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Sample records for abdominal surgery including

  1. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  2. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Description Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia . This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You ...

  3. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  4. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  5. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-11-01

    Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma formation and physical function. A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases with the use of abdominal binders. Reduction of pulmonary function during use of abdominal binders has not been revealed. Abdominal binders reduce post-operative psychological distress, but their effect on post-operative pain after laparotomy and seroma formation after ventral hernia repair remains unclear. Due to the sparse evidence and poor quality of the literature, solid conclusions may be difficult to make, and procedure-specific, high-quality randomised clinical trials are warranted.

  7. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, <5 cm H2O), or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  8. Does specialization improve outcome in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Rachel; von Känel, Oliver; Eugster, Thomas; Stierli, Peter; Gürke, Lorenz

    2005-01-01

    Specialization and high volume are reported to be related to a better outcome after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The aim of this study was to compare, in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, the outcomes of those whose surgery was done by general surgeons with the outcomes of those whose surgery was done by specialist vascular surgeons. All patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair at the Basel University Hospital (referral center) from January 1990 to December 2000 were included. Patients with endovascular treatment were excluded. Operations in group A (n = 189), between January 1990 and May 1995, were done by general surgeons. Operations in group B (n = 291), between June 1995 and December 2000, were done by vascular surgeons. In-hospital mortality and local and systemic complications were assessed. In-hospital mortality rates were significantly lower for group B (with specialist surgeons) than for group A, both overall (group B, 11.7%; group A, 21.7%; p = .003) and for emergency interventions (group B, 28.1%; group A, 41.9%; p = .042). The reduction in mortality for elective surgery in group B was not statistically significant (group B, 1.1%; group A, 4.9%; p = .054). There were significantly fewer pulmonary complications in group B compared with group A (p = .000). We conclude that in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, those whose surgery is done by a specialized team have a significantly better outcome than those whose surgery is done by general surgeons.

  9. Lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M; Godet, G; Fléron, M H; Bernard, M A; Orcel, P; Riou, B; Kieffer, E; Coriat, P

    1997-07-01

    Lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis has been very rarely reported after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine its incidence and main characteristics in a large population undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. Over a 21-mo period, 224 consecutive patients, 209 male and 15 female, mean age 65 +/- 10 yr, underwent abdominal aortic surgery (aortic aneurysm in 142 patients and occlusive aortic degenerative disease in 82 patients). Surgical incision was a midline incision with exaggerated hyperlordosis in 173 patients and a flank incision with a retroperitoneal approach in 51 patients. Postoperative rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in 20 patients. In these patients, 9 (4%) experienced severe low back pain, and lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis was confirmed by tomodensitometry (n = 6) or muscle biopsy (n = 3). The remaining 11 patients had lower limb muscle rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis occurred after surgery of longer duration, which involved more frequent visceral artery reimplantation, with longer duration of aortic clamping and greater intraoperative bleeding. Lumbar rhabdomyolysis occurred in younger patients who were more frequently obese. On first postoperative day, the mean creatine kinase (CK) value was greater in lumbar rhabdomyolysis than in lower limb rhabdomyolysis (17,082 +/- 15,003 vs 3,313 +/- 3,120 IU/L, P < 0.05). Acute renal failure and postoperative death did not occur in patients with lumbar muscle rhabdomyolysis. Lumbar rhabdomyolysis was not a rare event after abdominal aortic surgery (4%). This syndrome was characterized by postoperative low back pain of unusual severity, which required analgesic therapy, and induced a very high increase in CK with typical findings at tomodensitometry or muscle biopsy but was not associated with postoperative renal failure.

  10. Does previous abdominal surgery affect the course and outcomes of laparoscopic bariatric surgery?

    PubMed

    Major, Piotr; Droś, Jakub; Kacprzyk, Artur; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Janik, Michał; Walędziak, Maciej; Paśnik, Krzysztof; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Proczko-Stepaniak, Monika; Kaska, Łukasz; Lech, Paweł; Michalik, Maciej; Duchnik, Michał; Kaseja, Krzysztof; Pastuszka, Maciej; Stepuch, Paweł; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2018-03-26

    Global experiences in general surgery suggest that previous abdominal surgery may negatively influence different aspects of perioperative care. As the incidence of bariatric procedures has recently increased, it is essential to assess such correlations in bariatric surgery. To assess whether previous abdominal surgery influences the course and outcomes of laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Seven referral bariatric centers in Poland. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2413 patients; 1706 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) matched the inclusion criteria. Patients with no history of abdominal surgery were included as group 1, while those who had undergone at least 1 abdominal surgery were included as group 2. Group 2 had a significantly prolonged median operation time for RYGB (P = .012), and the longest operation time was observed in patients who had previously undergone surgeries in both the upper and lower abdomen (P = .002). Such a correlation was not found in SG cases (P = .396). Groups 1 and 2 had similar rates of intraoperative adverse events and postoperative complications (P = .562 and P = .466, respectively). Group 2 had a longer median duration of hospitalization than group 1 (P = .034), while the readmission rate was similar between groups (P = .079). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the influence of the long-term effects of bariatric treatment on weight loss (percentage of follow-up was 55%). Previous abdominal surgery prolongs the operative time of RYGB and the duration of postoperative hospitalization, but does not affect the long-term outcomes of bariatric treatment. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chylous ascites following abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Panieri, E; Kussman, B D; Michell, W L; Tunnicliffe, J A; Immelman, E J

    1995-03-01

    Chylous ascites is an extremely rare complication of abdominal aortic surgery. A case with a successful outcome is presented, followed by a review of the 17 published cases. Chylous ascites can result in nutritional imbalance, immunological deficit and respiratory dysfunction. Paracentesis confirms the diagnosis and provides symptomatic relief. Conservative management, beginning with a low-fat diet and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplementation, is recommended, changing to total parenteral nutrition if unsuccessful. Failure of non-operative treatment may necessitate the need for laparotomy and ligation of leaking lymphatics or peritoneovenous shunting.

  12. [Characterisation of Candida sp. isolated from patients after abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Vaňková, A; Ulrych, J; Matek, K

    2017-01-01

    Intraabdominal candidiasis (IAC) is the predominant type of invasive candidiasis after candidemia. The majority of epidemiological studies on Candida are focused only on bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, the role of blood cultures has limited application in patients with abdominal candidiasis. IAC, which includes peritonitis and intraabdominal abscesses, may occur in around 40% of patients following repeat gastrointestinal (GI) surgery or GI perforation. Retrospective analysis of culture isolates of Candida sp. from clinical specimens of patients after abdominal surgery. The study period was from January 1 to October 31, 2016. Our study of 33 patients with findings of Candida sp. from the abdominal cavity found a mortality of 15.2%, the most frequent strain being C. albicans and C. glabrata. All strains of Candida sp. were susceptible to echinocandins. Candida sp. is part of normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract and its isolation is often difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, the pathophysiologic importance of Candida isolation from the abdominal space is not completely clear in many clinical situations.Key words: invasive candidiasis intra-abdominal candidiasis laboratory diagnostics.

  13. Oedema is associated with clinical outcome following emergency abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Shaw, P G; Saunders, J; Smith, T; King, A T; Stroud, M A

    2013-09-01

    Oedema is observed frequently following surgery and may be associated with worse outcomes. To date, no study has investigated the role of oedema in the emergency surgical patient. This study assesses the incidence of oedema following emergency abdominal surgery and the value of early postoperative oedema measurement in predicting clinical outcome. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery at a university unit over a two-month period was undertaken. Nutritional and clinical outcome data were collected and oedema was measured in the early postoperative period. Predictors of oedema and outcomes associated with postoperative oedema were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall, 55 patients (median age: 66 years) were included in the study. Postoperative morbidity included ileus (n=22) and sepsis (n=6) with 12 deaths at follow-up. Postoperative oedema was present in 19 patients and was associated with prolonged perioperative fasting (107 vs 30 hours, p=0.009) but not with body mass index (24 kg/m(2) vs 27 kg/m(2), p=0.169) or preadmission weight loss (5% vs 3%, p=0.923). On multivariate analysis, oedema was independently associated with gastrointestinal recovery (B=6.91, p=0.038), artificial nutritional support requirement (odds ratio: 6.91, p=0.037) and overall survival (χ(2) =13.1, df=1, p=0.001). Generalised oedema is common after emergency abdominal surgery and appears to independently predict gastrointestinal recovery, the need for artificial nutritional support and survival. Oedema is not associated with commonly applied markers of nutritional status such as body mass index or recent weight loss. Measurement of oedema offers utility in identifying those at risk of poor clinical outcome or those requiring artificial nutritional support following emergency abdominal surgery.

  14. Oedema is associated with clinical outcome following emergency abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan-Shaw, PG; Saunders, J; Smith, T; King, AT

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Oedema is observed frequently following surgery and may be associated with worse outcomes. To date, no study has investigated the role of oedema in the emergency surgical patient. This study assesses the incidence of oedema following emergency abdominal surgery and the value of early postoperative oedema measurement in predicting clinical outcome. Methods A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery at a university unit over a two-month period was undertaken. Nutritional and clinical outcome data were collected and oedema was measured in the early postoperative period. Predictors of oedema and outcomes associated with postoperative oedema were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Overall, 55 patients (median age: 66 years) were included in the study. Postoperative morbidity included ileus (n=22) and sepsis (n=6) with 12 deaths at follow-up. Postoperative oedema was present in 19 patients and was associated with prolonged perioperative fasting (107 vs 30 hours, p=0.009) but not with body mass index (24kg/m2 vs 27kg/m2, p=0.169) or preadmission weight loss (5% vs 3%, p=0.923). On multivariate analysis, oedema was independently associated with gastrointestinal recovery (B=6.91, p=0.038), artificial nutritional support requirement (odds ratio: 6.91, p=0.037) and overall survival (χ2=13.1, df=1, p=0.001). Conclusions Generalised oedema is common after emergency abdominal surgery and appears to independently predict gastrointestinal recovery, the need for artificial nutritional support and survival. Oedema is not associated with commonly applied markers of nutritional status such as body mass index or recent weight loss. Measurement of oedema offers utility in identifying those at risk of poor clinical outcome or those requiring artificial nutritional support following emergency abdominal surgery. PMID:24025285

  15. Transarterial embolization for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage following abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun-Gao; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Zhao, Lin-Bo; Xia, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Wei-Zhong; Li, Lin-Sun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical results of angiography and embolization for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage after abdominal surgery. METHODS: This retrospective study included 26 patients with postoperative hemorrhage after abdominal surgery. All patients underwent emergency transarterial angiography, and 21 patients underwent emergency embolization. We retrospectively analyzed the angiographic features and the clinical outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization. RESULTS: Angiography showed that a discrete bleeding focus was detected in 21 (81%) of 26 patients. Positive angiographic findings included extravasations of contrast medium (n = 9), pseudoaneurysms (n = 9), and fusiform aneurysms (n = 3). Transarterial embolization was technically successful in 21 (95%) of 22 patients. Clinical success was achieved in 18 (82%) of 22 patients. No postembolization complications were observed. Three patients died of rebleeding. CONCLUSION: The positive rate of angiographic findings in 26 patients with postoperative gastrointestinal hemorrhage was 81%. Transcatheter arterial embolization seems to be an effective and safe method in the management of postoperative gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:24187463

  16. Relevance of surgery after embolization of gastrointestinal and abdominal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Gernot; Koch, Oliver Owen; Antoniou, Stavros A; Mayer, Franz; Lechner, Michael; Pallwein-Prettner, Leo; Emmanuel, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal and abdominal bleeding can lead to life-threatening situations. Embolization is considered a feasible and safe treatment option. The relevance of surgery has thus diminished in the past. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of surgery in the management of patients after embolization. We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of outcomes after transarterial embolization of acute abdominal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage between January 2009 and December 2012 at the Sisters of Charity Hospital, Linz. Patients were divided into three groups, as follows: upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), and abdominal hemorrhage. Fifty-four patients with 55 bleeding events were included. The bleeding source could be localized angiographically in 80 %, and the primary clinical success rate of embolization was 81.8 % (45/55 cases). Early recurrent bleeding (<30 days) occurred in 18.2 % (10/55) of the patients, and delayed recurrent hemorrhage (>30 days) developed in 3.6 % (2/55). The mean follow-up was 8.4 months, and data were available for 85.2 % (46/54) of the patients. Surgery after embolization was required in 20.4 % of these patients (11/54). Failure to localize the bleeding site was identified as predictive of recurrent bleeding (p = 0.009). More than one embolization effort increased the risk of complications (p = 0.02) and rebleeding (p = 0.07). Surgery still has an important role after embolization in patients with gastrointestinal and abdominal hemorrhage. One of five patients required surgery in cases of early and delayed rebleeding or because of ischemic complications (2/55 both had ischemic damage of the gallbladder) and bleeding consequences.

  17. Computer-assisted abdominal surgery: new technologies.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Nickel, F; Wekerle, A L; Preukschas, A; Apitz, M; Schulte, T; Rempel, R; Mietkowski, P; Wagner, F; Termer, A; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-04-01

    Computer-assisted surgery is a wide field of technologies with the potential to enable the surgeon to improve efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management. This review provides an overview of the most important new technologies and their applications. A MEDLINE database search was performed revealing a total of 1702 references. All references were considered for information on six main topics, namely image guidance and navigation, robot-assisted surgery, human-machine interface, surgical processes and clinical pathways, computer-assisted surgical training, and clinical decision support. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Based on their respective field of expertise, the authors chose 64 publications relevant for the purpose of this review. Computer-assisted systems are increasingly used not only in experimental studies but also in clinical studies. Although computer-assisted abdominal surgery is still in its infancy, the number of studies is constantly increasing, and clinical studies start showing the benefits of computers used not only as tools of documentation and accounting but also for directly assisting surgeons during diagnosis and treatment of patients. Further developments in the field of clinical decision support even have the potential of causing a paradigm shift in how patients are diagnosed and treated.

  18. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  19. Past and present in abdominal surgery management for Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Zafon, Carles; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Armengol, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Data on specific abdominal surgery and Cushing's syndrome are infrequent and are usually included in the adrenalectomy reports. Current literature suggests the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical adrenalectomies for patients diagnosed with non-functioning tumours and functioning adrenal tumours including pheochromocytoma, Conn's syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. Medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome is feasible but follow-up or clinical situations force the patient to undergo a surgical procedure. Laparoscopic surgery has become a gold standard nowadays in a broad spectrum of pathologies. Laparoscopic adrenalectomies are also standard procedures nowadays. However, despite the different characteristics and clinical disorders related to the laparoscopically removed adrenal tumours, the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes do not significantly differ in most cases between the different groups of patients, techniques and types of tumours. Tumour size, hormonal type and surgeon's experience could be different factors that predict intraoperative and postoperative complications. Transabdominal and retroperitoneal approaches can be considered. Outcomes for Cushing's syndrome do not differ depending on the surgical approach. Novel technologies and approaches such as single-port surgery or robotic surgery have proven to be safe and feasible. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and feasible approach to adrenal pathology, providing the patients with all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Single-port access and robotic surgery can be performed but more data are required to identify their correct role between the different surgical approaches. Factors such as surgeon's experience, tumour size and optimal technique can affect the outcomes of this surgery.

  20. Elasticity of the living abdominal wall in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengli; Alijani, Afshin; Frank, Tim; Hanna, George; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires inflation of the abdominal cavity and this offers a unique opportunity to measure the mechanical properties of the living abdominal wall. We used a motion analysis system to study the abdominal wall motion of 18 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and found that the mean Young's modulus was 27.7+/-4.5 and 21.0+/-3.7 kPa for male and female, respectively. During inflation, the abdominal wall changed from a cylinder to a dome shape. The average expansion in the abdominal wall surface was 20%, and a working space of 1.27 x 10(-3)m(3) was created by expansion, reshaping of the abdominal wall and diaphragmatic movement. For the first time, the elasticity of human abdominal wall was obtained from the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and a 3D simulation model of human abdominal wall has been developed to analyse the motion pattern in laparoscopic surgery. Based on this study, a mechanical abdominal wall lift and a surgical simulator for safe/ergonomic port placements are under development.

  1. A Virtual Reality-Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    415) 591-7881 In! IhNiI 1 SHORT TITLE: A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery REPORTING PERIOD: October 31, 1993-June 30, 1994 The...Report - A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation Of Abdominal Surgery Page 2 June 21, 1994 TECHNICAL REPORT SUMMARY Virtual Reality is a marriage between...applications of this technology. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations. simulate and

  2. Dual antiplatelet treatment in patients candidates for abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.

  3. [Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block for upper abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Yoshimune; Kashiwagi, Masanori; Nagatsuka, Yukio; Oosaku, Masayoshi; Hirose, Chikako

    2010-08-01

    Upper abdominal surgery leads to severe postoperative pain. Insufficient postoperative analgesia accompanies a high incidence of complications. Therefore, postoperative analgesia is very important. The epidural analgesia has many advantages. However it has a high risk of epidural hematoma in anticoagulated patients. Rectus sheath block provided safer and more reliable analgesia in recent years, by the development of ultrasound tools. We experienced two cases of the rectus sheath block in upper abdominal surgery under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound guided rectus sheath block can reduce the risk of peritoneal puncture, bleeding, and other complications. Rectus sheath block is very effective to reduce postoperative pain in upper abdominal surgery as an alternative method to epidural anesthesia in anticoagulated patients.

  4. [Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia in patients with abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Evaristo-Méndez, Gerardo; Rocha-Calderón, César Haydn

    2016-01-01

    The risk of post-operative pneumonia is a latent complication. A study was conducted to determine its risk factors in abdominal surgery. A cross-sectional study was performed that included analysing the variables of age and gender, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking, serum albumin, type of surgery and anaesthesia, emergency or elective surgery, incision site, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and time on mechanical ventilation. The adjusted odds ratio for risk factors was obtained using multivariate logistic regression. The study included 91 (9.6%) patients with pneumonia and 851 (90.4%) without pneumonia. Age 60 years or over (OR=2.34), smoking (OR=9.48), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR=3.52), emergency surgery (OR=2.48), general anaesthesia (OR=3.18), surgical time 120 minutes or over (OR=5.79), time in intensive care unit 7 days or over (OR=1.23), time on mechanical ventilation greater than or equal to 4 days (OR=5.93) and length of post-operative hospital stay of 15 days or over (OR=1.20), were observed as independent predictors for the development of postoperative pneumonia. Identifying risk factors for post-operative pneumonia may prevent their occurrence. The length in the intensive care unit of greater than or equal to 7 days (OR=1.23; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.42) and a length postoperative hospital stay of 15 days or more (OR=1.20; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.34) were the predictive factors most strongly associated with lung infection in this study. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma osmotic changes during major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Malone, R A; McLeavey, C A; Arens, J F

    1977-12-01

    Fluid balance across the capillary membrane is maintained normally by a balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (COP). In 12 patients having major intra-abdominal procedures, the COP was followed during the operative and immediate postoperative periods. The patients' intraoperative fluid management consisted of replacing shed blood with blood and following Shires' concept of crystalloid replacement. Significant decreases in COP to approximately two thirds of the initial value occurred in patients having intra-abdominal procedures versus only a 10 percent decrease in those having peripheral procedures (greater than .001). As a result of this decrease in COP, the balance between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures is lost and risk of pulmonary intersitial edema is increased.

  6. Advanced Training in Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery (Atlas): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Palter, Vanessa; Grantcharov, Teodor; Aggarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation has widely spread this last decade, especially in laparoscopic surgery, and training out of the operating room (OR) has proven its positive impact on basic skills during real laparoscopic procedures. However, few articles dealing with advanced training in laparoscopic abdominal surgery (ATLAS) have been published so far. Such training may reduce learning curves in the OR for junior surgeons with limited access to complex laparoscopic procedures as a primary operator. Methods Two reviewers, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library, conducted a systematic research with combinations of the following keywords: (teaching OR education OR computer simulation) AND laparoscopy AND (gastric OR stomach OR colorectal OR colon OR rectum OR small bowel OR liver OR spleen OR pancreas OR advanced surgery OR advanced procedure OR complex procedure). Additional studies were searched in the reference lists of all included articles. Results Fifty-four original studies were retrieved. Their level of evidence was low: most of the studies were case series, one fifth purely descriptive, and there were 8 randomized trials. Porcine models and video trainers, as well as gastric and colorectal procedures were mainly assessed. The retrieved studies showed some encouraging trends in terms of trainees' satisfaction, improvement after training (but mainly on the training tool itself). Some tools have been proven to be construct-valid. Conclusions Higher quality studies are required to appraise ATLAS educational value. PMID:24947643

  7. [Physical therapy performance in respiratory and motor involvement during postoperative in children submitted to abdominal surgeries].

    PubMed

    Santo, Caroline C; Gonçalves, Marcela T; Piccolo, Mariana M; Lima, Simone; Rosa, George J da; Paulin, Elaine; Schivinski, Camila S

    2011-01-01

    to verify the physiotherapy performance in the respiratory and motor affections during postoperative period in pediatric patients undergoing abdominal surgery. was a literature review of articles published in the databases Lilacs, Medline and SciELO in the period 1983 to 2010 as well as books, papers presented at scientific meetings and journals of the area, who approached the post-therapy of abdominal surgery in children. The keywords used were: abdominal surgery, children and physiotherapy. 28 articles, one book chapter and one dissertation had been selected that examined the question and proposed that contained all, or at least two of the descriptors listed. Most of the material included covers the incidence of respiratory complications after surgery for pediatric abdominal surgery due to immaturity of the respiratory system of this population, abdominal manipulation of surgical period, the prolonged time in bed, pain at the incision site and waste anesthetic. Some authors also discuss the musculoskeletal and connective tissue arising from the inaction and delay of psychomotor development consequent to periods of hospitalization in early childhood, taking on the role of physiotherapy to prevent motor and respiratory involvement. there are few publications addressing this topic, but the positive aspects of physiotherapy have been described, especially in relation to the prevention of respiratory complications and motor, recognized the constraints and consequences of hospitalizations and surgeries cause in children.

  8. Abdominal surgery process modeling framework for simulation using spreadsheets.

    PubMed

    Boshkoska, Biljana Mileva; Damij, Talib; Jelenc, Franc; Damij, Nadja

    2015-08-01

    We provide a continuation of the existing Activity Table Modeling methodology with a modular spreadsheets simulation. The simulation model developed is comprised of 28 modeling elements for the abdominal surgery cycle process. The simulation of a two-week patient flow in an abdominal clinic with 75 beds demonstrates the applicability of the methodology. The simulation does not include macros, thus programming experience is not essential for replication or upgrading the model. Unlike the existing methods, the proposed solution employs a modular approach for modeling the activities that ensures better readability, the possibility of easily upgrading the model with other activities, and its easy extension and connectives with other similar models. We propose a first-in-first-served approach for simulation of servicing multiple patients. The uncertain time duration of the activities is modeled using the function "rand()". The patients movements from one activity to the next one is tracked with nested "if()" functions, thus allowing easy re-creation of the process without the need of complex programming. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal surgery-induced postoperative gastric ileus is well established to induce Fos expression in specific brain nuclei in rats within 2-h after surgery. However, the phenotype of activated neurons has not been thoroughly characterized. Nesfatin-1 was recently discovered in the rat hypothalamus as a new anorexigenic peptide that also inhibits gastric emptying and is widely distributed in rat brain autonomic nuclei suggesting an involvement in stress responses. Therefore, we investigated whether abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Two hours after abdominal surgery with cecal palpation under short isoflurane anesthesia or anesthesia alone, rats were transcardially perfused and brains processed for double immunohistochemical labeling of Fos and nesfatin-1. Abdominal surgery, compared to anesthesia alone, induced Fos expression in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Double Fos/nesfatin-1 labeling showed that of the activated cells, 99% were nesfatin-1-immunoreactive in the SON, 91% in the LC, 82% in the rRPa, 74% in the EW and VLM, 71% in the anterior parvicellular PVN, 47% in the lateral magnocellular PVN, 41% in the medial magnocellular PVN, 14 % in the NTS and 9% in the medial parvicellular PVN. These data established nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in specific hypothalamic and pontine nuclei as part of the neuronal response to abdominal surgery and suggest a possible implication of nesfatin-1 in the alterations of food intake and gastric transit associated with such a stressor. PMID:19944727

  10. Can I improve postoperative outcome after abdominal surgery?

    PubMed

    Lauwick, S; Kaba, A; Joris, J

    2007-01-01

    Most of the textbooks of anesthesia do not devote any chapter to anesthesia for abdominal surgery. Whereas the choice of anesthetics has minimal impact on postoperative outcome of the patient scheduled for these procedures global perioperative anesthetic management however affects postoperative recovery, convalescence, or even morbidity. This presentation highlights practical measures susceptible of reducing postoperative complications and of shortening patient convalescence.

