 0.003), hip circumference (102.9 ± 10.9 vs. 101.1 ± 10.9 cm; P < 0.014), and blood triglyceride levels (220.8 ± 27.4 vs. 99.7 ± 32.7 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Fatty acid supplementation/n3 PUFA supplementation was associated with a downregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARγ and PGC-1α (P < 0.001), and an upregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARα (P < 0.007) and SREBP1 (P < 0.021). The expressions of SOD2 (P < 0.04), CAT (P < 0.001), GPX3 (P < 0.032) and HIF-1α protein also decreased. Our study demonstrated that n-3 PUFA consumption and dietary restriction improved the anthropometric parameters and decreased the triglycerides levels of the adolescents, suggesting a reduction in hypoxia in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  12. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  13. Quantitative CT imaging for adipose tissue analysis in mouse model of obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Tafani, J.-P.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.

    2011-03-01

    In obese humans CT imaging is a validated method for follow up studies of adipose tissue distribution and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. Equivalent methods in murine models of obesity are still lacking. Current small animal micro-CT involves long-term X-ray exposure precluding longitudinal studies. We have overcome this limitation by using a human medical CT which allows very fast 3D imaging (2 sec) and minimal radiation exposure. This work presents novel methods fitted to in vivo investigations of mice model of obesity, allowing (i) automated detection of adipose tissue in abdominal regions of interest, (ii) quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. For each mouse, 1000 slices (100μm thickness, 160 μm resolution) were acquired in 2 sec using a Toshiba medical CT (135 kV, 400mAs). A Gaussian mixture model of the Hounsfield curve of 2D slices was computed with the Expectation Maximization algorithm. Identification of each Gaussian part allowed the automatic classification of adipose tissue voxels. The abdominal region of interest (umbilical) was automatically detected as the slice showing the highest ratio of the Gaussian proportion between adipose and lean tissues. Segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous fat compartments was achieved with 2D 1/2 level set methods. Our results show that the application of human clinical CT to mice is a promising approach for the study of obesity, allowing valuable comparison between species using the same imaging materials and software analysis.

  14. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  15. Reduced LPL and subcutaneous lipid storage capacity are associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, A. S.; Goldberg, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sumary Objectives This study examines the hypothesis that lower adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and a limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte expansion will be associated with metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in postmenopausal women who are overweight and obese. Methods Women (N = 150; age 60 ± 1 year; BMI: 31.5 ± 0.3 kg m−2; mean ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) with and without MSyn had dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry scans for total body fat, CT scans for visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue areas, lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, and abdominal and gluteal fat aspirations for subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; N = 150) and LPL activity (N = 100). Results Women with MSyn had similar total body fat, but 15% larger abdominal and 11% larger gluteal FCWs and more visceral fat (179 ± 7 vs. 134 ± 6 cm2) than women without MSyn (P's < 0.05). Abdominal LPL activity was 13% (P = 0.18) lower in women with than without MSyn and correlated with abdominal FCW (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) only in those without MSyn. Visceral fat and abdominal and gluteal FCWs correlated with MSyn components, and subcutaneous adipose tissue correlated with abdominal FCW (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and LPL activity (r = 0.18, P < 0.05), independent of total body fat. Conclusions These results show that women with MSyn have lower LPL activity, limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte lipid storage and greater ectopic fat accumulation in viscera than women without MSyn of comparable obesity. This suggests that the development of novel therapies that would enhance adipocyte expandability might prevent the accumulation of ectopic fat and reduce the risk for MSyn in postmenopausal women with obesity.

  16. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  17. Defining dermal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Ryan R; Jahoda, Colin A B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Watt, Fiona M; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Here, we explore the evolution and development of skin-associated adipose tissue with the goal of establishing nomenclature for this tissue. Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. The association of lipid-filled cells with the skin is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Historically, this layer of adipocytes has been termed subcutaneous adipose, hypodermis and subcutis. Recent data have revealed a common precursor for dermal fibroblasts and intradermal adipocytes during development. Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and wound healing. Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively.

  18. Comparison of Markers and Functional Attributes of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Dedifferentiated Adipocyte Cells from Subcutaneous Fat of an Obese Diabetic Donor

    PubMed Central

    Watson, James E.; Patel, Niketa A.; Carter, Gay; Moor, Andrea; Patel, Rekha; Ghansah, Tomar; Mathur, Abhishek; Murr, Michel M.; Bickford, Paula; Gould, Lisa J.; Cooper, Denise R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adipose tissue is a robust source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that may be able to provide secreted factors that promote the ability of wounded tissue to heal. However, adipocytes also have the potential to dedifferentiate in culture to cells with stem cell-like properties that may improve their behavior and functionality for certain applications. Approach: ADSCs are adult mesenchymal stem cells that are cultured from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue. However, adipocytes are capable of dedifferentiating into cells with stem cell properties. In this case study, we compare ADSC and dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells from the same patient and fat depot for mesenchymal cell markers, embryonic stem cell markers, ability to differentiate to adipocytes and osteoblasts, senescence and telomerase levels, and ability of conditioned media (CM) to stimulate migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Innovation and Conclusions: ADSCs and DFAT cells displayed identical levels of CD90, CD44, CD105, and were CD34- and CD45-negative. They also expressed similar levels of Oct4, BMI1, KLF4, and SALL4. DFAT cells, however, showed higher efficiency in adipogenic and osteogenic capacity. Telomerase levels of DFAT cells were double those of ADSCs, and senescence declined in DFAT cells. CM from both cell types altered the migration of fibroblasts. Despite reports of ADSCs from a number of human depots, there have been no comparisons of the ability of dedifferentiated DFAT cells from the same donor and depot to differentiate or modulate migration of HDFs. Since ADSCs were from an obese diabetic donor, reprogramming of DFAT cells may help improve a patient's cells for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24669358

  19. Comparison of Markers and Functional Attributes of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Dedifferentiated Adipocyte Cells from Subcutaneous Fat of an Obese Diabetic Donor.

    PubMed

    Watson, James E; Patel, Niketa A; Carter, Gay; Moor, Andrea; Patel, Rekha; Ghansah, Tomar; Mathur, Abhishek; Murr, Michel M; Bickford, Paula; Gould, Lisa J; Cooper, Denise R

    2014-03-01

    Objective: Adipose tissue is a robust source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that may be able to provide secreted factors that promote the ability of wounded tissue to heal. However, adipocytes also have the potential to dedifferentiate in culture to cells with stem cell-like properties that may improve their behavior and functionality for certain applications. Approach: ADSCs are adult mesenchymal stem cells that are cultured from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue. However, adipocytes are capable of dedifferentiating into cells with stem cell properties. In this case study, we compare ADSC and dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells from the same patient and fat depot for mesenchymal cell markers, embryonic stem cell markers, ability to differentiate to adipocytes and osteoblasts, senescence and telomerase levels, and ability of conditioned media (CM) to stimulate migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Innovation and Conclusions: ADSCs and DFAT cells displayed identical levels of CD90, CD44, CD105, and were CD34- and CD45-negative. They also expressed similar levels of Oct4, BMI1, KLF4, and SALL4. DFAT cells, however, showed higher efficiency in adipogenic and osteogenic capacity. Telomerase levels of DFAT cells were double those of ADSCs, and senescence declined in DFAT cells. CM from both cell types altered the migration of fibroblasts. Despite reports of ADSCs from a number of human depots, there have been no comparisons of the ability of dedifferentiated DFAT cells from the same donor and depot to differentiate or modulate migration of HDFs. Since ADSCs were from an obese diabetic donor, reprogramming of DFAT cells may help improve a patient's cells for regenerative medicine applications.

  20. Adiposity distribution influences circulating adiponectin levels.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Mitchell; James, Roland; Marks, Jacqueline; Zhao, Shi; Szabo, Aniko; Kidambi, Srividya

    2014-10-01

    Thirty percent of obese individuals are metabolically healthy and were noted to have increased peripheral obesity. Adipose tissue is the primary source of adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Lower adiponectin levels are observed in individuals with obesity and those at risk for cardiovascular disease. Conversely, higher levels are noted in some obese individuals who are metabolically healthy. Our objective was to determine whether abdominal adiposity distribution, rather than body mass index (BMI) status, influences plasma adiponectin level. A total of 424 subjects (female, 255) of Northern European ancestry were recruited from "Take Off Pounds Sensibly" weight loss club members. Demographics, anthropometrics, and dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry of the whole body, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen were performed to obtain total body fat content and to quantify subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), respectively. Laboratory measurements included fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid panel, and adiponectin. Age- and gender-adjusted correlation analyses showed that adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, total fat mass, and VAT. A positive correlation was noted with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fat-free mass (P < 0.05). SAT-to-VAT ratios were also significantly associated with adiponectin (r = 0.13, P = 0.001). Further, the best positive predictors for plasma adiponectin were found to be SAT-to-VAT ratios and gender by regression analyses (P < 0.01). Abdominal adiposity distribution is an important predictor of plasma adiponectin and obese individuals with higher SAT-to-VAT ratios may have higher adiponectin levels.

  1. Divergent responses to thermogenic stimuli in BAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue from interleukin 18 and interleukin 18 receptor 1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Tovar, Sulay; González-Touceda, David; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C.

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipocytes recruitment in brown (BAT) or white adipose tissue, mainly in the inguinal fat pad (iWAT), meet the need for temperature adaptation in cold-exposure conditions and protect against obesity in face of hypercaloric diets. Using interleukin18 (Il18) and Il18 receptor 1- knockout (Il18r1-KO) mice, this study aimed to investigate the role of IL18 signaling in BAT and iWAT activation and thermogenesis under both stimuli. Il18-KO, extremely dietary obesity-prone as previously described, failed to develop diet-induced thermogenesis as assessed by BAT and iWAT Ucp1 mRNA levels. Overweight when fed standard chow but not HFD, HFD-fed Il18r1-KO mice exhibited increased iWAT Ucp1 gene expression. Energy expenditure was reduced in pre-obese Il18r1-KO mice and restored upon HFD-challenge. Cold exposure lead to similar results; Il18r1-KO mice were protected against acute body temperature drop, displaying a more brown-like structure, alternative macrophage activation and thermogenic gene expression in iWAT than WT controls. Opposite effects were observed in Il18-KO mice. Thus, Il18 and Il18r1 genetic ablation disparate effects on energy homeostasis are likely mediated by divergent BAT responses to thermogenic stimuli as well as iWAT browning. These results suggest that a more complex receptor-signaling system mediates the IL18 adipose-tissue specific effects in energy expenditure. PMID:26656097

  2. Automatic Segmentation and Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues from PET/CT Scans.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Sarfaraz; Green, Aileen; Watane, Arjun; Reiter, David; Chen, Xinjian; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Wood, Bradford; Cypess, Aaron; Osman, Medhat; Bagci, Ulas

    2016-12-06

    In this paper, we investigate the automatic detection of white and brown adipose tissues using Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) scans, and develop methods for the quantification of these tissues at the whole-body and body-region levels. We propose a patient-specific automatic adiposity analysis system with two modules. In the first module, we detect white adipose tissue (WAT) and its two sub-types from CT scans: Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT). This process relies conventionally on manual or semi-automated segmentation, leading to inefficient solutions. Our novel framework addresses this challenge by proposing an unsupervised learning method to separate VAT from SAT in the abdominal region for the clinical quantification of central obesity. This step is followed by a context driven label fusion algorithm through sparse 3D Conditional Random Fields (CRF) for volumetric adiposity analysis. In the second module, we automatically detect, segment, and quantify brown adipose tissue (BAT) using PET scans because unlike WAT, BAT is metabolically active. After identifying BAT regions using PET, we perform a co-segmentation procedure utilizing asymmetric complementary information from PET and CT. Finally, we present a new probabilistic distance metric for differentiating BAT from non-BAT regions. Both modules are integrated via an automatic body-region detection unit based on one-shot learning. Experimental evaluations conducted on 151 PET/CT scans achieve state-of-the-art performances in both central obesity as well as brown adiposity quantification.

  3. Influence of circulating epinephrine on absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

    SciTech Connect

    Fernqvist, E.; Gunnarsson, R.; Linde, B.

    1988-06-01

    Effects of epinephrine (Epi) infusion on the absorption of subcutaneously injected 125I-labeled soluble human insulin (10 U) from the thigh or the abdomen were studied in 16 healthy subjects and from the thigh in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Epi was infused at 0.3 (high dose) or 0.1 (low dose; healthy subjects) nmol.kg-1.min-1 i.v., resulting in arterial plasma Epi levels of approximately 6 and 2 nM, respectively. Saline was infused on a control day. Insulin absorption was measured as disappearance of radioactivity from the injection site and as appearance of plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe clearance technique. First-order disappearance rate constants of 125I from the thigh depot decreased approximately 40-50% during the high dose of Epi compared with control (P less than .001). The corresponding decrease from the abdominal depot was approximately 40% (P less than .001), whereas no significant change was found during the low Epi dose. IRI fell compared with control in all groups at the high Epi dose. The Epi-induced depression of insulin absorption occurred despite unaltered or even slightly increased subcutaneous blood flow. The results indicate that circulating Epi at levels seen during moderate physical stress depresses the absorption of soluble insulin from subcutaneous injection sites to an extent that might be important for glycemic control in IDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation is found between changes in insulin absorption and subcutaneous blood flow during Epi infusion, suggesting that factors other than blood flow may also influence the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin.

  4. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcoval, Joaquim; Moreno, Abelardo; Mañá, Juan; Peyri, Jordi

    2008-10-01

    Subcutaneous sarcoidosis has been reported to occur in 1.4% to 6% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Most reported cases are in women, most often in their fifth and sixth decades, and appear as multiple, asymptomatic, hardly indurated subcutaneous nodules without changes in the overlying epidermis. The lesions are characteristically located in the upper extremities, mainly in the forearms, and usually are bilateral and asymmetric. In most cases the lesions appear at the beginning of systemic sarcoidosis and are not associated with chronic fibrotic disease. Histopathologically, sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating naked granulomas involving fat lobules, with minimal to no septal involvement.

  5. Evolution of the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous back-fat adipose tissue in growing Iberian and Landrace × Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Barea, R; Isabel, B; Nieto, R; López-Bote, C; Aguilera, J F

    2013-04-01

    The lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profile in pig tissues are strongly influenced by genotype and nutrient supply, with implications in meat quality. The de novo lipid synthesis and pattern of FA unsaturation could be an important cause of variation in the overall efficiency of energy utilization among breeds. To test the effects of pig genotype and CP supply on the evolution of back-fat tissue FA profile throughout the growing and finishing stages, 32 Iberian (IB) and Landrace × Large White (LR × LW) barrows were offered one of two diets differing in CP content (13% or 17% as fed). A pair-fed procedure (0.8 × ad libitum intake of IB pigs) was used. Subcutaneous fat samples were taken at the dorso-lumbar region at ∼38, 50, 65, 90 and 115 kg BW. Higher proportions of total monounsaturated FA (MUFA; P < 0.01) and lower proportions of total saturated FA (SFA; P < 0.01 to 0.05) were found in the outer back-fat layer of pigs both at 50 and 115 kg BW. Pig genotype affected the FA composition of both subcutaneous back-fat layers. The proportions of C18:0 and SFA in fat tissue were higher in IB than in LR × LW pigs from 38 to 65 kg BW, especially in the outer layer. In addition, MUFA contents were higher in IB pigs at 115 kg BW in both layers (+5% on average; P < 0.01). Increased proportions of C18:2 n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were found in LR × LW pigs, irrespective of the stage of growth and back-fat layer (P⩽0.02). At 50 kg BW, pigs receiving the high-protein diet presented the highest C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:5 n-3 and PUFA contents. A significant genotype × CP content interaction was observed for C18:3 n-3 because of the increased concentration of this FA in LR × LW pigs when offered the 17% CP diet (P < 0.05). Higher C16:0 and SFA contents (+5%; P = 0.03) were found in pigs offered the 13% CP diet and slaughtered at 115 kg BW. There was a genotype × CP interaction for MUFA concentration because of the higher MUFA content observed in IB pigs

  6. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  7. Zinc-transporter genes in human visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes: lean versus obese.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Kamille; Pedersen, Steen B; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole; Fisker, Sanne; Bendix, Jørgen; Wogensen, Lise; Rungby, Jørgen

    2007-01-29

    Zinc ions influence adipose tissue metabolism by regulating leptin secretion and by promoting free fatty acid release and glucose uptake. The mechanisms controlling zinc metabolism in adipose tissue are unknown. We therefore examined the gene-expression levels of a number of zinc-transporting proteins in adipose tissue, comparing subcutaneous fat with visceral fat from lean and obese humans. Both ZnT-proteins responsible for zinc transport from cytosol to extracellular compartments and intracellular vesicles and Zip-proteins responsible for zinc transport to the cytoplasm were expressed in all samples. This suggests that zinc metabolism in adipocytes is actively controlled by zinc-transporters. The expression levels were different in lean and obese subjects suggesting a role for these proteins in obesity. Furthermore, the expression levels were different from subcutaneous fat to intra-abdominal fat suggesting that the metabolic activity in adipocytes is to some extent dependent upon zinc and the activity of zinc-transporting proteins or vice versa.

  8. Abdominal Myosteatosis is Independently Associated to Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance among Older Men without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Iva; Cauley, Jane A.; Wang, Patty Y.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Lee, Christine G.; Sheu, Yahtyng; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Lewis, Cora B.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    Design and Methods Skeletal muscle adipose tissue (AT) infiltration (myosteatosis) increases with aging and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear if myosteatosis is associated to glucose and insulin homeostasis independent of total and central adiposity. We evaluated the association between intermuscular AT (IMAT) in the abdominal skeletal muscles (total, paraspinal and psoas) and fasting serum glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 393 non-diabetic Caucasian men aged 65+. Abdominal IMAT, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) AT (cm3) were measured by quantitative computed tomography at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results In age, study site, height and muscle volume adjusted regression analyses, total abdominal and psoas (but not paraspinal) IMAT were positively associated with glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (all P < 0.003). The associations between total abdominal and psoas IMAT and insulin and HOMA-IR remained significant after further adjusting for lifestyle factors, as well as DXA total body fat, VAT or SAT in separate models (all P <0.009). Conclusions Our study indicates a previously unreported, independent association between abdominal myosteatosis and hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance among older Caucasian men. These associations may be specific for particular abdominal muscle depots, illustrating the potential importance of separately studying specific muscle groups. PMID:23408772

  9. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.; McKenna, Cristin

    2017-01-01

    Background Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Results Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (p<0.01) and 112±8 mg/dl (p<0.05), respectively]. VLDL-P concentration was significantly elevated in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [74±4 vs. 58±4 (p<0.05) and 55±4 μmol/l (p<0.05)]. VAT volume was significantly higher in both SCI groups than in the AB group, and HOMA-IR was higher and approached significance in the SCI groups compared to the AB group. A linear relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Conclusions Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than

  10. Effects of Daily Almond Consumption on Cardiometabolic Risk and Abdominal Adiposity in Healthy Adults With Elevated LDL‐Cholesterol: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Claire E.; West, Sheila G.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Bordi, Peter L.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled‐feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie‐matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods and Results In a randomized, 2‐period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled‐feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL‐C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol‐lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non‐HDL‐C (−6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL‐C (−5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL‐C (−1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (−0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (−0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight. Conclusions Almonds reduced non‐HDL‐C, LDL‐C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL‐C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high‐carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01101230. PMID:25559009

  11. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette; Sorensen, Charlotte M; Bülow, Jens

    2017-02-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and/or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured by the (133)Xenon clearance technique. Leg and splanchnic blood flow were measured by Fick's Principle, using indocyanine green as indicator. In the GLP-1 study, cardiac output increased significantly together with a significant increase in arterial pulse pressure and heart rate compared with the saline study. Subcutaneous, abdominal ATBF and leg blood flow increased significantly during the GLP-1 infusion compared with saline, whereas splanchnic blood flow response did not differ between the studies. We conclude that in healthy subjects, GLP-1 increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work.

  13. Effects of nanoporous anodic titanium oxide on human adipose derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Malec, Katarzyna; Góralska, Joanna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Głowacz, Paulina; Jarosz, Magdalena; Brzewski, Pawel; Sulka, Grzegorz D; Jaskuła, Marian; Wybrańska, Iwona

    The aim of current bone biomaterials research is to design implants that induce controlled, guided, successful, and rapid healing. Titanium implants are widely used in dental, orthopedic, and reconstructive surgery. A series of studies has indicated that cells can respond not only to the chemical properties of the biomaterial, but also, in particular, to the changes in surface topography. Nanoporous materials remain in focus of scientific queries due to their exclusive properties and broad applications. One such material is nanostructured titanium oxide with highly ordered, mutually perpendicular nanopores. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated by a three-step anodization process in propan-1,2,3-triol-based electrolyte containing fluoride ions. Adipose-derived stem cells offer many interesting opportunities for regenerative medicine. The important goal of tissue engineering is to direct stem cell differentiation into a desired cell lineage. The influence of nanoporous TiO2 with pore diameters of 80 and 108 nm on cell response, growth, viability, and ability to differentiate into osteoblastic lineage of human adipose-derived progenitors was explored. Cells were harvested from the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue by a simple, minimally invasive, and inexpensive method. Our results indicate that anodic nanostructured TiO2 is a safe and nontoxic biomaterial. In vitro studies demonstrated that the nanotopography induced and enhanced osteodifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells from the abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue.

  14. Effects of nanoporous anodic titanium oxide on human adipose derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Malec, Katarzyna; Góralska, Joanna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Głowacz, Paulina; Jarosz, Magdalena; Brzewski, Pawel; Sulka, Grzegorz D; Jaskuła, Marian; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of current bone biomaterials research is to design implants that induce controlled, guided, successful, and rapid healing. Titanium implants are widely used in dental, orthopedic, and reconstructive surgery. A series of studies has indicated that cells can respond not only to the chemical properties of the biomaterial, but also, in particular, to the changes in surface topography. Nanoporous materials remain in focus of scientific queries due to their exclusive properties and broad applications. One such material is nanostructured titanium oxide with highly ordered, mutually perpendicular nanopores. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated by a three-step anodization process in propan-1,2,3-triol-based electrolyte containing fluoride ions. Adipose-derived stem cells offer many interesting opportunities for regenerative medicine. The important goal of tissue engineering is to direct stem cell differentiation into a desired cell lineage. The influence of nanoporous TiO2 with pore diameters of 80 and 108 nm on cell response, growth, viability, and ability to differentiate into osteoblastic lineage of human adipose-derived progenitors was explored. Cells were harvested from the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue by a simple, minimally invasive, and inexpensive method. Our results indicate that anodic nanostructured TiO2 is a safe and nontoxic biomaterial. In vitro studies demonstrated that the nanotopography induced and enhanced osteodifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells from the abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue. PMID:27789947

  15. Amelioration of insulin resistance by rosiglitazone is associated with increased adipose cell size in obese type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, Bjorn; Smith, Ulf; Mullen, Shawn; Cushman, Samuel W; Sherman, Arthur S; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported that the size of adipose cells positively correlates with insulin resistance, but recent evidence suggests that the relationship between adipose cell size and insulin resistance is more complex. We previously reported that among BMI-matched moderately obese subjects who were either insulin sensitive or resistant insulin resistance correlated with the proportion of small adipose cells, rather than the size of the large adipose cells, whereas the size of large adipose cells was found to be a predictor of insulin resistance in the first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. The relationship between adipose cellularity and insulin resistance thus appears to depend on the metabolic state of the individual. We did a longitudinal study with T2D patients treated with the insulin-sensitizer rosiglitazone to test the hypothesis that improved insulin sensitivity is associated with increased adipocyte size. Eleven T2D patients were recruited and treated with rosiglitazone for 90 days. Blood samples and needle biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous fat were taken at six time points and analyzed for cell size distributions. Rosiglitazone treatment ameliorated insulin resistance as evidenced by significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose and increased index of insulin sensitivity, QUICKI. In association with this, we found significantly increased size of the large adipose cells and, with a weaker effect, increased proportion of small adipose cells. We conclude rosiglitazone treatment both enlarges existing large adipose cells and recruits new small adipose cells in T2D patients, improving fat storage capacity in adipose tissue and thus systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:26317056

  16. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Lazure, Thierry; Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  17. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  18. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sugeeth, Mangalapilly T.; Jayasudha, Arundhathi V.; Nair, Rekha A.