  11. Routine clinical application of virtual reality in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sampogna, Gianluca; Pugliese, Raffaele; Elli, Marco; Vanzulli, Angelo; Forgione, Antonello

    2017-06-01

    The advantages of 3D reconstruction, immersive virtual reality (VR) and 3D printing in abdominal surgery have been enunciated for many years, but still today their application in routine clinical practice is almost nil. We investigate their feasibility, user appreciation and clinical impact. Fifteen patients undergoing pancreatic, hepatic or renal surgery were studied realizing a 3D reconstruction of target anatomy. Then, an immersive VR environment was developed to import 3D models, and some details of the 3D scene were printed. All the phases of our workflow employed open-source software and low-cost hardware, easily implementable by other surgical services. A qualitative evaluation of the three approaches was performed by 20 surgeons, who filled in a specific questionnaire regarding a clinical case for each organ considered. Preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance was feasible for all patients included in the study. The vast majority of surgeons interviewed scored their quality and usefulness as very good. Despite extra time, costs and efforts necessary to implement these systems, the benefits shown by the analysis of questionnaires recommend to invest more resources to train physicians to adopt these technologies routinely, even if further and larger studies are still mandatory.

  12. Readmission After Abdominal Surgery for Crohn's Disease: Identification of High-Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Mege, Diane; Michelassi, Fabrizio

    2018-05-16

    Although many predictive factors for postoperative morbidity are known, few data are available about readmission after abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease (CD). The objective of this study is to identify predictive factors and high-risk patients for readmission after abdominal CD surgery. All patients who underwent abdominal surgery for CD in one tertiary referral center between January 2004 and December 2016 were included. Patients who required readmission and those without were compared. Perineal procedures, elective readmissions, and abdominal procedures for non-Crohn's indications were not included. Nine hundred eight abdominal procedures were performed in 712 patients. Readmission rates were 8, 8.5, 8.6, 8.8, and 8.9% at 30, 60, and 90 days and 12 and 60 months, respectively. The main reasons were wound infection (14%), deep abscess (13%), small-bowel obstruction (13%), and dehydration (11%). Eight (11%) patients required percutaneous drainage and 19 (27%) underwent an unplanned surgery. After multivariate analysis, three independent predictive factors for readmission were identified: older age (OR 1.02, 95%CI 1.005-1.04; p < 0.006), a history of previous proctectomy (OR 3, 95%CI 1.2-9, p < 0.02), and higher blood loss volume during surgery (OR 1.0001, 95%CI 1-1.002, p < 0.05). Readmission occurred in 8-9% of abdominal procedures for CD within 1-3 months after surgery and it required unplanned reoperation in a quarter of them. Identification of high-risk groups and knowledge of the more common postoperative complications requiring readmission help in increasing postoperative vigilance to select patients who may benefit from early interventions.

  13. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  14. Chest physiotherapy with positive expiratory pressure breathing after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Orman, J; Westerdahl, E

    2010-03-01

    A variety of chest physiotherapy techniques are used following abdominal and thoracic surgery to prevent or reduce post-operative complications. Breathing techniques with a positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to increase airway pressure and improve pulmonary function. No systematic review of the effects of PEP in surgery patients has been performed previously. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of PEP breathing after an open upper abdominal or thoracic surgery. A literature search of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) was performed in five databases. The trials included were systematically reviewed by two independent observers and critically assessed for methodological quality. We selected six RCT evaluating the PEP technique performed with a mechanical device in spontaneously breathing adult patients after abdominal or thoracic surgery via thoracotomy. The methodological quality score varied between 4 and 6 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database score. The studies were published between 1979 and 1993. Only one of the included trials showed any positive effects of PEP compared to other breathing techniques. Today, there is scarce scientific evidence that PEP treatment is better than other physiotherapy breathing techniques in patients undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery. There is a lack of studies investigating the effect of PEP over placebo or no physiotherapy treatment.

  15. Robotic applications in abdominal surgery: their limitations and future developments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G W; Jayne, D G

    2007-03-01

    In the past 20 years, the technical aspects of abdominal surgery have changed dramatically. Operations are now routinely performed by laparoscopic techniques utilizing small abdominal incisions, with less patient discomfort, earlier recovery, improved cosmesis, and in many cases reduced economic burden on the healthcare provider. These benefits have largely been seen in the application of laparoscopic techniques to relatively straightforward procedures. It is not clear whether the same benefits carry through to more complex abdominal operations, which are more technically demanding and for which current laparoscopic instrumentation is less well adapted. The aim of surgical robotics is to address these problems and allow the advantages of minimal access surgery to be seen in a greater range of operations. A literature search was performed to ascertain the current state of the art in surgical robotics for the abdomen, and the technologies emerging within this field. The reference lists of the sourced articles were also searched for further relevant papers. Currently available robotic devices for abdominal surgery are limited to large, costly 'slave-master' or telemanipulator systems, such as the da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunny Vale, CA). In addition to their size and expense, these systems share the same limitation, by virtue of the fulcrum effect on instrument manipulation inherent in the use of ports by which external instruments gain access to the abdominal cavity. In order to overcome these limitations several smaller telemanipulator systems are being developed, and progress towards freely mobile intracorporeal devices is being made. While current robotic systems have considerable advantages over conventional laparoscopic techniques, they are not without limitations. Miniaturisation of robotic components and systems is feasible and necessary to allow minimally invasive techniques to reach full potential. The ultimate extrapolation of this progress is the

  16. [Globalization: challenges in abdominal surgery for migrants and refugees].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, T J; Post, S

    2018-03-01

    The increasing number of refugees, migrants and international travelers influences the surgical spectrum of abdominal diseases. The aim of this review is to familiarize surgeons with specific diseases which are endemic in the patients' countries of origin and are likely to be diagnosed with increasing incidence in Germany. Low levels of hygiene in the countries of origin or refugee camps is associated with a high incidence of numerous infections, such as helminth infections, typhoid fever or amoebiasis, which if untreated can cause surgical emergencies. Historically, some of them were common in Germany but have been more or less eradicated because of the high socioeconomic standard. Echinococcosis and Chagas disease are frequently treated surgically while schistosomiasis can mimic intestinal cancer. Abdominal tuberculosis presents in a variety of abdominal pathologies and frequently causes diagnostic uncertainty. Sigmoid volvulus has a very low incidence among Europeans, but is one of the most common abdominal surgical conditions of adults in endemic countries. The number of patients who eventually undergo surgery for these conditions might be relatively low; however, surgeons must be aware of them and consider them as differential diagnoses in refugees and migrants with acute or chronic abdominal symptoms.

  17. Image-Guided Abdominal Surgery and Therapy Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Robert L.; Herrell, S. Duke; Miga, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Image-Guided Surgery has become the standard of care in intracranial neurosurgery providing more exact resections while minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Moving that process to abdominal organs presents additional challenges in the form of image segmentation, image to physical space registration, organ motion and deformation. In this paper, we present methodologies and results for addressing these challenges in two specific organs: the liver and the kidney. PMID:25077012

  18. Heated insufflation with or without humidification for laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Birch, Daniel W; Dang, Jerry T; Switzer, Noah J; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2016-10-19

    Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times. To determine the effect of heated gas insufflation compared to cold gas insufflation on maintaining intraoperative normothermia as well as patient outcomes following laparoscopic abdominal surgery. We searched Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Specialised Register (September 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to September 2016), Ovid Embase (1974 to September 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) (September 2016), Web of Science (1985 to September 2016), Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the National Research Register (1956 to September 2016). We also searched grey literature and cross references. Searches were limited to human studies without language restriction. Only randomised controlled trials comparing heated (with or without humidification) with cold gas insufflation in adult and paediatric populations undergoing laparoscopic abdominal procedures were included. We assessed study quality in regards to relevance, design, sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, possibility of incomplete data and selective reporting. Two review authors independently selected studies for the review, with any disagreement resolved in consensus with a third co-author. Two review authors independently performed screening of eligible studies, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the trials. We classified a study as low-risk of bias if all of the first six main

  19. Gases for establishing pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianwu; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Xiaomei; Tu, Bing; Cheng, Nansheng; Gong, Jianping; Bai, Lian

    2017-06-21

    This is an update of the review published in 2013.Laparoscopic surgery is now widely performed to treat various abdominal diseases. Currently, carbon dioxide is the most frequently used gas for insufflation of the abdominal cavity (pneumoperitoneum). Although carbon dioxide meets most of the requirements for pneumoperitoneum, the absorption of carbon dioxide may be associated with adverse events. People with high anaesthetic risk are more likely to experience cardiopulmonary complications and adverse events, for example hypercapnia and acidosis, which has to be avoided by hyperventilation. Therefore, other gases have been introduced as alternatives to carbon dioxide for establishing pneumoperitoneum. To assess the safety, benefits, and harms of different gases (i.e. carbon dioxide, helium, argon, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, and room air) used for establishing pneumoperitoneum in participants undergoing laparoscopic general abdominal or gynaecological pelvic surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to September 2016), Ovid Embase (1974 to September 2016), Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to September 2016), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to September 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (September 2016), and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (September 2016). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different gases for establishing pneumoperitoneum in participants (irrespective of age, sex, or race) undergoing laparoscopic abdominal or gynaecological pelvic surgery under general anaesthesia. Two review authors identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias independently. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (or Peto odds ratio for very rare outcomes), and mean difference (MD) or standardised

  20. Risk factors for and the prevention of acute kidney injury after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    An, Yongbo; Shen, Kai; Ye, Yingjiang

    2018-06-01

    Postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing abdominal surgery is not rare and often results in bad outcomes for patients. The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury is hard to evaluate reliably due to its non-unified definitions in different studies. Risk factors for acute kidney injury specific to abdominal surgery include preoperative renal insufficiency, intraabdominal hypertension, blood transfusion, bowel preparation, perioperative dehydration, contrast agent and nephrotoxic drug use. Among these, preoperative renal insufficiency is the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury. The peri-operative management of high-risk patients should include meticulous selection of fluid solutions. Balanced crystalloid solutions and albumin are generally thought to be relatively safe, while the safety of hydroxyethyl starch solutions has been controversial. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the current knowledge regarding postoperative acute kidney injury in abdominal surgical settings to help surgeons make better decisions concerning the peri-operative management.

  1. Comparison of caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for major upper abdominal surgery in infants.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Iida, Takafumi; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    The caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Administration of morphine via caudal injection enables analgesia, even for upper abdominal surgery. The thoracic paravertebral block has also been successfully used to treat perioperative pain during upper abdominal procedures in pediatric patients. In the current study, we compared the two regional techniques for upper abdominal surgery in infants to determine whether one of them was preferable to the other. Consecutive patients under 12 months of age who underwent upper abdominal surgery were retrospectively divided according to the chosen postoperative analgesia: Group C, caudal ropivacaine-morphine; Group P, paravertebral catheter. We analyzed the following outcomes: requirement for additional analgesics, pain scores, need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen dosage, postoperative blood pressure and heart rate, time to pass first stool, time until first full meal, and complications. Twenty-one consecutive patients were included: 10 in Group C and 11 in Group P. Median age at surgery was 80 (47.5-270.0) and 84.5 (34.3-287.5) days, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups in requirement for additional analgesics at 24 h after surgery (median 1 in Group C vs 1 in Group P, P = 0.288, 95% CI: -2 to 1). BOPS pain scores were only lower in Group P when compared to Group C at 24 h after surgery (median 1 vs 2, P = 0.041, 95% CI: -2 to 0). None of the patients had perioperative complications. In this small series, there was no significant difference between caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for postoperative care in infants undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy and incidence of complications of caudal block and paravertebral catheter for postoperative analgesia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Virtual modeling of robot-assisted manipulations in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Berelavichus, Stanislav V; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Shirokov, Vadim S; Kubyshkin, Valeriy A; Kriger, Andrey G; Kondratyev, Evgeny V; Zakharova, Olga P

    2012-06-27

    To determine the effectiveness of using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data in preoperative planning of robot-assisted surgery. Fourteen patients indicated for surgery underwent MDCT using 64 and 256-slice MDCT. Before the examination, a specially constructed navigation net was placed on the patient's anterior abdominal wall. Processing of MDCT data was performed on a Brilliance Workspace 4 (Philips). Virtual vectors that imitate robotic and assistant ports were placed on the anterior abdominal wall of the 3D model of the patient, considering the individual anatomy of the patient and the technical capabilities of robotic arms. Sites for location of the ports were directed by projection on the roentgen-positive tags of the navigation net. There were no complications observed during surgery or in the post-operative period. We were able to reduce robotic arm interference during surgery. The surgical area was optimal for robotic and assistant manipulators without any need for reinstallation of the trocars. This method allows modeling of the main steps in robot-assisted intervention, optimizing operation of the manipulator and lowering the risk of injuries to internal organs.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R J; Thomson, I R; Cannon, J E; Friesen, R M; Meatherall, R C

    1986-03-01

    The authors determined the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl 100 micrograms X kg-1 iv in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery. The mean (+/- SD) age of the ten patients was 67.2 +/- 8.7 yr; their mean weight was 78.5 +/- 13.7 kg. Seven patients had aortic aneurysm repair, and the other three patients had aortobifemoral grafts. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined from samples drawn at increasing intervals over a 24-h period. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fit to the concentration versus time data. Total drug clearance was 9.8 +/- 1.8 ml X min-1 X kg-1. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) was 5.4 +/- 1.9 X 1 kg-1. Elimination half-time was 8.7 +/- 2.5 h. There were no significant correlations between these pharmacokinetic parameters and patient's age, duration of aortic cross-clamping, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, or volume of iv fluids given intraoperatively. In healthy volunteers or patients undergoing general surgery, other investigators report mean elimination half-times for fentanyl ranging from 1.7 to 4.4 h. The prolonged elimination half-time in patients having abdominal aortic surgery has important clinical implications. In particular, recovery from large doses will take much longer than would have been anticipated from previously published fentanyl pharmacokinetic data.

  4. Interhospital transfer delays emergency abdominal surgery and prolongs stay.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Alexandra M; Edye, Michael B

    2017-11-01

    Interhospital transfer of patients requiring emergency surgery is common practice. It has the potential to delay surgical intervention, increase rate of complications and thus length of hospital stay. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients who underwent emergency surgery for abdominal pain at a large metropolitan hospital in New South Wales (Hospital A) in 2013. The impact of interhospital transfer on time to surgical intervention, post-operative length of stay and overall length of stay was assessed. Of the 910 adult patients who underwent emergency surgery for abdominal pain at Hospital A in 2013, 31.9% (n = 290) were transferred by road ambulance from a local district hospital (Hospital B). The leading surgical procedures performed were appendicectomy (n = 299, 32.9%), cholecystectomy (n = 174, 19.1%), gastrointestinal endoscopy (n = 95, 10.4%), cystoscopy (n = 86, 9.5%), hernia repair (n = 45, 4.9%), salpingectomy (n = 19, 2.1%) and oversewing of perforated peptic ulcer (n = 13, 1.4%). Overall, interhospital transfer (n = 290, 31.9%) was associated with increases in mean time to surgical intervention (14.2 h, P < 0.001), post-operative length of stay (1.1 days, P = 0.001) and overall length of stay (1.6 days, P < 0.001). Delayed surgical intervention was observed across all procedure types except surgery for perforated peptic ulcer, where transferred patients underwent surgery within a comparable timeframe to direct admissions. Interhospital transfer delays surgical intervention and increases length of hospital stay. This mandates attention due to the implications for patient outcomes and added burden to the healthcare system. The system did, however, show capability to appropriately expedite surgery for acutely life-threatening cases. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. [Renal failure in surgery of abdominal aorta aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Asamov, R E; Ermoliuk, R S; Iudin, V I; Kapanadze, G I

    1994-09-01

    The authors analyse the experience in operations for resection of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in 70 patients, which were performed at the Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery, AMS of Russia, from 1983 to 1991. Preoperative examination revealed renal insufficiency in 8 (11.4%) patients. Resection of the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta with one-stage prosthetics of the renal arteries was carried out in 10 cases. To prevent ischemic damage to the renal parenchyma and acute renal insufficiency, local methods of kidney protection (isolated cold perfusion--2 and normothermic aorto-renal perfusion--2) were applied in 4 of 70 cases. The work discusses the methods of kidney protection and the indications and contraindications for their use, and factors promoting the development of postoperative renal insufficiency. Postoperative complications are shown and their causes are identified.

  6. Restrictive versus Liberal Fluid Therapy for Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Myles, Paul S; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Corcoran, Tomas; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip; Story, David; Christophi, Chris; Leslie, Kate; McGuinness, Shay; Parke, Rachael; Serpell, Jonathan; Chan, Matthew T V; Painter, Thomas; McCluskey, Stuart; Minto, Gary; Wallace, Sophie

    2018-05-09

    Background Guidelines to promote the early recovery of patients undergoing major surgery recommend a restrictive intravenous-fluid strategy for abdominal surgery. However, the supporting evidence is limited, and there is concern about impaired organ perfusion. Methods In a pragmatic, international trial, we randomly assigned 3000 patients who had an increased risk of complications while undergoing major abdominal surgery to receive a restrictive or liberal intravenous-fluid regimen during and up to 24 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was disability-free survival at 1 year. Key secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury at 30 days, renal-replacement therapy at 90 days, and a composite of septic complications, surgical-site infection, or death. Results During and up to 24 hours after surgery, 1490 patients in the restrictive fluid group had a median intravenous-fluid intake of 3.7 liters (interquartile range, 2.9 to 4.9), as compared with 6.1 liters (interquartile range, 5.0 to 7.4) in 1493 patients in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of disability-free survival at 1 year was 81.9% in the restrictive fluid group and 82.3% in the liberal fluid group (hazard ratio for death or disability, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.24; P=0.61). The rate of acute kidney injury was 8.6% in the restrictive fluid group and 5.0% in the liberal fluid group (P<0.001). The rate of septic complications or death was 21.8% in the restrictive fluid group and 19.8% in the liberal fluid group (P=0.19); rates of surgical-site infection (16.5% vs. 13.6%, P=0.02) and renal-replacement therapy (0.9% vs. 0.3%, P=0.048) were higher in the restrictive fluid group, but the between-group difference was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusions Among patients at increased risk for complications during major abdominal surgery, a restrictive fluid regimen was not associated with a higher rate of disability-free survival than a liberal fluid regimen and

  7. [The complex aortic abdominal aneurysm: is open surgery old fashion?].

    PubMed

    Saucy, F; Déglise, S; Doenz, F; Dubuis, C; Corpataux, J-M

    2012-06-20

    Open surgery is still the main treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysm. Nevertheless, this approach is associated with major complications and high mortality rate. Therefore the fenestrated endograft has been used to treat the juxtarenal aneurysms. Unfortunately, no randomised controlled study is available to assess the efficacy of such devices. Moreover, the costs are still prohibitive to generalise this approach. Alternative treatments such as chimney or sandwich technique are being evaluated in order to avoid theses disadvantages. The aim of this paper is to present the endovascular approach to treat juxtarenal aneurysm and to emphasize that this option should be used only by highly specialized vascular centres.

  8. Low values of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) during surgery and anastomotic leak of abdominal trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Isaza-Restrepo, Andres; Moreno-Mejia, Jose F; Martin-Saavedra, Juan S; Ibañez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2017-01-01

    There is a well known relationship between hypoperfusion and postoperative complications like anastomotic leak. No studies have been done addressing this relationship in the context of abdominal trauma surgery. Central venous oxygen saturation is an important hypoperfusion marker of potential use in abdominal trauma surgery for identifying the risk of anastomotic leak development. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between low values of central venous oxygen saturation and anastomotic leak of gastrointestinal sutures in the postoperative period in abdominal trauma surgery. A cross-sectional prospective study was performed. Patients over 14 years old who required surgical gastrointestinal repair secondary to abdominal trauma were included. Anastomotic leak diagnosis was confirmed through clinical manifestations and diagnostic images or secondary surgery when needed. Central venous oxygen blood saturation was measured at the beginning of surgery through a central catheter. Demographic data, trauma mechanism, anatomic site of trauma, hemoglobin levels, abdominal trauma index, and comorbidities were assessed as secondary variables. Patients who developed anastomotic leak showed lower mean central venous oxygen saturation levels (60.0% ± 2.94%) than those who did not (69.89% ± 7.21%) ( p  = 0.010). Central venous oxygen saturation <65% was associated with the development of gastrointestinal leak during postoperative time of patients who underwent surgery secondary to abdominal trauma.

  9. Incentive spirometry decreases respiratory complications following major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Westwood, K; Griffin, M; Roberts, K; Williams, M; Yoong, K; Digger, T

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery. Chest physiotherapy aims to decrease the likelihood of these complications and hasten recovery. Exercises aimed at maximising inspiratory effort are the most beneficial for the patients. The incentive spirometer is a handheld device that patients use to achieve effective inspiration. In a nonrandomised pilot study of 263 patients we have found that the addition of the incentive spirometer, as part of an intensive post-operative physiotherapy programme, decreased the occurrence of pulmonary complications (6 vs 17%, p = 0.01) and length of stay on the surgical high dependency unit (3.1 vs 4 days p = 0.03). The two groups were comparable when age, sex, smoking history, the need for emergency surgery and post-operative analgesia were compared.

  10. Discharge information needs and symptom distress after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Galloway, S; Rebeyka, D; Saxe-Braithwaite, M; Bubela, N; McKibbon, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the discharge information needs and symptom distress of people after abdominal aortic reconstructive surgery. Interviews (N = 51) were conducted prior to, and 4 weeks after, hospital discharge. People indicated that the most important information to help them manage their care after discharge related to the recognition, prevention and management of complications. Broken sleep and incisional pain were the most distressful of symptoms prior to hospital discharge, whereas fatigue and broken sleep were most distressful once home. These results may assist nurses to understand the discharge information needs and symptom distress of people recovering from aortic reconstructive surgery and the importance of discharge education to help people to manage their care once home.