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare form of skin lymphoma that is localized primarily to the subcutaneous adipose tissue without involvement of the lymph nodes. Clinically, the skin lesions mimic lipomas, while histologically they resemble panniculitis. We report a case of a young woman with SPTCL. She achieved complete remission after combination chemotherapy. PMID:28127142

  19. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  20. Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Storage In Vivo: Effects of Insulin Versus Niacin as a Control for Suppression of Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asem H; Mundi, Manpreet; Koutsari, Christina; Bernlohr, David A; Jensen, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) to plasma membrane, and thus greater free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, in adipocyte cell models. Whether insulin stimulates greater FFA clearance into adipose tissue in vivo is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by comparing direct FFA storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue during insulin versus niacin-medicated suppression of lipolysis. We measured direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat in 10 and 11 adults, respectively, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia or after oral niacin to suppress FFA compared with 11 saline control experiments. Direct palmitate storage was assessed using a [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion to measure palmitate kinetics and an intravenous palmitate radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Plasma palmitate concentrations and flux were suppressed to 23 ± 3 and 26 ± 5 µmol ⋅ L(-1) (P = 0.91) and 44 ± 4 and 39 ± 5 µmol ⋅ min(-1) (P = 0.41) in the insulin and niacin groups, respectively, much less (P < 0.001) than the saline control group (102 ± 8 and 104 ± 12 µmol ⋅ min(-1), respectively). In the insulin, niacin, and saline groups, abdominal palmitate storage rates were 0.25 ± 0.05 vs. 0.25 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS), and femoral adipose storage rates were 0.19 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid(-1) ⋅ min(-1), respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, insulin does not increase FFA storage in adipose tissue compared with niacin, which suppresses lipolysis via a different pathway.

  1. Adipose Tissue Free Fatty Acid Storage In Vivo: Effects of Insulin Versus Niacin as a Control for Suppression of Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asem H.; Mundi, Manpreet; Koutsari, Christina; Bernlohr, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin stimulates the translocation fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) to plasma membrane, and thus greater free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, in adipocyte cell models. Whether insulin stimulates greater FFA clearance into adipose tissue in vivo is unknown. We tested this hypothesis by comparing direct FFA storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue during insulin versus niacin-medicated suppression of lipolysis. We measured direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous fat in 10 and 11 adults, respectively, during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia or after oral niacin to suppress FFA compared with 11 saline control experiments. Direct palmitate storage was assessed using a [U-13C]palmitate infusion to measure palmitate kinetics and an intravenous palmitate radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Plasma palmitate concentrations and flux were suppressed to 23 ± 3 and 26 ± 5 µmol ⋅ L−1 (P = 0.91) and 44 ± 4 and 39 ± 5 µmol ⋅ min−1 (P = 0.41) in the insulin and niacin groups, respectively, much less (P < 0.001) than the saline control group (102 ± 8 and 104 ± 12 µmol ⋅ min−1, respectively). In the insulin, niacin, and saline groups, abdominal palmitate storage rates were 0.25 ± 0.05 vs. 0.25 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, respectively (P = NS), and femoral adipose storage rates were 0.19 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.05 vs. 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, respectively (P = NS). In conclusion, insulin does not increase FFA storage in adipose tissue compared with niacin, which suppresses lipolysis via a different pathway. PMID:25883112

  2. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  3. Distinct developmental profile of lower-body adipose tissue defines resistance against obesity-associated metabolic complications.

    PubMed

    Pinnick, Katherine E; Nicholson, George; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N; McQuaid, Siobhán E; Valet, Philippe; Frayn, Keith N; Denton, Nathan; Min, Josine L; Zondervan, Krina T; Fleckner, Jan; McCarthy, Mark I; Holmes, Chris C; Karpe, Fredrik

    2014-11-01

    Upper- and lower-body fat depots exhibit opposing associations with obesity-related metabolic disease. We defined the relationship between DEXA-quantified fat depots and diabetes/cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population-based cohort (n = 3,399). Gynoid fat mass correlated negatively with insulin resistance after total fat mass adjustment, whereas the opposite was seen for abdominal fat. Paired transcriptomic analysis of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue (GSAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) was performed across the BMI spectrum (n = 49; 21.4-45.5 kg/m(2)). In both depots, energy-generating metabolic genes were negatively associated and inflammatory genes were positively associated with obesity. However, associations were significantly weaker in GSAT. At the systemic level, arteriovenous release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (n = 34) was lower from GSAT than ASAT. Isolated preadipocytes retained a depot-specific transcriptional "memory" of embryonic developmental genes and exhibited differential promoter DNA methylation of selected genes (HOTAIR, TBX5) between GSAT and ASAT. Short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing identified TBX5 as a regulator of preadipocyte proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in ASAT. In conclusion, intrinsic differences in the expression of developmental genes in regional adipocytes provide a mechanistic basis for diversity in adipose tissue (AT) function. The less inflammatory nature of lower-body AT offers insight into the opposing metabolic disease risk associations between upper- and lower-body obesity.

  4. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Justin D.; Yellin, Samuel A.; Ong, Frank J.; Singh, Nina P.; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  5. HMGA2 expression in white adipose tissue linking cellular senescence with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Thies, Helge Wilhelm; Gottlieb, Andrea; Wenk, Heiner; Wischnewsky, Manfred; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2013-09-01

    There is a clear link between overweight, gain of white adipose tissue, and diabetes type 2 (T2D). The molecular mechanism of the gain of adipose tissue is linked with the expression of high mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), and recent studies revealed an association with a SNP near HMGA2. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HMGA2, p14 (Arf) , CDKN1A, and BAX in human abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue from 157 patients. We found a significant higher HMGA2 expression in obese individuals than in non-obese patients. Furthermore, the HMGA2 expression in white adipose tissue in patient with type 2 diabetes was significantly higher than in nondiabetic patients. There is an association between the DNA-binding nonhistone protein HMGA2 and the risk of developing T2D that remains mechanistically unexplained so far. Likewise, p14(Arf), an inducer of cellular senescence, has been associated with the occurrence of T2D. The data of the present study provide evidence that both proteins act within the same network to drive proliferation of adipose tissue stem and precursor cells, senescence, and increased risk of T2D, respectively.

  6. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  7. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  8. Intra-abdominal fat is related to metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fat liver disease in obese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown an association between adiposity, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue, and hemodynamic/metabolic comorbidities in adults, however it is not clear in pediatric population. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) with values of intra-abdominal (IAAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) adipose tissue in obese children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: 182 obese sedentary children and adolescents (aged 6 to 16 y), identified by the body mass index (BMI). Measurements: Body composition and trunk fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry- DXA; lipid profile, blood pressure and pubertal stage were also assessed. NAFLD was classified as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2) and severe (3), and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were identified by ultrasound. The MS was identified according to the cut offs proposed by World Health Organization adapted for children and adolescents. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables, and the binary logistic regression indicated the magnitude of the associations adjusted by potential cofounders (sex, age, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR). Results Higher quartile of SCAT was associated with elevated blood pressure (p = 0.015), but not associated with NAFLD (p = 0.665). Higher IAAT was positively associated with increased dyslipidemia (p = 0.001), MS (p = 0.013) and NAFLD (p = 0.005). Intermediate (p = 0.007) and highest (p = 0.001) quartile of IAAT were also associated with dyslipidemia, independently of age, sex, maturation, NAFLD and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). Conclusion Obese children and adolescents, with higher IAAT are more prone to develop MS and NAFLD than those with higher values of SCAT, independent of possible confounding variables. PMID:23919592

  9. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]). We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women. PMID:21526992

  10. Adiposity assessed by anthropometric measures has a similar or greater predictive ability than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures for abdominal aortic calcification in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xianwen; Scott, David; Hodge, Allison; Khan, Belal; Khan, Nayab; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Ebeling, Peter R; Sanders, Kerrie M

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether adiposity assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) compared to simple anthropometric assessments, are more predictive of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), a risk factor for atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional study of 312 participants (60.3 % female) aged 70.6 ± 5.6 years was conducted in 2010-2011. AAC was assessed by radiography. Adiposity was estimated for whole body, trunk, android, gynoid and visceral regions using DXA in addition to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). WHR [tertile 1 as reference, OR (95 % CI) for tertile 3: 3.62 (1.35-9.72)] and android to gynoid fat ratio [tertile 3: 2.87 (1.03-8.01)] were independent predictors of AAC severity among men. Positive associations with AAC severity were observed for WC [tertile 1 as reference, OR for tertile 3: 2.46 (1.12-5.41)], % trunk fat mass [tertile 2: 3.26 (1.52-7.03)], % android fat mass [tertile 2: 2.42 (1.13-5.18), tertile 3: 2.20 (1.02-4.73)] and visceral fat area [tertile 2: 2.28 (1.06-4.87), tertile 3: 2.32 (1.01-5.34)] among women. Indices of total body composition, BMI and % body fat mass were not associated with AAC severity in either men or women. Simple anthropometric measures, WHR and WC were the best predictors of AAC severity in men and women respectively, although higher android to gynoid fat ratio and central fat, assessed by DXA, were also predictive of higher risks of AAC severity in men and women respectively. Our findings add to existing evidence that relatively inexpensive and easily obtained anthropometric measures can be clinically useful indicators of atherosclerosis risk.

  11. Effects of Male Hypogonadism on Regional Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage and Lipogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1) underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2) consumed an experimental meal containing [3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation); 3) received infusions of [U-13C]palmitate and [1-14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (F)FA storage (adipose biopsies). Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT) activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05). Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans. PMID:22363653

  12. Apolipoprotein A-II polymorphism and visceral adiposity in African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Hunter, Gary R; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Gower, Barbara A; Fernández, José R

    2005-03-01

    To determine the association between the -265 T to C substitution in the apolipoprotein A-II (APOA-II) gene and levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a group of premenopausal African-American and white women, we genotyped 237 women (115 African-American and 122 white) for this polymorphism. Body composition was assessed by DXA, and VAT was determined from a single computed tomography scan. In addition to VAT, we examined the association between the polymorphism and other phenotypes (total body fat, total abdominal adipose tissue, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue). The mutant C allele in the APOA-II gene was less frequent in African-American compared with white women, 23% vs. 36%, respectively (p < 0.01). VAT was significantly higher in carriers of the C allele compared with noncarriers after adjustment for total body fat (p < 0.05). When separate analyses by ethnic group were conducted, the association between the polymorphism and VAT was observed in white (p < 0.05) but not African-American (p = 0.57) women. There was no association between the polymorphism and the other phenotypes. These results indicate a significant association between the T265C APOA-II polymorphism and levels of VAT in premenopausal women. This association is present in white but not African-American women.

  13. A peptide probe for targeted brown adipose tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Azhdarinia, Ali; Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Ghosh, Sukhen C; Ghosh, Pradip; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue responsible for thermogenic energy dissipation has been revealed in adult humans and has high clinical importance. Owing to limitations of current methods for brown adipose tissue detection, analysing the abundance and localization of brown adipose tissue in the body has remained challenging. Here we screen a combinatorial peptide library in mice and characterize a peptide (with the sequence CPATAERPC) that selectively binds to the vascular endothelium of brown adipose tissue, but not of intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. We show that in addition to brown adipose tissue, this peptide probe also recognizes the vasculature of brown adipose tissue-like depots of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the CPATAERPC peptide localizes to brown adipose tissue even in the absence of sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to identify brown adipose tissue depots in mice by whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

  14. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption is Associated With Change of Visceral Adipose Tissue Over 6 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; McKeown, Nicola M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Hoffmann, Udo; Jacques, Paul F.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been linked to abnormal abdominal adipose tissue. We examined the prospective association of habitual SSB intake and change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods and Results The quantity (volume, cm3) and quality (attenuation, Hounsfield Unit) of abdominal adipose tissue were measured using computed tomography in 1,003 participants (mean age 45.3 years, 45.0% women) at exam 1 and 2 in the Framingham’s Third Generation cohort. The 2 exams were approximately 6 years apart. At baseline, SSB and diet soda intake were assessed using a valid food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: none to <1 serving/month (non-consumers), 1 serving/month to <1 serving/week, 1 serving/week to 1 serving/day, and ≥1 serving/day (daily consumers) of either SSB or diet soda. After adjustment for multiple confounders including change in body weight, higher SSB intake was associated with greater change in VAT volume (P-trend<0.001). VAT volume increased by 658 cm3 (95%CI: 602–713), 649 cm3 (95%CI: 582–716), 707 cm3 (95%CI: 657–757), and 852 cm3 (95%CI: 760–943) from non-consumers to daily consumers. Higher SSB intake was also associated with greater decline of VAT attenuation (P-trend=0.007); however, the association became non-significant after additional adjustment for VAT volume change. In contrast, diet soda consumption was not associated with change in abdominal adipose tissue. Conclusions Regular SSB intake was associated with adverse change in both VAT quality and quantity, whereas we observed no such association for diet soda. PMID:26755505

  15. Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue of obese patients show changes in their transcriptomic profile that indicate loss in stemcellness and increased commitment to an adipocyte-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adipose tissue is an endocrine regulator and a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease when by excessive accumulation induces obesity. Although the adipose tissue is also a reservoir for stem cells (ASC) their function and “stemcellness” has been questioned. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms by which obesity affects subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) stem cells. Results Transcriptomics, in silico analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blots were performed on isolated stem cells from subcutaneous abdominal WAT of morbidly obese patients (ASCmo) and of non-obese individuals (ASCn). ASCmo and ASCn gene expression clustered separately from each other. ASCmo showed downregulation of “stemness” genes and upregulation of adipogenic and inflammatory genes with respect to ASCn. Moreover, the application of bioinformatics and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that the transcription factor Smad3 was tentatively affected in obese ASCmo. Validation of this target confirmed a significantly reduced Smad3 nuclear translocation in the isolated ASCmo. Conclusions The transcriptomic profile of the stem cells reservoir in obese subcutaneous WAT is highly modified with significant changes in genes regulating stemcellness, lineage commitment and inflammation. In addition to body mass index, cardiovascular risk factor clustering further affect the ASC transcriptomic profile inducing loss of multipotency and, hence, capacity for tissue repair. In summary, the stem cells in the subcutaneous WAT niche of obese patients are already committed to adipocyte differentiation and show an upregulated inflammatory gene expression associated to their loss of stemcellness. PMID:24040759

  16. Commonality versus specificity among adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Raja, GK; Sarzynski, MA; Katzmarzyk, PT; Johnson, WD; Tchoukalova, Y; Smith, SR; Bouchard, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many adiposity traits have been related to health complications and premature death. These adiposity traits are intercorrelated but their underlying structure has not been extensively investigated. We report on the degree of commonality and specificity among multiple adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adult males and females (mean body mass index (BMI) = 22.9 kg m−2, s.d. = 2.4). METHODS A total of 75 healthy participants were assessed for a panel of adiposity traits including leg, arm, trunk, total fat masses and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hepatic and muscle lipids from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, fat cell volume from an abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy (n = 36) and conventional anthropometry (BMI and waist girth). Spearman’s correlations were calculated and were subjected to factor analysis. RESULTS Arm, leg, trunk and total fat masses correlated positively (r = 0.78–0.95) with each other. VAT correlated weakly with fat mass indicators (r = 0.24–0.31). Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) correlated weakly with all fat mass traits (r = 0.09–0.34), whereas correlations between DXA depots and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were inconsequential. The four DXA fat mass measures, VAT, IHL and IMCL depots segregated as four independent factors that accounted for 96% of the overall adiposity variance. BMI and waist girth were moderately correlated with the arm, leg, trunk and total fat and weakly with VAT, IHL and IMCL. CONCLUSION Adiposity traits share a substantial degree of commonality, but there is considerable specificity across the adiposity variance space. For instance, VAT, IHL and IMCL are typically poorly correlated with each other and are poorly to weakly associated with the other adiposity traits. The same is true for BMI and waist girth, commonly used anthropometric indicators of adiposity. These results do not support the view that it will be

  17. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  18. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity.

  19. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle; Bergeron, Jean; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Larose, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F; Poirier, Paul

    2008-06-01

    There is currently substantial confusion between the conceptual definition of the metabolic syndrome and the clinical screening parameters and cut-off values proposed by various organizations (NCEP-ATP III, IDF, WHO, etc) to identify individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Although it is clear that in vivo insulin resistance is a key abnormality associated with an atherogenic, prothrombotic, and inflammatory profile which has been named by some the "metabolic syndrome" or by others "syndrome X" or "insulin resistance syndrome", it is more and more recognized that the most prevalent form of this constellation of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin resistance is found in patients with abdominal obesity, especially with an excess of intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue. We have previously proposed that visceral obesity may represent a clinical intermediate phenotype reflecting the relative inability of subcutaneous adipose tissue to act as a protective metabolic sink for the clearance and storage of the extra energy derived from dietary triglycerides, leading to ectopic fat deposition in visceral adipose depots, skeletal muscle, liver, heart, etc. Thus, visceral obesity may partly be a marker of a dysmetabolic state and partly a cause of the metabolic syndrome. Although waist circumference is a better marker of abdominal fat accumulation than the body mass index, an elevated waistline alone is not sufficient to diagnose visceral obesity and we have proposed that an elevated fasting triglyceride concentration could represent, when waist circumference is increased, a simple clinical marker of excess visceral/ectopic fat. Finally, a clinical diagnosis of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, or of the metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to assess global risk of cardiovascular disease. To achieve this goal, physicians should first pay attention to the classical risk factors while also considering the additional risk resulting from the presence of abdominal

  20. Differential Expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shuang; Yang, Runjun; Lu, Chunyan; Qiu, Zhengyan; Yan, Changguo; Zhao, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM), which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05) in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle. PMID:25049920

  1. Association of exposure to diabetes in utero with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of youth: the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes among Children (EPOCH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Crume, T. L.; Ogden, L.; West, N. A.; Vehik, K. S.; Scherzinger, A.; Daniels, S.; McDuffie, R.; Bischoff, K.; Hamman, R. F.; Norris, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis To evaluate whether exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of children. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 82 children exposed to maternal GDM and 379 unexposed youths 6–13 years of age with measured BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Results Exposure to maternal GDM was associated with higher BMI (p=0.02), larger waist circumference (p=0.004), more subcutaneous abdominal fat (p=0.01) and increased subscapular to triceps skinfold thickness ratio (p=0.01) in models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity and Tanner stage. Adjustment for socioeconomic factors, birthweight and gestational age, maternal smoking during pregnancy and current diet and physical activity did not influence associations; however, adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI attenuated all associations. Conclusions/interpretation Exposure to maternal GDM is associated with increased overall and abdominal adiposity, and a more central fat distribution pattern in 6- to 13-year-old youths from a multi-ethnic population, providing further support for the fetal overnutrition hypothesis. PMID:20953862

  2. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2007-07-01

    Eighteen steers were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental corn oil level to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue on fatty acid composition of LM, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and expression as well as cellularity in s.c. adipose. Corn oil was supplemented (g/kg of BW) at 0 (none), 0.75 (medium), and 1.5 (high). Cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the corn oil and were supplemented according to pasture availability (0.7 to 1% of BW). Steers were finished on a rotationally grazed, tall fescue pasture for 116 d. Fatty acid composition of LM, s.c. adipose, and diet was determined by GLC. Total linoleic acid intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with corn oil supplementation (90.7, 265.1, and 406.7 g in none, medium, and high, respectively). Oil supplementation linearly reduced (P < 0.05) myristic, palmitic, and linolenic acid percentage in LM and s.c. adipose. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11; VA) percentage was 46 and 32% greater (linear, P = 0.02; quadratic, P = 0.01) for medium and high, respectively, than none, regardless of tissue. Effect of oil supplementation on CLA cis-9, trans-11 was affected by type of adipose tissue (P < 0.01). In the LM, CLA cis-9, trans-11 isomer was 25% greater for medium than for none and intermediate for high, whereas CLA cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was 48 and 33% greater in s.c. adipose tissue for medium and high than for none, respectively. Corn oil linearly increased (P 0.05) the percentage of total SFA, MUFA, or PUFA but linearly increased (P = 0.03) n-6:n-3 ratio from 2.4 to 2.9 in none and high, respectively. Among tissues, total SFA and MUFA were greater in s.c. adipose than LM, whereas total PUFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6:n-3 ratio were lower. Trans-10 octadecenoic acid, VA, and CLA trans-10, cis-12 were greater (P

  3. Vertically Set Sombrero-shaped Abdominal Flap for Asian Breast Reconstruction after Skin-sparing Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Kotaro; Asahi, Rintaro; Sarukawa, Syunji; Sunaga, Ataru; Kamochi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immediate autologous breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy is an esthetically superior method, and a free abdominal flap is often used. However, in Asian patients, little redundant abdominal skin and thin subcutaneous tissue are common, necessitating the development of a more suitable flap design and setting. We devised a narrow flap, the sombrero-shaped flap (S-flap), set vertically, to reduce postoperative abdominal morbidity without sacrificing cosmetic results. Methods: To assess this new flap design and setting, the recipient- and donor-site complications of consecutive patients treated by S-flap (n = 40) and conventional flap (C-flap) (n = 22) were retrospectively investigated. Postoperative abdominal pain, stiffness, and patient activity were also assessed in each group with our original grading scale. Results: Compared with the C-flap group, the S-flap group had a significantly lower skin paddle vertical height (mean, 14.0 and 10.2 cm, respectively; P < 0.001), lower abdominal stiffness (P = 0.023), and higher rate of double-pedicled flap use (27.3% and 52.5%, respectively; P < 0.048). The rates of donor and recipient site complications, postoperative abdominal pain, and activity did not significantly differ between the groups. Conclusions: For immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy in Asian patients, our newly designed S-flap and vertical flap setting achieved cosmetically good, consistent results with low abdominal morbidity, even though the abdominal flap was thin and narrow. The viability of the S-flap, including medial fan-shaped adipose flap, was reliable, even though the flap often required elevation with double pedicles. PMID:28293497

  4. Adipose tissue macrophages impair preadipocyte differentiation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li Fen; Craig, Colleen M.; Tolentino, Lorna L.; Choi, Okmi; Morton, John; Rivas, Homero; Cushman, Samuel W.; Engleman, Edgar G.; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Aim The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. Methods Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery. Preadipocytes were isolated, and cultured in the presence or absence of CD14+ macrophages obtained from the same adipose tissue sample. Adipocyte differentiation was quantified after 14 days via immunofluorescence, Oil-Red O, and adipogenic gene expression. Cytokine secretion by mature adipocytes cultured with or without CD14+macrophages was quantified. Results Adipocyte differentiation was significantly lower in VAT than SAT by all measures (p<0.001). With macrophage removal, SAT preadipocyte differentiation increased significantly as measured by immunofluorescence and gene expression, whereas VAT preadipocyte differentiation was unchanged. Adipocyte-secreted proinflammatory cytokines were higher and adiponectin lower in media from VAT vs SAT: macrophage removal reduced inflammatory cytokine and increased adiponectin secretion from both SAT and VAT adipocytes. Differentiation of preadipocytes from SAT but not VAT correlated inversely with systemic insulin resistance. Conclusions The current results reveal that proinflammatory immune cells in human SAT are causally-related to impaired preadipocyte differentiation, which in turn is associated with systemic insulin resistance. In VAT, preadipocyte differentiation is poor even in the absence of tissue macrophages, pointing to inherent differences in fat storage potential between the two depots. PMID:28151993

  5. Improved adipose tissue metabolism after 5-year growth hormone replacement therapy in growth hormone deficient adults: The role of zinc-α2-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Balaž, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Vlcek, Miroslav; Surova, Martina; Krumpolec, Patrik; Vanuga, Peter; Gašperíková, Daniela; Klimeš, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) supplementation therapy to adults with GH deficiency has beneficial effects on adipose tissue lipid metabolism, improving thus adipocyte functional morphology and insulin sensitivity. However, molecular nature of these effects remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that lipid-mobilizing adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein is causally linked to GH effects on adipose tissue lipid metabolism. Seventeen patients with severe GH deficiency examined before and after the 5-year GH replacement therapy were compared with age-, gender- and BMI-matched healthy controls. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used to assess whole-body and adipose tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Glucose tolerance was determined by oGTT, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity by MRI, adipocyte size morphometrically after collagenase digestion, lipid accumulation and release was studied in differentiated human primary adipocytes in association with GH treatment and zinc-α2-glycoprotein gene silencing. Five-year GH replacement therapy improved glucose tolerance, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and reduced adipocyte size without affecting adiposity and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression was positively associated with whole-body and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and negatively with adipocyte size. GH treatment to adipocytes in vitro increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression (>50%) and was paralleled by enhanced lipolysis and decreased triglyceride accumulation (>35%). Moreover, GH treatment improved antilipolytic action of insulin in cultured adipocytes. Most importantly, silencing zinc-α2-glycoprotein eliminated all of the GH effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism. Effects of 5-year GH supplementation therapy on adipose tissue lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity are associated with zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Presence of this adipokine is required for the GH action on adipocyte lipid metabolism in vitro

  6. Subcutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Klemp, P.

    1985-03-01

    The simultaneously recorded disappearance rates of /sup 133/xe from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the crus were studied in 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris using atraumatic labeling of the tissue in lesional skin (LS) areas and symmetrical, nonlesional skin (NLS) areas. Control experiments were performed bilaterally in 10 younger, healthy subjects. The subcutaneous washout rate constant was significantly higher in LS, 0.79 +/- 0.05 min-1 x 10(2) compared to the washout rate constant of NLS, 0.56 +/- 0.07 min-1. 10(2), or the washout rate constant in the normal subjects, 0.46 +/- 0.17 min-1 x 10(2). The mean washout rate constant in NLS was 25% higher than the mean washout rate constant in the normal subjects. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Differences in the washout rate constants might be due to abnormal subcutaneous tissue-to-blood partition (lambda) in the LS--and therefore not reflecting the real differences in the subcutaneous blood flow (SBF). The lambda for /sup 133/Xe was therefore measured--using a double isotope washout method (/sup 133/Xe and (/sup 131/I)antipyrine)--in symmetrical sites of the lateral crus in LS and NLS of 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and in 10 legs of normal subjects. In LS the lambda was 4.52 +/- 1.67 ml/g, which was not statistically different from that of NLS, 5.25 +/- 2.19 ml/g, nor from that of normal subcutaneous tissue, 4.98 +/- 1.04 ml/g. Calculations of the SBF using the obtained lambda values gave a significantly higher SBF in LS, 3.57 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g/min, compared to SBF in the NLS, 2.94 +/- 0.37 ml/100 g/min. There was no statistically significant difference between SBF in NLS and SBF in the normal subjects. The increased SBF in LS of psoriatics might be a secondary phenomenon to an increased heat loss in the lesional skin.

  7. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  8. Characterization and assessment of hyperelastic and elastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Ehsan; Fuetterer, Lydia; Reza Mousavi, Seyed; Armstrong, Ryan C; Flynn, Lauren E; Samani, Abbas

    2014-11-28

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown potential as a regenerative scaffold for plastic and reconstructive surgery to augment or replace damaged or missing adipose tissue (e.g. following lumpectomy or mastectomy). The mechanical properties of soft tissue substitutes are of paramount importance in restoring the natural shape and appearance of the affected tissues, and mechanical mismatching can lead to unpredictable scar tissue formation and poor implant integration. The goal of this work was to assess the linear elastic and hyperelastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissue and compare them to those of normal breast adipose tissue. To assess the influence of the adipose depot source on the mechanical properties of the resultant decellularized scaffolds, we performed indentation tests on DAT samples sourced from adipose tissue isolated from the breast, subcutaneous abdominal region, omentum, pericardial depot and thymic remnant, and their corresponding force-displacement data were acquired. Elastic and hyperelastic parameters were estimated using inverse finite element algorithms. Subsequently, a simulation was conducted in which the estimated hyperelastic parameters were tested in a real human breast model under gravity loading in order to assess the suitability of the scaffolds for implantation. Results of these tests showed that in the human breast, the DAT would show similar deformability to that of native normal tissue. Using the measured hyperelastic parameters, we were able to assess whether DAT derived from different depots exhibited different intrinsic nonlinearities. Results showed that DAT sourced from varying regions of the body exhibited little intrinsic nonlinearity, with no statistically significant differences between the groups.

  9. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise.

    PubMed

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo; Al Mulla, Nariman; Lyngso, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene

    2002-09-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body rate of extracellular FA reesterification was similar at rest and during exercise (approximately 290 micromol min(-1)) and increased during recovery to a plateau of 390 micromol min(-1). FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake by adipose tissue was undetectable, but a constant but small glycerol uptake of approximately 25 nmol (100 g)(-1) min(-1) was observed. From the FA taken up by the splanchnic area, 13 % was oxidized, 5-11 % converted to ketone bodies, and approximately 35 % incorporated in TAG released both at rest and at the third hour of recovery from exercise. Splanchnic FA reesterification could account for 51 % and 58 % of whole body extracellular FA reesterification, of which half was accounted for by TAG released from the splanchnic area, at rest and in recovery, respectively. In conclusion, in the post-absorptive state, adipose tissue contributes very little to extracellular FA reesterification and splanchnic reesterification can account for 50-60 %, implying that FA reesterification in other tissues is important. The extracellular FA reesterification rate does not change with exercise but is higher during recovery. Furthermore, the uptake of glycerol by adipose tissue indicates that adipose tissue can metabolize glycerol.

  10. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do.

  11. Obesity-associated dysregulation of calpastatin and MMP-15 in adipose-derived stromal cells results in their enhanced invasion.

    PubMed

    Strong, Amy L; Semon, Julie A; Strong, Thomas A; Santoke, Tatyana T; Zhang, Shijia; McFerrin, Harris E; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Bunnell, Bruce A

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue maintains a subpopulation of cells, referred to as adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs), which have been associated with increased breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. For ASCs to affect breast cancer cells, it is necessary to delineate how they mobilize and home to cancer cells, which requires mobilization and invasion through extracellular matrix barriers. In this study, ASCs were separated into four different categories based on the donor's obesity status and depot site of origin. ASCs isolated from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of obese patients (Ob(+)Ab(+)) demonstrated increased invasion through Matrigel as well as a chick chorioallantoic membrane, a type I collagen-rich extracellular matrix barrier. Detailed mRNA and protein analyses revealed that calpain-4, calpastatin, and MMP-15 were associated with increased invasion, and the silencing of each protease or protease inhibitor confirmed their role in ASC invasion. Thus, the data indicate that both the donor's obesity status and depot site of origin distinguishes the properties of subcutaneous-derived ASCs with respect to enhanced invasion and this is associated with the dysregulation of calpain-4, calpastatin, and MMP-15.

  12. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  13. Effect of walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kong, Ji-Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Seung-Hun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-week walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women. [Methods] Following baseline measurements, obese women (N = 20) who met obesity criterion of BMI at 25 kg/m2 or greater were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10) or exercise groups (n = 10). Women assigned to the exercise group participated in a walking exercise (with an intensity of 50-60% of predetermined VO2max, a frequency of 3 days per week and duration of 50-70 minutes targeting 400 kcal of energy expenditure per session) for 12 weeks, while women assigned to the control group maintained their sedentary lifestyle. After the 12-week walking intervention, post-test measurements were conducted using the same procedure as the baseline measurement. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to evaluate any significant time by group interactions for the measured variables. [Results] With respect to body fat parameters, significant time-by-group interactions were found in the abdominal subcutaneous (p = < 0.001) and visceral adipose tissues (p = 0.011). The exercise group had significant reductions in both subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and the control group had no significant changes in those parameters. Similarly, there were significant time by group interactions in fasting glucose (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.029), serum TNF-α (p = 0.027), and IL-6 (p = 0.048) such that the exercise group had significant reductions in those parameters, with no such significant changes found in the control group. The exercise group also had a significant increase in serum adiponectin (p = 0.002), whereas the control group had no significant change in the parameter. [Conclusion] In summary, the current findings suggest that walking exercise can provide a safe and effective lifestyle strategy against abdominal obesity and serum insulin resistance markers in obese women. PMID:25566464

  14. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  15. Different adipose tissue depots: Metabolic implications and effects of surgical removal.

    PubMed

    Marcadenti, Aline; de Abreu-Silva, Erlon Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Increased adiposity has been associated to worse metabolic profile, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. There are two main adipose tissue depots in the body, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, which differ in anatomical location. A large body of evidence has shown the metabolic activity of adipose tissue; lipectomy and/or liposuction therefore appear to be alternatives for improving metabolic profile through rapid loss of adipose tissue. However, surgical removal of adipose tissue may be detrimental for metabolism, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has not been associated to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, animal studies have shown a compensatory growth of adipose tissue in response to lipectomy. This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction, its relationship with the different adipose tissue depots, and the effects of lipectomy on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tilstam, Pathricia V.; Springenberg-Jung, Katrin; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Schmitz, Corinna; Heinrichs, Daniel; Hwang, Soo Seok; Stromps, Jan Philipp; Ganse, Bergita; Kopp, Ruedger; Knobe, Matthias; Bernhagen, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. Methods In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Results Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF-β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. Discussion This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds. PMID:28070458

  17. Association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis: a protocol of a cross-sectional autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Farias, Daniela Souza; Campos, Fernanda Marinho; da Silva, Karen Cristina Souza; Cuelho, Anderson; Leite, Renata Elaine Paraízo; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. Methods and analysis A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated. The sample size was calculated using the lowest correlation coefficient found in previous studies (r=0.109), assuming a power of 90% and α=0.05. We will collect information about sociodemographics, frequency of previous contact of the deceased's next of kin and cardiovascular risk factors. We will measure neck, waist and hip circumferences, weight, height and abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness, and then we will calculate the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body shape index. We will also weigh the pericardial and abdominal visceral fat, the heart, and we will measure the left ventricular wall thickness. We will evaluate the presence of myocardial infarction, the degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries and plaque composition in carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. For each individual, we will fix arterial and adipose tissue samples in 10% formalin and freeze another adipose tissue sample at −80°C for future studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27621828

  18. Determination of inflammatory and prominent proteomic changes in plasma and adipose tissue after high-intensity intermittent training in overweight and obese males

    PubMed Central

    Leggate, Melanie; Carter, Wayne G.; Evans, Matthew J. C.; Vennard, Rebecca A.; Sribala-Sundaram, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether 2 wk of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) altered inflammatory status in plasma and adipose tissue in overweight and obese males. Twelve participants [mean (SD): age 23.7 (5.2) yr, body mass 91.0 (8.0) kg, body mass index 29.1 (3.1) kg/m2] undertook six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Resting blood and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were collected and insulin sensitivity determined, pre- and posttraining. Inflammatory proteins were quantified in plasma and adipose tissue. There was a significant decrease in soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R; P = 0.050), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, P = 0.047), and adiponectin (P = 0.041) in plasma posttraining. Plasma IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, and insulin sensitivity did not change. In adipose tissue, IL-6 significantly decreased (P = 0.036) and IL-6R increased (P = 0.037), while adiponectin tended to decrease (P = 0.056), with no change in ICAM-1 posttraining. TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10 were not detectable in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue homogenates were then resolved using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and major changes in the adipose tissue proteome, as a consequence of HIIT, were evaluated. This proteomic approach identified significant reductions in annexin A2 (P = 0.046) and fatty acid synthase (P = 0.016) as a response to HIIT. The present investigation suggests 2 wk of HIIT is sufficient to induce beneficial alterations in the resting inflammatory profile and adipose tissue proteome of an overweight and obese male cohort. PMID:22267387

  19. Concentrated Hypoxia-Preconditioned Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Wounds Healing in Full-Thickness Skin Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Biao; Guo, Shilei; Xu, Fei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the bioactive factors were utilized in exercise and athletic skin injuries. In this research, the concentrated conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which is rich in bioactive factor, is applied in full-thickness skin defect model to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. Adipose mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues. The surface markers and the potential of differentiation were analyzed. The conditioned medium of hypoxia-preconditioned stem cells was collected and freeze-dried and then applied on the rat full-thickness skin defect model, and the healing time of each group was recorded. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of skin was assessed by microscope. The characteristics of adipose mesenchymal stem cells were similar to those of other mesenchymal stem cells. The concentration of protein in freeze-dried conditioned medium in 1 mL water was about 15 times higher than in the normal condition medium. In vivo, the concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned conditioned medium can reduce the wound size and accelerate the skin wound healing. The concentrated hypoxia-preconditioned adipose mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium has great effect on rat model of wound healing, and it would be an ideal agent for wound care in clinical application. PMID:27433483

  20. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney - blood and urine flow Abdominal ultrasound References Chen L. Abdominal ultrasound imaging. In: Sahani DV, Samir ... the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used ...

  1. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    ... tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap Images Digestive system Peritoneal sample References Garcia-Tiso G. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  2. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... call your doctor. In Spanish— Dolor abdominal en niños menores de 12 años What is recurrent abdominal ... Functional abdominal pain (FAP) typically affects kids ages 4-12, and is quite common, affecting up to ...

  3. Pneumoperitoneum, Retropneumoperitoneum, Pneumomediastinum, and Diffuse Subcutaneous Emphysema following Diagnostic Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Goudeli, Christina; Stavros, Boutzouvis; Villias, Constantinos

    2012-01-01

    Colonoscopy is a widely used diagnostic and curative procedure. Extraperitoneal perforation with pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema combined with intraperitoneal perforation is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of a 78-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and diffuse abdominal, chest, neck, and facial swelling appeared after a diagnostic colonoscopy. Diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are discussed. PMID:23024878

  4. Role of the endocannabinoid system in abdominal obesity and the implications for cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Several cardiometabolic factors present in obese and insulin-resistant individuals represent a continuum of increasing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The importance of abdominal obesity as an independent risk factor is underscored by its association with adverse endocrine function. Recent evidence from animal and human studies has shown a role for the endocannabinoid system in maintaining energy balance and glucose and lipoprotein metabolism, with overactivity linked to aberrant glycemic and lipoprotein control, and a link to adiposity. Modulation of this system through endocannabinoid-receptor blockade has resulted in an improvement in a number of important risk factors in clinical trials, including visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and measures of inflammation. These findings may have significant implications for the management of patients at risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disease; however, the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events with rimonabant may preclude further development of centrally active endocannabinoid receptor antagonists for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Future research is needed to explore the role of selective peripheral CB(1) receptor antagonists in the treatment of patients at high cardiometabolic risk.

  5. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  6. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  7. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  8. Vitamin D in adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Biancuzzo, Rachael M; Lu, Zhiren; Hess, Donald T; Apovian, Caroline M; Holick, Michael F

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin D is stored in body fat. The purpose of this study was to determine vitamin D concentration in abdominal fat of obese patients who underwent roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to describe changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to loss of body fat. Subjects from a single clinic who were scheduled for RYGB were invited into the study. Abdominal subcutaneous, omental, and mesenteric fat were obtained at time of surgery. Adipose vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Weight and serum 25(OH)D were assessed at baseline and every 3 months up to 1 year. Seventeen subjects were included, and fat samples were available from eleven. Total vitamin D content in subcutaneous abdominal fat was 297.2 ± 727.7 ng/g tissue, and a wide range was observed (4-2,470 ng/g). Both vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) were detected in some of the fat samples. At baseline, 25(OH)D was 23.1 ± 12.6 ng/ml. Average weight loss was 54.8 kg at 12 months, of which ~40 kg was fat mass. Despite daily vitamin D intake of ≥2,500 IU throughout the study, no significant increase in serum 25(OH)D was observed, with mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D at 1 year of 26.2 ± 5.36 ng/ml (P = 0.58). We conclude that vitamin D in adipose tissue does not significantly contribute to serum 25(OH)D despite dramatic loss of fat mass after RYGB.

  9. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  10. Differential expression of aquaporin 7 in adipose tissue of lean and obese high fat consumers.

    PubMed

    Marrades, M Pilar; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2006-01-20

    Aquaporin 7 (AQP7) is an aquaglyceroprotein responsible for the secretion and uptake of glycerol from the adipocyte. The modulation of the expression of this membrane transport protein might play an important role in the susceptibility to the development of obesity. The aim of the present study was to compare the AQP7 gene expression in subcutaneous abdominal fat in lean vs. obese high fat intakers with a similar daily physical activity pattern. Twelve young men, 6 lean (BMI=23.2+/-0.4kg/m(2)) and 6 obese (35.0+/-1.1kg/m(2)) with a similar habitual dietary intake of fat (45.5+/-2.5 vs. 43.5+/-1.7% daily energy from fat for lean and obese, respectively) and physical activity (16.0+/-5.7 vs. 17.2+/-5.1 METsh/week for lean and obese, respectively), were recruited. Subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were obtained and total RNA was extracted and purified. Pools of RNA from lean and obese individuals were probed into Affymetrix GeneChip Human U133A. The microarray analysis revealed that AQP7 gene was down-regulated in obese compared to lean subjects. The results of the microarray analysis were confirmed by real-time PCR studies. In summary, our data show that the AQP7 gene is differentially expressed in adipose tissue of lean and obese individuals. The down-regulation of the AQP7 gene could be implicated in the susceptibility to obesity by reducing glycerol release and promoting the accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue.

  11. [Abdominal paracentesis].

    PubMed

    Glauser, Frédéric; Barras, Anne-Catherine; Pache, Isabelle; Monti, Matteo

    2008-10-29

    Abdominal paracentesis is frequently performed in the clinical setting. Every newly developed ascites need to be investigated by abdominal paracentesis. Any clinical or biological deterioration in patients with chronic ascites also requires a new paracentesis. Therapeutically abdominal paracentesis is performed for refractory or symptomatic ascites. As other invasive procedures, it is critical to master its indications, contra-indications and complications. The aim of this article is to review the basics of abdominal paracentesis in order to help physicians to carry out this technical skill.

  12. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  13. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  14. Thigh fat and muscle each contribute to excess cardiometabolic risk in South Asians, independent of visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Mayet, Jamil; Godsland, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare fat distribution and associations between fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in South Asians and Europeans. Methods Five hundred and fourteen South Asians and 669 Europeans, aged 56-86. Questionnaires, record review, blood testing, and coronary artery calcification scores provided diabetes and clinical plus subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnoses. Abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (TSAT), intermuscular and intramuscular thigh fat and thigh muscle were measured by CT. Results Accounting for body size, South Asians had greater VAT and TSAT than Europeans, but less thigh muscle. Associations between depots and disease were stronger in South Asians than Europeans. In multivariable analyses in South Asians, VAT was positively associated with diabetes and CHD, while TSAT and thigh muscle were protective for diabetes, and thigh muscle for CHD. Differences in VAT and thigh muscle only partially explained the excess diabetes and CHD in South Asians versus Europeans. Insulin resistance did not account for the effects of TSAT or thigh muscle. Conclusions Greater VAT and TSAT and lesser thigh muscle in South Asians contributed to ethnic differences in cardiometabolic disease. Effects of TSAT and thigh muscle were independent of insulin resistance. PMID:24862429

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

  16. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with abdominal fat partitioning in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

    2014-08-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT.

  17. Chromomycosis: Subcutaneous cystic type.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S N; Bhise, P R; Sony, P R

    2000-01-01

    A 38-year -old male farmer presented with a solitary, asymptomatic, cystic lesion on the palm since last four years. He underwent excision of this cyst two times during this period but the lesion recurred near the same site. The histopathology and the microbiological examination led to the diagnosis of the rare subcutaneous cystic type of chromomycosis.

  18. FSH stimulates lipid biosynthesis in chicken adipose tissue by upregulating the expression of its receptor FSHR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huanxian; Zhao, Guiping; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wen, Jie

    2012-05-01

    Transcripts and protein for follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were demonstrated in abdominal adipose tissue of female chickens. There was no expression of the Fsh gene, but FSH and FSHR colocalized, suggesting that FSH was receptor bound. Partial correlations indicted that changes in abdominal fat (AF) content were most directly correlated with Fshr mRNA expression, and the latter was directly correlated with tissue FSH content. These relationships were consistent with FSH inducing Fshr mRNA expression and with the finding that FSH influenced the accumulation of AF in chickens, a novel role for the hormone. Chicken preadipocytes responded linearly to doubling concentrations of FSH in Fshr mRNA expression and quantities of FSHR and lipid, without discernable effect on proliferation. Cells exposed to FSH more rapidly acquired adipocyte morphology. Treatment of young chickens with chicken FSH (4 mIU/day, subcutaneous, days 7-13) did not significantly decrease live weight but increased AF weight by 54.61%, AF as a percentage of live weight by 55.45%, and FSHR transcripts in AF by 222.15% (2 h after injection). In cells stimulated by FSH, genes related to lipid metabolism, including Rdh10, Dci, RarB, Lpl, Acsl3, and Dgat2, were expressed differentially, compared with no FSH. Several pathways of retinal and fatty acid metabolism, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling changed. In conclusion, FSH stimulates lipid biosynthesis by upregulating Fshr mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue of chickens. Several genes involved in fatty acid and retinal metabolism and the PPAR signaling pathway mediate this novel function of FSH.

  19. Identification of Mouse Mesenteric and Subcutaneous in vitro Adipogenic Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yugo; Otsuki, Michio; Kita, Shunbun; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-02-17

    Fat accumulation and the dysfunction of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), but not subcutaneous WAT, cause abnormalities in whole body metabolic homeostasis. However, no current drugs specifically target visceral WAT. The primary reason for this is that a practical in vitro culture system for mesenteric adipocytes has not been established. To resolve this issue, we sought to identify in vitro adipogenic cells in mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs. First, we examined the expression pattern of surface antigens in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells from mouse mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs, and found the expression of 30 stem cell-related surface antigens. Then, to evaluate the adipogenic ability of each fraction, we performed in vitro screening, and identified five candidate markers for mesenteric adipogenic cells and one candidate marker for subcutaneous adipogenic cells. To investigate whether in vitro adipogenic ability accurately reflects the conditions in vivo, we performed transplantation experiments, and identified CD9(-) CD201(+) Sca-1(-) cells and CD90(+) cells as mesenteric and subcutaneous in vitro adipogenic cells, respectively. Furthermore, mature adipocytes derived from mesenteric and subcutaneous adipogenic cells maintained each characteristic phenotype in vitro. Thus, our study should contribute to the development of a useful culture system for visceral adipocytes.

  20. Identification of Mouse Mesenteric and Subcutaneous in vitro Adipogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Yugo; Otsuki, Michio; Kita, Shunbun; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation and the dysfunction of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), but not subcutaneous WAT, cause abnormalities in whole body metabolic homeostasis. However, no current drugs specifically target visceral WAT. The primary reason for this is that a practical in vitro culture system for mesenteric adipocytes has not been established. To resolve this issue, we sought to identify in vitro adipogenic cells in mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs. First, we examined the expression pattern of surface antigens in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells from mouse mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs, and found the expression of 30 stem cell-related surface antigens. Then, to evaluate the adipogenic ability of each fraction, we performed in vitro screening, and identified five candidate markers for mesenteric adipogenic cells and one candidate marker for subcutaneous adipogenic cells. To investigate whether in vitro adipogenic ability accurately reflects the conditions in vivo, we performed transplantation experiments, and identified CD9− CD201+ Sca-1− cells and CD90+ cells as mesenteric and subcutaneous in vitro adipogenic cells, respectively. Furthermore, mature adipocytes derived from mesenteric and subcutaneous adipogenic cells maintained each characteristic phenotype in vitro. Thus, our study should contribute to the development of a useful culture system for visceral adipocytes. PMID:26884347

  1. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  2. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Gschossmann, J M; Holtmann, G; Netzer, P; Essig, M; Balsiger, B M; Scheurer, U

    2005-10-01

    Abdominal pain can result from a variety of different intra- and extra-abdominal disorders. Given the wide variety of etiological triggers for this pain, the primary task during the first stage of the diagnostic work-up is to determine as soon as possible the underlying cause and the degree of emergency. The aim of this evaluation is to adapt the therapeutic measures which are necessary for a causal treatment to the individual situation. Contrary to somatic causes of abdominal pain, the availability of such a causal therapy for functional bowel disorders is still very limited. Given this dilemma, the therapeutic focus of abdominal pain associated with these functional syndromes has to be placed on symptom-oriented treatment.