  11. Electrical impedance tomography during major open upper abdominal surgery: a pilot-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) of the lungs facilitates visualization of ventilation distribution during mechanical ventilation. Its intraoperative use could provide the basis for individual optimization of ventilator settings, especially in patients at risk for ventilation-perfusion mismatch and impaired gas exchange, such as patients undergoing major open upper abdominal surgery. EIT throughout major open upper abdominal surgery could encounter difficulties in belt positioning and signal quality. Thus, we conducted a pilot-study and tested whether EIT is feasible in patients undergoing major open upper abdominal surgery. Methods Following institutional review board’s approval and written informed consent, we included patients scheduled for major open upper abdominal surgery of at least 3 hours duration. EIT measurements were conducted prior to intubation, at the time of skin incision, then hourly during surgery until shortly prior to extubation and after extubation. Number of successful intraoperative EIT measurements and reasons for failures were documented. From the valid measurements, a functional EIT image of changes in tidal impedance was generated for every time point. Regions of interest were defined as horizontal halves of the picture. Monitoring of ventilation distribution was assessed using the center of ventilation index, and also using the total and dorsal ventilated lung area. All parameter values prior to and post intubation as well as extubation were compared. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 120 intraoperative EIT measurements during major abdominal surgery lasting 4-13 hours were planned in 14 patients. The electrode belt was attached between the 2nd and 4th intercostal space. Consecutive valid measurements could be acquired in 13 patients (93%). 111 intraoperative measurements could be retrieved as planned (93%). Main obstacle was the contact of skin electrodes. Despite the high belt

  12. Complement activation and interleukin response in major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kvarnström, A L; Sarbinowski, R T; Bengtson, J-P; Jacobsson, L M; Bengtsson, A L

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether major abdominal surgery leads to complement activation and interleukin response and whether the kind of anaesthesia influence complement activation and the release of inflammatory interleukins. The study design was prospective and randomised. Fifty patients undergoing open major colorectal surgery due to cancer disease or inflammatory bowel disease were studied. Twenty-five patients were given total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil, and 25 patients were given inhalational anaesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl. To determine complement activation (C3a and SC5b-9) and the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins (tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 and IL-10), blood samples were drawn preoperatively, 60 minutes after start of surgery, 30 minutes after end of surgery and 24 hours postoperatively. Complement was activated and pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8) and anti-inflammatory interleukins (IL-10) were released during major colorectal surgery. There was no significant difference between TIVA and inhalational anaesthesia regarding complement activation and cytokine release. Major colorectal surgery leads to activation of the complement cascade and the release of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. There are no significant differences between total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil and inhalational anaesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl regarding complement activation and the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  13. Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R G; Bahlmann, H; Nilsson, L

    2014-11-01

    Assessment of dehydration in the preoperative setting is of potential clinical value. The present study uses urine analysis and plasma volume kinetics, which have both been validated against induced changes in body water in volunteers, to study the incidence and severity of dehydration before open abdominal surgery begins. Thirty patients (mean age 64 years) had their urine analysed before major elective open abdominal surgery for colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine. The results were scored and the mean taken to represent a 'dehydration index'. Thereafter, the patients received an infusion of 5 ml/kg of Ringer's acetate intravenously for over 15 min. Blood was sampled for 70 min and the blood haemoglobin concentration used to estimate the plasma volume kinetics. Distribution of fluid occurred more slowly (P < 0.01) and the elimination half-life was twice as long (median 40 min, not significant) in the 11 patients (37%) diagnosed to be moderately dehydrated as compared with euhydrated patients. The dehydration index indicated that the fluid deficit in these patients corresponded to 2.5% of the body weight, whereas the deficit in the others was 1%. In contrast, the 11 patients who later developed postoperative nausea and vomiting had a very short elimination half-life, only 9 min (median, P < 0.01). These patients were usually euhydrated but had microalbuminuria (P < 0.03) and higher natriuresis (P < 0.01). The degree of dehydration before major surgery was modest as evidenced both by urine sampling and volume kinetic analysis. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Infant lumbar and thoracic epidurals for abdominal surgeries: cases in a paediatric tertiary institution.

    PubMed

    Thong, Sze Ying; Sin, Eliza I-Lin; Chan, Diana Xin Hui; Shahani, Jagdish M

    2015-08-01

    There is strong evidence that epidural analgesia provides good postoperative pain relief in adults, but its use in infants is less established. In this retrospective study, we present our experience with managing infant epidural analgesia for abdominal surgeries in a tertiary paediatric institution. The records of 54 infants who had received a thoracic or lumbar epidural as perioperative analgesia for abdominal surgeries were included. The mean age of the infants was 6.1 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) months and their mean weight was 6.8 kg (SD 1.8). Most (63%) had an ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) status of 2 and all underwent elective gastrointestinal, urogenital, hepatobiliary or retroperitoneal surgeries. 20 catheters (37.0%) were inserted in the thoracic region and 33 (61.1%) in the lumbar region. A total of 52 (96.3%) catheters provided adequate intraoperative analgesia and 36 (66.7%) provided effective analgesia for the postoperative period. Active management of epidural analgesia, such as through epidural top-ups and infusion rate adjustment, was necessary to optimise analgesia in 22 (44%) of the 50 patients postoperatively. Reasons for premature catheter removal were mainly technical issues such as catheter disconnection, leakage and blockage. Our data suggests that in experienced hands, specialised settings and active management, the success rate of epidural analgesia in infants undergoing major abdominal surgeries is high and without major incident.

  15. Does use of intraoperative cell-salvage delay recovery in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery?

    PubMed

    Tavare, Aniket N; Parvizi, Nassim

    2011-06-01

    A best evidence topic in vascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the use of intraoperative cell-salvage (ICS) leads to negative outcomes in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery? Altogether 305 papers were found using the reported search, of which 10 were judged to represent the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. None of the 10 papers included in the analysis demonstrated that ICS use led to significantly higher incidence of cardiac or septic postoperative complications. Similarly, length of intensive treatment unit (ITU) or hospital stay and mortality in elective abdominal aortic surgery were not adversely affected. Indeed two trials actually show a significantly shorter hospital stay after ICS use, one a shorter ITU stay and another suggests lower rates of chest sepsis. Based on these papers, we concluded that the use of ICS does not cause increased morbidity or mortality when compared to standard practise of transfusion of allogenic blood, and may actually improve some clinical outcomes. As abdominal aortic surgery inevitably causes significant intraoperative blood loss, in the range of 661-3755 ml as described in the papers detailed in this review, ICS is a useful and safe strategy to minimise use of allogenic blood.

  16. Epidural Dexamethasone Influences Postoperative Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Min; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Kwon, Jae-Young; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Kim, Hyae-Jin; Cho, Ah-Reum; Do, Wang-Seok; Kim, Hyo Sung

    2017-05-01

    Epidurally administered dexamethasone might reduce postoperative pain. However, the effect of epidural administration of dexamethasone on postoperative epidural analgesia in major abdominal surgery has been doubtful. To investigate the effects and optimal dose of epidural dexamethasone on pain after major abdominal surgery. A prospective randomized, double-blind study. University hospital. One hundred twenty ASA physical status I and II men, scheduled for gastrectomy, were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 treatment regimens (n = 40 in each group): dexamethasone 5 mg (1 mL) with normal saline (1 mL) (group D) or dexamethasone 10 mg (2 mL) (group E) or 2 mL of normal saline (group C) mixed with 8 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine as a loading dose. After the surgery, 0.2% ropivacaine - fentanyl 4 ?g/mL was epidurally administered for analgesia. The infusion was set to deliver 4 mL/hr of the PCEA solution, with a bolus of 2 mL per demand and 15 minutes lockout time. The infused volume of PCEA, intensity of postoperative pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) during rest and coughing, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), usage of rescue analgesia and rescue antiemetic, and side effects such as respiratory depression, urinary retention, and pruritus were recorded at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the end of surgery. The resting and effort VAS was significantly lower in group E compared to group C at every time point through the study period. On the contrary, only the resting VAS in group D was lower at 2 hours and 6 hours after surgery. Total fentanyl consumption of group E was significantly lower compared to other groups. There was no difference in adverse effect such as hypotension, bradycardia, PONV, pruritis, and urinary retention among groups. Use of epidural PCA with basal rate might interrupt an accurate comparison of dexamethasone effect. Hyperglycemia and adrenal suppression were not evaluated. Epidural dexamethasone was

  17. Heated CO(2) with or without humidification for minimally invasive abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Birch, Daniel W; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2011-01-19

    Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times. To determine the effect of heated gas insufflation on patient outcomes following minimally invasive abdominal surgery. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Web of Science, Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the National Research Register were searched (1956 to 14 June 2010). Grey literature and cross-references were also searched. Searches were limited to human studies without language restriction. All included studies were randomized trials comparing heated (with or without humidification) gas insufflation with cold gas insufflation in adult and pediatric populations undergoing minimally invasive abdominal procedures. Study quality was assessed in regards to relevance, design, sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, possibility of incomplete data and selective reporting. The selection of studies for the review was done independently by two authors, with any disagreement resolved in consensus with a third co-author. Screening of eligible studies, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the trials were performed by the authors. Data from eligible studies were collected using data sheets. Results were presented using mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous outcomes. The estimated effects were calculated using the latest version of RevMan software. Publication bias was taken into

  18. A novel robotic platform for single-port abdominal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satwinder; Cheung, Jo L. K.; Sreedhar, Biji; Hoa, Xuyen Dai; Ng, Hoi Pang; Yeung, Chung Kwong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robot-assisted platform for single-port minimally invasive surgery is presented. A miniaturized seven degrees of freedom (dof) fully internalized in-vivo actuated robotic arm is designed. Due to in-vivo actuation, the system has a smaller footprint and can generate 20 N of gripping force. The complete work envelop of the robotic arms is 252 mm × 192 mm × 322 m. With the assistance of the cannula-swivel system, the robotic arms can also be re-positioned and have multi-quadrant reachability without any additional incision. Surgical tasks, such as lifting, gripping suturing and knot tying that are commonly used in a standard surgical procedure, were performed to verify the dexterity of the robotic arms. A single-port trans-abdominal cholecystectomy in a porcine model was successfully performed to further validate its functionality.

  19. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Michele Mf; El Dib, Regina; Smith, Andrew F; Matos, Delcio

    2009-07-08

    Upper abdominal surgical procedures are associated with a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The risk and severity of postoperative pulmonary complications can be reduced by the judicious use of therapeutic manoeuvres that increase lung volume. Our objective was to assess the effect of incentive spirometry (IS) compared to no therapy, or physiotherapy including coughing and deep breathing, on all-cause postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality in adult patients admitted for upper abdominal surgery. To assess the effects of incentive spirometry compared to no such therapy (or other therapy) on all-cause postoperative pulmonary complications (atelectasis, acute respiratory inadequacy) and mortality in adult patients admitted for upper abdominal surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (from inception to July 2006). There were no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials of incentive spirometry in adult patients admitted for any type of upper abdominal surgery, including patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 11 studies with a total of 1754 participants. Many trials were of only moderate methodological quality and did not report on compliance with the prescribed therapy. Data from only 1160 patients could be included in the meta-analysis. Three trials (120 patients) compared the effects of incentive spirometry with no respiratory treatment. Two trials (194 patients) compared incentive spirometry with deep breathing exercises. Two trials (946 patients) compared incentive spirometry with other chest physiotherapy. All showed no evidence of a statistically significant effect of incentive spirometry. There was no evidence that incentive spirometry is effective in the prevention of pulmonary complications. We found no evidence

  20. Alarmins and Clinical Outcomes After Major Abdominal Surgery-A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Máca, Jan; Burša, Filip; Ševčík, Pavel; Sklienka, Peter; Burda, Michal; Holub, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Tissue injury causing immune response is an integral part of surgical procedure. Evaluation of the degree of surgical trauma could help to improve postoperative management and determine the clinical outcomes. We analyzed serum levels of alarmins, including S100A5, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, and S100A12; high-mobility group box 1; and heat-shock protein 70, after elective major abdominal surgery (n = 82). Blood samples were collected for three consecutive days after surgery. The goals were to evaluate the relationships among the serum levels of alarmins and selected surgical characteristics and to test potential of alarmins to predict the clinical outcomes. Significant, positive correlations were found for high-mobility group box 1 with the length of surgery, blood loss, and intraoperative fluid intake for all three days of blood sampling. The protein S100A8 serum levels showed positive correlations with intensive care unit length of stay, 28-day and in-hospital mortality. The protein S100A12 serum levels had significant, positive correlations with intensive care unit length of stay, 28-day mortality, and in-hospital mortality. We did not find significant differences in alarmin levels between cancer and noncancer subjects. The high-mobility group box 1 serum levels reflect the degree of surgical injury, whereas proteins S100A8 and S100A12 might be considered good predictors of major abdominal surgery morbidity and mortality.

  1. Perioperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for analgesia after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Shona; Cyna, Allan M; Middleton, Philippa; Griffiths, James D

    2010-12-08

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block which anaesthetises the abdominal wall. The increasing use of TAP block, as a form of pain relief after abdominal surgery warrants evaluation of its effectiveness as an adjunctive technique to routine care and, when compared with other analgesic techniques. To assess effects of TAP blocks (and variants) on postoperative analgesia requirements after abdominal surgery. We searched specialised registers of Cochrane Anaesthesia and Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Review Groups, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to June 2010. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TAP block or rectus sheath block with: no TAP or rectus sheath block; placebo; systemic, epidural or any other analgesia. At least two review authors assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We included eight studies (358 participants), five assessing TAP blocks, three assessing rectus sheath blocks; with moderate risk of bias overall. All studies had a background of general anaesthesia in both arms in most cases.Compared with no TAP block or saline placebo, TAP block resulted in significantly less postoperative requirement for morphine at 24 hours (mean difference (MD) -21.95 mg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -37.91 to 5.96; five studies, 236 participants) and 48 hours (MD -28.50, 95% CI -38.92 to -18.08; one study of 50 participants) but not at two hours (all random-effects analyses). Pain at rest was significantly reduced in two studies, but not a third.Only one of three included studies of rectus sheath blocks found a reduction in postoperative analgesic requirements in participants receiving blocks. One study, assessing number of participants who were pain-free after their surgery, found more participants who received a rectus sheath block to be pain-free for up to 10 hours postoperatively. As with TAP blocks, rectus sheath blocks made no apparent impact on nausea and vomiting

  2. The Effect of Abdominal Support on Functional Outcomes in Patients Following Major Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheifetz, Oren; Overend, Tom J.; Crowe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Immobility and pain are modifiable risk factors for development of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary morbidity after major abdominal surgery (MAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal incision support with an elasticized abdominal binder on postoperative walk performance (mobility), perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function in patients following MAS. Methods: Seventy-five patients scheduled to undergo MAS via laparotomy were randomized to experimental (binder) or control (no binder) groups. Sixty (33 male, 27 female; mean age 58±14.9 years) completed the study. Preoperative measurements of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function were repeated 1, 3, and 5 days after surgery. Results: Surgery was associated with marked postoperative reductions (p<0.001) in walk distance (∼75–78%, day 3) and forced vital capacity (35%, all days) for both groups. Improved 6MWT distance by day 5 was greater (p<0.05) for patients wearing a binder (80%) than for the control group (48%). Pain and symptom-associated distress remained unchanged following surgery with binder usage, increasing significantly (p<0.05) only in the no binder group. Conclusion: Elasticized abdominal binders provide a non-invasive intervention for enhancing recovery of walk performance, controlling pain and distress, and improving patients' experience following MAS. PMID:21629603

  3. Recombinant factor VIIa in major abdominal surgery and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Viana, J

    2006-04-01

    The author reviewed the literature regarding recombinant activated Factor VII (rFVIIa) in major abdominal surgery and liver transplantation and concluded that, on the basis of evidence-based medicine, there is no evidence to support an extensive use of rFVIIa. Nevertheless, various case reports suggest the usefulness of rFVIIa to treat life-threatening bleeding after failure of conventional therapies. It appears that there is a consensus that rFVIIa can be used with good results as a rescue therapy in extremely severe situations. Economic cost and potential thrombosis risk remain arguments against more widespread use of rFVIIa. Doses from 5 to 120 kg/kg in each administration have been reported without clear evidence to support a specific protocol. Efficacy of 15 to 20 kg/kg in surgical settings has been reported, but higher doses are more frequently used. The majority of the reviewed investigators accepted the use of rFVIIa after or simultaneously with the use of aprotinin; no data refute the safety of this association.

  4. Impact of respiratory therapy in vital capacity and functionality of patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Shanlley Cristina da Silva; dos Santos, Rafaella Souza; Giovanetti, Erica Albanez; Taniguchi, Corinne; Silva, Cilene Saghabi de Medeiros; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Carnieli-Cazati, Denise

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the vital capacity after two chest therapy techniques in patients undergoing abdominal surgical. Methods A prospective randomized study carried out with patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after abdominal surgery. We checked vital capacity, muscular strength using the Medical Research Council scale, and functionality with the Functional Independence Measure the first time the patient was breathing spontaneously (D1), and also upon discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (Ddis). Between D1 and Ddis, respiratory therapy was carried out according to the randomized group. Results We included 38 patients, 20 randomized to Positive Intermittent Pressure Group and 18 to Volumetric Incentive Spirometer Group. There was no significant gain related to vital capacity of D1 and Ddis of Positive Intermittent Pressure Group (mean 1,410mL±547.2 versus 1,809mL±692.3; p=0.979), as in the Volumetric Incentive Spirometer Group (1,408.3mL±419.1 versus 1,838.8mL±621.3; p=0.889). We observed a significant improvement in vital capacity in D1 (p<0.001) and Ddis (p<0.001) and in the Functional Independence Measure (p<0.001) after respiratory therapy. The vital capacity improvement was not associated with gain of muscle strength. Conclusion Chest therapy, with positive pressure and volumetric incentive spirometer, was effective in improving vital capacity of patients submitted to abdominal surgery. PMID:27462894

  5. Open abdominal surgical training differences experienced by integrated vascular and general surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Jung, Andrew; Nelson, Peter R; Armstrong, Paul A; Shames, Murray L

    2017-10-01

    As the integrated vascular residency program reaches almost a decade of maturity, a common area of concern among trainees is the adequacy of open abdominal surgical training. It is our belief that although their overall exposure to open abdominal procedures has decreased, integrated vascular residents have an adequate and focused exposure to open aortic surgery during training. National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were compiled for both graduating integrated vascular surgery residents (IVSRs) and graduating categorical general surgery residents (GSRs) for the years 2012 to 2014. Mean total and open abdominal case numbers were compared between the IVSRs and GSRs, with more in-depth exploration into open abdominal procedures by organ system. Overall, the mean total 5-year case volume of IVSRs was 1168 compared with 980 for GSRs during the same time frame (P < .0001). IVSRs reported nearly double the number of surgeon-chief cases compared with GSRs (452 vs 239; P < .0001). GSRs reported more than double the number of open abdominal procedures compared with IVSRs (205 vs 83; P < .0001). Sixty-five percent of the open abdominal experience for IVSRs was focused on procedures involving the aorta and its branches, with an average of 54 open aortic cases recorded throughout their training. The largest single contributor to open surgical experience for a GSR was alimentary tract surgery, representing 57% of all open abdominal cases. GSRs completed an average of 116 open alimentary tract surgeries during their training. Open abdominal surgery represented an average of 7.1% of the total vascular case volume for the vascular residents, whereas open abdominal surgery represented 21% of a GSR's total surgical experience. IVSRs reported almost double the number of total cases during their training, with double chief-level cases. Sixty-five percent of open abdominal surgeries performed by IVSRs involved the aorta

  6. Development and validation of a risk stratification score for ventral incisional hernia after abdominal surgery: hernia expectation rates in intra-abdominal surgery (the HERNIA Project).

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Christopher J; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Nguyen, Mylan T; Holihan, Julie L; Alawadi, Zeinab; Nguyen, Duyen H; Flores, Juan R; Arita, Nestor T; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2015-04-01

    Ventral incisional hernias (VIH) develop in up to 20% of patients after abdominal surgery. No widely applicable preoperative risk-assessment tool exists. We aimed to develop and validate a risk-assessment tool to predict VIH after abdominal surgery. A prospective study of all patients undergoing abdominal surgery was conducted at a single institution from 2008 to 2010. Variables were defined in accordance with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, and VIH was determined through clinical and radiographic evaluation. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was built from a development cohort (2008 to 2009) to identify predictors of VIH. The HERNIAscore was created by converting the hazards ratios (HR) to points. The predictive accuracy was assessed on the validation cohort (2010) using a receiver operator characteristic curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Of 625 patients followed for a median of 41 months (range 0.3 to 64 months), 93 (13.9%) developed a VIH. The training cohort (n = 428, VIH = 70, 16.4%) identified 4 independent predictors: laparotomy (HR 4.77, 95% CI 2.61 to 8.70) or hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL, HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.08 to 7.70), COPD (HR 2.35; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.83), and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (HR1.74; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.91). Factors that were not predictive included age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, albumin, immunosuppression, previous surgery, and suture material or technique. The predictive score had an AUC = 0.77 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.86) using the validation cohort (n = 197, VIH = 23, 11.6%). Using the HERNIAscore: HERNIAscore = 4(∗)Laparotomy+3(∗)HAL+1(∗)COPD+1(∗) BMI ≥ 25, 3 classes stratified the risk of VIH: class I (0 to 3 points),5.2%; class II (4 to 5 points),19.6%; and class III (6 points), 55.0%. The HERNIAscore accurately identifies patients at increased risk for VIH. Although external validation is needed, this provides a starting point to counsel patients and guide

  7. The Utility of Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Post-Bariatric Surgery Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain of Unknown Etiology.

    PubMed

    Alsulaimy, Mohammad; Punchai, Suriya; Ali, Fouzeyah A; Kroh, Matthew; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Chronic abdominal pain after bariatric surgery is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain who had negative imaging and endoscopic studies. A retrospective analysis was performed on post-bariatric surgery patients who underwent laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of chronic abdominal pain at a single academic center. Only patients with both negative preoperative CT scan and upper endoscopy were included. Total of 35 post-bariatric surgery patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Twenty out of 35 patients (57%) had positive findings on diagnostic laparoscopy including presence of adhesions (n = 12), chronic cholecystitis (n = 4), mesenteric defect (n = 2), internal hernia (n = 1), and necrotic omentum (n = 1). Two patients developed post-operative complications including a pelvic abscess and an abdominal wall abscess. Overall, 15 patients (43%) had symptomatic improvement after laparoscopy; 14 of these patients had positive laparoscopic findings requiring intervention (70% of the patients with positive laparoscopy). Conversely, 20 (57%) patients required long-term medical treatment for management of chronic abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy, which is a safe procedure, can detect pathological findings in more than half of post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain of unknown etiology. About 40% of patients who undergo diagnostic laparoscopy and 70% of patients with positive findings on laparoscopy experience significant symptom improvement. Patients should be informed that diagnostic laparoscopy is associated with no symptom improvement in about half of cases.