  3. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  4. Subcutaneous endometriosis: a rare cause of deep dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Aruna

    2014-01-06

    Endometriosis is a growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity which is responsive to hormonal stimulation. Extrapelvic endometriosis is less common of which skin is the most common site. The patient presents with mass, pain and cyclic symptoms. Subcutaneous endometriosis is very rare and has been reported only thrice in the literature. We report a case where the patient with lower abdominal pain and dyspareunia. Dyspareunia due to subcutaneous endometriosis has not been reported before when there is no evidence of intrapelvic endometriosis on laparoscopy.

  5. Fatty acid binding protein expression in different human adipose tissue depots in relation to rates of lipolysis and insulin concentration in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R M; Thörne, A; Hamsten, A; Arner, P

    2002-10-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are expressed in adipose tissue, adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP) and keratinocyte lipid binding protein (KLBP). This study investigated FABP expression in visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue depots and associations with lipolytic differences between the depots and circulating insulin concentrations. ALBP and KLBP (protein and RNA) were quantified in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from obese individuals and expressed relative to actin. ALBP RNA and protein expression was significantly higher in subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue (both p < 0.05), whereas KLBP RNA and protein expression was no different between the two sites. There were significant inverse correlations between serum insulin concentrations and the ALBP/KLBP RNA ratio in both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue (both p < 0.02). Basal rates of glycerol and fatty acid release measured in adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue were significantly higher in the former (p < or = 0.02). Therefore the relative ALBP/KLBP content of human adipose tissue is different in different adipose tissue depots and at the RNA level is related to the circulating insulin concentration, at least in obese subjects. The higher rates of basal lipolysis in adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue might be related to the increased ALBP content of the former. Therefore adipose tissue FABPs are interesting candidates for investigation to further our understanding of the insulin resistance syndrome and regulation of lipolysis.

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor 3A gene expression and methylation in adipose tissue is related to adipose tissue dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Susanne; Krüger, Jacqueline; Maierhofer, Anna; Böttcher, Yvonne; Klöting, Nora; El Hajj, Nady; Schleinitz, Dorit; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Fasshauer, Mathias; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Haaf, Thomas; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a genome-wide analysis identified DNA methylation of the HIF3A (hypoxia-inducible factor 3A) as strongest correlate of BMI. Here we tested the hypothesis that HIF3A mRNA expression and CpG-sites methylation in adipose tissue (AT) and genetic variants in HIF3A are related to parameters of AT distribution and function. In paired samples of subcutaneous AT (SAT) and visceral AT (VAT) from 603 individuals, we measured HIF3A mRNA expression and analyzed its correlation with obesity and related traits. In subgroups of individuals, we investigated the effects on HIF3A genetic variants on its AT expression (N = 603) and methylation of CpG-sites (N = 87). HIF3A expression was significantly higher in SAT compared to VAT and correlated with obesity and parameters of AT dysfunction (including CRP and leucocytes count). HIF3A methylation at cg22891070 was significantly higher in VAT compared to SAT and correlated with BMI, abdominal SAT and VAT area. Rs8102595 showed a nominal significant association with AT HIF3A methylation levels as well as with obesity and fat distribution. HIF3A expression and methylation in AT are fat depot specific, related to obesity and AT dysfunction. Our data support the hypothesis that HIF pathways may play an important role in the development of AT dysfunction in obesity. PMID:27346320

  7. Excess Visceral Adipose Tissue Worsens the Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Objective Visceral fat obesity and metabolic syndrome correlate with atherosclerosis in part due to insulin resistance and various other factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods In 71 T2DM patients, the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was measured using an Endo-PAT 2000, and VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured via CT. We also measured various metabolic markers, including high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-AN). Results VAT correlated negatively with the natural logarithm of RHI (L_RHI), the primary endpoint (p=0.042, r=-0.242). L_RHI did not correlate with SAT, VAT/SAT, abdominal circumference, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, urinary C-peptide reactivity, HMW-AN, or alanine amino transferase, the secondary endpoints. A linear multivariate analysis via the forced entry method using age, sex, VAT, and smoking history as independent variables and L_RHI as the dependent variable revealed a lack of any determinants of L_RHI. Conclusion Excess VAT worsens the vascular endothelial function, represented by RHI which was analyzed using Endo-PAT, in Japanese patients with T2DM. PMID:27803400

  8. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  9. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grotti Clemente, Ana Paula; Molin Netto, Bárbara Dal; Ganen, Aline di Piano; Tock, Lian; Arisa Caranti, Danielle; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r = 0.325,), TG (r = 0.277), AST (r = 0.509), ALT (r = 0.519), WC (r = 0.390), and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r = 0.790) for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773). PMID:24381750

  10. Functional changes in adipose tissue in a randomised controlled trial of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A sedentary lifestyle predisposes to cardiometabolic diseases. Lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity improve a range of cardiometabolic risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine whether functional changes in adipose tissue were related to these improvements. Methods Seventy-three sedentary, overweight (mean BMI 29.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2) and abdominally obese, but otherwise healthy men and women (67.6 ± 0.5 years) from a randomised controlled trial of physical activity on prescription over a 6-month period were included (control n = 43, intervention n = 30). Detailed examinations were carried out at baseline and at follow-up, including fasting blood samples, a comprehensive questionnaire and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies for fatty acid composition analysis (n = 73) and quantification of mRNA expression levels of 13 candidate genes (n = 51), including adiponectin, leptin and inflammatory cytokines. Results At follow-up, the intervention group had a greater increase in exercise time (+137 min/week) and a greater decrease in body fat mass (−1.5 kg) compared to the control subjects (changes of 0 min/week and −0.5 kg respectively). Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were unchanged, but those of leptin decreased significantly more in the intervention group (−1.8 vs −1.1 ng/mL for intervention vs control, P < 0.05). The w6-polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in particular linoleic acid (18:2w6), of adipose tissue increased significantly more in the intervention group, but the magnitude of the change was small (+0.17 vs +0.02 percentage points for intervention vs control, P < 0.05). Surprisingly leptin mRNA levels in adipose tissue increased in the intervention group (+107% intervention vs −20% control, P < 0.05), but changes in expression of the remaining genes did not differ between the groups. Conclusions After a 6-month period of increased physical activity in

  11. HOXC10 suppresses browning of white adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Yvonne; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Chia, Sook Yoong; Tan, Hwee Yim Angeline; Gun, Sin Yee; Sun, Lei; Hong, Wanjin; Han, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes. The protein level of HOXC10 inversely correlates with brown fat genes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. Expression of HOXC10 in mice suppresses cold-induced browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and abolishes the beneficial effect of cold exposure on glucose clearance. HOXC10 exerts its effect, at least in part, by suppressing PRDM16 expression. The results support that HOXC10 is a key negative regulator of the process of browning in white adipose tissue. PMID:28186086

  12. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomoya Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  13. Methyl-ß-cyclodextrin alters adipokine gene expression and glucose metabolism in swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if metabolic stress as induced by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MCD) can alter cytokine expression in neonatal swine adipose tissue explants. Subcutaneous adipose tissue explants (100 ± 10 mg) were prepared from 21 day old pigs. Explants were incubated in medium 199 s...

  14. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  15. Perforation of an Occult Carcinoma of the Prostate as a Rare Differential Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Emphysema of the Leg

    PubMed Central

    Hockertz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous emphysema caused by perforation of the rectum due to a carcinoma of the prostate. Although rare, an abdominal cause must always be considered as a rare differential diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema. As a matter of fact adequate diagnostic with rapid treatment is essential for the outcome. PMID:27597913

  16. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  17. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in white adipose tissue is strongly correlated with adiposity.

    PubMed

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2007-04-01

    Glucocorticoid action within the cells is regulated by the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and two enzymes, 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1), which converts inactive to active glucocorticoids, and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2), which regulates the access of active glucocorticoids to the receptor by converting cortisol/corticosterone to the glucocorticoid-inactive form cortisone/dehydrocorticosterone. Male Wistar rats developed obesity by being fed a high-fat diet for 56 days, and GR, 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 gene expression were compared with control-diet fed animals. Gene expression analysis of 11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2 and GR were performed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. High-fat fed animals overexpressed 11betaHSD2 in subcutaneous but not in retroperitoneal fat. Interestingly, mRNA levels strongly correlated in both tissues with different parameters related to obesity, such as body weight, adiposity and insulin resistance, suggesting that this gene is a reliable marker of adiposity in this rat model of obesity. Thus, 11betaHSD2 is expressed in adipose tissue by both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells, which suggests that this enzyme may play an important role in preventing fat accumulation in adipose tissue.

  18. Impact of weight loss with or without exercise on abdominal fat and insulin resistance in obese individuals: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula; Lopes, André Luiz; Fernandes, Pablo Rober; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Friedman, Rogério

    2013-08-28

    Evidence supports an important contribution of abdominal obesity and inflammation to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and CVD. Weight loss in obese individuals can reduce inflammation and, consequently, IR, but the role of training remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body weight reduction with and without exercise over abdominal fat tissue (primary outcome) and IR. In this randomised clinical trial, forty-eight obese individuals (age 31·8 (SD 6·0) years, BMI 34·8 (SD 2·7) kg/m2) were randomised to either a diet-only group (DI) or a diet and exercise group (DI þ EXE). Treatment was maintained until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, the following parameters were analysed: biochemical parameters such as glycaemia and insulin for the determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and abdominal computed tomography for the determination of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A total of thirteen individuals dropped out before completing the weight-loss intervention and did not repeat the tests. In both the DI (n 18) and DI þ EXE (n 17) groups, we observed significant and similar decreases of visceral adipose tissue (difference between means: 7·9 (95% CI 29·5, 25·2) cm2, P¼0·36), hs-CRP (difference between means: 20·06 (95% CI 20·19, 0·03) mg/l, P¼0·39) and HOMA (difference between means: 20·04 (95% CI 20·17, 0·08), P¼0·53). In the present study, 5% weight loss reduced abdominal fat and IR in obese individuals and exercise did not add to the effect of weight loss on the outcome variables.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and/or α-lipoic acid on adipose tissue transcriptomic profile of healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Ana E; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Escoté, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2017-01-02

    In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach. At the end of the intervention, a total of 33,297 genes were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. EPA promoted changes in extracellular matrix remodeling gene expression, besides a rise of genes associated with either chemotaxis or wound repair. α-Lipoic acid decreased expression of genes related with cell adhesion and inflammation. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid, especially in combination with EPA, upregulated the expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism while downregulated genes involved in lipids storage. Together, all these data suggest that some of the metabolic effects of EPA and α-lipoic acid could be related to their regulatory actions on adipose tissue metabolism. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):117-131, 2017.

  20. Efficacy of thigh volume ratios assessed via stereovision body imaging as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The research examined the efficacy of regional volumes of thigh ratios assessed by stereovision body imaging (SBI) as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body measurements obtained via SBI also were utilized to explore disparities of body size and shape in men and women. Method 121 participants were measured for total/regional body volumes and ratios via SBI and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas by MRI. Results Thigh to torso and thigh to abdomen-hip volume ratios were the most reliable parameters to predict the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue depots compared to other body measurements. Thigh volume in relation to torso [odds ratios (OR) 0.44] and abdomen-hip (OR 0.41) volumes were negatively associated with increased risks of greater visceral adipose tissue depots, even after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Irrespective of BMI classification, men exhibited greater total body (80.95L vs. 72.41L), torso (39.26L vs. 34.13L), and abdomen-hip (29.01L vs. 25.85L) volumes than women. Women had higher thigh volumes (4.93L vs. 3.99L) and lower-body volume ratios [thigh to total body (0.07 vs. 0.05), thigh to torso (0.15 vs. 0.11), and thigh to abdomen-hip (0.20 vs. 0.15); p<0.05]. Conclusions The unique parameters of the volumes of thigh in relation to torso and abdomen-hip, by SBI were highly effective in predicting visceral adipose tissue deposition. The SBI provided an efficient method for determining body size and shape in men and women via total and regional body volumes and ratios. PMID:25645428

  1. Lifestyle and socioeconomic-status modify the effects of ADRB2 and NOS3 on adiposity in European-American and African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S; Gutin, Bernard; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of and interaction between lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity (PA)) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-candidate genes (ADRB2, APOB and NOS3) on general and central adiposity. Six-hundred-and-twenty-one European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) youths aged 13-19 years were classified by ethnicity (49% AA), gender (45% male), and socioeconomic status (SES). PA and dietary intake with up to seven 24-h recalls were reported for all subjects. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Reported energy intake (EI) and vigorous PA (VPA) were negative predictors of %BF and SAAT. Carriers of the NOS3 Asp298 allele had higher %BF only in the presence of an adverse environment (low SES). Compared to the most common NOS3 haplotype, homozygotes for haplotype A-non4r-Asp had 6.1% higher %BF. Significant interactions were revealed between the ADRB2 Arg16Gly SNP and VPA on VAT, SAAT and waist circumference (WC) such that Gly16 homozygotes may benefit less from increased VPA to reduce their weight. Genetic susceptibility to increased general and central adiposity is dependent on several factors, such as SES and vigorous exercise. Improved understanding of the joint effect of genes and lifestyle on adiposity will offer new insights into obesity and may provide new avenues for personalized prevention and treatment.

  2. Predictors of Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Across Ages and Adiposity in Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lalia, Antigoni Z.; Dasari, Surendra; Johnson, Matthew L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Konopka, Adam R.; Distelmaier, Klaus; Port, John D.; Glavin, Maria T.; Esponda, Raul Ruiz; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2016-01-01

    Context: Numerous factors are purported to influence insulin sensitivity including age, adiposity, mitochondrial function, and physical fitness. Univariate associations cannot address the complexity of insulin resistance or the interrelationship among potential determinants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify significant independent predictors of insulin sensitivity across a range of age and adiposity in humans. Design, Setting, and Participants: Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were measured by two stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in 116 men and women (aged 19–78 y). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, the suppression of endogenous glucose production during hyperinsulinemia, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were tested for associations with 11 potential predictors. Abdominal subcutaneous fat, visceral fat (AFVISC), intrahepatic lipid, and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity (state 3), coupling efficiency, and reactive oxygen species production were evaluated from muscle biopsies. Aerobic fitness was measured from whole-body maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), and metabolic flexibility was determined using indirect calorimetry. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed that AFVISC (P < .0001) and intrahepatic lipid (P = .002) were independent negative predictors of peripheral insulin sensitivity, whereas VO2 peak (P = .0007) and IMCL (P = .023) were positive predictors. Mitochondrial capacity and efficiency were not independent determinants of peripheral insulin sensitivity. The suppression of endogenous glucose production during hyperinsulinemia model of hepatic insulin sensitivity revealed percentage fat (P < .0001) and AFVISC (P = .001) as significant negative predictors. Modeling homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance identified AFVISC (P < .0001), VO2 peak (P = .001), and IMCL

  3. Gene expression changes with age in skin, adipose tissue, blood and brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age. Results Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential expression with age in both skin and brain tissue and three common to adipose and brain tissues. Conclusions Skin showed the most age-related gene expression changes of all the tissues investigated, with many of the genes being previously implicated in fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial activity, cancer and splicing. A significant proportion of age-related changes in gene expression appear to be tissue-specific with only a few genes sharing an age effect in expression across tissues. More research is needed to improve our understanding of the genetic influences on aging and the relationship with age-related diseases. PMID:23889843

  4. Subcutaneous electrode structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A subcutaneous electrode structure suitable for a chronic implant and for taking a low noise electrocardiogram of an active animal, comprises a thin inflexible, smooth disc of stainless steel having a diameter as of 5 to 30 mm, which is sutured in place to the animal being monitored. The disc electrode includes a radially directed slot extending in from the periphery of the disc for approximately 1/3 of the diameter. Electrical connection is made to the disc by means of a flexible lead wire that extends longitudinally of the slot and is woven through apertures in the disc and held at the terminal end by means of a spot welded tab. Within the slot, an electrically insulative sleeve, such as silicone rubber, is placed over the wire. The wire with the sleeve mounted thereon is captured in the plane of the disc and within the slot by means of crimping tabs extending laterally of the slot and over the insulative wire. The marginal lip of the slot area is apertured and an electrically insulative potting material such as silicone rubber, is potted in place overlaying the wire slot region and through the apertures.

  5. Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Serena, Carolina; Ejarque, Miriam; Petriz, Jordi; Duran, Xevi; Oliva-Olivera, W.; Simó, Rafael; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n = 8; body mass index [BMI]: 23 ± 1 kg/m2) and obese (n = 8; BMI: 35 ± 5 kg/m2). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor’s BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension. Significance The obesity-related hypoxic environment may have latent effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal

  6. [New anatomo clinic approach of adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Dardour, J-C

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, adipose tissue was supposed to be inert with only a function of long-term energetic reserve. The obesity, abnormal accumulation of fat, for its part has always been considered the sole result of hyperphagia, itself secondary to a lack of willingness of the subject. This article focuses on the multiple aspects and functions of the different fatty tissues. One must distinguish brown adipose tissue (AT) and the white AT. This includes visceral fat and subcutaneous AT, which itself is divided into two sectors, a genetic fat and grease that we called ecological. The brown adipose tissue has essentially a function of thermogenesis. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), from a certain volume, behaves as true endocrine gland acting on glycemic and lipid function. In addition to its role of energy reserve, the sub cutaneous AT has a mechanical role of shock absorber and fabric slip. We will emphasize finally the genetic aspect still too misunderstood and underestimated that regulates the different functions of the adipose tissue.

  7. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Chowbey, P; Makkar, B M; Vikram, N K; Wasir, J S; Chadha, D; Joshi, Shashank R; Sadikot, S; Gupta, R; Gulati, Seema; Munjal, Y P

    2009-02-01

    Asian Indians exhibit unique features of obesity; excess body fat, abdominal adiposity, increased subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and deposition of fat in ectopic sites (liver, muscle, etc.). Obesity is a major driver for the widely prevalent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian Indians in India and those residing in other countries. Based on percentage body fat and morbidity data, limits of normal BMI are narrower and lower in Asian Indians than in white Caucasians. In this consensus statement, we present revised guidelines for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome, physical activity, and drug therapy and bariatric surgery for obesity in Asian Indians after consultations with experts from various regions of India belonging to the following medical disciplines; internal medicine, metabolic diseases, endocrinology, nutrition, cardiology, exercise physiology, sports medicine and bariatric surgery, and representing reputed medical institutions, hospitals, government funded research institutions, and policy making bodies. It is estimated that by application of these guidelines, additional 10-15% of Indian population would be labeled as overweight/obese and would require appropriate management. Application of these guidelines on countrywide basis is also likely to have a deceleration effect on the escalating problem of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. These guidelines could be revised in future as appropriate, after another large and countrywide consensus process. Till that time, these should be used by clinicians, researchers and policymakers dealing with obesity and related diseases.

  8. Co-option of pre-existing vascular beds in adipose tissue controls tumor growth rates and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sharon; Hosaka, Kayoko; Nakamura, Masaki; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Many types of cancer develop in close association with highly vascularized adipose tissues. However, the role of adipose pre-existing vascular beds on tumor growth and angiogenesis is unknown. Here we report that pre-existing microvascular density in tissues where tumors originate is a crucial determinant for tumor growth and neovascularization. In three independent tumor types including breast cancer, melanoma, and fibrosarcoma, inoculation of tumor cells in the subcutaneous tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) resulted in markedly differential tumor growth rates and angiogenesis, which were in concordance with the degree of pre-existing vascularization in these tissues. Relative to subcutaneous tumors, WAT and BAT tumors grew at accelerated rates along with improved neovascularization, blood perfusion, and decreased hypoxia. Tumor cells implanted in adipose tissues contained leaky microvessel with poor perivascular cell coverage. Thus, adipose vasculature predetermines the tumor microenvironment that eventually supports tumor growth. PMID:27203675

  9. Abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:9926119

  10. Evaluation of a multi-layer adipose-derived stem cell sheet in a full-thickness wound healing model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chih; Grahovac, Tara; Oh, Sun Jung; Ieraci, Matthew; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2013-02-01

    Cell sheet technology has been studied for applications such as bone, ligament and skin regeneration. There has been limited examination of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for cell sheet applications. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate ASC sheet technology for wound healing. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and ASC cell sheets were created on the surface of fibrin-grafted culture dishes. In vitro examination consisted of the histochemical characterization of the ASC sheets. In vivo experiments consisted of implanting single-layer cell sheets, triple-layer cell sheets or non-treated control onto a full-thickness wound defect (including epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat) in nude mice for 3 weeks. Cell sheets were easily peeled off from the culture dishes using forceps. The single- and triple-layer ASC sheets showed complete extracellular structure via hematoxylin & eosin staining. In vivo, the injury area was measured 7, 10, 14 and 21 days post-treatment to assess wound recovery. The ASC sheet-treated groups' injury area was significantly smaller than that of the non-treated control group at all time points except day 21. The triple-layer ASC sheet treatment significantly enhanced wound healing compared to the single-layer ASC sheet at 7, 10 and 14 days. The density of blood vessels showed that ASC cell sheet treatment slightly enhanced total vessel proliferation compared to the empty wound injury treatment. Our studies indicate that ASC sheets present a potentially viable matrix for full-thickness defect wound healing in a mouse model. Consequently, our ASC sheet technology represents a substantial advance in developing various types of three-dimensional tissues.

  11. Retinol-binding protein 4 expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Bajzová, M; Kováciková, M; Vítková, M; Klimcáková, E; Polák, J; Kovácová, Z; Viguerie, N; Vedral, T; Mikulásek, L; Srámková, P; Srp, A; Hejnová, J; Langin, D; Stich, V

    2008-01-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine which might be involved in the development of insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of RBP4 mRNA in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots and the relationship between RBP4 plasma and mRNA levels relative to indices of adiposity and insulin resistance. In 59 Caucasian women (BMI 20 to 49 kg/m(2)) paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral fat were obtained for RBP4, leptin and GLUT 4 mRNA analysis using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and computed tomography scans were performed. RBP4 mRNA levels as well as GLUT 4 mRNA and leptin mRNA levels were lower (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. No differences were found in RBP4 mRNA expression in the two fat depots or in RBP4 plasma levels between subgroups of non-obese subjects (n=26), obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (n=17) and with metabolic syndrome (n=16). No correlations between RBP4 mRNA or plasma levels relative to adiposity, glucose disposal rate and GLUT 4 mRNA expression in adipose tissue were found. There was a weak positive correlation between plasma RBP4 and plasma triglycerides (r = 0.30, p<0.05) and between plasma RBP4 and blood glucose (r = 0.26, p<0.05). Regardless of the state of adiposity or insulin resistance, RBP4 expression in humans was lower in visceral than in subcutaneous fat. We found no direct relationship between either RBP4 mRNA or its plasma levels and the adiposity or insulin resistance.

  12. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  13. Obesity and weight loss could alter the properties of adipose stem cells?