  8. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J.; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  9. New Insight in Loss of Gut Barrier during Major Non-Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Thuijls, Geertje; Willigers, Henriëtte M.; Koenraads, Marianne; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Poeze, Martijn; Ambergen, Ton; van Ooij, André; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Buurman, Wim A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Gut barrier loss has been implicated as a critical event in the occurrence of postoperative complications. We aimed to study the development of gut barrier loss in patients undergoing major non-abdominal surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty consecutive children undergoing spinal fusion surgery were included. This kind of surgery is characterized by long operation time, significant blood loss, prolonged systemic hypotension, without directly leading to compromise of the intestines by intestinal manipulation or use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood was collected preoperatively, every two hours during surgery and 2, 4, 15 and 24 hours postoperatively. Gut mucosal barrier was assessed by plasma markers for enterocyte damage (I-FABP, I-BABP) and urinary presence of tight junction protein claudin-3. Intestinal mucosal perfusion was measured by gastric tonometry (PrCO2, Pr-aCO2-gap). Plasma concentration of I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary expression of claudin-3 increased rapidly and significantly after the onset of surgery in most children. Postoperatively, all markers decreased promptly towards baseline values together with normalisation of MAP. Plasma levels of I-FABP, I-BABP were significantly negatively correlated with MAP at ½ hour before blood sampling (−0.726 (p<0.001), −0.483 (P<0.001), respectively). Furthermore, circulating I-FABP correlated with gastric mucosal PrCO2, Pr-aCO2-gap measured at the same time points (0.553 (p = 0.040), 0.585 (p = 0.028), respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study shows the development of gut barrier loss in children undergoing major non-abdominal surgery, which is related to preceding hypotension and mesenterial hypoperfusion. These data shed new light on the potential role of peroperative circulatory perturbation and intestinal barrier loss. PMID:19088854

  10. Role of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy After Surgery for Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, Vincent; Honore, Charles; Orbach, Daniel

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic role of adjuvant abdominal radiation therapy (RT) on oncologic outcomes as a part of multimodal treatment in the management of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to determine its impact according to the quality of surgical resection. Methods and Materials: All patients treated for primary abdominal DSRCT in 8 French centers from 1991 to 2014 were included. Patients were retrospectively staged into 3 groups: group A treated with adjuvant RT after cytoreductive surgery, group B without RT after cytoreductive surgery, and group C by exclusive chemotherapy. Peritoneal progression-free survival (PPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), andmore » overall survival (OS) were evaluated. We also performed a direct comparison between groups A and B to evaluate RT after cytoreductive surgery. Radiation therapy was also evaluated according to completeness of surgery: complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS) or incomplete cytoreductive surgery (ICS). Results: Thirty-seven (35.9%), thirty-six (34.9%), and thirty (28.0%) patients were included in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Three-year OS was 61.2% (range, 41.0%-76.0%), 37.6% (22.0%-53.1%), and 17.3% (6.3%-32.8%) for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Overall survival, PPFS, and PFS differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<.001, P<.001, and P<.001, respectively). Overall survival and PPFS were higher in group A (RT group) compared with group B (no RT group) (P=.045 and P=.006, respectively). Three-year PPFS was 23.8% (10.3%-40.4%) for group A and 12.51% (4.0%-26.2%) for group B. After CCS, RT improved PPFS (P=.024), but differences in OS and PFS were not significant (P=.40 and P=.30, respectively). After ICS, RT improved OS (P=.044). A trend of PPFS and PFS increase was observed, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.073 and P=.076). Conclusions: Adjuvant RT as part of multimodal treatment seems to confer oncologic benefits for patients treated for abdominal

  11. Fat necrosis after abdominal surgery: A pitfall in interpretation of FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Tima; Lotan, Eyal; Klang, Eyal; Nissan, Johnatan; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Goshen, Elinor; Ben-Haim, Simona; Apter, Sara; Chikman, Bar

    2018-06-01

    We describe FDG-PET/CT findings of postoperative fat necrosis in patients following abdominal surgery, and evaluate their changes in size and FDG uptake over time. FDG-PET/CT scans from January 2007-January 2016 containing the term 'fat necrosis' were reviewed. Lesions meeting radiological criteria of fat necrosis in patients with prior abdominal surgery were included. Forty-four patients, 30 males, mean age 68.4 ± 11.0 years. Surgeries: laparotomy (n=37; 84.1 %), laparoscopy (n=3; 6.8 %), unknown (n=4; 9.1 %). CTs of all lesions included hyperdense well-defined rims surrounding a heterogeneous fatty core. Sites: peritoneum (n=34; 77 %), omental fat (n=19; 43 %), subcutaneous fat (n=8; 18 %), retroperitoneum (n=2; 5 %). Mean lesion long axis: 33.6±24.9 mm (range: 13.0-140.0). Mean SUVmax: 2.6±1.1 (range: 0.6-5.1). On serial CTs (n=34), lesions decreased in size (p=0.022). Serial FDG-PET/CT (n=24) showed no significant change in FDG-avidity (p=0.110). Mean SUVmax did not correlate with time from surgery (p=0.558) or lesion size (p=0.259). Postsurgical fat necrosis demonstrated characteristic CT features and may demonstrate increased FDG uptake. However, follow-up of subsequent imaging scans showed no increases in size or FDG-avidity. Awareness of this entity is important to avoid misinterpretation of findings as recurrent cancer. • Postsurgical fat necrosis may mimic cancer in FDG-PET/CT. • Follow-up of fat necrosis showed no increase in FDG intensity. • CT follow-up showed a decrease in lesion size. • FDG uptake did not correlate with time lapsed from surgery.

  12. Incentive spirometry in postoperative abdominal/thoracic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael; Miley, Helen; Russell-Babin, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative patients have higher incidences of respiratory complications. Patients undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgical procedures are at greater risk of having such complications. Incentive spirometry is an inhalation-based prophylactic technique that encourages patients to mimic a natural deep sigh to periodically increase lung volume. As this technique is the prophylactic method of choice for many hospitals, several studies have tested its efficacy. Five articles, including 4 systematic reviews and 1 clinical practice guideline, are analyzed and summarized. Each article was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers and is discussed herein. A clinical recommendation for practice change is provided on the basis of the results. Incentive spirometry is only as effective as cough/deep-breathing regimens and other means of postoperative pulmonary prophylaxis. No single prophylactic technique clearly outperforms all others in preventing pulmonary complications. Future research is needed to determine the best method to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications.

  13. Risk factors and bacterial spectrum for pneumonia after abdominal surgery in elderly Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; A, Yongjun; Hu, Zongqiang; Cun, Dongyun; Liu, Feng; Li, Wen; Hu, Mingdao

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia is a common complication of abdominal surgery in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors and bacterial spectrum for pneumonia after abdominal surgery in elderly Chinese patients. We performed a case-control study in a total of 5431 patients aged 65 years and over who had undergone abdominal surgery at the 2nd affiliated hospital of Kunming medical college between June 2003 and June 2011. Postoperative pneumonia developed in 86 patients (1.58%). Gram-negative bacilli were the principal microorganisms (82.86%) isolated from patients. The most common organisms isolated were Klebsiella spp. (28.57%), Acinetobacter spp. (17.14%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.14%). Multivariate analysis confirmed the following to be independent risk factors for postoperative pneumonia in the elderly after abdominal surgery: age ≥70 (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16-3.22, p=0.01), upper abdominal surgery (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.18-3.64, p=0.01) and duration of operation >3 h (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.49-4.15, p=0.00). Identifying these risk factors may help achieve better prevention and treatment for postoperative pneumonia in elderly patients after abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amany M.; Sayd, Heba A.; Hamza, Hesham M.; Salem, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL. PMID:24212775

  15. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amany M; Sayd, Heba A; Hamza, Hesham M; Salem, Mohamed A

    2011-03-29

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  16. Enhanced recovery pathways in abdominal gynecologic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Jeanny J A; Ament, Stephanie M C; Maessen, José M C; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Kleijnen, Jos M P; Slangen, Brigitte F M

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced recovery pathways have been widely accepted and implemented for different types of surgery. Their overall effect in abdominal gynecologic surgery is still underdetermined. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to provide an overview of current evidence and to examine their effect on postoperative outcomes in women undergoing open gynecologic surgery. Searches were conducted using Embase, Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library up to 27 June 2014. Reference lists were screened to identify additional studies. Studies were included if at least four individual items of an enhanced recovery pathway were described. Outcomes included length of hospital stay, complication rates, readmissions, and mortality. Quantitative analysis was limited to comparative studies. Effect sizes were presented as relative risks or as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Thirty-one records, involving 16 observational studies, were included. Diversity in reported elements within studies was observed. Preoperative education, early oral intake, and early mobilization were included in all pathways. Five studies, with a high risk of bias, were eligible for quantitative analysis. Enhanced recovery pathways reduced primary (MD -1.57 days, 95% CI CI -2.94 to -0.20) and total (MD -3.05 days, 95% CI -4.87 to -1.23) length of hospital stay compared with traditional perioperative care, without an increase in complications, mortality or readmission rates. The available evidence based on a broad range of non-randomized studies at high risk of bias suggests that enhanced recovery pathways may reduce length of postoperative hospital stay in abdominal gynecologic surgery. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Association of Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Overall Hospital Quality Star Rating With Outcomes in Advanced Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Koh, Christina Y; Inaba, Colette S; Sujatha-Bhaskar, Sarath; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2017-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently released the Overall Hospital Quality Star Rating to help patients compare hospitals based on a 5-star scale. The star rating was designed to assess overall quality of the institution; thus, its validity toward specifically assessing surgical quality is unknown. To examine whether CMS high-star hospitals (HSHs) have improved patient outcomes and resource use in advanced laparoscopic abdominal surgery compared with low-star hospitals (LSHs). Using the University HealthSystem Consortium database (which includes academic centers and their affiliate hospitals) from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015, this administrative database observational study compared outcomes of 72 662 advanced laparoscopic abdominal operations between HSHs (4-5 stars) and LSHs (1-2 stars). The star rating includes 57 measures across 7 areas of quality. Patients who underwent advanced laparoscopic abdominal surgery, including bariatric surgery (sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), colorectal surgery (colectomy, proctectomy), or hiatal hernia surgery (paraesophageal hernia repair, Nissen fundoplication), were included. Risk adjustment included exclusion of patients with major and extreme severity of illness. Main outcome measures included serious morbidity, in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admissions, and cost. A total of 72 662 advanced laparoscopic abdominal operations were performed in patients at 66 HSHs (n = 38 299; mean [SD] age, 51.26 [15.25] years; 12 096 [31.5%] male and 26 203 [68.4%] female; 28 971 [75.6%] white and 9328 [24.4%] nonwhite) and 78 LSHs (n = 34 363; mean [SD] age, 49.77 [14.77] years; 9902 [28.8%] male and 24 461 [71.2%] female; 21 876 [67.6%] white and 12 487 [32.4%] nonwhite). The HSHs were observed to have fewer intensive care unit admissions (1007 [2.6%] vs 1711 [5.0%], P < .001) and lower mean cost ($7866 vs $8708, P < .001). No significant difference was

  18. Caudal ropivacaine and bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Surhan Ozer; Isil, Canan Tulay; Sahin, Sevtap Hekimoglu; Paksoy, Inci

    2015-01-01

    To compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of ropivacaine 0.175% and bupivacaine 0.175% injected caudally into infants for lower abdominal surgery. Eighty infants, aged 3-12 months, ASA I-II scheduled to undergo lower abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to one of the two groups: Group R received 1ml.kg(-1) 0.175% ropivacaine and Group B received 1ml.kg(-1) 0.175% bupivacaine via caudal route. Postoperative analgesia, sedation and motor block were evaluated with modified objective pain scale, three-point scale and modified Bromage scale respectively. Postoperative measurements including mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), pain (OPS), sedation and motor block score were recorded for four hours in the postoperative recovery room. Parents were contacted by telephone after 24 hours to question duration of analgesia and side effects. No significant differences were found among the groups in demographic data, MAP, HR, OPS and sedation scores during four hours postoperatively. The duration of analgesia was 527.5±150.62 minutes in Group R, 692.77±139.01 minutes in Group B (p=0.004). Twelve (30%) patients in Group R, 16 (40%) patients in groupB needed rescue analgesics (p=0.348). Rescue analgesics were administered (1 time/2 times) (9/3) (22.5/7.5%) in Group R and 16/0 (40/0%) in Group B, where no statistically significant difference was determined between the groups (p=0.071). Motor blockade was observed in 7 (17.5%) patients in Group R, and 8 (20%) patients in Group B (p=0.774). This study indicated, that a concentration of 0.175% ropivacaine and 0.175% bupivacaine administered to the infants via caudal route both provided effective and similar postoperative pain relief in infants, who underwent lower abdominal surgery.

  19. Caudal ropivacaine and bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cinar, Surhan Ozer; Isil, Canan Tulay; Sahin, Sevtap Hekimoglu; Paksoy, Inci

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of ropivacaine 0.175% and bupivacaine 0.175% injected caudally into infants for lower abdominal surgery. Methods: Eighty infants, aged 3-12 months, ASA I-II scheduled to undergo lower abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to one of the two groups: Group R received 1ml.kg-1 0.175% ropivacaine and Group B received 1ml.kg-1 0.175% bupivacaine via caudal route. Postoperative analgesia, sedation and motor block were evaluated with modified objective pain scale, three-point scale and modified Bromage scale respectively. Postoperative measurements including mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), pain (OPS), sedation and motor block score were recorded for four hours in the postoperative recovery room. Parents were contacted by telephone after 24 hours to question duration of analgesia and side effects. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups in demographic data, MAP, HR, OPS and sedation scores during four hours postoperatively. The duration of analgesia was 527.5±150.62 minutes in Group R, 692.77±139.01 minutes in Group B (p=0.004). Twelve (30%) patients in Group R, 16 (40%) patients in groupB needed rescue analgesics (p=0.348). Rescue analgesics were administered (1 time/2 times) (9/3) (22.5/7.5%) in Group R and 16/0 (40/0%) in Group B, where no statistically significant difference was determined between the groups (p=0.071). Motor blockade was observed in 7 (17.5%) patients in Group R, and 8 (20%) patients in Group B (p=0.774). Conclusion: This study indicated, that a concentration of 0.175% ropivacaine and 0.175% bupivacaine administered to the infants via caudal route both provided effective and similar postoperative pain relief in infants, who underwent lower abdominal surgery. PMID:26430427

  20. Mesenteric Torsion as a Cause of Late Abdominal Pain after Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Sven G; Ekelund, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) has been the most common surgical way to treat obesity and its comorbidities. Late abdominal pain may occur by gastro-jejunal ulcers, gallstones, internal herniation or, rarely, intussusception. In an area with more than 1000 GBPs performed yearly, three patients with primary small bowel volvulus causing abdominal pain and requiring emergency or semi-urgent surgery were identified. Patients' histories, radiology, and surgery performed are presented. Weight loss followed by mesenteric narrowing of the root and thus relative elongation may make rotation of the small bowel mesentery possible. Such a torsion might be an overlooked differential diagnosis in obscure abdominal pain after GBP.

  1. The Efficacy of Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Postdischarge Nausea in Patients Undergoing Outpatient Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mcilvoy, Laura; Richmer, Linda; Kramer, Deborah; Jackson, Rita; Shaffer, Leslee; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Inman, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the aromatherapy product QueaseEASE (QE) for decreasing postdischarge nausea (PDN) in patients undergoing outpatient abdominal surgery. Prospective exploratory study. Informed Consent was obtained preoperatively from a convenience sample of adult patients scheduled for outpatient abdominal surgery procedures. Prior to discharge, subjects were instructed in the use of QE and given instructions on how to rate their nausea on a 0-10 scale. They recorded nausea scales > 0 any time they occurred for the next 24 hours, used the QE, and recorded their nausea scales 3 minutes later. A study nurse called subjects the next day to collect the information. The sample included 70 outpatients who underwent abdominal surgery. Twenty-five participants (36%) reported experiencing PDN and their concomitant use of QE. There was a significant difference in mean age of those reporting PDN (37 years) versus those without nausea (48 years, P = .004) as well as a significant difference in mean intravenous fluid intake during hospitalization of those reporting PDN (1,310 mL) versus those without nausea (1,511 mL, P = .04). The PDN group had more female participants (72% vs 42%, P = .02), more participants that were less than 50 years of age (84% vs 53%, P = .02), and received more opioids (100% vs 76%, P = .006) than the no nausea group. The 25 PDN participants reported 47 episodes of PDN in which they used QE. For all of the 47 PDN episodes experienced, participants reported a decrease in nausea scale (0 to 10) after the use of QE; for 22 (47%) of the PDN episodes experienced, a nausea scale of 0 after using QE was reported. The mean decrease in nausea scale for all 25 participants was 4.78 (±2.12) after using QE. This study found that the aromatherapy QE was an effective treatment of PDN in select same-day abdominal surgery patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Expiratory Flow Limitation as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Complications After Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Savino; Caramori, Gaetano; Rizzuto, Chiara; Mojoli, Francesco; Zani, Gianluca; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Valpiani, Giorgia; Dalla Corte, Francesca; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Volta, Carlo Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are major causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although several risk factors have been associated with postoperative pulmonary complications, they are not consistent between studies and, even in those studies in which these factors were identified, the predictive power is low. We hypothesized that postoperative pulmonary complications would correlate with the presence of intraoperative expiratory flow limitation. Candidates for this prospective observational study were patients undergoing general anesthesia for major abdominal surgery. Preoperative data collection included age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, smoking and dyspnea history, and room air PO2. Expiratory flow limitation was assessed intraoperatively using the positive end-expiratory pressure test. Postoperative data collection included the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. Of the 330 patients we enrolled, 31% exhibited expiratory flow limitation. On univariate analysis, patients with expiratory flow limitation were more likely to have postoperative pneumonia (5% vs 0%, P < .001) and acute respiratory failure (11% vs 1%, P < .001) and a longer length of hospital stay (7 vs 9 days, P < .01). Multivariate analysis identified that expiratory flow limitation increased the risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications by >50% (risk ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2). Age and Medical Research Council dyspnea score were also significant multivariate risk factors for pulmonary complications. Our results show that intraoperative expiratory flow limitation correlates with that of postoperative pulmonary complication after major abdominal surgery. Further work is needed to better understand the relevance of expiratory flow limitation on postoperative pulmonary outcomes.

  3. [Application of antiseptic dekasan in urgent abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Fomin, P D; Lissov, A I; Kozlov, S N; Mikhal'chishin, S N

    2009-01-01

    Experience in local application of antiseptic Dekasan in the complex treatment of abdominal infections of various origins are presented. The clinical and economic efficacy of the drug application is notice.

  4. Surgery insight: advances in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Jacobs, Tikva S; Marin, Michael L

    2007-04-01

    Despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic methods and an increased awareness of their clinical significance, abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular repair of AAAs, initially described in 1990, offers a less-invasive alternative to conventional open repair. The technology and devices used for endovascular repair of AAAs have progressed rapidly and the approach has proven to be safe and effective in short to midterm investigations. Furthermore, several large trials have demonstrated that elective endovascular repair is associated with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality than open repair. The long-term benefits of endovascular repair relative to open repair, however, continue to be studied. In addition to elective repair, the use of endovascular repair for ruptured AAAs has been increasing, and has been shown to be associated with reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality. Advances in endovascular repair of AAAs, including the development of branched and fenestrated grafts and the use of implantable devices to measure aneurysm-sac pressures following stent-graft deployment, have further broadened the application of the technique and have enhanced postoperative monitoring. Despite these advances, endovascular repair of AAAs remains a relatively novel technique, and further long-term data need to be collected.

  5. [Initiating a Robotic Program for Abdominal Surgery - Experiences from a Centre in Germany].

    PubMed

    Brunner, Maximilian; Matzel, Klaus; Aladashvili, Archil; Krautz, Christian; Grützmann, Robert; Croner, Roland

    2018-05-18

    Robotic systems are becoming increasingly important in abdominal surgery. We describe the implementation of a robotic program at a German centre for abdominal surgery, with focus on feasibility, safety, patient selection, learning curves, financial aspects and the lessons learned. This retrospective analysis covered data on patient demographics, intra- and postoperative parameters, oncological results and costs of all robotic-assisted abdominal operations performed at our institution between August 2012 to December 2016. It was also evaluated how possible factors for preoperative patient selection might influence intra- or postoperative outcome and learning parameters. 81 operations were performed - mostly colorectal resections (n = 35), ventral mesh rectopexy (n = 23) and liver resections (n = 18). The conversion rate was 7%. All oncological patients underwent R0 resection. Mean postoperative hospitalisation was 8.8 days; mean morbidity was 24%, with major complications (Clavien-Dindo > II) in 7%; mortality was 0%. BMI above 33.5 kg/m 2 was associated with significantly higher morbidity (p = 0.024) and rate of major complications (p = 0.046), as well as a significantly longer hospitalisation (p = 0.009). Patients older than 65 years had significantly higher morbidity (p = 0.025). With increasing numbers of operations, time of surgery decreased (p = 0.001). The average cost of a robot-assisted operation, including hospital stay, was 15,221 €. The costs of robotic sigmoid resections or liver resections were higher (compared to the open approach: 106.8 and 62.8% higher, respectively, compared to the laparoscopic approach 93.5 and 66.5% higher, respectively). Robotic surgery is a safe approach. A crucial factor in the successful and safe performance of robotic assisted operations is proper patient selection, especially during the implementation period. The inevitable learning curve and the higher costs compared to open and

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life, Cachexia and Overall Survival After Major Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K

    2017-03-01

    Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life

  7. Crimped braided sleeves for soft, actuating arm in robotic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Yahya; Lekakou, Constantina; Ranzani, Tommaso; Cianchetti, Matteo; Morino, Mario; Arezzo, Alberto; Menciassi, Arianna; Geng, Tao; Saaj, Chakravarthini M

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates different types of crimped, braided sleeve used for a soft arm for robotic abdominal surgery, with the sleeve required to contain balloon expansion in the pneumatically actuating arm while it follows the required bending, elongation and diameter reduction of the arm. Three types of crimped, braided sleeves from PET (BraidPET) or nylon (BraidGreyNylon and BraidNylon, with different monofilament diameters) were fabricated and tested including geometrical and microstructural characterisation of the crimp and braid, mechanical tests and medical scratching tests for organ damage of domestic pigs. BraidPET caused some organ damage, sliding under normal force of 2-5 N; this was attributed to the high roughness of the braid pattern, the higher friction coefficient of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared to nylon, and the high frequency of the crimp peaks for this sleeve. No organ damage was observed for the BraidNylon, attributed to both the lower roughness of the braid pattern and the low friction coefficient of nylon. BraidNylon also required the lowest tensile force during its elongation to similar maximum strain as that of BraidPET, translating to low power requirements. BraidNylon is recommended for the crimped sleeve of the arm designed for robotic abdominal surgery.

  8. Healthcare utilization in women after abdominal surgery for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    McCorkle, Ruth; Jeon, Sangchoon; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer are severely ill and are high users of health services. Contributing to these increased utilization rates are the multiple modalities used to treat ovarian cancer and the complications and side effects from those treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention provided by advanced practice nurses and a psychiatric consultation-liaison nurse on patients' self-report of healthcare utilization compared with an attention control intervention in women undergoing surgery for a suspected diagnosis of ovarian cancer. A two-group, experimental, longitudinal design was used to compare women who were assigned randomly to the intervention group or to an attention control group at baseline within 48 hours after surgery and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Healthcare utilization was measured as the number of self-reported inpatient admissions and outpatient visits, including emergency room visits, oncology outpatient visits, and primary care visits. Nurse interventions consisted of 16 contacts: symptom management, counseling, education, direct nursing care, coordination of resources, and referrals. The attention control interventions consisted of nine contacts that included instructions on use of a symptom management toolkit and strategies on how to manage symptoms. There were no differences in hospitalizations and oncology outpatient visits between the two groups. The main finding of this study was a significant difference in the number of primary care visits between the two groups. Women in the attention control group went to their primary care providers more often than the intervention group. The women who reported more visits also reported more depressive symptoms. In addition, a trend was found in the number of emergency room visits between the two groups. The intervention group visited the emergency room more often because the nurse instructed patients to go when they recognized

  9. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Módolo, Norma S P; Andrade, Sílvia; Guimarães, Michele M F; Braz, Leandro G; El Dib, Regina

    2014-02-08

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3.Upper abdominal surgical procedures are associated with a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The risk and severity of postoperative pulmonary complications can be reduced by the judicious use of therapeutic manoeuvres that increase lung volume. Our objective was to assess the effect of incentive spirometry compared to no therapy or physiotherapy, including coughing and deep breathing, on all-cause postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality in adult patients admitted to hospital for upper abdominal surgery. Our primary objective was to assess the effect of incentive spirometry (IS), compared to no such therapy or other therapy, on postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality in adults undergoing upper abdominal surgery.Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of IS, compared to no therapy or other therapy, on other postoperative complications, adverse events, and spirometric parameters. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (from inception to August 2013). There were no language restrictions. The date of the most recent search was 12 August 2013. The original search was performed in June 2006. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of IS in adult patients admitted for any type of upper abdominal surgery, including patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included 12 studies with a total of 1834 participants in this updated review. The methodological quality of the included studies was difficult to assess as it was poorly reported, so the predominant classification of bias was 'unclear'; the studies did not report on compliance with the prescribed therapy. We were able to include data from only 1160 patients in the meta-analysis. Four trials (152

  10. Inflammation-mediated muscle metabolic dysregulation local and remote to the site of major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Krishna K; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Constantin, Despina; Greenhaff, Paul L; Lobo, Dileep N

    2017-11-02

    Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common in patients having major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether bacteraemia contributed to postoperative systemic inflammation, and whether increases in the expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins reflecting increased muscle inflammation, atrophy and impaired carbohydrate oxidation were evident at the time of surgery, and both local and distant to the site of trauma, and could be associated with impaired glucoregulation. Fifteen adult patients without diabetes undergoing major abdominal surgery participated in this observational study set in a university teaching hospital. Arterialised-venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after major elective abdominal surgery, from sites local (rectus abdominis - RA) and remote to the site of surgery (vastus lateralis - VL). The main outcome measures included blood glucose concentrations, gut permeability and changes in expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins linked to inflammation and glucose regulation. Immediately postoperatively, RA demonstrated markedly increased mRNA expression levels of cathepsin-L (7.5-fold, P < 0.05), FOXO1 (10.5-fold, P < 0.05), MAFbx (11.5-fold, P < 0.01), PDK4 (7.8-fold, P < 0.05), TNF-α (16.5-fold, P < 0.05) and IL-6 (1058-fold, P < 0.001). A similar, albeit blunted, response was observed in VL. Surgery also increased expression of proteins linked to inflammation (IL-6; 6-fold, P < 0.01), protein degradation (MAFbx; 4.5-fold, P < 0.5), and blunted carbohydrate oxidation (PDK4; 4-fold, P < 0.05) in RA but not VL. Increased systemic inflammation (TNF-α, P < 0.05; IL-6, P < 0.001), and impaired postoperative glucose tolerance (P < 0.001), but not bacteraemia (although gut permeability was increased significantly, P < 0.05) or increased plasma cortisol, were noted 48 h postoperatively. A systemic postoperative proinflammatory response was accompanied by muscle

  11. Risk Assessment of Abdominal Wall Thickness Measured on Pre-Operative Computerized Tomography for Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tongyoo, Assanee; Chatthamrak, Putipan; Sriussadaporn, Ekkapak; Limpavitayaporn, Palin; Mingmalairak, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    The surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of abdominal operation. It relates to increased hospital stay, increased healthcare cost, and decreased patient's quality of life. Obesity, usually defined by BMI, is known as one of the risks of SSI. However, the thickness of subcutaneous layers of abdominal wall might be an important local factor affecting the rate of SSI after the abdominal operations. The objective of this study is to assess the importance of the abdominal wall thickness on incisional SSI rate. The subjects of the present study were patients who had undergone major abdominal operations at Thammasat University Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014, and had been investigated with CT scans before their operations. The demographic data and clinical information of these patients were recorded. The thickness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue from skin down to the most superficial layer of abdominal wall muscle at the surgical site was measured on CT images. The wound infectious complication was reviewed and categorized as superficial and deep incisional SSIfollowing the definition from Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. The significance ofeach potentialfactors on SSI rates was determined separately with student t-test for quantitative data and χ2-test for categorical data. Then all factors, which had p < 0.10, were included into the multivariate logistic regression analysis and were analyzed with significance at p < 0.05. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were included in this study. They all underwent major abdominal surgery and had had pre-operative CTscans. Post-operative SSI was 25.2% (35/139), superficial and deep types in 27 and 8 patients, respectively. The comparison of abdominal wall thickness between patients with and without infection was significantly different (20.0 ± 8.4 mm and 16.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively). When the thickness at 20 mm was used as the cut-off value, 43 of 139 patients had abdominal wall

  12. Regional anesthesia as an alternative to general anesthesia for abdominal surgery in patients with severe pulmonary impairment.

    PubMed

    Savas, Jeannie F; Litwack, Robert; Davis, Kevin; Miller, Thomas A

    2004-11-01

    It is known that smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience a higher rate of pulmonary-related complications following abdominal surgery. The impact of anesthetic technique (regional [RA] versus general [GA] versus combination of both) on the complication rate has not been established. This study examined the outcomes of abdominal surgery performed using RA (epidural or continuous spinal) as the sole anesthetic technique in patients with severe pulmonary impairment (SPI). We reviewed a series of 8 general surgery cases performed using RA alone (T4-T6 sensory level) in patients with SPI, as evidenced by an forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) less than 50% predicted and/or home oxygen requirement. One patient also received postoperative epidural analgesia. FEV(1) ranged from 0.3 to 1.84 L; 3 patients required home oxygen therapy, and 5 of the 8 were American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class 4. Operations included segmental colectomy (n = 2), open cholecystectomy (n = 1), incisional herniorrhaphy (n = 1), and laparoscopic herniorrhaphy (n = 4). Intraoperative conditions were adequate with RA alone for successful completion of the procedure in all cases. All patients recovered uneventfully except for 1 who developed postoperative pneumonia that resolved with standard therapy. Length of stay was less than 24 hours for 5 of 8 patients. Mortality was 0%. Abdominal surgery can be safely performed using RA alone in selected high-risk patients, making this option an attractive alternative to GA for those with severe pulmonary impairment.

  13. [Balanced postoperative analgesia in abdominal surgery: efficiency of the combined use of epidural block and non-opioid analgesics].

    PubMed

    Borisov, D B; Levin, A V; Uvarov, D N; Kapanadze, L G; Nedashkovskiĭ, E V

    2009-01-01

    One hundred patients who had undergone elective surgery for abdominal malignancy were enrolled in the randomized, controlled study. Postoperative analgesia included only continuous epidural analgesia (PEA) or PEA with intramuscular ketorolac, or PEA with intramuscular ketorolac and intravenous paracetamol. The systemic use of ketorolac and paracetamol in addition to continuous epidural anesthesia can reduce a need for a local anesthetic and the intensity of postoperative movement pain.

  14. P1033Echocardiographic predictive model of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Demirevska, L; Gotchev, D

    2016-12-01

    and purpose: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a frequent complication post high-risk abdominal surgery in elderly patients. This study aimed to develop a predictive model of POAF based on preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings in these patients. We conducted a prospective study of 300 consecutive patients, age ≥ 65 years (mean age 72±6 years, 61% men), who underwent high-risk abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Preoperative TTE was performed in all patients, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). We measured the time interval between the onset of the P-wave on ECG and a point of the peak-A wave on TDI from the lateral mitral annulus (PA lateral) and septal mitral annulus (PA septal). Left atrial (LA) dyssynchrony was measured by subtracting the PA septal from PA lateral. Right ventricular systolic pressure was estimated by using the tricuspid regurgitation jet (TRJ) Doppler velocity method. The primary endpoint was the occurance of new-onset POAF. Thirty-seven (12%) patients developed POAF. Multiple echocardiographic parameters were measured and tested in different combinations. The final model included the following variables with cutoff points predictive of POAF: PA lateral > 139 ms (69% sensitivity, 92% specificity), LA dyssynchrony > 35 ms (78% sensitivity, 89% specificity), and TRJ Doppler velocity >2.6 m/s (89% sensitivity, 64% specificity). A value of 0 was assigned when the result was below the cutoff point and a value of 1 if above the cutoff point. Coding of these three variables in the following order: PA lateral- TRJ Doppler- left atrial dyssynchrony can predict the probability of POAF. The model showed a postive predictive value of 79% and a negative predictive value of 95%. A model using three echocardiographic variables: PA lateral, LA dyssynchrony and TRJ Doppler velocity, can predict the incidence of POAF after high-risk abdominal surgery. The model can be used preoperatively to identify high-risk patients

  15. Surgical Site Infiltration for Abdominal Surgery: A Novel Neuroanatomical-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Janis, Jeffrey E.; Haas, Eric M.; Ramshaw, Bruce J.; Nihira, Mikio A.; Dunkin, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Provision of optimal postoperative analgesia should facilitate postoperative ambulation and rehabilitation. An optimal multimodal analgesia technique would include the use of nonopioid analgesics, including local/regional analgesic techniques such as surgical site local anesthetic infiltration. This article presents a novel approach to surgical site infiltration techniques for abdominal surgery based upon neuroanatomy. Methods: Literature searches were conducted for studies reporting the neuroanatomical sources of pain after abdominal surgery. Also, studies identified by preceding search were reviewed for relevant publications and manually retrieved. Results: Based on neuroanatomy, an optimal surgical site infiltration technique would consist of systematic, extensive, meticulous administration of local anesthetic into the peritoneum (or preperitoneum), subfascial, and subdermal tissue planes. The volume of local anesthetic would depend on the size of the incision such that 1 to 1.5 mL is injected every 1 to 2 cm of surgical incision per layer. It is best to infiltrate with a 22-gauge, 1.5-inch needle. The needle is inserted approximately 0.5 to 1 cm into the tissue plane, and local anesthetic solution is injected while slowly withdrawing the needle, which should reduce the risk of intravascular injection. Conclusions: Meticulous, systematic, and extensive surgical site local anesthetic infiltration in the various tissue planes including the peritoneal, musculofascial, and subdermal tissues, where pain foci originate, provides excellent postoperative pain relief. This approach should be combined with use of other nonopioid analgesics with opioids reserved for rescue. Further well-designed studies are necessary to assess the analgesic efficacy of the proposed infiltration technique. PMID:28293525

  16. Single-Incision Multiport/Single Port Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery (SILAP): A Prospective Multicenter Observational Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Mantke, Rene; Diener, Markus; Kropf, Siegfried; Otto, Ronny; Manger, Thomas; Vestweber, Boris; Mirow, Lutz; Winde, Günther; Lippert, Hans

    2016-09-07

    Increasing experience with minimally invasive surgery and the development of new instruments has resulted in a tendency toward reducing the number of abdominal skin incisions. Retrospective and randomized prospective studies could show the feasibility of single-incision surgery without any increased risk to the patient. However, large prospective multicenter observational datasets do not currently exist. This prospective multicenter observational quality study will provide a relevant dataset reflecting the feasibility and safety of single-incision surgery. This study focuses on external validity, clinical relevance, and the patients' perspective. Accordingly, the single-incision multiport/single port laparoscopic abdominal surgery (SILAP) study will supplement the existing evidence, which does not currently allow evidence-based surgical decision making. The SILAP study is an international prospective multicenter observational quality study. Mortality, morbidity, complications during surgery, complications postoperatively, patient characteristics, and technical aspects will be monitored. We expect more than 100 surgical centers to participate with 5000 patients with abdominal single-incision surgery during the study period. Funding was obtained in 2012. Enrollment began on January 01, 2013, and will be completed on December 31, 2018. As of January 2016, 2119 patients have been included, 106 German centers are registered, and 27 centers are very active (>5 patients per year). This prospective multicenter observational quality study will provide a relevant dataset reflecting the feasibility and safety of single-incision surgery. An international enlargement and recruitment of centers outside of Germany is meaningful. German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004594; https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00004594 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jK6ZVyUs).

  17. Effect of Previous Abdominal Surgery on Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Analysis of Feasibility and Risk Factors for Conversion.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Federica; Ratti, Francesca; Fiorentini, Guido; Catena, Marco; Paganelli, Michele; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2018-03-28

    Previous abdominal surgery has traditionally been considered an additional element of difficulty to later laparoscopic procedures. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of previous surgery on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), and its role as a risk factor for conversion. After matching, 349 LLR in patients known for previous abdominal surgery (PS group) were compared with 349 LLR on patients with a virgin abdomen (NPS group). Subgroup analysis included 161 patients with previous upper abdominal surgery (UPS subgroup). Feasibility and safety were evaluated in terms of conversion rate, reasons for conversion and outcomes, and risk factors for conversion assessed via uni/multivariable analysis. Conversion rate was 9.4%, and higher for PS patients compared with NPS patients (13.7% versus 5.1%, P = .021). Difficult adhesiolysis resulted the commonest reason for conversion in PS group (5.7%). However, operative time (P = .840), blood loss (P = .270), transfusion (P = .650), morbidity rate (P = .578), hospital stay (P = .780), and R1 rate (P = .130) were comparable between PS and NPS group. Subgroup analysis confirmed higher conversion rates for UPS patients (23%) compared with both NPS (P = .015) and PS patients (P = .041). Previous surgery emerged as independent risk factor for conversion (P = .033), alongside the postero-superior location and major hepatectomy. LLR are feasible in case of previous surgery and proved to be safe and maintain the benefits of LLR carried out in standard settings. However, a history of surgery should be considered a risk factor for conversion.

  18. Segmental analysis of respiratory liver motion in patients with and without a history of abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Maeda, Yoshikazu; Sasaki, Makoto; Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Bou, Sayuri; Kumano, Tomoyasu; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2018-06-20

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the respiratory motion of each segment of the liver in patients with or without a history of abdominal surgery using four-dimensional computed tomography. In total, 57 patients treated for abdominal tumors using proton beam therapy were enrolled. Eighteen patients had a history of abdominal surgery and 39 did not. The positions of clearly demarcated, high-density regions in the liver were measured as evaluation points with which to quantify the motion of each liver segment according to the Couinaud classification. In total, 218 evaluation points were analyzed. Comparison of differences in the motion of individual liver segments showed that among patients without a history of surgery, the maximum was 29.0 (7.2-42.1) mm in S6 and the minimum was 15.1 (10.6-19.3) mm in S4. Among patients with a history of surgery, the maximum was 28.0 (9.0-37.4) mm in S7 and the minimum was 6.3 (4.1-9.3) mm in S3. The distances and directions of respiratory motion differed for each liver segment, and a history of abdominal surgery reduced the respiratory motion of the liver. It is necessary to selectively use the internal margin setting.

  19. Impact of preoperative regular physical activity on postoperative course after open abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Kodama, Akio; Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Yasukawa, Yuto; Shimizu, Miho; Kondo, Takahisa; Komori, Kimihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-04-01

    Early ambulation after open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery is assumed to play a key role in preventing postoperative complications and reducing hospital length of stay. However, the factors predicting early ambulation after open AAA surgery have not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we investigated which preoperative and intraoperative variables are associated with start time for ambulation in patients after open AAA surgery. A total of 67 consecutive patients undergoing open AAA surgery were included in the study [male, 62 (92 %); mean age, 68 years (range, 47-82 years), mean AAA diameter, 53 mm (range, 28-80 mm)]. Preoperative physical activity was examined by means of 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and a medical interview. Patients were divided into two groups, according to when independence in walking was attained: early group <3 days (n = 36) and late group ≥3 days (n = 31), and the pre-, intra-, and postoperative recovery data were compared. There were no significant differences in patient baseline characteristics or intraoperative data between the two groups. The number of patients engaging in preoperative regular physical activity and 6MWD were significantly greater (p = 0.042 and p = 0.034, respectively) in the early group than in the late group. In addition, time to hospital discharge was significantly shorter in the early group than in the late group (p = 0.031). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative regular physical activity was the only independent factor for identifying patients in the early group (odds ratio 2.769, 95 % confidence interval 1.024-7.487, p = 0.045). These results suggest that engaging in regular physical activity is an effective predictor of early ambulation after open AAA surgery.

  20. Predictors of major complications after elective abdominal surgery in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Simões, Claudia M; Carmona, Maria J C; Hajjar, Ludhmila A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Landoni, Giovanni; Belletti, Alessandro; Vieira, Joaquim E; de Almeida, Juliano P; de Almeida, Elisangela P; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Kauling, Ana L; Tutyia, Celso; Tamaoki, Lie; Fukushima, Julia T; Auler, José O C

    2018-05-09

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery for solid tumours frequently develop major postoperative complications, which negatively affect quality of life, costs of care and survival. Few studies have identified the determinants of perioperative complications in this group. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (age > 18) undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer at a single institution between June 2011 and August 2013. Patients undergoing emergency surgery, palliative procedures, or participating in other studies were excluded. Primary outcome was a composite of 30-day all-cause mortality and infectious, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, renal and surgical complications. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for major perioperative adverse events. Of a total 308 included patients, 106 (34.4%) developed a major complication during the 30-day follow-up period. Independent predictors of postoperative major complications were: age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06], p = 0.012 per year), ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status greater than or equal to 3 (OR 2.61 [95% CI 1.33-5.17], p = 0.003), a preoperative haemoglobin level lower than 12 g/dL (OR 2.13 [95% CI 1.21-4.07], p = 0.014), intraoperative use of colloids (OR 1.89, [95% CI 1.03-4.07], p = 0.047), total amount of intravenous fluids (OR 1.22 [95% CI 0.98-1.59], p = 0.106 per litre), intraoperative blood losses greater than 500 mL (2.07 [95% CI 1.00-4.31], p = 0.043), and hypotension needing vasopressor support (OR 4.68 [95% CI 1.55-27.72], p = 0.004). The model had good discrimination with the area under the ROC curve being 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.84, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that a perioperative strategy aimed at reducing perioperative complications in cancer surgery should include treatment of preoperative anaemia and an optimal fluid strategy

  1. Minimally invasive abdominal surgery: lux et veritas past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Andrew G; Heniford, B Todd

    2005-08-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has developed out of multiple technology innovations and the desire to see beyond the confines of the human body. As the instrumentation became more advanced, the application of this technique followed. By revisiting the historical developments that now define laparoscopic surgery, we can possibly foresee its future. A Medline search was performed of all the English-language literature. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work and using books from the authors' collection. Minimally invasive surgery is becoming important in almost every facet of abdominal surgery. Optical improvements, miniaturization, and robotic technology continue to define the frontier of minimally invasive surgery. Endoluminal resection surgery, image-guided surgical navigation, and remotely controlled robotics are not far from becoming reality. These and advances yet to be described will change laparoscopic surgery just as the electric light bulb did over 100 years ago.

  2. An observational study: Effects of tenting of the abdominal wall on peak airway pressure in robotic radical prostatectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kakde, Avinash Sahebarav; Wagh, Harshal D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is associated with various anesthetic challenges due to pneumoperitoneum and deep Trendelenburg position. Tenting of the abdominal wall done in RRP surgery causes decrease in peak airway pressure leading to better ventilation. Herein, we aimed to describe the effects of tenting of the abdominal wall on peak airway pressure in RRP surgery performed in deep Trendelenburg position. Methods: One hundred patients admitted for RRP in Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital of American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 physical status were included in the study. After undergoing preanesthesia work-up, patients received general anesthesia. Peak airway pressures were recorded after induction of general anesthesia, after insufflation of CO2, after giving Trendelenburg position, and after tenting of the abdominal wall with robotic arms. Results: Mean peak airway pressure recording after induction in supine position was 19.5 ± 2.3 cm of H2O, after insufflation of CO2 in supine position was 26.3 ± 2.6 cm of H2O, after giving steep head low was 34.1 ± 3.4 cm of H2O, and after tenting of the abdominal wall with robotic arms was 29.5 ± 2.5 cm of H2O. P value is highly statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Tenting of the abdominal wall during RRP is beneficial as it decreases peak airway pressure and helps in better ventilation and thus reduces the ill effects of raised peak airway pressure and intra-abdominal pressures. PMID:28757826

  3. Impact of respiratory therapy in vital capacity and functionality of patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Shanlley Cristina da Silva; Santos, Rafaella Souza Dos; Giovanetti, Erica Albanez; Taniguchi, Corinne; Silva, Cilene Saghabi de Medeiros; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Carnieli-Cazati, Denise

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the vital capacity after two chest therapy techniques in patients undergoing abdominal surgical. A prospective randomized study carried out with patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after abdominal surgery. We checked vital capacity, muscular strength using the Medical Research Council scale, and functionality with the Functional Independence Measure the first time the patient was breathing spontaneously (D1), and also upon discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (Ddis). Between D1 and Ddis, respiratory therapy was carried out according to the randomized group. We included 38 patients, 20 randomized to Positive Intermittent Pressure Group and 18 to Volumetric Incentive Spirometer Group. There was no significant gain related to vital capacity of D1 and Ddis of Positive Intermittent Pressure Group (mean 1,410mL±547.2 versus 1,809mL±692.3; p=0.979), as in the Volumetric Incentive Spirometer Group (1,408.3mL±419.1 versus 1,838.8mL±621.3; p=0.889). We observed a significant improvement in vital capacity in D1 (p<0.001) and Ddis (p<0.001) and in the Functional Independence Measure (p<0.001) after respiratory therapy. The vital capacity improvement was not associated with gain of muscle strength. Chest therapy, with positive pressure and volumetric incentive spirometer, was effective in improving vital capacity of patients submitted to abdominal surgery. Avaliar a capacidade vital comparando duas técnicas de fisioterapia respiratória em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia abdominal. Estudo prospectivo e randomizado realizado com pacientes admitidos em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva após cirurgia abdominal. Verificamos a capacidade vital, a força muscular por meio da escala do Medical Research Council e funcionalidade pela Medida de Independência Funcional no primeiro momento em que o paciente encontrava-se em respiração espontânea (D1) e na alta da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (Dalta). Entre D1 e Dalta, foi realizada a fisioterapia respirat

  4. Past, Present, and Future of Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, George A.; Antoniou, Athanasios I.; Granderath, Frank-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has generated a revolution in operative medicine during the past few decades. Although strongly criticized during its early years, minimization of surgical trauma and the benefits of minimization to the patient have been brought to our attention through the efforts and vision of a few pioneers in the recent history of medicine. The German gynecologist Kurt Semm (1927–2003) transformed the use of laparoscopy for diagnostic purposes into a modern therapeutic surgical concept, having performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy, inspiring Erich Mühe and many other surgeons around the world to perform a wide spectrum of procedures by minimally invasive means. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy soon became the gold standard, and various laparoscopic procedures are now preferred over open approaches, in the light of emerging evidence that demonstrates less operative stress, reduced pain, and shorter convalescence. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may be considered further steps toward minimization of surgical trauma, although these methods have not yet been standardized. Laparoscopic surgery with the use of a robotic platform constitutes a promising field of investigation. New technologies are to be considered under the prism of the history of surgery; they seem to be a step toward further minimization of surgical trauma, but not definite therapeutic modalities. Patient safety and medical ethics must be the cornerstone of future investigation and implementation of new techniques. PMID:26508823

  5. [Analgesic effect of acupuncture at Neimadian(Extra) in postoperation of abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liu-Xin; Xing, Qun-Zhi; Sun, Jun-Jun; Li, Yu

    2011-08-01

    To observe the analgesia effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture at Neimadian(Extra) for postoperation of abdominal surgery. One hundred and twenty patients with routine abdominal surgery were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a medication group, 60 cases in each group. The acupuncture group was treated with electroacupuncture at Neimadian(Extra), which was located on the inside of lower leg, 7 cun above the internal malleolus and 0.5 cun from post edge of tibial. The medication group was treated with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with Sufentanil. After the treatment, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the security, the analgesic effect and beta-endorphin content were compared. The postoperative VAS score at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the acupuncture group was lower than those in the medication group (all P < 0.05). The analgesic effect at 2, 4, 16 and 24 h after surgery in the acupuncture group were superior to those in the medication group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The beta-endorphin content at 0, 8, 16 and 48 h after surgery in both groups were increased, and the acupuncture group was superior to the medication group (all P < 0.05). The security class after surgery in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the medication group (P < 0.05). The analgesic effect and safety of electroacupuncture at Neimadian(Extra) in postoperation of abdominal surgery are superior to those of the PCIA with Sufentanil.

  6. Nutrition management in enhanced recovery after abdominal pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Márquez Mesa, Elena; Baz Figueroa, Caleb; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Sanz Pereda, Pablo; Barrera Gómez, Manuel Ángel

    Multimodal rehabilitation programs are perioperative standardized strategies with the objective of improving patient recovery, and decreasing morbidity, hospital stay and health cost. The nutritional aspect is an essential component of multimodal rehabilitation programs and therefore nutritional screening is recommended prior to hospital admission, avoiding pre-surgical fasting, with oral carbohydrate overload and early initiation of oral intake after surgery. However, there are no standardized protocols of diet progression after pancreatic surgery. A systematic review was been performed of papers published between 2006 and 2016, describing different nutritional strategies after pancreatic surgery and its possible implications in postoperative outcome. The studies evaluated are very heterogeneous, so conclusive results could not be drawn on the diet protocol to be implemented, its influence on clinical variables, or the need for concomitant artificial nutrition. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Industry Bias in Randomized Controlled Trials in General and Abdominal Surgery: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Probst, Pascal; Knebel, Phillip; Grummich, Kathrin; Tenckhoff, Solveig; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W; Diener, Markus K

    2016-07-01

    Industry sponsorship has been identified as a source of bias in several fields of medical science. To date, the influence of industry sponsorship in the field of general and abdominal surgery has not been evaluated. A systematic literature search (1985-2014) was performed in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to identify randomized controlled trials in general and abdominal surgery. Information on funding source, outcome, and methodological quality was extracted. Association of industry sponsorship and positive outcome was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). A χ test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis with study characteristics and known sources of bias were performed. A total of 7934 articles were screened and 165 randomized controlled trials were included. No difference in methodological quality was found. Industry-funded trials more often presented statistically significant results for the primary endpoint (OR, 2.44; CI, 1.04-5.71; P = 0.04). Eighty-eight of 115 (76.5%) industry-funded trials and 19 of 50 (38.0%) non-industry-funded trials reported a positive outcome (OR, 5.32; CI, 2.60-10.88; P < 0.001). Industry-funded trials more often reported a positive outcome without statistical justification (OR, 5.79; CI, 2.13-15.68; P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, funding source remained significantly associated with reporting of positive outcome (P < 0.001). Industry funding of surgical trials leads to exaggerated positive reporting of outcomes. This study emphasizes the necessity for declaration of funding source. Industry involvement in surgical research has to ensure scientific integrity and independence and has to be based on full transparency.