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Leandra S; Silva, Karina R; Borojevic, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that adipose tissue represents an interesting source of multipotent stem cells has led to many studies exploring the clinical potential of these cells in cell-based therapies. Recent advances in understanding the secretory capacity of adipose tissue and the role of adipokines in the development of obesity and associated disorders have added a new dimension to the study of adipose tissue biology in normal and diseased states. Subcutaneous adipose tissue forms the interface between the clinical application of regenerative medicine and the establishment of the pathological condition of obesity. These two facets of adipose tissue should be understood as potentially related phenomena. Because of the functional characteristics of adipose stem cells, these cells represent a fundamental tool for understanding how these two facets are interconnected and could be important for therapeutic applications. In fact, adipose tissue stem cells have multiple functions in obesity related to adipogenic, angiogenic and secretory capacities. In addition, we have also previously described a predominance of larger blood vessels and an adipogenic memory in the subcutaneous adipose tissue after massive weight loss subsequent to bariatric surgery (ex-obese patients). Understanding the reversibility of the behavior of adipose stem cells in obeses and in weight loss is relevant to both physiological studies and the potential use of these cells in regenerative medicine. PMID:25621116

  14. SFRP2 Is Associated with Increased Adiposity and VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rachel K.; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K.; Hazlehurst, Jonathan M.; Foucault, Danielle R.; Stewart, Paul M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess depot-specific expression and secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) by adipose tissue and its effect on adipocyte biology. We measured serum sFRP2 concentrations in 106 patients in vivo to explore its relationship to fat mass, glycaemia and insulin resistance. Methods Expression of sFRP2 in mouse and human tissues was assessed using polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Western blot confirmed secretion of sFRP2 by adipose tissue into cell culture medium. Effects of recombinant sFRP2 on lipogenesis and preadipocyte proliferation were measured. Preadipocyte expression of the angiogenic genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 (NFATC3) was measured after recombinant sFRP2 exposure. Complementary clinical studies correlating human serum sFRP2 with age, gender, adiposity and insulin secretion were also performed. Results sFRP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed in mouse and human adipose tissue. In humans, sFRP2 mRNA expression was 4.2-fold higher in omental than subcutaneous adipose. Omental adipose tissue secreted 63% more sFRP2 protein than subcutaneous. Treatment with recombinant sFRP2 did not impact on lipogenesis or preadipocyte proliferation but was associated with increased VEGF mRNA expression. In human subjects, circulating insulin levels positively correlated with serum sFRP2, and levels were higher in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance (34.2ng/ml) compared to controls (29.5ng/ml). A positive correlation between sFRP2 and BMI was also observed. Conclusions Circulating sFRP2 is associated with adipose tissue mass and has a potential role to drive adipose angiogenesis through enhanced VEGF expression. PMID:27685706

  15. [Nephrocalcinosis and subcutaneous fat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cláudia; Lobo, Luísa; Azevedo, António Siborro; Simão, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, transient and self-healing panniculits. This entity generally follows an uncomplicated course, however there are rare and important complications. The authors present a case of a newborn with subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis. The pathogenesis of hypercalcemia is not fully understood and the nephrocalcinosis can evolve to chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should be aware of subcutaneous fat necrosis as a possible risk factor for hypercalcemia and patients should have serial serum and urinary calcium determinations for up to 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesions. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypercalcemia are essential to prevent severe complications.

  16. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence.

  17. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Moniliella suaveolens in two cats.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Connole, M D; McGinnis, M R; Lepelaar, R

    1984-11-01

    Moniliella suaveolens was isolated in pure culture from histologically typical phaeohyphomycotic granulomas containing dematiaceous fungi in two cats. One cat had several slow-growing black lesions up to 2 cm in diameter in the abdominal subcutis. These lesions recurred after surgical excision was attempted. The second cat had a single black subcutaneous 0.5 X 1.5-cm lesion near one dewclaw. This lesion was successfully removed surgically without recurrence. M. suaveolens has not been isolated previously from lesions in animals including man.

  18. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117

  19. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner.

  20. Site-specific circadian expression of leptin and its receptor in human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abellán, P. Gómez; Santos, C. Gómez; Madrid, J. A.; Milagro, F. I.; Campion, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Luján, J. A.; Ordovás, J. M.; Garaulet, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Circadian variability of circulating leptin levels has been well established over the last decade. However, the circadian behavior of leptin in human adipose tissue remains unknown. This also applies to the soluble leptin receptor. Objective We investigated the ex vivo circadian behavior of leptin and its receptor expression in human adipose tissue (AT). Subjects and methods Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbid obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Anthropometric variables and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, lipids and lipoprotein concentrations were determined. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of leptin and its receptor, AT explants were cultured during 24-h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 08:00, 14:00, 20:00, 02:00 h, using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Leptin expression showed an oscillatory pattern that was consistent with circadian rhythm in cultured AT. Similar patterns were noted for the leptin receptor. Leptin showed its achrophase (maximum expression) during the night, which might be associated to a lower degree of fat accumulation and higher mobilization. When comparing both fat depots, visceral AT anticipated its expression towards afternoon and evening hours. Interestingly, leptin plasma values were associated with decreased amplitude of LEP rhythm. This association was lost when adjusting for waist circumference. Conclusion Circadian rhythmicity has been demonstrated in leptin and its receptor in human AT cultures in a site-specific manner. This new knowledge paves the way for a better understanding of the autocrine/paracrine role of leptin in human AT. PMID:22411388

  1. [Cultivation and morphological characteristics of rat adipose tissue-derived vascular endothelial cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Xizhe; Tian, Weidong; Yan, Zhengbin; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2006-08-01

    The subcutaneous adipose tissue from the inguen of four Sprague-Dawley rats was obtained, then digested with one volume of collagenase type I and cultured with BGJb medium. The obtained adipose stromal cells were induced in human endothelial-SFM for 7 d. The cells were observed under inverted microscope every day and identified by transmission electron microscope and immunocytochemical staining with factor VIII antigen. The results showed the induced cells uniformly had characteristic cobblestone morphology of endothelial cells. Factor VIII antigen staining was positive in cytoplasm. Under transmission electron microscope, the cells displayed many finger like microvilli and numerous lysosomes, mitochondria, a few coarse endoplasmic reticulum and Weibel-Palade bodies. The characteristics of the rat adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells were consistent with those of vascular endothelial cells derived from other tissues. It seems that subcutaneous adipose tissue may represent a new alternative source of endogenous vascular endothelial cells.

  2. Selective fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissues of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus mongolicus) during food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Asikainen, Juha; Nieminen, Petteri

    2009-01-01

    Avian response to fasting has been examined intensively in penguins (Aptenodytes spp.) adapted to long-term food deprivation but less in species experiencing shorter fasts. Thus, the selectivity in (i) incorporating different fatty acids (FA) from diet into total lipids of white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver and (ii) mobilizing FA from these tissues was examined in pheasants Phasianus colchicus mongolicus fed or fasted for 4 d. Dietary FA were selectively incorporated into intra-abdominal and subcutaneous WAT having a similar composition. The WAT lipids contained higher proportions of saturated and monounsaturated FA and less polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than the dietary profile. However, the isomers of 20:1 and 22:1 were incorporated inefficiently into the WAT lipids. The essential C18 PUFA precursors having smaller percentages in the pheasant tissues than in the diet were likely converted into longer-chain derivatives probably utilized to a great extent for structural lipids of muscles and organs. During food deprivation, the pheasants preferentially utilized 16:1n-7, 18:3n-3, 18:1n-9, and 16:0 but preserved long-chain saturated and unsaturated FA. Mobilization was more efficient for shorter-chain FA and increased with Delta9-desaturation. The hepatic FA profile was resistant to the 4-d period of food deprivation. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of FA into WAT and their mobilization from lipid stores are selective not only in mammals but also in birds.

  3. Award winner for outstanding research in the PhD category, 2014 Society for Biomaterials annual meeting and exposition, Denver, Colorado, April 16-19, 2014: Decellularized adipose matrix hydrogels stimulate in vivo neovascularization and adipose formation.

    PubMed

    Adam Young, D; Bajaj, Vaibhav; Christman, Karen L

    2014-06-01

    Decellularization of tissues offers the ability to produce tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds that recreate many of the biochemical aspects of the tissue of interest. In this study, we describe the in vivo function of decellularized adipose ECM hydrogels for treating subcutaneous adipose deficits. Adipose ECM hydrogels were combined with either adipose-derived adult stem cells or a biocompatible cross-linker, injected subcutaneously into nude mice, and evaluated over the course of 1 month. These ECM hydrogels showed improved integration with the surrounding tissue in vivo compared to a clinical standard soft tissue filler, Juvederm, and stimulated neovascularization. More importantly, these adipose ECM hydrogels facilitated new adipose regeneration within the material at 1 month, a feature not seen with current clinical soft tissue fillers. These results contribute to the growing evidence that ECM-based materials are capable of stimulating subcutaneous adipose regeneration, suggesting that future soft tissue filler materials could incorporate ECM elements in order to restore function to adipose deficits instead of simply filling them with static materials.

  4. Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Variations between Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots under Different Nutritional Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  5. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  6. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist circumference (WC), relates to these cancers remains largely unexplored. Using measured anthropometric data from 391,456 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study and 11 years of follow-up, we comprehensively assessed the association of anthropometric measures with risk of EAC, GCC and GNCC using multivariable proportional hazards regression. One hundred twenty-four incident EAC, 193 GCC and 224 GNCC were accrued. After mutual adjustment, BMI was unrelated to EAC, while WC showed a strong positive association (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.63-2.22 and HR = 3.76; 1.72-8.22, respectively). Hip circumference (HC) was inversely related to EAC after controlling for WC, while WC remained positively associated (HR = 0.35; 0.18-0.68, and HR=4.10; 1.94-8.63, respectively). BMI was not associated with GCC or GNCC. WC was related to higher risks of GCC after adjustment for BMI and more strongly after adjustment for HC (highest vs. lowest quintile HR = 1.91; 1.09-3.37, and HR = 2.23; 1.28-3.90, respectively). Our study demonstrates that abdominal, rather than general, obesity is an indisputable risk factor for EAC and also provides evidence for a protective effect of gluteofemoral (subcutaneous) adipose tissue in EAC. Our study further shows that general obesity is not a risk factor for GCC and GNCC, while the role of abdominal obesity in GCC needs further investigation.

  7. Anterior subcutaneous internal fixation for treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures of the pelvic ring including disruption of the posterior elements in high-energy trauma have both high morbidity and mortality rates. For some injury pattern part of the initial resuscitation includes either external fixation or plate fixation to close the pelvic ring and decrease blood loss. In certain situations – especially when associated with abdominal trauma and the need to perform laparotomies – both techniques may put the patient at risk of either pintract or deep plate infections. We describe an operative approach to percutaneously close and stabilize the pelvic ring using spinal implants as an internal fixator and report the results in a small series of patients treated with this technique during the resuscitation phase. Findings Four patients were treated by subcutaneous placement of an internal fixator. Screw fixation was carried out by minimally invasive placement of two supra-acetabular iliac screws. Afterwards, a subcutaneous transfixation rod was inserted and attached to the screws after reduction of the pelvic ring. All patients were allowed to fully weight-bear. No losses of reduction or deep infections occurred. Fracture healing was uneventful in all cases. Conclusion Minimally invasive fixation is an alternative technique to stabilize the pelvic ring. The clinical results illustrate that this technique is able to achieve good results in terms of maintenance of reduction the pelvic ring. Also, abdominal surgeries no longer put the patient at risk of infected pins or plates. PMID:24606833

  8. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. Results: hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. Conclusions: The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler. PMID:25589892

  9. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin

  10. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via 'browning' of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin regulation

  11. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  12. Host defenses in subcutaneous mycoses.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Waksman, Noemi; Messeguer-Pérez, Jonathan; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses include diverse clinical syndromes, characterized by invasion of the skin and subcutaneous tissue by saprobic fungi. Individuals living in rural areas constantly suffer lesions or trauma; however, only a few of them develop disease. In this contribution, we describe recent advances in the understanding of the virulence of these organisms, focusing on the most prevalent infections, sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. Although these infectious diseases are considered neglected tropical diseases, modern molecular techniques have been able to identify the etiologic agents and observe variations in the former monolithic concept of the species, which was based mostly on morphologic characteristics. The complete genetic characterization of the causative agents, along with that of their host, will help in the understanding of the factors on which the development of these infections depends.

  13. Fatty acid turnover rates in the adipose tissues of the growing chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Foglia, T A; Cartwright, A L; Gyurik, R J; Philips, J G

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mobility of fatty acids in adipose tissue of the chicken and to determine whether adipose tissue dynamics are altered by dietary repartitioning agents. To this end, the turnover rates of fatty acids and triglycerides were estimated in adipose tissue of growing chicks by using isopentadecanoic acid (IPDA) and elaidic acid (EA) as marker dietary fatty acids. The half-life of IPDA in abdominal and sartorial adipose tissues of birds over 6 to 10 wk of age were 20 +/- 4 and 23 +/- 6 d, respectively. The half-life for the remaining total carcass lipids was 23 +/- 3 d. The corresponding half-life for EA in abdominal fat tissue of birds over 2 to 7 wk of age was 18 +/- 3 d, a half-life not significantly different from the IPDA half-lives. On the other hand, a thyromimetic repartitioning agent (L-94901) fed to birds at the 2 ppm level from 2 to 7 wk of age significantly decreased the half-life of EA in abdominal fat tissue to 6 +/- 2 d. The data suggest that fatty acids were released from a more labile adipose site and subsequently reincorporated into abdominal and sartorial tissues and that fat mobilization occurred at the same time as did adipose tissue deposition in the growing chicken.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  15. Non-Invasive Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues and Liver Fat Content by Computed Tomography in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lubura, Marko; Hesse, Deike; Neumann, Nancy; Scherneck, Stephan; Wiedmer, Petra; Schürmann, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Obesity and its distribution pattern are important factors for the prediction of the onset of diabetes in humans. Since several mouse models are suitable to study the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes the aim was to validate a novel computed tomograph model (Aloka-Hitachi LCT-200) for the quantification of visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat depots in mice. Methods Different lean and obese mouse models (C57BL/6, B6.V-Lepob, NZO) were used to determine the most adequate scanning parameters for the detection of the different fat depots. The data were compared with those obtained after preparation and weighing the fat depots. Liver fat content was determined by biochemical analysis. Results The correlations between weights of fat tissues on scale and weights determined by CT were significant for subcutaneous (r2 = 0.995), visceral (r2 = 0.990) and total white adipose tissue (r2 = 0.992). Moreover, scans in the abdominal region, between lumbar vertebrae L4 to L5 correlated with whole-body fat distribution allowing experimenters to reduce scanning time and animal exposure to radiation and anesthesia. Test-retest reliability and measurements conducted by different experimenters showed a high reproducibility in the obtained results. Intrahepatic fat content estimated by CT was linearly related to biochemical analysis (r2 = 0.915). Furthermore, brown fat mass correlated well with weighted brown fat depots (r2 = 0.952). In addition, short-term cold-expose (4°C, 4 hours) led to alterations in brown adipose tissue attributed to a reduction in triglyceride content that can be visualized as an increase in Hounsfield units by CT imaging. Conclusion The 3D imaging of fat by CT provides reliable results in the quantification of total, visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat in mice. This non-invasive method allows the conduction of longitudinal studies of obesity in mice and therefore enables experimenters to investigate

  16. Serially Transplanted Nonpericytic CD146(-) Adipose Stromal/Stem Cells in Silk Bioscaffolds Regenerate Adipose Tissue In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Trivia P; Bowles, Annie; Lee, Stephen; Abbott, Rosalyn; Tucker, Hugh A; Kaplan, David; Wang, Mei; Strong, Amy; Brown, Quincy; He, Jibao; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Progenitors derived from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) possess the ability to form clonal populations and differentiate along multiple lineage pathways. However, the literature continues to vacillate between defining adipocyte progenitors as "stromal" or "stem" cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that a nonpericytic subpopulation of adipose stromal cells, which possess the phenotype, CD45(-) /CD31(-) /CD146(-) /CD34(+) , are mesenchymal, and suggest this may be an endogenous progenitor subpopulation within adipose tissue. We hypothesized that an adipose progenitor could be sorted based on the expression of CD146, CD34, and/or CD29 and when implanted in vivo these cells can persist, proliferate, and regenerate a functional fat pad over serial transplants. SVF cells and culture expanded adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC) ubiquitously expressing the green fluorescent protein transgene (GFP-Tg) were fractionated by flow cytometry. Both freshly isolated SVF and culture expanded ASC were seeded in three-dimensional silk scaffolds, implanted subcutaneously in wild-type hosts, and serially transplanted. Six-week WAT constructs were removed and evaluated for the presence of GFP-Tg adipocytes and stem cells. Flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confocal microscopy demonstrated GFP-Tg cell persistence, proliferation, and expansion, respectively. Glycerol secretion and glucose uptake assays revealed GFP-Tg adipose was metabolically functional. Constructs seeded with GFP-Tg SVF cells or GFP-Tg ASC exhibited higher SVF yields from digested tissue, and higher construct weights, compared to nonseeded controls. Constructs derived from CD146(-) CD34(+) -enriched GFP-Tg ASC populations exhibited higher hemoglobin saturation, and higher frequency of GFP-Tg cells than unsorted or CD29(+) GFP-Tg ASC counterparts. These data demonstrated successful serial transplantation of nonpericytic adipose-derived progenitors that can

  17. Model Study of the Pressure Build-Up during Subcutaneous Injection

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Maria; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim; Poulsen, Mette; Sørensen, Dan N.; Tarnow, Lise; Feidenhans'l, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we estimate the subcutaneous tissue counter pressure during drug infusion from a series of injections of insulin in type 2 diabetic patients using a non-invasive method. We construct a model for the pressure evolution in subcutaneous tissue based on mass continuity and the flow laws of a porous medium. For equivalent injection forces we measure the change in the infusion rate between injections in air at atmospheric pressure and in tissue. From a best fit with our model, we then determine the flow permeability as well as the bulk modulus of the tissue, estimated to be of the order 10−11–10−10 m2 and 105 Pa, respectively. The permeability is in good agreement with reported values for adipose porcine tissue. We suggest our model as a general way to estimate the pressure build-up in tissue during subcutaneous injection. PMID:25122138

  18. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  20. Genetics of human body size and shape: pleiotropic and independent genetic determinants of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Livshits, G; Yakovenko, K; Ginsburg, E; Kobyliansky, E

    1998-01-01

    The present study utilized pedigree data from three ethnically different populations of Kirghizstan, Turkmenia and Chuvasha. Principal component analysis was performed on a matrix of genetic correlations between 22 measures of adiposity, including skinfolds, circumferences and indices. Findings are summarized as follows: (1) All three genetic matrices were not positive definite and the first four factors retained even after exclusion RG > or = 1.0, explained from 88% to 97% of the total additive genetic variation in the 22 trials studied. This clearly emphasizes the massive involvement of pleiotropic gene effects in the variability of adiposity traits. (2) Despite the quite natural differences in pairwise correlations between the adiposity traits in the three ethnically different samples under study, factor analysis revealed a common basic pattern of covariability for the adiposity traits. In each of the three samples, four genetic factors were retained, namely, the amount of subcutaneous fat, the total body obesity, the pattern of distribution of subcutaneous fat and the central adiposity distribution. (3) Genetic correlations between the retained four factors were virtually non-existent, suggesting that several independent genetic sources may be governing the variation of adiposity traits. (4) Variance decomposition analysis on the obtained genetic factors leaves no doubt regarding the substantial familial and (most probably genetic) effects on variation of each factor in each studied population. The similarity of results in the three different samples indicates that the findings may be deemed valid and reliable descriptions of the genetic variation and covariation pattern of adiposity traits in the human species.

  1. Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Jorge; Gonçalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9 cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:25349753

  2. Bioavailability and feasibility of subcutaneous 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Borner, M M; Kneer, J; Crevoisier, C; Brunner, K W; Cerny, T

    1993-09-01

    Continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been shown to be superior to bolus regimens in terms of response rates and toxicity. However, a continuous infusion is more expensive and prone to complications such as thromboembolism and infections. A way to circumvent these problems would be to administer 5-FU subcutaneously (s.c.). To assess feasibility and bioavailability of s.c. 5-FU, eight patients with advanced cancer received 250 mg 5-FU as an infusion over 90 min either intravenously (i.v.) or s.c. into the abdominal wall. The mean +/- s.d. bioavailability of s.c. 5-FU was 0.89 +/- 0.23. The interpatient variability for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 48% for the s.c. and 36% for the i.v. infusion. No local side effects were observed. To test the local tolerance of a more prolonged administration three patients received 930-1,000 mg m-2 5-FU by 24-h continuous s.c. infusion. The steady-state plasma levels were comparable to i.v. infusion. One patient developed a painless skin pigmentation at the s.c. infusion site. However, the same reaction was observed at the forearm after i.v. infusion. We conclude that at the dose studied s.c. 5-FU has an almost complete bioavailability and is well tolerated. Further work will show, whether prolonged s.c. infusion can be used as a safe and economical alternative to i.v. infusion.

  3. Bioavailability and feasibility of subcutaneous 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed Central

    Borner, M. M.; Kneer, J.; Crevoisier, C.; Brunner, K. W.; Cerny, T.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been shown to be superior to bolus regimens in terms of response rates and toxicity. However, a continuous infusion is more expensive and prone to complications such as thromboembolism and infections. A way to circumvent these problems would be to administer 5-FU subcutaneously (s.c.). To assess feasibility and bioavailability of s.c. 5-FU, eight patients with advanced cancer received 250 mg 5-FU as an infusion over 90 min either intravenously (i.v.) or s.c. into the abdominal wall. The mean +/- s.d. bioavailability of s.c. 5-FU was 0.89 +/- 0.23. The interpatient variability for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 48% for the s.c. and 36% for the i.v. infusion. No local side effects were observed. To test the local tolerance of a more prolonged administration three patients received 930-1,000 mg m-2 5-FU by 24-h continuous s.c. infusion. The steady-state plasma levels were comparable to i.v. infusion. One patient developed a painless skin pigmentation at the s.c. infusion site. However, the same reaction was observed at the forearm after i.v. infusion. We conclude that at the dose studied s.c. 5-FU has an almost complete bioavailability and is well tolerated. Further work will show, whether prolonged s.c. infusion can be used as a safe and economical alternative to i.v. infusion. PMID:8353044

  4. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters.

  5. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe

    PubMed Central

    Nadimi, Esmaeil S.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters. PMID:27222737

  6. Laminin α4 Deficient Mice Exhibit Decreased Capacity for Adipose Tissue Expansion and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N.; Brey, Eric M.; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4−/−) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4−/− mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion. PMID:25310607

  7. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  8. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock ...

  9. Survival and Inflammatory Response in Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell-enriched Mouse Fat Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Anadi; Isfoss, Björn L.; Lønnerød, Linn K.; Vigen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSCs) are currently used in grafting procedures in a number of clinical trials. The reconstructive role of such cells in fat graft enrichment is largely unclear. This study was undertaken to assess survival and inflammatory response in fat grafts enriched with ATMSCs in mice. Methods: ATMSC-enriched adipose tissue was grafted subcutaneously in a clinically relevant manner in mice, and survival and inflammatory response were determined by bioluminescence imaging of transgenic tissue constitutively expressing luciferase or driven by inflammation in wild-type animals. Results: Only a minor fraction of ATMSCs transplanted subcutaneously were found to survive long term, yet fat grafts enriched with ATMSCs showed improved survival for a limited period, compared with no enrichment. NF-κB activity was transiently increased in ATMSC-enriched grafts, and the grafts responded adequately to a proinflammatory stimulus. In one animal, cells originating from the subcutaneous graft were found at a site of inflammation distant from the site of engraftment. Conclusion: ATMSCs display limited subcutaneous survival. Still, ATMSC enrichment may improve the outcome of adipose tissue grafting procedures by facilitating short-term graft survival and adequate inflammatory responses. Migration of cells from grafted adipose tissue requires further investigation. PMID:28293494

  10. The formation of brown adipose tissue induced by transgenic over-expression of PPARγ2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Jinzeng; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Ting; Xu, Dequan; Zuo, Bo; Hou, Liming; Wu, Wangjun; Zhang, Lin; Xia, Xiaoliang; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ren, Zhuqing; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2014-04-18

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate energy as heat, therefore reducing fat deposition and counteracting obesity. Brown adipocytes arise from myoblastic progenitors during embryonic development by the action of transcription regulator PRDM16 binding to PPARγ, which promotes BAT-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. To investigate the capability of converting white adipose tissue to BAT or browning by PPARγ in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with over-expressed PPARγ2. The transgenic mice showed strong brown fat features in subcutaneous fat in morphology and histology. To provide molecular evidences on browning characteristics of the adipose tissue, we employed quantitative real-time PCR to determine BAT-specific gene expressions. The transgenic mice had remarkably elevated mRNA level of UCP1, Elovl3, PGC1α and Cebpα in subcutaneous fat. Compared with wild-type mice, UCP1 protein levels were increased significantly in transgenic mice. ATP concentration was slightly decreased in the subcutaneous fat of transgenic mice. Western blotting analysis also confirmed that phosphorylated AMPK and ACC proteins were significantly (P<0.01) increased in the transgenic mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that over-expression of PPARγ2 in skeletal muscle can promote conversion of subcutaneous fat to brown fat formation, which can have beneficial effects on increasing energy metabolisms and combating obesity.

  11. Regulation of cytokine gene expression by orosomucoid in neonatal swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue has been reported to express a1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) mRNA, a protein with inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The present study was designed to determine if AGP can regulate pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in neonatal porcine subcutaneous adipos...

  12. High-affinity glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase content in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissues of growing Angus steers differs among suckling, weanling, backgrounding, and finishing production stages.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J C; Huang, J; Rentfrow, G

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues play important roles in maintaining whole-body Glu and N homeostasis by the uptake of Glu and release of Gln. To test the hypothesis that expression of high-affinity Glu transporters (GLAST1, EAAT4, EAAC1, GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) would increase in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue of newborn Angus steers randomly assigned ( = 6) to develop through suckling (S; 32 d) and/or weanling (W; 184 d), backgrounding (B; 248 d), and finishing (F; 423 d) production stages. Carcass quality was determined at slaughter to verify shifts in adipose and lean deposition with development. Expression of mRNA (RT-PCR/Southern) and relative protein abundance (Western analysis) were determined in tissue homogenates isolated from longissimus dorsi, and kidney and subcutaneous adipose. The effect of production stage or tissue type on carcass and protein abundance was assessed by 1-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SAS, and Fisher's protected LSD procedure was used to separate data means. Neither GLAST1 nor EAAT4 mRNA or protein was detected. EAAC1, GLT-1, and GS mRNA were identified in all tissues, but GLT-1 and GS protein were not detected in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, and GS protein was not detected in longissimus dorsi. The EAAC1 content of subcutaneous ( = 0.06) and kidney ( = 0.02) adipose was 2 times greater in B and F than W steers, whereas GS was 5 times greater ( < 0.07) in B than F steers (B = W > F). For longissimus dorsi, EAAC1 ( < 0.01) and GLT-1 ( < 0.04) content decreased with development (S > W > B = F, S = W > B = F, respectively). Within F steers, EAAC1 and GLT-1 mRNA was expressed by subcutaneous, kidney, omental, mesenchymal, and intramuscular adipose tissues, whereas GS mRNA was expressed by all except for intramuscular. Only EAAC1 protein was detected in any adipose tissue, with EAAC1 content being 104% and 112% greater ( < 0.01) in intramuscular than in kidney or subcutaneous adipose, respectively, and not

  13. Subcutaneous Lobular Capillary Hemangioma on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Jochumsen, Mads Ryø; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Høyer, Søren; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    We present a case of a subcutaneous process in the abdominal wall with high prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) activity on Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Histology demonstrated a benign lobular capillary hemangioma with a high vascular density, with highly PSMA-positive endothelial cells. It is well known that PSMA is expressed in different tissue, including neovasculature in various malignant tumors, and the knowledge is rapidly evolving as new discoveries appear.

  14. Spontaneous orbital subcutaneous emphysema after sneezing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wei-Chieh; Lih, Ma; Huang, Tien-Yi; Ku, Wan-Chen; Wang, Warren

    2008-03-01

    Orbital subcutaneous emphysema develops when air enters the surrounding soft tissue. This occurs as a result facial bone trauma, iatrogenic dental and otolaryngeal procedures, and gas-producing infectious microorganisms. Case reports regarding this phenomenon after sneezing are very uncommon. Although orbital subcutaneous emphysema is not a true emergency, it can be distressful to patients. This case serves to bring awareness to emergency department physicians regarding the possibility of a nontraumatic orbital subcutaneous emphysema and its related complications.

  15. Sex-dependent effects of neonatal maternal deprivation on endocannabinoid levels in the adipose tissue: influence of diet.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Berzal, Alvaro Llorente; Chowen, Julie; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Viveros, Maria Paz; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2017-03-23

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including modification of metabolism. We have previously reported that MD modifies the metabolic response to high-fat diet (HFD) intake, with this response being different between males and females, while previous studies indicate that in mice with HFD-induced obesity, endocannabinoid (EC) levels are markedly altered in various brown and white adipose tissue depots. Here, we analyzed the effects of MD (24 h at postnatal day 9), alone or in combination with a HFD from weaning until the end of the experiment in Wistar rats of both sexes. Brown and white perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected and the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were determined. In males, MD increased the content of OEA in brown and 2-AG in subcutaneous adipose tissues, while in females the content of 2-AG was increased in perirenal fat. Moreover, in females, MD decreased AEA and OEA levels in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, respectively. HFD decreased the content of 2-AG in brown fat of both sexes and OEA in brown and subcutaneous adipose tissue of control females. In contrast, in subcutaneous fat, HFD increased AEA levels in MD males and OEA levels in control and MD males. The present results show for the first time that MD and HFD induce sex-dependent effects on the main ECs, AEA, and 2-AG, and of AEA-related mediators, OEA and PEA, in the rat brown and white (visceral and subcutaneous) adipose tissues.

  16. Lipokines and oxysterols: novel adipose-derived lipid hormones linking adipose dysfunction and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Murdolo, Giuseppe; Bartolini, Desirée; Tortoioli, Cristina; Piroddi, Marta; Iuliano, Luigi; Galli, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    The expansion of adipose tissue (AT) is, by definition, a hallmark of obesity. However, not all increases in fat mass are associated with pathophysiological cues. Indeed, whereas a "healthy" fat mass accrual, mainly in the subcutaneous depots, preserves metabolic homeostasis, explaining the occurrence of the metabolically healthy obese phenotype, "unhealthy" AT expansion is importantly associated with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The development of a dysfunctional adipose organ may find mechanistic explanation in a reduced ability to recruit new and functional (pre)adipocytes from undifferentiated precursor cells. Such a failure of the adipogenic process underlies the "AT expandability" paradigm. The inability of AT to expand further to store excess nutrients, rather than obesity per se, induces a diabetogenic milieu by promoting the overflow and the ectopic deposition of fatty acids in insulin-dependent organs (i.e., lipotoxicity), the secretion of various metabolically detrimental adipose-derived hormones (i.e., adipokines and lipokines), and the occurrence of local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Hitherto, fatty acids (i.e., lipokines) and the oxidation by-products of cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as nonenzymatic oxysterols and reactive aldehyde species, respectively, emerge as key modulators of (pre)adipocyte signaling through Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK pathways and potential regulators of glucose homeostasis. These and other mechanistic insights linking adipose dysfunction, oxidative stress, and impairment of glucose homeostasis are discussed in this review article, which focuses on adipose peroxidation as a potential instigator of, and a putative therapeutic target for, obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions.

  17. Surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome; indications and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Leppäniemi, Ari

    2009-01-01

    The indications for surgical decompression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. In patients without recent abdominal incisions, it can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (either midline, or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. In spite of the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, however, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to better define the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention. PMID:19366442

  18. Adipogenic differentiation state-specific gene expression as related to bovine carcass adiposity.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, C L; Loerch, S C; Velleman, S G; Pate, J L; Poole, D H; Fluharty, F L

    2011-02-01

    Genetic regulation of the site of fat deposition is not well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate adipogenic differentiation state-specific gene expression in feedlot cattle (>75% Angus; <25% Simmental parentage) of varying adipose accretion patterns. Four groups of 4 steers were selected via ultrasound for the following adipose tissue characteristics: low subcutaneous-low intramuscular (LSQ-LIM), low subcutaneous-high intramuscular (LSQ-HIM), high subcutaneous-low intramuscular (HSQ-LIM), and high subcutaneous-high intramuscular (HSQ-HIM). Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous (SQ) and intramuscular (IM) depots was collected at slaughter. The relative expression of adipogenic genes was evaluated using quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed using the mixed model of SAS, and gene expression data were analyzed using covariate analysis with ribosomal protein L19 as the covariate. No interactions (P > 0.10) were observed between IM and SQ adipose tissue depots for any of the variables measured. Therefore, only the main effects of high and low accretion within a depot and the effects of depot are reported. Steers with LIM had smaller mean diameter IM adipocytes (P < 0.001) than HIM steers. Steers with HSQ had larger mean diameter SQ adipocytes (P < 0.001) than LSQ. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in any of the genes measured due to high or low adipose accretion. Preadipogenic delta-like kinase1 mRNA was greater in the IM than the SQ adipose tissue; conversely, differentiating and adipogenic genes, lipoprotein lipase, PPARγ, fatty acid synthetase, and fatty acid binding protein 4 were greater (P < 0.001) in the SQ than the IM depot. Intramuscular adipocytes were smaller than SQ adipocytes and had greater expression of the preadipogenic gene, indicating that more hyperplasia was occurring. Meanwhile, SQ adipose tissue contained much larger (P < 0.001) adipocytes that had a greater expression (P < 0.001) of differentiating and adipogenic

  19. Subcutaneous Angiotensin II Infusion using Osmotic Pumps Induces Aortic Aneurysms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Rateri, Debra L.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic pumps continuously deliver compounds at a constant rate into small animals. This article introduces a standard protocol used to induce aortic aneurysms via subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) from implanted osmotic pumps. This protocol includes calculation of AngII amount and dissolution, osmotic pump filling, implantation of osmotic pumps subcutaneously, observation after pump implantation, and harvest of aortas to visualize aortic aneurysms in mice. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII through osmotic pumps following this protocol is a reliable and reproducible technique to induce both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice. Infusion durations range from a few days to several months based on the purpose of the study. AngII 1,000 ng/kg/min is sufficient to provide maximal effects on abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation in male hypercholesterolemic mouse models such as apolipoprotein E deficient or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms induced by AngII infusion via osmotic pumps is 5 - 10 times lower in female hypercholesterolemic mice and also lower in both genders of normocholesterolemic mice. In contrast, AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice are not hypercholesterolemia or gender-dependent. Importantly, multiple features of this mouse model recapitulate those of human aortic aneurysms. PMID:26436287

  20. Subcutaneous Angiotensin II Infusion using Osmotic Pumps Induces Aortic Aneurysms in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Rateri, Debra L; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-09-28

    Osmotic pumps continuously deliver compounds at a constant rate into small animals. This article introduces a standard protocol used to induce aortic aneurysms via subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) from implanted osmotic pumps. This protocol includes calculation of AngII amount and dissolution, osmotic pump filling, implantation of osmotic pumps subcutaneously, observation after pump implantation, and harvest of aortas to visualize aortic aneurysms in mice. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII through osmotic pumps following this protocol is a reliable and reproducible technique to induce both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice. Infusion durations range from a few days to several months based on the purpose of the study. AngII 1,000 ng/kg/min is sufficient to provide maximal effects on abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation in male hypercholesterolemic mouse models such as apolipoprotein E deficient or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms induced by AngII infusion via osmotic pumps is 5-10 times lower in female hypercholesterolemic mice and also lower in both genders of normocholesterolemic mice. In contrast, AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice are not hypercholesterolemia or gender-dependent. Importantly, multiple features of this mouse model recapitulate those of human aortic aneurysms.

  1. [Subcutaneous immunoglobulin substitution and therapy].

    PubMed

    Gulácsy, Vera; Maródi, László

    2011-01-09

    Patients with combined primary immunodeficiency or B-cell deficiency with low serum concentration of immunoglobulin G can be efficiently treated with immunoglobulin G concentrates. From the 1950s IgG was used intramuscularly, and from the 1980s intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement has become widely available for replacement therapy. Among the potential side effects of IVIG (including anaphylaxis), further disadvantages of IVIG are hospitalization during treatment and varying concentrations of IgG. Over the past ten years, subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) preparations have become reasonable alternatives to IVIG. SCIG given weekly assures a more balanced serum IgG level, side affects are mostly local and temporary; systemic, severe adverse events have not been observed. In addition, SCIG can be used for home treatment of patients which improves their quality of life remarkably.

  2. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Denise E; Lynch, Christopher J; Olson, Kristine C; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed; Smith, William H; Karpe, Fredrik; Humphreys, Sandy; Bedinger, Daniel H; Dunn, Tamara N; Thomas, Anthony P; Oort, Pieter J; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Amin, Rajesh; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G; Permana, Paska; Anthony, Tracy G; Adams, Sean H

    2013-06-01

    Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35-50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals.

  3. Carotenoids and their conversion products in the control of adipocyte function, adiposity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2015-04-15

    A novel perspective of the function of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived products - including, but not restricted to, the retinoids - is emerging in recent years which connects these compounds to the control of adipocyte biology and body fat accumulation, with implications for the management of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cell and animal studies indicate that carotenoids and carotenoids derivatives can reduce adiposity and impact key aspects of adipose tissue biology including adipocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, capacity for fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis (including browning of white adipose tissue) and secretory function. Epidemiological studies in humans associate higher dietary intakes and serum levels of carotenoids with decreased adiposity. Specifically designed human intervention studies, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. The objective of this review is to summarize recent findings in this area, place them in physiological contexts, and provide likely regulatory schemes whenever possible. The focus will be on the effects of carotenoids as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology and both animal and human studies, which support a role of carotenoids and retinoids in the prevention of abdominal adiposity.

  4. [Subcutaneous cervical emphysema secondary to tooth extraction].

    PubMed

    Calvo Boizas, E; Sancipriano Hernández, J A; Rincón Esteban, L; Diego Pérez, C; Santiago Andrés, J; Hermosa Finamor, P; Gómez Toranzo, F

    1997-01-01

    Cervical emphysema is rare and its diagnosis involves the ENT specialist. A case of cervical subcutaneous emphysema secondary to lower molar extraction is reported. The patient had no signs or symptoms other than cervical emphysema. Simple radiography and CT are recommended for early diagnosis. The etiopathogenic mechanisms of subcutaneous cervical emphysema are reviewed. Recent literature contains few cases of dental origin.

  5. Subcutaneous Hyalohyphomycosis Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Svidzinski, Terezinha E.; Zaror, Luís; Forjaz, Maily H.; Gené, Josepa; Fischman, Olga

    1998-01-01

    The coelomycete Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated in pure culture from subcutaneous nodules of the left forearm and elbow of a farmer after traumatic injury. To our knowledge, we report the first case involving this fungus as an etiological agent of subcutaneous infection. The in vitro inhibitory activities of amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, flucytosine, and fluconazole were studied. PMID:9738070

  6. Examination of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 abundance in white adipose tissue: implications in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jaycob D; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Dubuisson, Olga S; Hodgeson, Sydney M; Elks, Carrie M; Ravussin, Eric; Mynatt, Randall L

    2017-03-22

    Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) is essential for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Recently, it was reported that decreased CPT1b mRNA in adipose tissue was a contributing factor for obesity in rats. We therefore closely examined the expression level of Cpt1 in adipose tissue from mice, rats, and humans. Cpt1a is the predominate isoform in adipose tissue from all three species. Rat white adipose tissue has a moderate amount of Cpt1b mRNA, but it is very minor compared to Cpt1b expression in muscle. Total CPT1 activity in adipose tissue is also minor relative to other tissues. Both Cpt1a and Cpt1b mRNA were increased in gonadal fat but not inguinal fat by diet-induced obesity in mice. We also measured CPT1a and CPT1b expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects with a wide range of BMI. Interestingly, CPT1a expression positively correlated with BMI (R=0.46), but there was no correlation with CPT1b (R=0.04). Our findings indicate that white adipose tissue fatty acid oxidation capacity is minor compared to metabolically active tissues. Further, given the already low abundance of Cpt1b in white adipose tissue, it is unlikely that decreases in its expression can quantitatively decrease whole body energy expenditure enough to contribute to an obese phenotype.

  7. Adipose progenitor cells reside among the mature adipocytes: morphological research using an organotypic culture system.

    PubMed

    Anayama, Hisashi; Fukuda, Ryo; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-11-01

    The precise localization and biological characteristics of the adipose progenitor cells are still a focus of debate. In this study, the localization of the adipose progenitor cells was determined using an organotypic culture system of adipose tissue slices. The tissue slices of subcutaneous white adipose tissue from rats were placed on a porous membrane and cultured at the interface between air and the culture medium for up to 5 days with or without adipogenic stimulation. The structure of adipose tissue components was sufficiently preserved during the culture and, following adipogenic stimulation with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, numerous multilocular adipocytes appeared in the interstitium among the mature adipocytes. Histomorphological 3-D observation using confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of small mesenchymal cells containing little or no fat residing in the perivascular region and on the mature adipocytes and differentiation from the pre-existing mesenchymal cells to multilocular adipocytes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that these cells were initially present within the fibronectin-positive extracellular matrix (ECM). The adipose differentiation of the mesenchymal cells was confirmed by the enhanced expression of C/EBP-β suggesting adipose differentiation and the concurrent advent of CD105-expressing mesenchymal cells within the interstitium of the mature adipocytes. Based on the above, the mesenchymal cells embedded in the ECM around the mature adipocytes were confirmed to be responsible for adipogenesis because the transition of the mesenchymal cells to the stem state contributed to the increase in the number of adipocytes in rat adipose tissue.

  8. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  9. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  10. A single subcutaneous dose of tramadol for mild to moderate musculoskeletal trauma in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Alejandro; Silva, Carlos; Dominguez, Luis; Botero, Beatriz; Zambrano, Paulo; Bareno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild to moderate musculoskeletal trauma is a common cause for an emergency room visit, and frequent pain is one of the cardinal symptoms of consultation. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of a single subcutaneous dose of 50 mg tramadol for pain management in patients with mild to moderate musculoskeletal trauma, likewise to appraise the perception of pain by subcutaneous injection. METHODS: A total of 77 patients, who met inclusion criteria, received a single subcutaneous dose of tramadol. Pain control was evaluated based on the verbal numerical pain scale (0–10) at baseline, 20 and 60 minutes; similarly, pain perception was evaluated secondary to subcutaneous injection of the analgesic. RESULTS: On admission, the average pain perceived by patients was 8; twenty minutes later, 89% of the patients reported five or less, and after sixty minutes, 94% had three or less on the verbal numerical pain scale. Of the patients, 88% reported pain perception by verbal numeric scale of 3 or less by injection of the drug, and 6.5% required a second analgesic for pain control. Two events with drug administration (soft tissue infection and mild abdominal rectus injection) were reported. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a single subcutaneous dose of tramadol is a safe and effective option for the management of patients with mild to moderate pain and musculoskeletal disease in the emergency department. PMID:25548601

  11. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  12. Adipose circadian rhythms: translating cellular and animal studies to human physiology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D

    2012-02-05

    Emerging links between circadian rhythms and metabolism promise much for the understanding of metabolic physiology and pathophysiology, in which white adipose tissue (WAT) plays a prominent role. Many WAT endocrine molecules, termed adipokines, display rhythmic plasma concentration. Moreover, similar to most other tissues, WAT exhibits widespread 24-h variation in gene expression, with approximately 20% of the murine adipose transcriptome estimated to undergo daily variation. A major limitation to human chronobiology research is the availability of physiologically defined peripheral tissues. To date most analyses of in vivo human peripheral clocks has been limited to blood leucocytes. However, subcutaneous adipose tissue represents a novel opportunity to study peripheral molecular rhythms that are of clearly defined metabolic relevance. This review summarises basic concepts of circadian and metabolic physiology before then comparing alternative protocols used to analyse the rhythmic properties of human adipose tissue.

  13. Adiposity indices in children.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Sempé, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Patois, E; Péquignot-Guggenbuhl, F; Fautrad, V

    1982-07-01

    On the basis of a longitudinal study of growth in French children, we attempted to find a valid index for estimating adiposity, and to specify the optimal conditions for its use. The Quetelet index was found suitable for application to children, but as with all methods, a certain lack of precision proved unavoidable because of the different stages of growth observed at a given age. For use by clinicians, we provide charts, based on the Quetelet index and on age, permitting estimation of adiposity in any child on the basis of longitudinal study measurements. For use by epidemiologists, we give standard values for studying groups of subjects, even when a reference population is not available. Body adiposity may be expressed independently of age and sex.

  14. An Illustrative Case of Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Farshad; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Delgado, Belkis; Abrante, Luis; Cervantes, Jose; Patel, Jitendra; Roth, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a very rare form of skin lymphoma that is localized primarily to the subcutaneous adipose tissue without palpable involvement of the lymph nodes. Diagnosis of SPTCL is a challenge, especially during its early phases when symptoms mimic other, more common conditions, such as benign panniculitis, eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis and cellulitis. Clinical and systemic features are nonspecific and can include fever, chills, and weight loss. Further complicating diagnosis is the high number of false negatives provided by biopsy. Here we present a case of SPTCL that illustrates the full course of the disease, from presentation and multiple misdiagnoses to correct disease recognition and successful treatment. A review of the challenges of diagnosis is provided with recommendations for more accurate and timely recognition of SPTCL. PMID:21461360

  15. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  16. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs. RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL, or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD. People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone. In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity, the diagnostic criteria, histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies, acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused. Treatment recommendations focus on evidence-based data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy, medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT. Associated RAD conditions including depression, anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs. Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations. PMID:22301856

  17. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  18. Effects of Exendin-4 on human adipose tissue inflammation and ECM remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Pastel, E; Joshi, S; Knight, B; Liversedge, N; Ward, R; Kos, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Subjects with type-2 diabetes are typically obese with dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are routinely used to improve glycaemia. Although, they also aid weight loss that improves AT function, their direct effect on AT function is unclear. To explore GLP-1 analogues' influence on human AT's cytokine and extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, we therefore obtained and treated omental (OMAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) AT samples with Exendin-4, an agonist of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). SUBJECTS/METHODS: OMAT and abdominal SCAT samples obtained from women during elective surgery at the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital (UK) were treated with increasing doses of Exendin-4. Changes in RNA expression of adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, ECM components and their regulators were assessed and protein secretion analysed by ELISA. GLP-1R protein accumulation was compared in paired AT depot samples. RESULTS: Exendin-4 induced an increase in OMAT adiponectin (P=0.02) and decrease in elastin expression (P=0.03) in parallel with reduced elastin secretion (P=0.04). In contrast to OMAT, we did not observe an effect on SCAT. There was no change in the expression of inflammatory markers (CD14, TNFA, MCP-1), collagens, TGFB1 or CTGF. GLP-1R accumulation was higher in SCAT. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of weight loss, which may bias findings of in vivo studies, GLP-1 analogues modify human OMAT physiology favourably by increasing the insulin-sensitising cytokine adiponectin. However, the reduction of elastin and no apparent effect on AT's inflammatory cytokines suggest that GLP-1 analogues may be less beneficial to AT function, especially if there is no associated weight loss. PMID:27941938

  19. Fat depot-specific gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masakuni; Inoue, Mayumi; Jiang, Yibin; Barnes, Richard H; Buchner, David A; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1 or Ly6A/E) is a cell surface marker that is widely expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We hypothesized that the fat depot-specific gene signature of Sca1(high) ASCs may play the major role in defining adipose tissue function and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in a depot-specific manner. Herein we aimed to characterize the unique gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) ASCs isolated from subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal) adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs are found in the adventitia and perivascular areas of adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs purified with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrate dendrite or round shape with the higher expression of cytokines and chemokines (e.g., Il6, Cxcl1) and the lower expression of a glucose transporter (Glut1). Subcutaneous and visceral fat-derived Sca1(high) ASCs particularly differ in the gene expressions of adhesion and ECM molecules. While the expression of the major membrane-type collagenase (MMP14) is comparable between the groups, the expressions of secreted collagenases (MMP8 and MMP13) are higher in visceral Sca1(high) ASCs than in subcutaneous ASCs. Consistently, slow but focal MMP-dependent collagenolysis was observed with subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived vascular stromal cells, whereas rapid and bulk collagenolysis was observed with visceral adipose tissue-derived cells in MMP-dependent and -independent manners. These results suggest that the fat depot-specific gene signatures of ASCs may contribute to the distinct patterns of ECM remodeling and adipose function in different fat depots.