  8. Effects of hospital safety-net burden and hospital volume on failure to rescue after open abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Eric B; Joshi, Girish P; Minhajuddin, Abu; Timaran, Carlos H; Modrall, J Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Failure to rescue (FTR) is defined as the inability to rescue a patient from major perioperative complications, resulting in operative mortality. FTR is a known contributor to operative mortality after open abdominal aortic surgery. Understanding the causes of FTR is essential to designing interventions to improve perioperative outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of hospital volume and safety-net burden (the proportion of uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients) to FTR. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2001-2011) was analyzed to investigate variables associated with FTR after elective open abdominal aortic operations in the United States. FTR was defined as in-hospital death following postoperative complications. Mixed multivariate regression models were used to assess independent predictors of FTR, taking into account the clustered structure of the data (patients nested into hospitals). A total of 47,233 elective open abdominal aortic operations were performed in 1777 hospitals during the study period. The overall incidences of postoperative complications, in-hospital mortality, and FTR in the whole cohort were 32.7%, 3.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics, safety-net burden was significantly associated with increased likelihood of FTR (highest vs lowest quartile of safety-net burden, odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.91; P < .0001). In contrast, after adjusting for safety-net burden, procedure-specific hospital volume was not significantly associated with FTR (P = .897). After adjusting for patient- and hospital-level variables, including hospital volume, safety-net burden was an independent predictor of FTR after open aortic surgery. Future investigations should be aimed at better understanding the relationship between safety-net hospital burden and FTR to design interventions to improve outcomes after open abdominal aortic surgery

  9. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2014-05-02

    General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial ('PROVAR') is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012).

  10. Randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment in major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Plank, L D; McCall, J L; Shapkov, P; McIlroy, K; Gillanders, L K; Merrie, A E H; Torrie, J J; Pugh, F; Koea, J B; Bissett, I P; Parry, B R

    2010-04-01

    Major surgery is associated with postoperative insulin resistance which is attenuated by preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) treatment. The effect of this treatment on clinical outcome after major abdominal surgery has not been assessed in a double-blind randomized trial. Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery or liver resection were randomized to oral CHO or placebo drinks to be taken on the evening before surgery and 2 h before induction of anaesthesia. Primary outcomes were postoperative length of hospital stay and fatigue measured by visual analogue scale. Sixty-nine and 73 patients were evaluated in the CHO and placebo groups respectively. The groups were well matched with respect to surgical procedure, epidural analgesia, laparoscopic procedures, fasting period before induction and duration of surgery. Postoperative changes in fatigue score from baseline did not differ between the groups. Median (range) hospital stay was 7 (2-35) days in the CHO group and 8 (2-92) days in the placebo group (P = 0.344). For patients not receiving epidural blockade or laparoscopic surgery (20 CHO, 19 placebo), values were 7 (3-11) and 9 (2-48) days respectively (P = 0.054). Preoperative CHO treatment did not improve postoperative fatigue or length of hospital stay after major abdominal surgery. A benefit is not ruled out when epidural blockade or laparoscopic procedures are not used. ACTRN012605000456651 (http://www.anzctr.org.au). Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Surgical robot setup simulation with consistent kinematics and haptics for abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Konishi, Kozo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Preoperative simulation and planning of surgical robot setup should accompany advanced robotic surgery if their advantages are to be further pursued. Feedback from the planning system will plays an essential role in computer-aided robotic surgery in addition to preoperative detailed geometric information from patient CT/MRI images. Surgical robot setup simulation systems for appropriate trocar site placement have been developed especially for abdominal surgery. The motion of the surgical robot can be simulated and rehearsed with kinematic constraints at the trocar site, and the inverse-kinematics of the robot. Results from simulation using clinical patient data verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  12. Management of postoperative pain in abdominal surgery in Spain. A multicentre drug utilization study

    PubMed Central

    Vallano, Antonio; Aguilera, Cristina; Arnau, Josep Maria; Baños, Josep-Eladi; Laporte, Joan-Ramon

    1999-01-01

    surgery, admitted between October 1994 and January 1995. For each patient, information about the surgical procedure and the use of analgesics was prospectively collected. The severity of postoperative pain was assessed during the first day after surgery by means of a six-category (none, mild, moderate, severe, very severe, and unbearable) rating scale and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Nine hundred and ninety-three patients (547 men) were included. The most common surgical procedures were inguinal hernia repair (315, 32%), cholecystectomy (268, 27%), appendectomy (140, 14%), bowel resection (137, 14%), and gastric surgery (58, 6%). Fifty-nine percent of patients (587) received nonopioid analgesics only, 9% (89) received opioid analgesics only, and 27% (263) received both opioid and nonopioid analgesics. The most frequently administered drugs were metamizole (667 patients) and pethidine (213 patients). Although in the majority of medical orders the administration of analgesics was scheduled at regular time intervals, the majority of actual doses were given ‘as-needed’. The average administered daily doses of all analgesics were lower than those prescribed. Thirty-eight percent (371/967) of patients rated their maximum pain on the first day as severe to unbearable. Wide interhospital variability was recorded in the surgical procedures which had been performed, in the analgesics used, and also in the pain scores referred by patients. The percentage of patients in each centre who suffered severe to unbearable pain varied from 22 to 67%. Conclusions In Spain many patients still suffer severe pain after abdominal surgery, and this seems to be due to an inadequate use of analgesics. Wide interhospital variability in the management of postoperative pain and in its prevalence was also recorded. PMID:10383545

  13. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate supplementation on postoperative metabolic stress response of patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Jacopo; Cereda, Emanuele; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Carini, Roberta; Cameletti, Barbara; Spampinato, Marcello; Dionigi, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate supplementation (OCH) on the postoperative metabolic stress response of patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery. The study was designed as a controlled, prospective, cohort study including 38 patients treated with OCH (800 mL the day before surgery and 400 mL within 3 h before the induction of anesthesia) and 38 controls matched for surgical procedure. Fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index), cortisol, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were assessed before and after surgery (postoperative day (POD) 1, 2, and 3). The administration of OCH resulted in lower fasting glucose, HOMA-IR index, cortisol, and IL-6 on both POD 1 and POD 2. At multivariable regression analyses, the reduction of these parameters was independent of sex, age, body mass index, and major abdominal surgery. Particularly, models including OCH treatment explained 70, 63, and 66 % of the variance of the increase in IL-6 levels at POD 1, POD 2, and POD 3, respectively. The effect of OCH on changes in glucose, insulin resistance, and cortisol on POD 1 and POD 2 disappeared after the inclusion of IL-6 in the models. Treatment with OCH was associated with attenuation of the postoperative metabolic stress response. We hypothesize that modulation of the inflammatory response is one of the mechanisms involved.

  14. A modified Delphi method toward multidisciplinary consensus on functional convalescence recommendations after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Daphne C R; van der Meij, Eva; Bouwsma, Esther V A; Vonk Noordegraaf, Antonie; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J H J; van Baal, W Marchien; Huirne, Judith A F; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based information on the resumption of daily activities following uncomplicated abdominal surgery is scarce and not yet standardized in medical guidelines. As a consequence, convalescence recommendations are generally not provided after surgery, leading to patients' insecurity, needlessly delayed recovery and prolonged sick leave. The aim of this study was to generate consensus-based multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations, including advice on return to work, applicable for both patients and physicians. Using a modified Delphi method among a multidisciplinary panel of 13 experts consisting of surgeons, occupational physicians and general practitioners, detailed recommendations were developed for graded resumption of 34 activities after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic and open appendectomy, laparoscopic and open colectomy and laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair. A sample of occupational physicians, general practitioners and surgeons assessed the recommendations on feasibility in daily practice. The response of this group of care providers was discussed with the experts in the final Delphi questionnaire round. Out of initially 56 activities, the expert panel selected 34 relevant activities for which convalescence recommendations were developed. After four Delphi rounds, consensus was reached for all of the 34 activities for all the surgical procedures. A sample of occupational physicians, general practitioners and surgeons regarded the recommendations as feasible in daily practice. Multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations regarding uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy (laparoscopic, open), colectomy (laparoscopic, open) and inguinal hernia repair (laparoscopic, open) were developed by a modified Delphi procedure. Further research is required to evaluate whether these recommendations are realistic and effective in daily practice.

  15. Evidence or eminence in abdominal surgery: Recent improvements in perioperative care

    PubMed Central

    Segelman, Josefin; Nygren, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Repeated surveys from Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand have shown that adherence to an evidence-based perioperative care protocol, such as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS), has been generally low. It is of great importance to support the implementation of the ERAS protocol as it has been shown to improve outcomes after a number of surgical procedures, including major abdominal surgery. However, despite an increasing awareness of the importance of structured perioperative management, the implementation of this complex protocol has been slow. Barriers to implementation involve both patient- and staff-related factors as well as practice-related issues and resources. To support efficient and successful implementation, further educational and structural measures have to be made on a national or regional level to improve the standard of general health care. Besides postoperative morbidity, biological and physiological variables have been quite commonly reported in previous ERAS studies. Little information, however, has been obtained on cost-effectiveness, long-term outcomes, quality of life and patient-related outcomes, and these issues remain important areas of research for future studies. PMID:25469030

  16. [Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy after multiple abdominal surgeries--case study].

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Wiecka-Płusa, Monika; Mołas, Justyna

    2009-11-01

    At present the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is the most widespread and most frequently executed variation of hysterectomy. It is an effective and safe operating alternative for the traditional way--abdominal hysterectomy. Good cosmetic effects, short post-operative stay at hospital and, first of all, a small risk of intra- and postoperative complications are the major driving factors justifying the choice of this method of surgery. In the following article we describe a case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent many interventions in the peritoneal cavity (abdominal surgery) and was shortlisted for the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The cause of the operation was recurrent bilateral ovary cystis that could not be treated neither conservatively nor surgically, as well as the uterus myoma leading to abnormal uterus bleeding and hypermenorrhoea. Surgery in patients who have previously undergone abdominal operations is always difficult and the risk of complications is high indeed. In this case, while selecting the method of the next surgical procedure, surgeons must not exclude the vaginal and laparoscopic methods, or use them simultaneously. Experiences of other surgeons, as well as the unique case of a treated patient, show that previous abdominal surgical procedures are not a contraindication for either vaginal or laparoscopic procedures, and in some cases they might be safer than yet another laparotomy.

  17. Endoscopic transmural management of abdominal fluid collection following gastrointestinal, bariatric, and hepato-bilio-pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Fuks, David; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Pourcher, Guillaume; Perniceni, Thierry; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Tuszynski, Thierry; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno; Gayet, Brice

    2018-05-01

    Post-operative collections are a recognized source of morbidity after abdominal surgery. Percutaneous drainage is currently considered the standard treatment but not all collections are accessible using this method. Since the adoption of EUS, endoscopic transmural drainage has become an attractive option in the management of such complications. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy, safety and modalities of endoscopic transmural drainage in the treatment of post-operative collections. Data of all patients referred to our dedicated multidisciplinary facility from 2014 to 2017 for endoscopic drainage of symptomatic post-operative collections after failure of percutaneous drainage or when it was deemed impossible, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two patients (17 males and 15 females) with a median age of 53 years old (range 31-74) were included. Collections resulted from pancreatic (n = 10), colorectal (n = 6), bariatric (n  = 5), and other type of surgery (n  = 11). Collection size was less than 5 cm in diameter in 10 (31%), between 5 and 10 cm in 17 (53%) ,and more than 10 cm in 5 (16%) patients. The median time from surgery to endoscopic drainage was 38 days (range 6-360). Eight (25%) patients underwent endoscopic guided drainage whereas 24 (75%) patients underwent EUS-guided drainage. Technical success was 100% and clinical success was achieved in 30 (93.4%) after a mean follow-up of 13.5 months (1.2-24.8). Overall complication was 12.5% including four patients who bled following trans-gastric drainage treated with conservative therapy. The present series suggests that endoscopic transmural drainage represents an interesting alternative in the treatment of post-operative collection when percutaneous drainage is not possible or fails.

  18. The 100 most cited manuscripts in emergency abdominal surgery: A bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Thomas; Bullock, Nicholas; Abdelrahman, Tarig; Powell, Arfon G M T; Witherspoon, Jolene; Lewis, Wyn G

    2017-01-01

    The number of citations a scientific article receives provides a good indication of its impact within any given field. This bibliometric analysis aimed to identify the 100 most cited articles in Emergency Abdominal Surgery (EAS), to highlight key areas of interest and identify those that have most significantly shaped contemporary clinical practice in this newly evolving surgical specialty. This is of increasing relevance as concerns grow regarding the variable and suboptimal outcomes in Emergency General Surgery. The Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was used to search using the terms [Emergency AND Abdom* AND Surg*] to identify all English language, full manuscripts. Results were ranked according to citation number. The top 100 articles were further analysed by subject, author, journal, year of publication, institution, and country of origin. The median (range) citation number of the top 100 out of 7433 eligible papers was 131 (1569-97). The most cited paper (by Goldman et al., Massachusetts General Hospital, New England Journal of Medicine; 1569 citations) focused on cardiac risk stratification in non-cardiac surgery. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care published the most papers and received most citations (n = 19; 2954 citations. The majority of papers were published by centres in the USA (n = 52; 9422 citations), followed by the UK (n = 13; 1816 citations). The most common topics of publication concerned abdominal aneurysm management (n = 26) and emergency gastrointestinal surgery (n = 26). Vascular surgery, risk assessment and gastrointestinal surgery were the areas of focus for 59% of the contemporary most cited emergency abdominal surgery manuscripts. By providing the most influential references this work serves as a guide to what makes a citable emergency surgery paper. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally. Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression. This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed. Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas. NCT02179112; Pre-results.

  20. Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O

    2016-01-01

    Background Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally. Methods Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression. Results This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed. Conclusions Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas. Trial registration number NCT02179112; Pre-results. PMID:28588977

  1. An evaluation of analgesic regimens for abdominal surgery in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K E; Raucci, J A; Gades, N M; Toth, L A

    2000-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of several analgesic regimens for use after intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters in mice. The lengths of time required for postoperative recovery of food and water intake, locomotor activity, and core temperature of mice that did not receive postsurgical analgesic medication were compared to those of mice that were given either an analgesic in the drinking water or buprenorphine injections. Many measured variables were not substantially altered by analgesic medications. However, ibuprofen-treated mice demonstrated significantly greater locomotor activity on days 2 through 5 after surgery and a more rapid return to stable postsurgical levels of activity and water intake as compared to those in untreated mice. These changes are consistent with potential analgesic efficacy of the ibuprofen treatment regimen. Buprenorphine injections elicited hyperactivity, hyperthermia, and reduced food and water intake during both the immediate postsurgical recovery period and after apparent recuperation from surgery, as compared to effects observed in saline-treated mice. Evaluating the effect of analgesic regimens on postsurgical changes in physiologic and behavioral variables can be useful in assessing the efficacy of analgesic treatments, but some changes may indicate pharmacologic effects that do not reflect pain relief.

  2. Experimental study of delivery of humidified-warm carbon dioxide during open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, S; Sampurno, S; Malaterre, J; Millen, R; Dean, M; Kong, J; Chittleborough, T; Heriot, A; Lynch, A C; Ramsay, R G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO 2 ) delivered into the open abdomen of mice, simulating laparotomy. Mice were anaesthetized, ventilated and subjected to an abdominal incision followed by wound retraction. In the experimental group, a diffuser device was used to deliver HWCO 2 ; the control group was exposed to passive air flow. In each group of mice, surgical damage was produced on one side of the peritoneal wall. Vital signs and core temperature were monitored throughout the 1-h procedure. The peritoneum was closed and mice were allowed to recover for 24 h or 10 days. Tumour cells were delivered into half of the mice in each cohort. Tissue was then examined using scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Passive air flow generated ultrastructural damage including mesothelial cell bulging/retraction and loss of microvilli, as assessed at 24 h. Evidence of surgical damage was still measurable on day 10. HWCO 2 maintained normothermia, whereas open surgery alone led to hypothermia. The degree of tissue damage was significantly reduced by HWCO 2 compared with that in controls. Peritoneal expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A was lowered by HWCO 2 . These effects were also evident at the surgical damage sites, where protection from tissue trauma extended to 10 days. HWCO 2 did not reduce tumorigenesis in surgically damaged sites compared with passive air flow. HWCO 2 diffusion into the abdomen in the context of open surgery afforded tissue protection and accelerated tissue repair in mice, while preserving normothermia. Surgical relevance Damage to the peritoneum always occurs during open abdominal surgery, by exposure to desiccating air and by mechanical trauma/damage owing to the surgical intervention. Previous experimental studies showed that humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO 2 ) reduced peritoneal damage during laparoscopic insufflation

  3. Intraoperative Goal-directed Fluid Therapy in Elective Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Katie E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) with conventional fluid therapy, and determine whether there was a difference in outcome between studies that did and did not use Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. Methods: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adult patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery comparing intraoperative GDFT versus conventional fluid therapy. The outcome measures were postoperative morbidity, length of stay, gastrointestinal function and 30-day mortality. Results: A total of 23 studies were included with 2099 patients: 1040 who underwent GDFT and 1059 who received conventional fluid therapy. GDFT was associated with a significant reduction in morbidity (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66–0.89, P = 0.0007), hospital length of stay (LOS; mean difference −1.55 days, 95% CI −2.73 to −0.36, P = 0.01), intensive care LOS (mean difference −0.63 days, 95% CI −1.18 to −0.09, P = 0.02), and time to passage of feces (mean difference −0.90 days, 95% CI −1.48 to −0.32 days, P = 0.002). However, no difference was seen in mortality, return of flatus, or risk of paralytic ileus. If patients were managed in an ERAS pathway, the only significant reductions were in intensive care LOS (mean difference −0.63 days, 95% CI −0.94 to −0.32, P < 0.0001) and time to passage of feces (mean difference −1.09 days, 95% CI −2.03 to −0.15, P = 0.02). If managed in a traditional care setting, a significant reduction was seen in both overall morbidity (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to −0.84, P = 0.0002) and total hospital LOS (mean difference −2.14, 95% CI −4.15 to −0.13, P = 0.04). Conclusions: GDFT may not be of benefit to all elective patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, particularly those managed in an ERAS setting. PMID:26445470

  4. Association between quality of care and complications after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Simon; Deban, Melina; Martelli, Vanessa; Monette, Michèle; Sourial, Nadia; Hamadani, Fadi; Teasdale, Debby; Holcroft, Christina; Zakrzewski, Helena; Fraser, Shannon

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the quality of surgical care is essential to identifying areas of weakness in the delivery of effective surgical care and to improving patient outcomes. Our objectives were to (1) assess the quality of surgical care delivered to adult patients; and (2) determine the association between quality of surgical care and postoperative complications. This retrospective, pilot, cohort study was conducted at a single university-affiliated institution. Using the institution's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2009-2010), 273 consecutive patients ≥18 years of age who underwent elective major abdominal operations were selected. Adherence to 10 process-based quality indicators (QIs) was measured and quantified by calculating a patient quality score (no. of QIs passed/no. of QIs eligible). A pass rate for each individual QI was also calculated. The association between quality of surgical care and postoperative complications was assessed using an incidence rate ratio, which was estimated from a Poisson regression. The mean overall patient quality score was 67.2 ± 14.4% (range, 25-100%). The mean QI pass rate was 65.9 ± 26.1%, which varied widely from 9.6% (oral intake documentation) to 95.6% (prophylactic antibiotics). Poisson regression revealed that as the quality score increased, the incidence of postoperative complications decreased (incidence rate ratio, 0.19; P = .011). A sensitivity analysis revealed that this association was likely driven by the postoperative ambulation QI. Higher quality scores, mainly driven by early ambulation, were associated with fewer postoperative complications. QIs with unacceptably low adherence were identified as targets for future quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vivo Measurement of Surface Pressures and Retraction Distances Applied on Abdominal Organs During Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dignesh; Alderson, Andrew; Corden, James; Satyadas, Thomas; Augustine, Titus

    2018-02-01

    This study undertook the in vivo measurement of surface pressures applied by the fingers of the surgeon during typical representative retraction movements of key human abdominal organs during both open and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Surface pressures were measured using a flexible thin-film pressure sensor for 35 typical liver retractions to access the gall bladder, 36 bowel retractions, 9 kidney retractions, 8 stomach retractions, and 5 spleen retractions across 12 patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery. The maximum and root mean square surface pressures were calculated for each organ retraction. The maximum surface pressures applied to these key abdominal organs are in the range 1 to 41 kPa, and the average maximum surface pressure for all organs and procedures was 14 ± 3 kPa. Surface pressure relaxation during the retraction hold period was observed. Generally, the surface pressures are higher, and the rate of surface pressure relaxation is lower, in the more confined hand-assisted laparoscopic procedures than in open surgery. Combined video footage and pressure sensor data for retraction of the liver in open surgery enabled correlation of organ retraction distance with surface pressure application. The data provide a platform to design strategies for the prevention of retraction injuries. They also form a basis for the design of next-generation organ retraction and space creation surgical devices with embedded sensors that can further quantify intraoperative retraction forces to reduce injury or trauma to organs and surrounding tissues.

  6. Early versus delayed oral fluids and food for reducing complications after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Matovinovic, Elizabeth

    2014-12-12

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2007. Traditionally, after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery postoperative oral intake is withheld until the return of bowel function. There has been concern that early oral intake would result in vomiting and severe paralytic ileus with subsequent aspiration pneumonia, wound dehiscence, and anastomotic leakage. However, evidence-based clinical studies suggest that there may be benefits from early postoperative oral intake. To assess the effects of early versus delayed (traditional) initiation of oral intake of food and fluids after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery. We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL), and the citation lists of relevant publications. The most recent search was conducted 1 April 2014. We also searched a registry for ongoing trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 13 May 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible that compared the effect of early versus delayed initiation of oral intake of food and fluids after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery. Early feeding was defined as oral intake of fluids or food within 24 hours post-surgery regardless of the return of bowel function. Delayed feeding was defined as oral intake after 24 hours post-surgery and only after signs of postoperative ileus resolution. Two review authors selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted the data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We examined continuous data using the mean difference (MD) and a 95% CI. We tested for heterogeneity between the results of different studies using a forest plot of the meta-analysis, the statistical tests of homogeneity of 2 x 2 tables and the I² value. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. Rates of developing

  7. [The volume of surgery on the abdominal cavity organs in patients with associated cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, M V

    2004-08-01

    The cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances are the main risk factor in acute and chronic surgical deseases of the abdominal cavity organs, including oncological. It is limits the possibility and volume of the diagnostics and surgical tactics choice. The complicated current of main disease is a risk factor of operation perform and the reason of the undertaking inadequate and palliative intervention, which significant reduce of the quality of life. Real by risk level reductions in surgery is a determination of tissues viability, estimation of compensatory reserve sick evidences for determination for operation performance including simultaneous and staged.

  8. Adjusted Hospital Outcomes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Reported in the Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit.