  20. Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Early-Onset Nodular Panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guifen; Dong, Lingli; Zhang, Shengtao

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 24 Final Diagnosis: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma Symptoms: Fever • skin nodules Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Skin biopsy • PET-CT Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma is a very uncommon subtype of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. The manifestations of this rare disease are atypical at onset, and may mimic some rheumatic or dermatologic diseases, which causes the delay of diagnosis and treatment. Case Report: We report a 24-year-old man suffering from intermittent fever and skin nodules on the left anterior chest wall, who was initially misdiagnosed with nodular panniculitis and finally diagnosed with subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma through repeat examination of biopsy of the skin nodule. Positron emission tomography revealed extracutaneous adipose tissue involvement. Subsequently, hemophagocytic syndrome occurred while under a conventional dose of glucocorticoid, but remission was induced by treatment with cyclosporine A and high doses of dexamethasone. Conclusions: In order to avoid the delay diagnosis and inappropriate treatment of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, in addition to a thorough physical examination, PET-CT and disease-specific pathologic, immunophenotypic, and T cell receptor tests of the skin biopsy should be performed. Extracutaneous involvement, especially hemophagocytic syndrome, indicated worse prognosis. Even so, cyclosporine A plus high-dose corticosteroid could be an option of treatment. PMID:27342380

  1. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  2. The role of subcutaneous tissue stiffness on microneedle performance in a representative in vitro model of skin.

    PubMed

    Moronkeji, K; Todd, S; Dawidowska, I; Barrett, S D; Akhtar, R

    2016-11-10

    There has been growing interest in the mechanical behaviour of skin due to the rapid development of microneedle devices for drug delivery applications into skin. However, most in vitro experimentation studies that are used to evaluate microneedle performance do not consider the biomechanical properties of skin or that of the subcutaneous layers. In this study, a representative experimental model of skin was developed which was comprised of subcutaneous and muscle mimics. Neonatal porcine skin from the abdominal and back regions was used, with gelatine gels of differing water content (67, 80, 88 and 96%) to represent the subcutaneous tissue, and a type of ballistic gelatine, Perma-Gel®, as a muscle mimic. Dynamic nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of each of these layers. A custom-developed impact test rig was used to apply dense polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microneedles to the skin models in a controlled and repeatable way with quantification of the insertion force and velocity. Image analysis methods were used to measure penetration depth and area of the breach caused by microneedle penetration following staining and optical imaging. The nanoindentation tests demonstrated that the tissue mimics matched expected values for subcutaneous and muscle tissue, and that the compliance of the subcutaneous mimics increased linearly with water content. The abdominal skin was thinner and less stiff as compared to back skin. The maximum force decreased with gel water content in the abdominal skin but not in the back skin. Overall, larger and deeper perforations were found in the skin models with increasing water content. These data demonstrate the importance of subcutaneous tissue on microneedle performance and the need for representative skin models in microneedle technology development.

  3. Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

  4. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancer Infection of the tubes (salpingitis) Ectopic pregnancy Fibroid tumors of the uterus (womb) Malignant tumors of the uterus or cervix Endometriosis Adhesions (scars) Screening and Diagnosis How is the cause of abdominal pain determined? ...

  5. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  6. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  7. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  9. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of abdominoplasty. Many feel a new sense of self-confidence. Alternative Names Cosmetic surgery of the abdomen; Tummy tuck; Abdominoplasty Images Abdominoplasty - series Abdominal muscles References McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend ...

  10. Abdominal involvement in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Edward G; Georgiades, Christos S; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-10-01

    Rising incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in immunocompromised hosts and patients with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, has resulted in an increase of unusual clinical and radiographic presentations of TB. With CT being a common part of emergency room (ER) evaluation of abdominal pain, it is imperative that radiologists be able to recognize abdominal presentations of TB. We discuss and illustrate typical and less common CT manifestations of tuberculosis in the abdomen to help ER radiologists in this task.

  11. The Interplay Between Sex, Ethnicity, and Adipose Tissue Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Karastergiou, Kalypso

    2015-06-01

    The obesity epidemic in the USA affects disproportionately women and the ethnic minorities. On the other hand, female sex is traditionally associated with a favorable fat distribution preferentially in the subcutaneous depots of the lower body and with improved endocrine and metabolic function of the adipose tissue. However, these data are derived from predominantly non-Hispanic white populations. This review discusses fat distribution patterns in women of diverse ethnic backgrounds, together with data on the release of adipokines from adipose tissue in these populations. Very little information is available on how the metabolic function of the adipocyte differs depending on ethnicity. Thus, it becomes clear that future clinical and translational research should explicitly discuss and take into account the sex and ethnic background of the populations studied.

  12. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  13. Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum after Tonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koukoutsis, George; Balatsouras, Dimitrios G.; Ganelis, Panayotis; Fassolis, Alexandros; Moukos, Antonis; Katotomichelakis, Michael; Kaberos, Antonis

    2013-01-01

    Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication of tonsillectomy that often resolves spontaneously but may progress to obstruct upper airways or spread to the thorax causing pneumomediastinum or pneumothorax. The mechanisms by which subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum may develop after tonsillectomy are poorly understood. A case of a 21-year-old female undergoing routine adenotonsillectomy, who developed cervicofacial emphysema and pneumomediastinum, is presented. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment options are discussed. PMID:24379978

  14. The impact of exercise intensity on whole body and adipose tissue metabolism during energy restriction in sedentary overweight men and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Natalie C; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to establish whether vigorous-intensity exercise offers additional adipose-related health benefits and metabolic improvements compared to energy-matched moderate-intensity exercise. Thirty-eight sedentary overweight men (n = 24) and postmenopausal women (n = 14) aged 52 ± 5 years (mean ± standard deviations [SD]) were prescribed a 3-week energy deficit (29302 kJ∙week(-1)) achieved by increased isocaloric moderate or vigorous-intensity exercise (+8372 kJ∙week(-1)) and simultaneous restricted energy intake (-20930 kJ∙week(-1)). Participants were randomly assigned to either an energy-matched vigorous (VIG; n = 18) or moderate (MOD; n = 20) intensity exercise group (five times per week at 70% or 50% maximal oxygen uptake, respectively). At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Body mass was reduced similarly in both groups (∆ 2.4 ± 1.1 kg and ∆ 2.4 ± 1.4 kg, respectively, P < 0.05). Insulinemic responses to a standard glucose load decreased similarly at follow-up relative to baseline in VIG (∆ 8.6 ± 15.4 nmol.120 min.l(-1)) and MOD (∆ 5.4 ± 8.5 nmol.120 min.l(-1); P < 0.05). Expression of SREBP-1c and FAS in adipose tissue was significantly down-regulated, whereas expression of PDK4 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was significantly up-regulated in both groups (P < 0.05). Thus, when energy expenditure and energy deficit are matched, vigorous or moderate-intensity exercise combined with energy restriction provide broadly similar (positive) changes in metabolic control and adipose tissue gene expression.

  15. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a ‘precaudal flow sensor’. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  16. Preadipocyte and adipose tissue differentiation in meat animals: influence of species and anatomical location.

    PubMed

    Hausman, G J; Basu, U; Wei, S; Hausman, D B; Dodson, M V

    2014-02-01

    Early in porcine adipose tissue development, the stromal-vascular (SV) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot-dependent manner. The vasculature and collagen matrix differentiate before overt adipocyte differentiation. In the fetal pig, subcutaneous (SQ) layer development is predictive of adipocyte development, as the outer, middle, and inner layers of dorsal SQ adipose tissue develop and maintain layered morphology throughout postnatal growth of SQ adipose tissue. Bovine and ovine fetuses contain brown adipose tissue but SQ white adipose tissue is poorly developed structurally. Fetal adipose tissue differentiation is associated with the precocious expression of several genes encoding secreted factors and key transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein. Identification of adipocyte-associated genes differentially expressed by age, depot, and species in vivo and in vitro has been achieved using single-gene analysis, microarrays, suppressive subtraction hybridization, and next-generation sequencing applications. Gene polymorphisms in PPARγ, cathepsins, and uncoupling protein 3 have been associated with back fat accumulation. Genome scans have mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) predictive of adipose tissue-deposition phenotypes in cattle and pigs.

  17. Macrophage and adipocyte IGF1 maintain adipose tissue homeostasis during metabolic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hye Rim; Kim, Hae Jin; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Ferrante, Anthony W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective IGF1 regulates differentiation and growth of tissues and reduces stress and injury. IGF1 also in a tissue specific manner modulates the differentiation and lipid storage capacity of adipocytes in vitro, but its roles in adipose tissue development and response to stress are not known. Methods To study IGF1 in vivo, we identified the cellular sources of adipose tissue Igf1 expression and generated mice with targeted deletion in adipocytes and macrophages. We studied the effects of adipocyte and macrophage deficiency of IGF1 on adipose tissue development, and the response to a chronic (high fat feeding) and acute (cold challenge) stress. Results The expression of Igf1 by adipose tissue is derived from multiple cell types including adipocytes and macrophages. In lean animals, adipocytes are the primary source of IGF1 but in obesity expression by adipocytes is reduced and by macrophages increased, so as to maintain overall adipose tissue Igf1 expression. Genetic deletion studies reveal that adipocyte-derived IGF1 regulates perigonadal but not subcutaneous adipose tissue mass during high fat feeding and the development of obesity. Conversely, macrophage-derived IGF1 acutely modulates PGAT (PGAT) mass during thermogenic challenges. Conclusions Local IGF1 is not required in lean adipose tissue development but required to maintain homeostasis during both chronic and acute metabolic stresses. PMID:26663512

  18. Pmch-deficiency in rats is associated with normal adipocyte differentiation and lower sympathetic adipose drive.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Shrestha, Yogendra B; Koppen, Arjen; Vargoviç, Peter; Toonen, Pim W; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Kvetnansky, Richard; Kalkhoven, Eric; Cuppen, Edwin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood.

  19. [METHODS IN ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, O; Zavalskaya, T; Lizogub, V; Kuzhel, O; Baitser, M; Zapeka, Y

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the anatomical and physiological, histological and topographic features of adipose tissue on the relationship of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. An advanced diagnostic techniques of total body fat and visceral fat content quantification as the most metabolically active are described.

  20. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man.

    PubMed

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O; Hansen, M

    1985-10-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures during cooling and rewarming and to measure the effect of scalp cooling on subcutaneous scalp blood flow, subcutaneous blood flow and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures were measured in the frontal region at the hairline border before and during cooling with a cooling helmet, during spontaneous rewarming of the cooling helmet and after removal of the rewarmed helmet in 10 normal subjects. Subcutaneous blood flow was reduced to about 25% of the postcooling control level during cooling. The flow was constantly reduced until the subcutaneous temperature exceeded 30-32 degrees C. A linear relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling during cytostatic treatment is mainly due to the metabolic effect of cooling, and only to a minor extent due to the flow reducing effect.

  1. VEGF-A Expressing Adipose Tissue Shows Rapid Beiging, Enhanced Survival After Transplantation and Confers IL4-Independent Metabolic Improvements.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Min; Sun, Kai; An, Yu Aaron; Gu, Xue; Scherer, Philipp E

    2017-03-02

    Adipocyte-derived VEGF-A plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and contributes to adipocyte function and systemic metabolism, such as insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and beigeing of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Utilizing a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible adipocyte-specific VEGF-A overexpressing mouse model, we investigated the dynamics of local VEGF-A effects on tissue beiging of adipose tissue transplants. VEGF-A overexpression in adipocytes triggers angiogenesis. We also observe a rapid appearance of beige fat cells in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWATs) within as early as 2 days post induction of VEGF-A. In contrast to conventional cold-induced beiging, VEGF-A - induced beiging is independent of IL-4. We subjected metabolically healthy VEGF-A overexpressing adipose tissue to autologous transplantation. Transfer of subcutaneous adipose tissues taken from VEGF-A overexpressing mice into diet-induced obese mice resulted in systemic metabolic benefits, associated with improved survival of adipocytes and a concomitant reduced inflammatory response. These effects of VEGF-A are tissue autonomous, inducing WAT beigeing and angiogenesis within the transplanted tissue. Our findings indicate that manipulation of adipocyte functions with a bona fide angiogenic factor, such as VEGF-A, significantly improves the survival and volume retention of fat grafts and can convey metabolically favorable properties on the recipient on the basis of beiging.

  2. The Impact of Full-Length, Trimeric and Globular Adiponectin on Lipolysis in Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipocytes of Obese and Non-Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Wedellova, Zuzana; Kovacova, Zuzana; Tencerova, Michaela; Vedral, Tomas; Rossmeislova, Lenka; Siklova-Vitkova, Michaela; Stich, Vladimir; Polak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Contribution of individual adiponectin isoforms to lipolysis regulation remains unknown. We investigated the impact of full-length, trimeric and globular adiponectin isoforms on spontaneous lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of obese and non-obese subjects. Furthermore, we explored the role of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) in adiponectin-dependent lipolysis regulation and expression of adiponectin receptors type 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in SCAAT and VAT. Primary adipocytes isolated from SCAAT and VAT of obese and non-obese women were incubated with 20 µg/ml of: A) full-length adiponectin (physiological mixture of all adiponectin isoforms), B) trimeric adiponectin isoform or C) globular adiponectin isoform. Glycerol released into media was used as a marker of lipolysis. While full-length adiponectin inhibited lipolysis by 22% in non-obese SCAAT, globular isoform inhibited lipolysis by 27% in obese SCAAT. No effect of either isoform was detected in non-obese VAT, however trimeric isoform inhibited lipolysis by 21% in obese VAT (all p<0.05). Trimeric isoform induced Thr172 p-AMPK in differentiated preadipocytes from a non-obese donor, while globular isoform induced Ser79 p-ACC by 32% (p<0.05) and Ser565 p-HSL by 52% (p = 0.08) in differentiated preadipocytes from an obese donor. AdipoR2 expression was 17% and 37% higher than AdipoR1 in SCAAT of obese and non-obese groups and by 23% higher in VAT of obese subjects (all p<0.05). In conclusion, the anti-lipolytic effect of adiponectin isoforms is modified with obesity: while full-length adiponectin exerts anti-lipolytic action in non-obese SCAAT, globular and trimeric isoforms show anti-lipolytic activity in obese SCAAT and VAT, respectively.

  3. Differences in muscle and adipose tissue gene expression and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the members of physical activity discordant twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Tuija; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Rintala, Mirva; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Pöllänen, Eija; Alen, Markku; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Rahkila, Paavo; Oresic, Matej; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2010-09-16

    High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced

  4. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  5. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  6. Opa3, a novel regulator of mitochondrial function, controls thermogenesis and abdominal fat mass in a mouse model for Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Davies, Jennifer R; Guschina, Irina A; Ball, Daniel J; Davies, Jeffrey S; Davies, Vanessa J; Evans, Bronwen A J; Votruba, Marcela

    2012-11-15

    The interrelationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) is emerging as an important factor in obesity, but the effect of impairing non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT on lipid storage in WAT remains unclear. To address this, we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of a mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a point mutation in the mitochondrial membrane protein Opa3 impairs mitochondrial activity. Opa3(L122P) mice displayed an 80% reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1, postnatal growth retardation and hepatic steatosis. A 90% reduction in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular BAT was accompanied by a marked reduction in surface body temperature, with a 2.5-fold elevation in interscapular BAT mass and lipid storage. The sequestration of circulating lipid into BAT resulted in profound reductions in epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT mass, without affecting subcutaneous WAT. The histological appearance and intense mitochondrial staining in intra-abdominal WAT suggest significant 'browning', but with UCP1 expression in WAT of Opa3(L122P) mice only 62% of that in wild-type littermates, any precursor differentiation does not appear to result in thermogenically active beige adipocytes. Thus, we have identified Opa3 as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism, coupling lipid uptake with lipid processing in liver and with thermogenesis in BAT. These findings indicate that skeletal and metabolic impairment in Costeff syndrome may be more significant than previously thought and that uncoupling lipid uptake from lipid metabolism in BAT may represent a novel approach to controlling WAT mass in obesity.

  7. Nutrition modulates Fto and Irx3 gene transcript levels, but does not alter their DNA methylation profiles in rat white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Szydlowski, Maciej; Szczerbal, Izabela

    2017-04-30

    The fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) and iroquois homeobox 3 (Irx3) genes have been recognised as important obesity-related genes. Studies on the expression of these genes in the fat tissue of human and mouse have produced inconsistent results, while similar data on rat are limited. Environmental factors such as diet, should be considered as potential modulators of gene transcript levels through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to evaluate transcription levels and DNA methylation profiles of rat Fto and Irx3 genes in two white adipose tissue depots in response to high-fat and high-protein diets. The relative transcript levels of Fto and Irx3 were shown to be tissue-specific with higher levels detected in subcutaneous fat tissue than in abdominal fat tissue. Moreover, negative correlations between the transcripts of both genes were observed for subcutaneous fat tissue. The identified interactions (e.g. diet×duration of diet regimen) indicated that the diet had an impact on the transcript level; however, this effect was dependent on the duration of the diet regimen. The high-fat diet led to upregulation of Fto and Irx3 linearly with time across the two tissues. DNA methylation of the regulatory regions of the studied genes was very low and not related with the tissue, diet, or duration of diet regimen. Our study revealed that diet was an important factor modulating transcription of Fto and Irx3, but its effect is time-dependent. In contrast, the DNA methylation profiles of Fto and Irx3 were not altered by nutrition, which may indicate that the feeding type, when applied postnatally, did not affect DNA methylation of these genes.

  8. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity.

  9. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction from the lateral tailhead, inguinal region, and mesentery of horses

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Garrett L.; McClure, Scott R.; Hostetter, Jesse M.; Martinez, Rudy F.; Wang, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of equine adipose tissue has promising applications for regenerative therapies. The most commonly used source of equine adipose tissue is the subcutaneous tailhead. The objective of this study was to compare 3 adipose depot sites in horses and determine the viability and cellular yield, capillary density, gene expression for selected markers, and colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) in adipose tissue taken from these sites. Adipose tissue was excised from the area lateral to the tailhead, the inguinal region, and the small colon mesentery of 6 horses. Lipoaspirate was also collected from the area lateral to the tailhead. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) was prepared in duplicate from the 3 different adipose tissue depots. The total nucleated and dead cell counts was determined manually using a hemocytometer and percent viability was calculated. Mass and volume of adipose were determined in order to calculate density and factor-VIII immunohistochemical staining was used to determine vascular density in the excisional adipose tissue samples from each horse. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to quantify gene expression for selected cellular markers from each site. There were significant differences in viability, yield of nucleated cells/gram of adipose tissue, vascular density, gene expression, and CFU-Fs among adipose depots. Adipose from the mesentery yielded the highest number of nucleated cells/gram of tissue and the highest vascular density and percentage of CFU-Fs. In the horse, both the anatomical site of collection and the method of tissue collection significantly impact the yield and composition of cells in the SVF. Further study is needed to assess whether one adipose source is superior for harvesting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and whether the differences among sources are clinically relevant for in-vivo treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses

  10. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction from the lateral tailhead, inguinal region, and mesentery of horses.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Garrett L; McClure, Scott R; Hostetter, Jesse M; Martinez, Rudy F; Wang, Chong

    2016-10-01

    Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of equine adipose tissue has promising applications for regenerative therapies. The most commonly used source of equine adipose tissue is the subcutaneous tailhead. The objective of this study was to compare 3 adipose depot sites in horses and determine the viability and cellular yield, capillary density, gene expression for selected markers, and colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) in adipose tissue taken from these sites. Adipose tissue was excised from the area lateral to the tailhead, the inguinal region, and the small colon mesentery of 6 horses. Lipoaspirate was also collected from the area lateral to the tailhead. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) was prepared in duplicate from the 3 different adipose tissue depots. The total nucleated and dead cell counts was determined manually using a hemocytometer and percent viability was calculated. Mass and volume of adipose were determined in order to calculate density and factor-VIII immunohistochemical staining was used to determine vascular density in the excisional adipose tissue samples from each horse. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to quantify gene expression for selected cellular markers from each site. There were significant differences in viability, yield of nucleated cells/gram of adipose tissue, vascular density, gene expression, and CFU-Fs among adipose depots. Adipose from the mesentery yielded the highest number of nucleated cells/gram of tissue and the highest vascular density and percentage of CFU-Fs. In the horse, both the anatomical site of collection and the method of tissue collection significantly impact the yield and composition of cells in the SVF. Further study is needed to assess whether one adipose source is superior for harvesting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and whether the differences among sources are clinically relevant for in-vivo treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses.

  11. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  12. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  13. Effect of mevalonic acid on cholesterol synthesis in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Cheng, Haijian; Zhang, Qingfeng; Song, Enliang; Wan, Fachun; Han, Hong; Liu, Guifen

    2016-02-01

    Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key material in the synthesis of cholesterol; indeed, intracellular cholesterol synthesis is also called the mevalonic acid pathway. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. This study suggests that MVA may play an important role in the differentiation of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. We investigated differential mRNA expression in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes (BIPs) and bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes (BSPs) by culturing cells from the longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous fat tissues of Luxi yellow cattle. The morphology of lipid accumulation of bovine preadipocytes was detected by Oil Red O staining, and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels were measured. Temporospatial expression of HMGR was investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The TC, LDLC, and HDLC content did not significantly differ over time but increased slowly with increasing MVA concentration. HMGR expression increased over time and with increasing concentrations of MVA. MVA increased adipose cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. MVA stimulated HMGR expression in two cell types and its influence on adipocyte differentiation.