    PubMed

    Lijftogt, N; Vahl, A C; Wilschut, E D; Elsman, B H P; Amodio, S; van Zwet, E W; Leijdekkers, V J; Wouters, M W J M; Hamming, J F

    2017-04-01

    The Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit (DSAA) is mandatory for all patients with primary abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the Netherlands. The aims are to present the observed outcomes of AAA surgery against the predicted outcomes by means of V-POSSUM (Vascular-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity). Adjusted mortality was calculated by the original and re-estimated V(physiology)-POSSUM for hospital comparisons. All patients operated on from January 2013 to December 2014 were included for analysis. Calibration and discrimination of V-POSSUM and V(p)-POSSUM was analysed. Mortality was benchmarked by means of the original V(p)-POSSUM formula and risk-adjusted by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM on the DSAA. In total, 5898 patients were included for analysis: 4579 with elective AAA (EAAA) and 1319 with acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAA), acute symptomatic (SAAA; n = 371) or ruptured (RAAA; n = 948). The percentage of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) varied between hospitals but showed no relation to hospital volume (EAAA: p = .12; AAAA: p = .07). EAAA, SAAA, and RAAA mortality was, respectively, 1.9%, 7.5%, and 28.7%. Elective mortality was 0.9% after EVAR and 5.0% after open surgical repair versus 15.6% and 27.4%, respectively, after AAAA. V-POSSUM overestimated mortality in most EAAA risk groups (p < .01). The discriminative ability of V-POSSUM in EAAA was moderate (C-statistic: .719) and poor for V(p)-POSSUM (C-statistic: .665). V-POSSUM in AAAA repair overestimated in high risk groups, and underestimated in low risk groups (p < .01). The discriminative ability in AAAA of V-POSSUM was moderate (.713) and of V(p)-POSSUM poor (.688). Risk adjustment by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM did not have any effect on hospital variation in EAAA but did in AAAA. Mortality in the DSAA was in line with the literature but is not discriminative for hospital comparisons in EAAA. Adjusting for V(p)-POSSUM, revealed no

  9. Distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery: an imaging, clinical, and laboratory-based scoring system.

    PubMed

    Gnannt, Ralph; Fischer, Michael A; Baechler, Thomas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Karlo, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lesurtel, Mickael; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed diabetes, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P < 0.001) and thus was selected for constructing a scoring

  10. A randomized trial of one versus three doses of Augmentin as wound prophylaxis in at-risk abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, T.; Roberts, J. V.; Smith, K.; German, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized prospective trial of prophylactic antibiotics in at-risk abdominal surgery, one dose of intravenous Augmentin (amoxycillin 250 mg and clavulanic acid 125 mg) on induction has been compared with three 8 hourly doses in 900 patients. Wound infection rates which included minor and delayed infections were very similar in those given one dose: 48/449 (10.7%) compared with those given three doses: 49/451 (10.9%) 95% confidence limits - 4.25% + 3.9%. There were more septic and sepsis-related deaths in those patients given one dose (14 deaths) than in those given three doses (7 deaths) P > 0.1 95% CL - 0.4% + 3.0%. However, there were more very elderly patients in the one dose group: 64% of the deaths were aged over 80 and all but one had an emergency operation. There was no difference in the other outcome measures studied which included non-fatal deep sepsis, length of postoperative hospital stay, duration of postoperative fever or the use of antibiotics for postoperative infection. One dose of a suitable intravenous antibiotic gives prophylaxis against wound infection in at-risk abdominal surgery which is at least as effective as multiple doses. However, there may be a risk of overwhelming systemic sepsis in very elderly patients having emergency surgery. PMID:1461853

  11. Meta-analysis: effect of preoperative infliximab use on early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Wu, Q; Wang, F; Wu, K; Fan, D

    2012-11-01

    Infliximab is widely used in severe and refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). The results of clinical studies are inconsistent on whether preoperative infliximab use increases early postoperative complications in UC patients. To determine the clinical safety and efficacy of preoperative infliximab treatment in UC patients with regard to short-term outcomes following abdominal surgery. PubMed, Embase databases were searched for controlled observational studies comparing postsurgical morbidity in UC patients receiving infliximab preoperatively with those not on infliximab. The primary endpoint was total complication rate. Secondary endpoints included the rate of infectious and non-infectious complications. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as summary measures. A total of 13 studies involving 2933 patients were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant association between infliximab therapy preoperatively and total (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.37, P = 0.47), infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.51-2.38, P = 0.81) and non-infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59, P = 0.61) postoperative complications respectively. Infliximab might be a protective factor against infection for the use within 12 weeks prior to surgery (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.83, P = 0.01). No publication bias was found. Preoperative infliximab use does not increase the risk of early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Thoracic spinal anesthesia is safe for patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ellakany, Mohamed Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blinded randomized controlled study to compare discharge time and patient satisfaction between two groups of patients submitted to open surgeries for abdominal malignancies using segmental thoracic spinal or general anesthesia. Background: Open surgeries for abdominal malignancy are usually done under general anesthesia, but many patients with major medical problems sometimes can’t tolerate such anesthesia. Regional anesthesia namely segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia may be beneficial in such patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients classified according to American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) as class II or III undergoing surgeries for abdominal malignancy, like colonic or gastric carcinoma, divided into two groups, 30 patients each. Group G, received general anesthesia, Group S received a segmental (T9-T10 injection) thoracic spinal anesthesia with intrathecal injection of 2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg) and 20 ug fentanyl citrate. Intraoperative monitoring, postoperative pain, complications, recovery time, and patient satisfaction at follow-up were compared between the two groups. Results: Spinal anesthesia was performed easily in all 30 patients, although two patients complained of paraesthesiae, which responded to slight needle withdrawal. No patient required conversion to general anesthesia, six patients required midazolam for anxiety and six patients required phenylephrine and atropine for hypotension and bradycardia, recovery was uneventful and without sequelae. The two groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, ASA classification, preoperative oxygen saturation and preoperative respiratory rate and operative time. Conclusion: This preliminary study has shown that segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia can be used successfully and effectively for open surgeries for abdominal malignancies by experienced anesthetists. It showed shorter postanesthesia care unit stay

  13. Thoracic spinal anesthesia is safe for patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Ellakany, Mohamed Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    A double-blinded randomized controlled study to compare discharge time and patient satisfaction between two groups of patients submitted to open surgeries for abdominal malignancies using segmental thoracic spinal or general anesthesia. Open surgeries for abdominal malignancy are usually done under general anesthesia, but many patients with major medical problems sometimes can't tolerate such anesthesia. Regional anesthesia namely segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia may be beneficial in such patients. A total of 60 patients classified according to American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) as class II or III undergoing surgeries for abdominal malignancy, like colonic or gastric carcinoma, divided into two groups, 30 patients each. Group G, received general anesthesia, Group S received a segmental (T9-T10 injection) thoracic spinal anesthesia with intrathecal injection of 2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg) and 20 ug fentanyl citrate. Intraoperative monitoring, postoperative pain, complications, recovery time, and patient satisfaction at follow-up were compared between the two groups. Spinal anesthesia was performed easily in all 30 patients, although two patients complained of paraesthesiae, which responded to slight needle withdrawal. No patient required conversion to general anesthesia, six patients required midazolam for anxiety and six patients required phenylephrine and atropine for hypotension and bradycardia, recovery was uneventful and without sequelae. The two groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, ASA classification, preoperative oxygen saturation and preoperative respiratory rate and operative time. This preliminary study has shown that segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia can be used successfully and effectively for open surgeries for abdominal malignancies by experienced anesthetists. It showed shorter postanesthesia care unit stay, better postoperative pain relief and patient satisfaction than

  14. Chest physiotherapy during immediate postoperative period among patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Roberta Munhoz; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz Mangueira; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal surgical procedures increase pulmonary complication risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy during the immediate postoperative period among patients undergoing elective upper abdominal surgery. This randomized clinical trial was performed in the post-anesthesia care unit of a public university hospital. Thirty-one adults were randomly assigned to control (n = 16) and chest physiotherapy (n = 15) groups. Spirometry, pulse oximetry and anamneses were performed preoperatively and on the second postoperative day. A visual pain scale was applied on the second postoperative day, before and after chest physiotherapy. The chest physiotherapy group received treatment at the post-anesthesia care unit, while the controls did not. Surgery duration, length of hospital stay and postoperative pulmonary complications were gathered from patients' medical records. The control and chest physiotherapy groups presented decreased spirometry values after surgery but without any difference between them (forced vital capacity from 83.5 +/- 17.1% to 62.7 +/- 16.9% and from 95.7 +/- 18.9% to 79.0 +/- 26.9%, respectively). In contrast, the chest physiotherapy group presented improved oxygen-hemoglobin saturation after chest physiotherapy during the immediate postoperative period (p < 0.03) that did not last until the second postoperative day. The medical record data were similar between groups. Chest physiotherapy during the immediate postoperative period following upper abdominal surgery was effective for improving oxygen-hemoglobin saturation without increased abdominal pain. Breathing exercises could be adopted at post-anesthesia care units with benefits for patients.

  15. Mesh abdominal wall hernia surgery is safe and effective-the harm New Zealand media has done.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven

    2017-10-06

    Patients in New Zealand have now developed a fear of mesh abdominal wall hernia repair due to inaccurate media reporting. This article outlines the extensive literature that confirms abdominal wall mesh hernia repair is safe and effective. The worsening confidence in the transvaginal mesh prolapse repair should not adversely affect the good results of mesh abdominal wall hernia repair. New Zealand general surgeons are well trained in providing modern hernia surgery.

  16. [Pro: Epidural Analgesia Remains the Gold Standard for Abdominal and Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Listing, Hannah; Pöpping, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Pain relief with epidural analgesia is superior compared to systemic opioid analgesia after major abdominal and thoracic surgery. It remains a safe procedure, as long as it is embedded in a concept covering the whole perioperative period. This includes the knowledge of the anesthesiologist how to operate the process of catheter insertion as well as to treat complications like the hypotension, associated with the application of epidural local anesthetics. A close postoperative monitoring by an acute pain service team is a responsible task and should be available 24/7. Despite the low incidence of complications, their consequences could be disastrous for patients. To avoid persisting neurological damage, standardized diagnostic procedures must be established and surgical intervention should be available within six hours if necessary. Non-analgetic benefits of epidural analgesia include reduced pulmonary complications like pneumonia and lower incidences for cardiac arrhythmia. Furthermore, perioperative mortality could be decreased by epidural analgesia. These effects should be considered as "add-on". The excellent pain relief is more than enough to recommend this method. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Small-Incision Laparoscopy-Assisted Surgery Under Abdominal Cavity Irrigation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takuro; Aoe, Tomohiko; Yu, Wen-Wei; Ebihara, Yuma; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Isono, Shiro; Naya, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgeries are performed under carbon dioxide insufflation. Switching from gas to an isotonic irrigant introduces several benefits and avoids some adverse effects of gas insufflation. We developed an irrigating device and apparatus designed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery and tested its advantages and drawbacks during surgery in a porcine model. Materials and Methods: Six pigs underwent surgical procedures under general anesthesia. A 30-cm extracorporeal cistern was placed over a 5–6-cm abdominal incision. The abdomen was irrigated with warm saline that was drained via a suction tube placed near the surgical field and continuously recirculated through a closed circuit equipped with a hemodialyzer as a filter. Irrigant samples from two pigs were cultured to check for bacterial and fungal contamination. Body weight was measured before and after surgery in four pigs that had not received treatments affecting hemodynamics or causing diuresis. Results: One-way flow of irrigant ensured laparoscopic vision by rinsing blood from the surgical field. Through a retroperitoneal approach, cystoprostatectomy was successfully performed in three pigs, nephrectomy in two, renal excision in two, and partial nephrectomy in one, under simultaneous ultrasonographic monitoring. Through a transperitoneal approach, liver excision and hemostasis with a bipolar sealing device were performed in three pigs, and bladder pedicle excision was performed in one pig. Bacterial and fungal contamination of the irrigant was observed on the draining side of the circuit, but the filter captured the contaminants. Body weight increased by a median of 2.1% (range, 1.2–4.4%) of initial weight after 3–5 hours of irrigation. Conclusions: Surgery under irrigation is feasible and practical when performed via a cistern through a small abdominal incision. This method is advantageous, especially in the enabling of continuous and free

  18. Protective mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery improves postoperative pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Severgnini, Paolo; Selmo, Gabriele; Lanza, Christian; Chiesa, Alessandro; Frigerio, Alice; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Novario, Raffaele; Gregoretti, Cesare; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Schultz, Marcus J; Jaber, Samir; Futier, Emmanuel; Chiaranda, Maurizio; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The impact of intraoperative ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications is not defined. The authors aimed at determining the effectiveness of protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery on a modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score as primary outcome and postoperative pulmonary function. Prospective randomized, open-label, clinical trial performed in 56 patients scheduled to undergo elective open abdominal surgery lasting more than 2 h. Patients were assigned by envelopes to mechanical ventilation with tidal volume of 9 ml/kg ideal body weight and zero-positive end-expiratory pressure (standard ventilation strategy) or tidal volumes of 7 ml/kg ideal body weight, 10 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers (protective ventilation strategy). Modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, gas exchange, and pulmonary functional tests were measured preoperatively, as well as at days 1, 3, and 5 after surgery. Patients ventilated protectively showed better pulmonary functional tests up to day 5, fewer alterations on chest x-ray up to day 3 and higher arterial oxygenation in air at days 1, 3, and 5 (mmHg; mean ± SD): 77.1 ± 13.0 versus 64.9 ± 11.3 (P = 0.0006), 80.5 ± 10.1 versus 69.7 ± 9.3 (P = 0.0002), and 82.1 ± 10.7 versus 78.5 ± 21.7 (P = 0.44) respectively. The modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was lower in the protective ventilation strategy at days 1 and 3. The percentage of patients in hospital at day 28 after surgery was not different between groups (7 vs. 15% respectively, P = 0.42). A protective ventilation strategy during abdominal surgery lasting more than 2 h improved respiratory function and reduced the modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score without affecting length of hospital stay.

  19. Planning for operating room efficiency and faster anesthesia wake-up time in open major upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Chan, Shun-Ming; Lu, Chueng-He; Wong, Chih-Shung; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2017-02-01

    Reducing anesthesia-controlled time (ACT) may improve operation room (OR) efficiency result from different anesthetic techniques. However, the information about the difference in ACT between desflurane (DES) anesthesia and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) techniques for open major upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia (GA) is not available in the literature.This retrospective study uses our hospital database to analyze the ACT of open major upper abdominal surgery without liver resection after either desflurane/fentanyl-based anesthesia or TIVA via target-controlled infusion with fentanyl/propofol from January 2010 to December 2011. The various time intervals including waiting for anesthesia time, anesthesia time, surgical time, extubation time, exit from OR after extubation, total OR time, and postanesthetic care unit (PACU) stay time and percentage of prolonged extubation (≥15 minutes) were compared between these 2 anesthetic techniques.We included data from 343 patients, with 159 patients receiving TIVA and 184 patients receiving DES. The only significant difference is extubation time, TIVA was faster than the DES group (8.5 ± 3.8 vs 9.4 ± 3.7 minutes; P = 0.04). The factors contributed to prolonged extubation were age, gender, body mass index, DES anesthesia, and anesthesia time.In our hospital, propofol-based TIVA by target-controlled infusion provides faster emergence compared with DES anesthesia; however, it did not improve OR efficiency in open major abdominal surgery. Older, male gender, higher body mass index, DES anesthesia, and lengthy anesthesia time were factors that contribute to extubation time.

  20. Epidural analgesia does not increase the rate of inpatient falls after major upper abdominal and thoracic surgery: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Elsharydah, Ahmad; Williams, Tiffany M; Rosero, Eric B; Joshi, Girish P

    2016-05-01

    Postoperative epidural analgesia for major upper abdominal and thoracic surgery can provide significant benefits, including superior analgesia and reduced pulmonary dysfunction. Nevertheless, epidural analgesia may also be associated with decreased muscle strength, sympathetic tone, and proprioception that could possibly contribute to falls. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to search a large national database in order to investigate the possible relationship between postoperative epidural analgesia and the rate of inpatient falls. Data from the nationwide inpatient sample for 2007-2011 were queried for adult patients who underwent elective major upper abdominal and thoracic surgery. Multiple International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for inpatient falls and accidents were combined into one binary variable. Univariate analyses were used for initial statistical analysis. Logistic regression analyses and McNemar's tests were subsequently used to investigate the association of epidural analgesia with inpatient falls in a 1:1 case-control propensity-matched sample after adjustment of patients' demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. Forty-two thousand six hundred fifty-eight thoracic and 54,974 upper abdominal surgical procedures were identified. The overall incidence of inpatient falls in the thoracic surgery group was 6.54% with an increasing trend over the study period from 4.95% in 2007 to 8.11% in 2011 (P < 0.001). Similarly, the overall incidence of inpatient falls in the upper abdominal surgery group was 5.30% with an increasing trend from 4.55% in 2007 to 6.07% in 2011 (P < 0.001). Postoperative epidural analgesia was not associated with an increased risk for postoperative inpatient falls in the thoracic surgery group (relative risk [RR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.47; P = 0.144) and in the upper abdominal surgery group (RR, 0.84; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.09; P = 0

  1. A Novel Approach to High Definition, High-Contrast Video Capture in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Peter H.; Shearer, Christopher J.; Hugh, Thomas J.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Merrett, Neil D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to define the best available option for video capture of surgical procedures for educational and archival purposes, with a view to identifying methods of capturing high-quality footage and identifying common pitfalls. Summary Background Data: Several options exist for those who wish to record operative surgical techniques on video. While high-end equipment is an unnecessary expense for most surgical units, several techniques are readily available that do not require industrial-grade audiovisual recording facilities, but not all are suited to every surgical application. Methods: We surveyed and evaluated the available technology for video capture in surgery. Our evaluation included analyses of video resolution, depth of field, contrast, exposure, image stability, and frame composition, as well as considerations of cost, accessibility, utility, feasibility, and economies of scale. Results: Several video capture options were identified, and the strengths and shortcomings of each were catalogued. None of the commercially available options was deemed suitable for high-quality video capture of abdominal surgical procedures. A novel application of off-the-shelf technology was devised to address these issues. Conclusions: Excellent quality video capture of surgical procedures within deep body cavities is feasible using commonly available equipment and technology, with minimal technical difficulty. PMID:17414600

  2. Empirical first-line treatment with tigecycline for febrile episodes following abdominal surgery in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Secondo, Giovanni; Vassallo, Francesca; Solari, Nicola; Moresco, Luciano; Percivale, Pierluigi; Zappi, Lucia; Cafiero, Ferdinando; De Maria, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Cancer patients with complicated infections following abdominal surgery represent one of the worst clinical scenarios that is useful for testing the efficacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy. No study so far has evaluated the performance of tigecycline (TIG) when administered as empirical first-line treatment in a homogeneous population of surgical cancer patients with a febrile episode. An observational review of the data records of 24 sequential patients receiving TIG for a febrile episode following a major abdominal procedure in a single cancer institute was performed. Large bowel surgery represented 68% of all procedures, followed by gastric surgery (16%) and urinary-gynaecologic-biliary surgery (16%). Complications following surgery were observed in 68% of febrile episodes, with peritonitis and sepsis accounting for 59% and 24% of complications, respectively. Eight patients needed repeat surgery for source control. The mean duration of TIG treatment was 8 days. Causative pathogens were detected in 16 episodes (64%), and a total of 44 microorganisms were recovered (29% Escherichia coli, 9% Enterococcus faecalis and 9% coagulase-negative staphylococci). TIG was effective in 12 episodes (48%). The success rate was 67% when infectious episodes sustained by intrinsically resistant bacteria and fungi were excluded. Treatment failure was associated with the presence of complications and with microbiologically documented infection. TIG may be useful as a first-line treatment option in cancer patients requiring antibiotic treatment following surgery when complications are not present or suspected on clinical grounds and when local microbial epidemiology shows a low incidence of primary resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of postoperative pulmonary complications with delayed mobilisation following major abdominal surgery: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haines, K J; Skinner, E H; Berney, S

    2013-06-01

    Previous Australian studies reported that postoperative pulmonary complications affect 13% of patients undergoing upper abdominal laparotomy. This study measured the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications, risk factors for the diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications and barriers to physiotherapy mobilisation in a cohort of patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two surgical wards in a tertiary Australian hospital. Seventy-two patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery (participants in a larger trial evaluating a novel model of medical co-management). Incidence of, and risk factors for, postoperative pulmonary complications, barriers to mobilisation and length of stay. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 39%. Incision type and time to mobilise away from the bed were independently associated with a diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications. Patients were 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 8.0) times more likely to develop a postoperative pulmonary complication for each postoperative day they did not mobilise away from the bed. Fifty-two percent of patients had a barrier to mobilisation away from the bed on the first postoperative day, with the most common barrier being hypotension, although cessation criteria were not defined objectively by physiotherapists. Development of a postoperative pulmonary complication increased median hospital length of stay (16 vs 13 days; P=0.046). This study demonstrated an association between delayed postoperative mobilisation and postoperative pulmonary complications. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the role of early mobilisation in preventing postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glutamine decreases the duration of postoperative ileus after abdominal surgery: an experimental study of conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Ando, Hiroyuki; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a transient bowel dysmotility that occurs following many types of operations and is one of the most common complications of gastrointestinal surgery. We hypothesized that enteral supplementation of glutamine after abdominal surgery would restore fuel to the small intestine, suppress oxidative stress, and lead to improvement in POI. Twelve dogs underwent distal gastrectomy and were each randomly assigned to one of two groups based on postoperative treatment: the water injection (control) group and the glutamine injection group. Water (40 ml) or L(+)-glutamine (1 g/40 ml water) was injected into the residual stomach through the gastric tube every 12 h after surgery for 7 days. Changes in the plasma and intestinal intracellular concentration of glutamine and in gastrointestinal motility were measured. The plasma and intracellular glutamine levels decreased after the operation in both groups, although the decreased intracellular glutamine levels were not significantly different than preoperative levels. The glutamine group showed a significantly smaller decrease of the plasma glutamine level compared with the control group (P < 0.05). All the dogs showed gastrointestinal dysmotility after the operation. The mean length of time between the operation and the appearance of interdigestive migrating contractions in the glutamine group was significantly shorter than in the control group (22.4 +/- 3.1 h versus 37.8 +/- 4.0 h, respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, glutamine could act as a motility-recovery agent after abdominal surgery and thereby decrease the duration of POI.

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  6. The impact of adverse events on health care costs for older adults undergoing nonelective abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jonathan G; Davis, Philip J B; Levy, Adrian R; Molinari, Michele; Johnson, Paul M

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative complications have been identified as an important and potentially preventable cause of increased hospital costs. While older adults are at increased risk of experiencing complications and other adverse events, very little research has specifically examined how these events impact inpatient costs. We sought to examine the association between postoperative complications, hospital mortality and loss of independence and direct inpatient health care costs in patients 70 years or older who underwent nonelective abdominal surgery. We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients 70 years or older who underwent nonelective abdominal surgery between July 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Detailed patient-level data were collected regarding demographics, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Patient-level resource tracking was used to calculate direct hospital costs (2012 $CDN). We examined the association between complications, hospital mortality and loss of independence cost using multiple linear regression. During the study period 212 patients underwent surgery. Overall, 51.9% of patients experienced a nonfatal complication (32.5% minor and 19.4% major), 6.6% died in hospital and 22.6% experienced a loss of independence. On multivariate analysis nonfatal complications (p < 0.001), hospital mortality (p = 0.021) and loss of independence at discharge (p < 0.001) were independently associated with health care costs. These adverse events respectively accounted for 30%, 4% and 10% of the total costs of hospital care. Adverse events were common after abdominal surgery in older adults and accounted for 44% of overall costs. This represents a substantial opportunity for better patient outcomes and cost savings with quality improvement strategies tailored to the needs of this high-risk surgical population.