  14. Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

  15. Living donor liver transplantation with abdominal wall reconstruction for hepatocellular carcinoma with needle track seeding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Horng-Ren; Thorat, Ashok; Gesakis, Kanellos; Li, Ping-Chun; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chen, Hung Chi; Jeng, Long-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Malignant cell seeding in subcutaneous tissues along the needle track and/or percutaneous biliary drainage catheters is rare complication, but pose various technical issues in planning surgical treatment of such patients. If underlying primary hepatic malignancy can be treated, an aggressive resection of subcutaneous tissue bearing cancer cell with subsequent abdominal wall reconstruction has been sporadically reported. But, when hepatic resection is not possible due to underlying advanced cirrhosis, liver transplantation along with abdominal wall resection and subsequent reconstruction remains only feasible option. Herein, we describe our successful experience of living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with full-thickness abdominal wall resection bearing the tumor seeding followed by reconstruction in single stage surgery. PMID:26722665

  16. Adipose tissue glycogen accumulation is associated with obesity-linked inflammation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Ejarque, Miriam; Serena, Carolina; Duran, Xavier; Montori-Grau, Marta; Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Yanes, Oscar; Núñez-Roa, Catalina; Roche, Kelly; Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Saez, Enrique; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Gómez-Foix, Anna Ma; Saltiel, Alan R.; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glycogen metabolism has emerged as a mediator in the control of energy homeostasis and studies in murine models reveal that adipose tissue might contain glycogen stores. Here we investigated the physio(patho)logical role of glycogen in human adipose tissue in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. Methods We studied glucose metabolic flux of hypoxic human adipoctyes by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based metabolic approaches. Glycogen synthesis and glycogen content in response to hypoxia was analyzed in human adipocytes and macrophages. To explore the metabolic effects of enforced glycogen deposition in adipocytes and macrophages, we overexpressed PTG, the only glycogen-associated regulatory subunit (PP1-GTS) reported in murine adipocytes. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis was performed on wild type and homozygous PTG KO male mice. Finally, glycogen metabolism gene expression and glycogen accumulation was analyzed in adipose tissue, mature adipocytes and resident macrophages from lean and obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance in 2 independent cohorts. Results We show that hypoxia modulates glucose metabolic flux in human adipocytes and macrophages and promotes glycogenesis. Enforced glycogen deposition by overexpression of PTG re-orients adipocyte secretion to a pro-inflammatory response linked to insulin resistance and monocyte/lymphocyte migration. Furthermore, glycogen accumulation is associated with inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and increased basal autophagy flux, correlating with greater leptin release in glycogen-loaded adipocytes. PTG-KO mice have reduced expression of key inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and PTG overexpression in M0 macrophages induces a pro-inflammatory and glycolytic M1 phenotype. Increased glycogen synthase expression correlates with glycogen deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients. Glycogen content in subcutaneous mature adipocytes is associated

  17. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in treating inflammatory neuromuscular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min-Suk; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Intravenous immunoglobulin administration has long been used in the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. Immunoglobulins may be administered by intramuscular, intravenous or subcutaneous routes. Methods: This is a report on the long-term clinical follow up of six patients with inflammatory neuromuscular disorders, that is, three chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), one multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), one inclusion body myositis (IBM) and one myasthenia gravis (MG), treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulins for a mean of 3.25 years. Results: One MMN and two CIDP patients received a weekly dose of subcutaneous immunoglobulins equivalent to intravenous immunoglobulin. One CIDP patient received a 50% dose reduction, the IBM patient received a 30% reduction and the MG patient a 20% reduction. The lower dose chosen in the majority of patients was based not only on clinical effects, but also on studies of primary immunodeficiency syndromes. One patient with CIDP showed clinical fluctuation, which was successfully treated with an adaptation of the dose of subcutaneous immunoglobulins, while the remaining patients with neuromuscular disorders had a stable clinical course for 2 years. No serious side effects were observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that subcutaneous immunoglobulins can be an attractive alternative therapy in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. PMID:26136842

  18. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  19. Rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt: Catheter protrusion to subcutaneous tissue – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Mathias, Roger; Tuma, Rogério; Abdalla, Ricardo; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a day-to-day procedure performed by a neurosurgeon. The most frequent associated complications are obstructive and infectious. Although rare, there are well-reported complications related to the poor positioning of the distal catheter, with perforation of organs and tissues. Still rarer are the complications related to the migration of this catheter. Case Description: We describe an atypical case of VP shunt postoperative by normal pressure hydrocephalus. After well-documented proper positioning of the distal catheter into the intraperitoneal cavity, it protruded into the subcutaneous space. Even on a new documented satisfactory abdominal tomography, this catheter migrated back again to the subcutaneous tissue. Conclusion: We did not find plausible explanation for this rare event. PMID:28194301

  20. Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma induced by a foreign body (steel staple) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rommel Max; Singh, Kuldeep; Sandman, Kristi

    2013-04-01

    An 8-year-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented with a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. A radiograph showed that the center of the mass contained what appeared to be steel sutures, presumed to be from an ovariohysterectomy performed 7 years earlier. The excised mass was irregular and contained numerous pockets filled with friable necrotic material and hemorrhages that were dissected by fibrous connective tissue bands. Multiple tangled and fragmented pieces of steel staples were deeply embedded within the mass. Histologically, the mass was non-encapsulated, densely cellular, and infiltrative. Neoplastic cells lined caverns and channels and were factor VIII-positive by immunohistochemistry. The neoplastic cells were oval to round with granular cytoplasm and vesicular nucleus and exhibited moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. A diagnosis of subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was made. To our knowledge, this is the first report of foreign body associated hemangiosarcoma and the first case of steel staple associated neoplasm in domestic animals.

  1. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    PubMed

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  2. Leptin selectively decreases visceral adiposity and enhances insulin action.

    PubMed Central

    Barzilai, N; Wang, J; Massilon, D; Vuguin, P; Hawkins, M; Rossetti, L

    1997-01-01

    Intraabdominal adiposity and insulin resistance are risk factors for diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and mortality. Leptin, a fat-derived protein encoded by the ob gene, has been postulated to be a sensor of energy storage in adipose tissue capable of mediating a feedback signal to sites involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Here, we provide evidence for specific effects of leptin on fat distribution and in vivo insulin action. Leptin (LEP) or vehicle (CON) was administered by osmotic minipumps for 8 d to pair-fed adult rats. During the 8 d of the study, body weight and total fat mass decreased similarly in LEP and in CON. However, while moderate calorie restriction (CON) resulted in similar decreases in whole body (by 20%) and visceral (by 21%) fat, leptin administration led to a specific and marked decrease (by 62%) in visceral adiposity. During physiologic hyperinsulinemia (insulin clamp), leptin markedly enhanced insulin action on both inhibition of hepatic glucose production and stimulation of glucose uptake. Finally, leptin exerted complex effects on the hepatic gene expression of key metabolic enzymes and on the intrahepatic partitioning of metabolic fluxes, which are likely to represent a defense against excessive storage of energy in adipose depots. These studies demonstrate novel actions of circulating leptin in the regulation of fat distribution, insulin action, and hepatic gene expression and suggest that it may play a role in the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:9399957

  3. Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.

  4. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from Cardiac Damage through Modulation of Anti-parasite Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Fernanda C. P.; Brasil, Guilherme V.; Rocha, Nazareth N.; Takiya, Christina M.; Lima, Ana Paula C. A.; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Goldenberg, Regina S.; Carvalho, Adriana B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi), is a complex disease endemic in Central and South America. It has been gathering interest due to increases in non-vectorial forms of transmission, especially in developed countries. The objective of this work was to investigate if adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC) can alter the course of the disease and attenuate pathology in a mouse model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Methodology/Principal Findings ASC were injected intraperitoneally at 3 days post-infection (dpi). Tracking by bioluminescence showed that cells remained in the abdominal cavity for up to 9 days after injection and most of them migrated to the abdominal or subcutaneous fat, an early parasite reservoir. ASC injection resulted in a significant reduction in blood parasitemia, which was followed by a decrease in cardiac tissue inflammation, parasitism and fibrosis at 30 dpi. At the same time point, analyses of cytokine release in cells isolated from the heart and exposed to T. cruzi antigens indicated an anti-inflammatory response in ASC-treated animals. In parallel, splenocytes exposed to the same antigens produced a pro-inflammatory response, which is important for the control of parasite replication, in placebo and ASC-treated groups. However, splenocytes from the ASC group released higher levels of IL-10. At 60 dpi, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that right ventricular (RV) dilation was prevented in ASC-treated mice. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the injection of ASC early after T. cruzi infection prevents RV remodeling through the modulation of immune responses. Lymphoid organ response to the parasite promoted the control of parasite burden, while the heart, a target organ of Chagas disease, was protected from damage due to an improved control of inflammation in ASC-treated mice. PMID:26248209

  5. Mobile encapsulated adipose tissue (MEAT) of cows and humans: a distinct nonneoplastic entity.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hurt, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Mobile encapsulated adipose tissue can be found in both the subcutis and peritoneal cavity. The cutaneous lesions are more common and better described; they are usually designated as "mobile encapsulated lipoma" or "nodular-cystic fat necrosis." The clinical name of abacus tumor describes best the small marble-like nodules that often can be moved freely through the subcutaneous tissue planes. Histopathologically, the nodules are composed of a dense fibrous capsule surrounding fat that may show varying degrees of necrosis, calcification, and lipomembranous changes. The peritoneal nodules are thought to originate from detached epiploic appendices. They are described occasionally in humans but more commonly in cows. Because these bovine mobile peritoneal bodies are clinically and histopathologically identical to the nodules in human subcutaneous tissue, the authors suggest that one can better understand both processes by comparing them. Because the lesions are reactive, not neoplastic, and necrosis is not an invariable feature, the authors suggest the neutral designation of mobile encapsulated adipose tissue.

  6. Visceral adipose tissue is an independent correlate of glucose disposal in older obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brochu, M; Starling, R D; Tchernof, A; Matthews, D E; Garcia-Rubi, E; Poehlman, E T

    2000-07-01

    Older obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Increased abdominal obesity may contribute to these comorbidities. There is considerable controversy, however, regarding the effects of visceral adipose tissue as a singular predictor of insulin resistance compared to the other constituents of adiposity. To address this issue, we examined the independent association of regional adiposity and total fat mass with glucose disposal in obese older postmenopausal women. A secondary objective examined the association between glucose disposal with markers of skeletal muscle fat content (muscle attenuation) and physical activity levels. We studied 44 healthy obese postmenopausal women between 50 and 71 yr of age (mean +/- SD, 56.5 +/- 5.3 yr). The rate of glucose disposal was measured using the euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Visceral and sc adipose tissue areas and midthigh muscle attenuation were measured from computed tomography. Fat mass and lean body mass were estimated from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Peak VO2 was measured from a treadmill test to volitional fatigue. Physical activity energy expenditure was measured from indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water. Pearson correlations indicated that glucose disposal was inversely related to visceral adipose tissue area (r = -0.40; P < 0.01), but not to sc adipose tissue area (r = 0.17), total fat mass (r = 0.05), midthigh muscle attenuation (r = 0.01), peak VO2 (r = -0.22), or physical activity energy expenditure (r = -0.01). The significant association persisted after adjusting visceral adipose tissue for fat mass and abdominal sc adipose tissue levels (r = -0.45; P < 0.005; in both cases). Additional analyses matched two groups of women for fat mass, but with different visceral adipose tissue levels. Results showed that obese women with high visceral adipose tissue levels (283 +/- 59 vs. 137 +/- 24 cm2; P < 0.0001) had a lower glucose

  7. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a rhinoplasty scar

    PubMed Central

    Dulguerov, Nicolas; Vankatova, Lenka; Landis, Basile Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a subcutaneous hard bony-like lump at the lateral nasal wall after a septorhinoplasty procedure is an unfavourable result. The reported patient developed this complication 2 years after a revision surgery, in which percutaneous osteotomies were performed. An excision biopsy of the lump took place and the histopathological analysis revealed a granulomatous gigantocellular inflammation with absence of birefringent particles on polarised lamp and negative mycobacteria culture. After additional investigations, the final diagnosis was consistent with grade 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis associated with subcutaneous sarcoidosis. No treatment was initiated. The facial symptoms resolved without any additional treatment and the pulmonary function tests have not deteriorated after 1 year of follow-up. The polymorphism of cutaneous lesions in sarcoidosis, the absence of systemic symptoms and the unrecognised entity of subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a scar illustrate the diagnostic challenge with this patient. PMID:25819832

  8. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    PubMed

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation.

  9. Influence of age and position on the CT number of adipose tissues in pigs.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Fintan J; Madsen, Mads T; Svalastoga, Eiliv L

    2008-10-01

    The location of adipose tissue depots is important in determining their significance. Research into the physical and chemical differences between these depots is therefore of interest. Using image analysis, this paper examines the influence of location on the linear attenuation coefficient of adipose tissue for X-rays, in computed tomography (as indicated by CT number) at three time points. Nine pigs were CT scanned on three separate occasions approximately 1 month apart. The mean CT number was -78, -100, and -104 for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from the first to the final scan, respectively. The corresponding CT numbers for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were -80, -101, and -106. There was a significant difference between the CT numbers at each location at each scan (P values from 0.025 to <0.001) and between the CT numbers for each location at different times (P < 0.05). In a separate analysis of the final scan session, the mean CT number of adipose tissue at increasing distances from a mathematically defined center of the animal was determined. Regression analysis showed that the CT number of adipose tissue decreases with increasing distance from the animal's center (y = -102.7 - 0.04 x, P < 0.001, where y is the predicted CT number for adipose tissue, from the animal center (x = 0) to the skin (x = 100)). It can thus be expected that the overall mean CT number for adipose tissue can be used as an indicator of the relative quantities of adipose tissue at each location if the mean for each is known.

  10. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kristin I; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-07-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the "beiging" of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health.

  11. Caspase Induction and BCL2 Inhibition in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tinahones, Francisco José; Coín Aragüez, Leticia; Murri, Mora; Oliva Olivera, Wilfredo; Mayas Torres, María Dolores; Barbarroja, Nuria; Gomez Huelgas, Ricardo; Malagón, Maria M.; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cell death determines the onset of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here, we analyze the relationship among obesity, adipose tissue apoptosis, and insulin signaling. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The expression levels of initiator (CASP8/9) and effector (CASP3/7) caspases as well as antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2 and inflammatory markers were assessed in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue from patients with different degrees of obesity and without insulin resistance or diabetes. Adipose tissue explants from lean subjects were cultured with TNF-α or IL-6, and the expression of apoptotic and insulin signaling components was analyzed and compared with basal expression levels in morbidly obese subjects. RESULTS SAT and VAT exhibited increased CASP3/7 and CASP8/9 expression levels and decreased BCL2 expression with BMI increase. These changes were accompanied by increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and macrophage infiltration markers. In obese subjects, CASP3/7 activation and BCL2 downregulation correlated with the IRS-1/2–expression levels. Expression levels of caspases, BCL2, p21, p53, IRS-1/2, GLUT4, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and leukocyte antigen-related phosphatase in TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants from lean subjects were comparable with those found in adipose tissue samples from morbidly obese subjects. These insulin component expression levels were reverted with CASP3/7 inhibition in these TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants. CONCLUSIONS Body fat mass increase is associated with CASP3/7 and BCL2 expression in adipose tissue. Moreover, this proapoptotic state correlated with insulin signaling, suggesting its potential contribution to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:23193206

  12. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the “beiging” of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health. PMID:26050668

  13. Subcutaneous sacral ependymoma--a histopathological challenge.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous myxopapillary or sacral ependymoma are rare tumors mostly developing in children or adolescents. The majority occurs in the sacrococcygeal region. There are numerous clinical and histopathological differential diagnoses. Owing to the fact that there have been rare reported cases that followed an aggressive course and in which the patient succumbed to metastatic disease, long term follow-up is necessary despite complete excision. We describe here a 25-year-old male patient with a histological unusual subcutaneous sacral ependymoma and discuss the differential diagnosis as well as treatment options.

  14. Subcutaneous mycoses: chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis and mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María

    2010-08-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses are common in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. They are rarely observed in Europe. These mycoses are heterogeneous, but all are caused by penetrating trauma of the skin. Most cases in Europe are observed in returning travelers, aid workers, archaeologists and immigrants. Therefore, a careful, thorough history is essential in order to reach a proper diagnosis. We provide up-to-date epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data on the three most important imported subcutaneous mycoses in Europe: chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis and mycetoma.

  15. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p < 0.001) as compared to LND group. In SAT we found positive correlation between HOMA-IR and C16:0-Cer (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and between HOMA-IR and C16:0/18:2 DAG (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). In EAT we found a strong correlation between C16:0-CoA content and HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The study showed that in obese and obese diabetic patients, bioactive lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Daza, Fernando; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E

    2016-08-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in schoolchildren. A secondary aim was to evaluate the degree of association between overall and abdominal adiposity and CRF in a total of 1,875 children and adolescents attending public schools. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption. A CVRF (Z score) was calculated and participants were divided into tertiles according to low and high levels of overall (sum of the skinfold thicknesses) and abdominal adiposity. Schoolchildren with a high-level of overall adiposity demonstrated significant differences in seven of the 10 variables analyzed (i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglycerides/high density lipoproteins [HDL-c] ratio, total cholesterol, glucose, C-reactive protein [usCRP], HDL-c, low density lipoproteins [LDL-c], and cardiovascular risk score). Schoolchildren with high levels of both overall and abdominal adiposity and low CRF had the least favorable CVRF score.

  17. Transdifferentiation properties of adipocytes in the adipose organ.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Saverio

    2009-11-01

    Mammals have two types of adipocytes, white and brown, but their anatomy and physiology is different. White adipocytes store lipids, and brown adipocytes burn them to produce heat. Previous descriptions implied their localization in distinct sites, but we demonstrated that they are mixed in many depots, raising the concept of adipose organ. We explain the reason for their cohabitation with the hypothesis of reversible physiological transdifferentiation; they are able to convert one into each other. If needed, the brown component of the organ could increase at the expense of the white component and vice versa. This plasticity is important because the brown phenotype of the organ associates with resistance to obesity and related disorders. Another example of physiological transdifferetiation of adipocytes is offered by the mammary gland; the pregnancy hormonal stimuli seems to trigger a reversible transdifferentiation of adipocytes into milk-secreting epithelial glands. The obese adipose organ is infiltrated by macrophages inducing chronic inflamation that is widely considered as a causative factor for insulin resistance. We showed that the vast majority of macrophages infiltrating the obese organ are arranged around dead adipocytes, forming characteristic crown-like structures. We recently found that visceral fat is more infiltrated than the subcutaneous fat despite a smaller size of visceral adipocytes. This suggests a different susceptibility of visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes to death, raising the concept of smaller critical death size that could be important to explain the key role of visceral fat for the metabolic disorders associated with obesity.

  18. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  19. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  20. Altered pattern of cannabinoid type 1 receptor expression in adipose tissue of dysmetabolic and overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Sarzani, Riccardo; Bordicchia, Marica; Marcucci, Pierfrancesco; Bedetta, Samuele; Santini, Silvia; Giovagnoli, Andrea; Scappini, Lorena; Minardi, Daniele; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Rappelli, Alessandro

    2009-03-01

    In overweight patients (OW), the increased peripheral activity of the endocannabinoid system in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may be mediated by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor expression. We determined whether CB1 receptor splice variants and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene expression with multiple-primers real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan; Applied Biosystem, Weiterstadt, Germany) was performed to study VAT and paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mRNA from 36 consecutive patients undergoing nephrectomy. Cannabinoid type 1A and CB1E mRNAs variants with the longer version of exon 4 were expressed. The CB1 expression in perirenal VAT significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Paired subcutaneous/perirenal samples from normal-weight patients (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) showed higher CB1 expression in SAT (P = .002), whereas in OW (BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2)), the higher CB1 expression was in VAT (P = .038). In unpaired samples, SAT of normal-weight patients had significantly higher CB1 mRNA levels compared with SAT of OW, whereas higher CB1 expression (P = .009) was found in VAT of OW (n = 25). Overweight patients with increased visceral CB1 expression had higher waist circumference (P < .01), insulin (P < .01), and homeostasis model assessment index (P < .01). In addition, patients with the MetS (n = 22) showed higher CB1 expression in perirenal adipose tissues (P = .007). Visceral adipose CB1 expression correlated with BMI. Overweight patients and those with MetS showed a CB1 expression pattern supporting a CB1-mediated overactivity of the endocannabinoid system in human VAT.

  1. Effects of Increased Free Fatty Acid Availability on Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage in Men

    PubMed Central

    Mundi, Manpreet S.; Koutsari, Chistina

    2014-01-01

    Context: A portion of free fatty acids (FFA) released from adipose tissue lipolysis are re-stored in adipocytes via direct uptake. Rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage are much greater in women than men, but women also have greater systemic FFA flux and more body fat. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that experimental increases in FFA in men would equalize the rates of direct adipose tissue FFA storage in men and women. Design: We used a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA in men to levels seen in post-absorptive women. Direct FFA storage (μmol·kg fat−1·min−1) rates in abdominal and femoral fat was assessed using stable isotope tracer infusions to measure FFA disappearance rates and an iv FFA radiotracer bolus/timed biopsy. Setting: These studies were performed in a Clinical Research Center. Participants: Data from 13 non-obese women was compared with that from eight obese and eight non-obese men. Intervention: The men received a lipid emulsion infusion to raise FFA. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the rates of direct FFA storage in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Results: The three groups were similar in age and FFA flux by design; obese men had similar body fat percentage as non-obese women. Despite matching for FFA concentrations and flux, FFA storage per kg abdominal (P < .01) and femoral (P < .001) fat was less in both lean and obese men than in non-obese women. Abdominal FFA storage rates were correlated with proteins/enzymes in the FFA uptake/triglyceride synthesis pathway in men. Conclusion: The lesser rates of direct FFA adipose tissue in men compared with women cannot be explained by reduced FFA availability. PMID:25192251

  2. Dwarfism and increased adiposity in the gh1 mutant zebrafish vizzini.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Sarah K; Minchin, James E N; Gordon, Tiffany N; Rawls, John F; Parichy, David M

    2013-04-01

    Somatic growth and adipogenesis are closely associated with the development of obesity in humans. In this study, we identify a zebrafish mutant, vizzini, that exhibits both a severe defect in somatic growth and increased accumulation of adipose tissue. Positional cloning of vizzini revealed a premature stop codon in gh1. Although the effects of GH are largely through igfs in mammals, we found no decrease in the expression of igf transcripts in gh1 mutants during larval development. As development progressed, however, we found overall growth to be progressively retarded and the attainment of specific developmental stages to occur at abnormally small body sizes relative to wild type. Moreover, both subcutaneous (sc) and visceral adipose tissues underwent precocious development in vizzini mutants, and at maturity, the sizes of different fat deposits were greatly expanded relative to wild type. In vivo confocal imaging of sc adipose tissue (SAT) expansion revealed that vizzini mutants exhibit extreme enlargement of adipocyte lipid droplets without a corresponding increase in lipid droplet number. These findings suggest that GH1 signaling restricts SAT hypertrophy in zebrafish. Finally, nutrient deprivation of vizzini mutants revealed that SAT mobilization was greatly diminished during caloric restriction, further implicating GH1 signaling in adipose tissue homeostasis. Overall, the zebrafish gh1 mutant, vizzini, exhibits decreased somatic growth, increased adipose tissue accumulation, and disrupted adipose plasticity after nutrient deprivation and represents a novel model to investigate the in vivo dynamics of vertebrate obesity.

  3. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J.; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity1. In response to cold or exercise brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (named beige cells), a process known as browning2,3,4. Here, we show that the development of functional beige fat is promoted by microbiota depletion either by antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice within the inguinal subcutaneous and perigonadal visceral adipose tissues (ingSAT and pgVAT, respectively). This leads to improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice and obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. These metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration and enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by suppression of the type 2 signaling and are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated, or the germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige fat development in health and metabolic disease. PMID:26569380

  4. [Myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Janů, F

    2016-01-01

    A number of benign and malignant tumors may develop in the abdominal cavity. Sarcomas are rather rare tumors of the abdominal cavity. They are often diagnosed at advanced growth stages as their local growth can cause clinical problems to the patients. The author presents a case report of myxofibrosarcoma in the abdominal cavity.Key words: myxofibrosarcoma.

  5. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  6. Elephantine but not elephantiasis: Subcutaneous zygomycosis.

    PubMed

    Girish, Meenakshi; Arora, Amit; Bhalla, Lucky; Salodkar, Atul

    2011-09-01

    Subcutaneous zygomycosis is an unusual disorder caused by a rare fungus, Basidiobolus ranarum. We report this entity in a 4- yr- old boy. Biopsy showed the Splendore Hoeppli phenomenon and the culture yielded Basidiobolus ranarum. The child responded to saturated solution of potassium iodide within 1 month of starting treatment.

  7. The Circulatory and Metabolic Responses to Hypoxia in Humans – With Special Reference to Adipose Tissue Physiology and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Boushel, Robert; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. However, acute exercise during systemic hypoxia reduces subcutaneous blood flow in healthy young subjects, but the response in overweight or obese subjects remains to be investigated. Emerging evidence also indicates that exercise training during hypoxic exposure may provide additive benefits with respect to many traditional cardiovascular risk factors as compared to exercise performed in normoxia, but unfavorable effects of hypoxia have also been documented. These topics will be covered in this brief review dealing with hypoxia and adipose tissue physiology. PMID:27621722

  8. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

  9. Cholinoceptor-mediated effects on glycerol output from human adipose tissue using in situ microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, K.; Arner, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. Possible cholinoceptor-mediated effects on lipolysis were investigated in vivo in human subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-smoking, healthy subjects, by use of microdialysis. Cholinomimetic and sympathomimetic agents were added to the ingoing dialysate solvent. 2. Addition of nicotine to the perfusion solvent caused a concentration-dependent reversible increase in the levels of glycerol in the dialysate (lipolysis index). The opposite effect (also concentration-dependent and reversible) was caused by the addition of carbachol. The maximum effects were 100% stimulation and 50% inhibition, respectively, by nicotine and carbachol. Neither nicotine nor carbachol stimulated nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue (as measured with an ethanol escape technique). 3. The nicotine effect in situ was concentration-dependently counteracted by the nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Likewise, the carbachol effect was concentration-dependently counteracted by the muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. 4. When adipose tissue was pretreated with phentolamine plus propranolol in order to obtain a complete alpha and beta-adrenoceptor blockade, the subsequent addition of nicotine or carbachol still induced an in