  7. Risk factors for acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; West, K W; Carney, D E; Engum, S E; Heiny, M E; Rescorla, F J

    2004-06-01

    The reported incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is 15% to 20%. Our current objective was to assess risk factors and morbidity associated with ACS. The authors reviewed the outcome of children with SCD undergoing abdominal surgery over a 10-year period. From 1991 to 2003, 60 children underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC; n = 29), laparoscopic splenectomy (LS; n = 28), or both (LB; n = 3). Mean age was 8.6 (0.7 to 20) years, and 35 (58%) were boys. Fifty-four (90%) had a preoperative hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dL, but only 22 (37%) received routine oxygen after surgery. No surgery was converted to an open procedure. Four children (6.6%), all of whom underwent either LS or LB, had ACS associated with an increased length of stay (7.4 +/- 2.4 days) but no mortality. Factors associated with the development of ACS were age (3.0 +/- 1.7 v 9.4 +/- 5.7 years; P =.03), weight (12.1 +/- 3.0 v 32.6 +/- 18.2 kg; P =.04), operative blood loss (3.2 +/- 0.5 v 1.4 +/- 1.2 mL/kg; P =.03), and final temperature in the operating room (OR; 36.2 +/- 0.4 v 37.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C; P =.01). ACS was not significantly related to duration of surgery, OR fluids, or oxygen usage. Younger children with greater blood and heat loss during surgery appear more prone to ACS. Splenectomy also seems to increase the risk of ACS. The authors' current incidence (6.6%) of ACS in children with SCD undergoing abdominal surgery is much lower than previously reported. This may be explained by the aggressive use of preoperative blood transfusion or more routine use of laparoscopy.

  8. Laser surgery and medicine including photodynamic therapy in China today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junheng

    2000-10-01

    The development of laser medicine in China is correlated with the development of laser science in China. After the first Chinese laser, ruby laser came into being in 1961, Chinese medical scientists began to do the studies about laser medicine in the middle 1960s. For example, ruby laser was adopted for the retina coagulation experiment in 1965. Since 1970s, through the free choice of utilizing Co2, He-Ne, Nd:YAG argon, ruby lasers, laser surgery and medicine has been widely applied to the treatment for diseases of the eyes, ENT, dermatology, surgery, gynecology, tumors and diseases suitable to physical therapy or acupuncture with satisfactory effects. In June 1977, a nation-wide laser medicine symposium was held at Wuhan, Hubei Province with 200 participants including medical doctors and laser technologies from 23 provinces and municipal towns. Till the end of seventies, utilization of lasers has been extended to Nd glass laser, N laser and tunable dye lasers. The scope covered most of the clinical sections. After Dr. Thomas J. Dougherty developed the PDT for cancers in Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo in late 1970s and Professor Yoshihiro Hayata successfully applied the PDT in clinical treatment for lung cancer in 1980, Chinese pharmacists successfully produced the Chinese HpD and the first case of PDT, a lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma patient was treated with the Chinese laser equipment in 1981 in Beijing. Its success brought attention establishing a research group supported by the government in 1982. The members of the group consisted the experts on preclinical and clinical research, pharmaceutical chemistry, laser physicists and technologists. A systemic research on PDT was then carried out and obvious result was achieved. The step taken for PDT also accelerated the researchers on other kinds of laser medicine and surgery because the medical doctors had begun to master the knowledge about laser science. The prosperous situation of rapid

  9. Isolated endometriosis on the rectus abdominis muscle in women without a history of abdominal surgery: a rare and intriguing finding.

    PubMed

    Granese, Roberta; Cucinella, Gaspare; Barresi, Valeria; Navarra, Giuseppe; Candiani, Massimo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2009-01-01

    We report 2 rare cases of endometriosis on the rectus abdominal muscle diagnosed incidentally during an operation for inguinal hernia repair in women with no surgical history. Two women sought medical attention for a mass found in the pubic abdominal wall. Only 1 woman reported occasional pain. At physical examination in both women, an ovoid swelling in the right pubic area was felt. One woman experienced pain on palpation, and one reported slight discomfort. Ultrasonography demonstrated a heterogeneous hypoechogenic formation with indistinct edges; diagnosis was difficult. Routine clinical and instrumental (pelvic ultrasonography) gynecologic examination in both patients performed shortly before hospitalization had not revealed any macroscopic focus of endometriosis in the pelvic region. At surgery, a lesion consistent with the diagnosis of endometriosis was found, which was confirmed at histologic analysis. These cases could represent the consolidation of different theories of endometriosis diffusion. We suggest including endometriosis in the differential diagnosis of a symptomatic mass in the abdominal wall in women with and without a surgical history.

  10. A novel transperitoneal abdominal wall nerve block for postoperative pain in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Akiyama, Masaki; Arase, Koichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Hamada, Kotaro; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Keiji

    2017-04-04

    Although the laparoscopic approach reduces pain associated with abdominal surgery, postoperative pain remains a problem. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block have become increasingly popular means of providing analgesia for laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients were enrolled in this study. A laparoscopic puncture needle was inserted via the port, and levobupivacaine was injected into the correct plane through the peritoneum. The patients' postoperative pain intensity was assessed using a numeric rating scale. The effects of laparoscopic nerve block versus percutaneous anesthesia were compared. This novel form of transperitoneal anesthesia did not jeopardize completion of the operative procedures. The percutaneous approach required more time for performance of the procedure than the transperitoneal technique. This new analgesia technique can become an optional postoperative treatment regimen for various laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. What we mainly want to suggest is that the transperitoneal approach has the advantage of a higher completion rate. A percutaneous technique is sometimes difficult with patients who have severe obesity and/or coagulation disorders. Additional studies are required to evaluate its benefits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  12. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery (PROVAR): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spieth, P M; Güldner, A; Uhlig, C; Bluth, T; Kiss, T; Conrad, C; Bischlager, K; Braune, A; Huhle, R; Insorsi, A; Tarantino, F; Ball, L; Schultz, M J; Abolmaali, N; Koch, T; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Fifty patients planned for open abdominal surgery lasting >3 h were randomly assigned to receive either CVV or CNV. Mean tidal volumes and PEEP were set at 8 ml kg -1 (predicted body weight) and 5 cm H 2 O, respectively. In CVV, tidal volumes varied randomly, following a normal distribution, on a breath-by-breath basis. The primary endpoint was the forced vital capacity (FVC) on postoperative Day 1. Secondary endpoints were oxygenation, non-aerated lung volume, distribution of ventilation, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications until postoperative Day 5. FVC did not differ significantly between CVV and CNV on postoperative Day 1, 61.5 (standard deviation 22.1) % vs 61.9 (23.6) %, respectively; mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] difference, -0.4 (-13.2-14.0), P=0.95. Intraoperatively, CVV did not result in improved respiratory function, haemodynamics, or redistribution of ventilation compared to CNV. Postoperatively, FVC, forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV 1 ), and FEV 1 /FVC deteriorated, while atelectasis volume and plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 increased, but values did not differ between groups. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications was comparable in CVV and CNV. In patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, CVV did not improve intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function compared with CNV. NCT 01683578. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for intra-abdominal emergency conditions.

    PubMed

    Bingener, J; Ibrahim-zada, I

    2014-01-01

    Patient benefits from natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) are of interest in acute-care surgery. This review provides an overview of the historical development of NOTES procedures, and addresses their current uses and limitations for intra-abdominal emergency conditions. A PubMed search was carried out for articles describing NOTES approaches for appendicectomy, percutaneous gastrostomy, hollow viscus perforation and pancreatic necrosectomy. Pertinent articles were reviewed and data on available outcomes synthesized. Emergency conditions in surgery tax the patient's cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and fluid and electrolyte balance. The operative intervention itself leads to an inflammatory response and blood loss, thus adding to the physiological stress. NOTES provides a minimally invasive alternative access to the peritoneal cavity, avoiding abdominal wall incisions. A clear advantage to the patient is evident with the implementation of an endoscopic approach to deal with inadvertently displaced percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes and perforated gastroduodenal ulcer. The NOTES approach appears less invasive for patients with infected pancreatic necrosis, in whom it allows surgical debridement and avoidance of open necrosectomy. Transvaginal appendicectomy is the second most frequently performed NOTES procedure after cholecystectomy. The NOTES concept has provided a change in perspective for intramural and transmural endoscopic approaches to iatrogenic perforations during endoscopy. NOTES approaches have been implemented in clinical practice over the past decade. Selected techniques offer reduced invasiveness for patients with intra-abdominal emergencies, and may improve outcomes. Steady future development and adoption of NOTES are likely to follow as technology improves and surgeons become comfortable with the approaches. © 2013 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Breathing exercises in upper abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grams, Samantha T; Ono, Lariane M; Noronha, Marcos A; Schivinski, Camila I S; Paulin, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the indication and benefits of breathing exercises for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications PPCs and for the recovery of pulmonary mechanics. To undertake a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized studies that assessed the effects of breathing exercises on the recovery of pulmonary function and prevention of PCCs after upper abdominal surgery UAS. We searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database PEDro, Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials on pre- and postoperative UAS patients, in which the primary intervention was breathing exercises without the use of incentive inspirometers. The methodological quality of the studies was rated according to the PEDro scale. Data on maximal respiratory pressures MIP and MEP, spirometry, diaphragm mobility, and postoperative complications were extracted and analyzed. Data were pooled in fixed-effect meta-analysis whenever possible. Six studies were used for analysis. Two meta-analyses including 66 participants each showed that, on the first day post-operative, the breathing exercises were likely to have induced MEP and MIP improvement treatment effects of 11.44 mmH2O (95%CI 0.88 to 22) and 11.78 mmH2O (95%CI 2.47 to 21.09), respectively. Breathing exercises are likely to have a beneficial effect on respiratory muscle strength in patients submitted to UAS, however the lack of good quality studies hinders a clear conclusion on the subject.

  15. Sarcopenia increases risk of long-term mortality in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Erika L; Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Cooper, Zara; Olufajo, Olubode A; Salim, Ali; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    Frailty is associated with poor surgical outcomes in elderly patients but is difficult to measure in the emergency setting. Sarcopenia, or the loss of lean muscle mass, is a surrogate for frailty and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. We sought to determine the impact of sarcopenia on 1-year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery in elderly patients. Sarcopenia was assessed in patients 70 years or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at a single hospital from 2006 to 2011. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography. Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was mortality at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days. The association of sarcopenia with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and model performance judged using Harrell's C-statistic. Two hundred ninety-seven of 390 emergency abdominal surgery patients had preoperative imaging and height. The median age was 79 years, and 1-year mortality was 32%. Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients were comparable in age, sex, race, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, procedure urgency and type, operative severity, and need for discharge to a nursing facility. Sarcopenic patients had lower body mass index, greater need for intensive care, and longer hospital length of stay (p < 0.05). Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (risk ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7) and mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4), 90 days (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), 180 days (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.4), and 1 year (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of mortality over 1 year in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Sarcopenia defined

  16. Spinal anaesthesia with a micro-catheter in high-risk patients undergoing colorectal cancer and other major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandra M; Corbett, William A; Wilson, Robert G

    2008-08-01

    Extended spinal anaesthesia using a spinal micro-catheter was used as a primary method of anaesthesia for elective colorectal cancer surgery in 68 high risk patients over a 14-year period in our institution. The technique was also useful in eight elective and 13 emergency abdominal surgeries. All patients suffered from severe chronic obstructive airway disease requiring multiple inhalers and drugs (ASA III). Thirty nine of these patients also suffered from angina, myocardial infarction, diabetes and other systemic diseases (ASA IV). Surgery included right hemicolectomy, left hemicolectomy, total colectomy, sigmoid colectomy, Hartman's resection, anterior resection of rectum, abdominoperineal resection, cholecystectomy (open and laparoscopic) and obstructed inguinal hernia requiring laparotomy. Spinal anaesthesia was performed under strict aseptic conditions with a 22 gauge spinal needle with a mixture consisting of 2.75ml of 0.5% heavy bupivacaine and 0.25ml of fentanyl (25microg). This was followed by placement of a spinal micro-catheter and the duration of anaesthesia was extended by intermittent injection of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. Brief hypotension occurred in 12.4% of patients during the establishment of anaesthetic block height to T6-7 and was duly treated with intravenous administration of fluid and ephedrine hydrochloride. Good anaesthesia resulted in all patients except for brief discomfort in some patients during hemicolectomy surgery possibly due to the dissection and traction on the peritoneum causing irritation to the diaphragm. The use of sedation was avoided. General anaesthesia was administered in one patient and this patient required postoperative ventilation and cardiovascular support in the Intensive Care Unit. The spinal micro-catheter was removed at the end of surgery. Postoperative pain relief was obtained by administering intravenous morphine through a patient controlled analgesia machine in the critical care ward area (High Dependency

  17. Outcome after open surgery repair in endovascular-suitable patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krenzien, Felix; Matia, Ivan; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Freitas, Bruno; Moche, Michael; Schmelzle, Moritz; Jonas, Sven; Fellmer, Peter T

    2013-11-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been suggested in several studies to be superior to open surgery repair (OSR) for the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs), but this finding might be affected by selection bias based on aneurysm morphology and patient characteristics. We tested rAAA anatomy according to EVAR suitability in patients undergoing OSR to assess the impact on mortality. This retrospective analysis reports on 83 patients with rAAAs treated between November 2002 and July 2013. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated based on EVAR suitability and were determined by blinded independent reviewers. CT scans were lacking due to acquisition in an external institution with no availability (n = 9) or solely ultrasound evaluations (n = 8). In addition patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed. All patients who underwent OSR and who had available preoperative CT scans were included in the study (n = 66). In summary, 42 % of the patients (28/66; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 30.5 - 54.4) were considered eligible for EVAR according to pre-operative CT scans and 58 % of the patients (38/66; 95 % CI, 45.6 - 69.5) were categorized as unsuitable for endovascular repair. Patients suitable for EVAR had a significantly lower prevalence of in-hospital deaths (25 % [7/28]; 95 % CI, 9 - 41) in contrast to patients unsuitable for EVAR (53 % [20/38]; 95 % CI, 36.8 - 68.5; p = 0.02). EVAR-suitable patients had a highly significant mortality reduction undergoing OSR. Thus, the present study proposes that EVAR suitability is a positive predictor for survival after open repair of rAAA.

  18. Adjunctive treatment of abdominal catastrophes and sepsis with direct peritoneal resuscitation: indications for use in acute care surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason W; Neal Garrison, R; Matheson, Paul J; Harbrecht, Brian G; Benns, Matthew V; Franklin, Glen A; Miller, Keith R; Bozeman, Matthew C; David Richardson, J

    2014-09-01

    The success of damage-control surgery (DCS) for the treatment of trauma has led to its use in other surgical problems such as abdominal sepsis. Previous studies using direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) for the treatment of trauma have yielded promising results. We present the results of the application of this technique to patients experiencing abdominal sepsis. We enrolled 88 DCS patients during a 5 year-period (January 2008 to December 2012) into a propensity-matched study to evaluate the utility of using DPR in addition to standard resuscitation. DPR consisted of peritoneal lavage with 2.5% DELFLEX, and abdominal closure was standardized across both groups. Patients were matched using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) variables. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. There were no differences between the control and experimental groups with regard to age, sex, ethnicity, or APACHE II at 24 hours. Indications for damage control included pancreatitis, perforated hollow viscous, bowel obstruction, and ischemic enterocolitis. Patients undergoing DPR had both a higher rate of (68% vs. 43%, p < 0.03) and a shorter time to definitive fascial closure (5.9 [3.2] days vs. 7.7 [4.1] days, p < 0.02). DPR patients had a decreased APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score compared with the controls at 48 hours. In addition, DPR patients had fewer abdominal complications compared with the controls (RR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-1.01; p = 0.038). Ventilator days and intensive care unit length of stay were both significantly reduced in the DPR group. The DPR group showed a lower overall mortality at 30 days (16% vs. 27%, p = 0.15). DPR reduces time to definitive abdominal closure, increases primary fascial closure, and reduces intra-abdominal complications following DCS. DPR may also attenuate progressive physiologic injury as demonstrated by a reduction in 48-hour intensive care unit severity scores. As

  19. Reaching consensus on the physiotherapeutic management of patients following upper abdominal surgery: a pragmatic approach to interpret equivocal evidence.

    PubMed

    Hanekom, Susan D; Brooks, Dina; Denehy, Linda; Fagevik-Olsén, Monika; Hardcastle, Timothy C; Manie, Shamila; Louw, Quinette

    2012-02-06

    Postoperative pulmonary complications remain the most significant cause of morbidity following open upper abdominal surgery despite advances in perioperative care. However, due to the poor quality primary research uncertainty surrounding the value of prophylactic physiotherapy intervention in the management of patients following abdominal surgery persists. The Delphi process has been proposed as a pragmatic methodology to guide clinical practice when evidence is equivocal. The objective was to develop a clinical management algorithm for the post operative management of abdominal surgery patients. Eleven draft algorithm statements extracted from the extant literature by the primary research team were verified and rated by scientist clinicians (n=5) in an electronic three round Delphi process. Algorithm statements which reached a priori defined consensus-semi-interquartile range (SIQR)<0.5-were collated into the algorithm. The five panelists allocated to the abdominal surgery Delphi panel were from Australia, Canada, Sweden, and South Africa. The 11 draft algorithm statements were edited and 5 additional statements were formulated. The panel reached consensus on the rating of all statements. Four statements were rated essential. An expert Delphi panel interpreted the equivocal evidence for the physiotherapeutic management of patients following upper abdominal surgery. Through a process of consensus a clinical management algorithm was formulated. This algorithm can now be used by clinicians to guide clinical practice in this population.

  20. [Spleen-preserving surgery after blunt abdominal trauma with splenic hilum involvement].

    PubMed

    Navas-Cuéllar, José Aurelio; Cañete-Gómez, Jesús; López-Bernal, Francisco; García-Rivera, Carla; Pareja-Ciuró, Felipe; Padillo-Ruiz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Splenic involvement secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is often treated by performing a splenectomy. The severity of the post-splenectomy syndrome is currently well known (blood loss, sepsis), so there is an increasing tendency to preserve the spleen. The case is presented of splenic preservation after blunt abdominal trauma with hilum involvement, emphasising the role of Floseal as a haemostatic agent, as well as the use of resorbable meshes to preserve the spleen. A 22-year-old woman presenting with a grade IV splenic lesion secondary to a blunt abdominal trauma after a traffic accident. Partial splenic resection was performed and bleeding was controlled with Floseal and use of a reinforcing polyglycolic acid mesh. No postoperative complications occurred, being discharged on day 5. The long-term follow-up has been uneventful. The use of haemostatic agents such as thrombin and the gelatine gel (FloSeal) and the use of polyglycolic acid meshes enable spleen-preserving surgery, making it a feasible and reproducible procedure and an alternative to classical splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-12-01

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  2. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CUMULATIVE WATER BALANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY COMPLICATIONS AFTER MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Musaeva, T S; Karipidi, M K; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2016-11-01

    a comprehensive assessment of the water balance on the basis of daily, cumulative balance and 10% of the body weight gain and their role in the development of early complications after major abdominal surgery. A retrospective study of the perioperative period in 150 patients who underwent major abdomi- nal surgery was performed. The physical condition of the patients corresponded to ASA 3 class. The average age was 46 (38-62) years. The following stages ofresearch: an analysis of daily balance and cumulative balance in complicated and uncomplicated group and their role in the development of complications; the timing of development ofcomplications and possible relationship with fluid overload and the development of complications; changes in the level of albumin within 10 days of the postoperative period. The analysis of complications didn't show significant differences between complicated and uncomplicated groups according to the water balance during the surgery and by the end of the first day. When constructing the area under the ROC curve (A UROC) low resolution ofthe balance in intraoperative period and the first day and the balance on the second day to predict complications was shown. Significant diferences according to the cumulative balance was observed from the third day of the postoperative period Also with the third day of the postoperative period there is a good resolution for prediction ofpostoperative complications according to the cumulative balance with the cut-offpoint > of 50,7 ml/kg. the excessive infusion therapy is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients after major abdominal surgery. Therefore, after 3 days of postoperative period it is important to maintain mechanisms for the excretion of excess fluid or limitations of infusion therapy.

  3. Pharmacogenetics-guided analgesics in major abdominal surgery: Further benefits within an enhanced recovery protocol.

    PubMed

    Senagore, Anthony J; Champagne, Bradley J; Dosokey, Eslam; Brady, Justin; Steele, Scott R; Reynolds, Harry L; Stein, Sharon L; Delaney, Conor P

    2017-03-01

    Effective, narcotic sparing analgesia is a major component of Enhanced Recovery Protocols (ERP), however the risk of poor analgesia and opioid related side effects (ORADE) remains an issue related to poor outcomes and satisfaction, and is strongly related to the risk of narcotic dependence after surgery. A variety of genes can impact narcotic and non-steroidal (NSAID) drug efficacy including: the CYP family (drug metabolism-narcotics and NSAID), or COMT/ABCB1/OPRM1 (functional receptor and transport activity for analgesia vs side effects). The purpose of this study was to perform the first assessment of the impact of a pharmacogenetics (PGx) guided selection of analgesics following major abdominal surgery within an ERP. A consecutive series of open and laparoscopic colorectal resections or major ventral hernia repair (PGx group) had a guided analgesic protocol based upon assessment of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, COMT, OPRM1, and ABCB1 genes. Study patients were compared to a recent historical series of patients (H group) managed using our well validated ERP. The primary outcome measure was the Overall Benefit of Analgesia Score (OBAS). Pain scores were also assessed. The data demonstrated a similar mix of procedures and gender between groups and more than half of the PGx group had revised analgesia from the standard ERP. The PGx group demonstrated significantly lower OBAS scores (p = 0.0.1) from POD1 (3.8 vs 5.4) through POD 5 (3.0 vs 4.5) Analgesia was also superior for the PGx group from POD1 through POD 5 (p = 0.04). Pharmacogenetics guidance resulted in frequent modifications of the analgesic program, resulting in excellent analgesia with a 50% reduction in narcotic consumption, and a reduced incidence of analgesic related side effects compared to our standard ERP. These data suggest further improvement in ERP resulting from a patient centric analgesic, reduced narcotic regimen which provides early and durable pain control with fewer

  4. Functional abdominal pain syndrome in morbidly obese patients following laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance

  5. Goal-directed fluid therapy for reducing risk of surgical site infections following abdominal surgery - A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianhu; Sun, Yanxia; Pan, Chuxiong; Li, Tianzuo

    2017-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) become a key indicator of quality of care. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) on the risk of SSIs after abdominal surgery. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), from inception to May 2016 that compared the incidence of SSIs in abdominal surgical patients with or without GDFT treatment. . Data were pooled and risk ratio (RR) as well as weighted mean differences (WMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using either fixed or random effects models, depending on heterogeneity (I 2 ). A total of 29 eligible RCTs with 5317 patients were included in this analysis. GDFT significantly reduced the incidence of SSIs after abdominal surgery. The pooled RR was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.63 to 0.86) with low heterogeneity (I 2  = 4%). Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the GDFT group (WMD: -1.16 days, 95% CI: -1.92 to -0.40, p = 0.003; I 2  = 81%). This systematic review suggests that perioperative GDFT is associated with a reduction in the incidence of SSIs after abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein to rule out infectious complications after major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; van Dieren, Susan; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications occur frequently after major abdominal surgery and have a major influence on patient outcome and hospital costs. A marker that can rule out postoperative infectious complications (PICs) could aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a widely available, fast, and cheap marker that might be of value in detecting PIC. Present meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic value of CRP to rule out PIC following major abdominal surgery, aiding patient selection for early discharge. A systematic literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane was performed identifying all prospective studies evaluating the diagnostic value of CRP after abdominal surgery. Meta-analysis was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Twenty-two studies were included for qualitative analysis of which 16 studies were eligible for meta-analysis, representing 2215 patients. Most studies analyzed the value of CRP in colorectal surgery (eight studies). The pooled negative predictive value (NPV) improved each day after surgery up to 90% at postoperative day (POD) 3 for a pooled CRP cutoff of 159 mg/L (range 92-200). Maximum predictive values for PICs were reached on POD 5 for a pooled CRP cutoff of 114 mg/L (range 48-150): a pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79-91%), specificity of 86% (95% CI 75-92%), and a positive predictive value of 64% (95% CI 49-77%). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were significantly higher on POD 5 than on other PODs (p < 0.001). Infectious complications after major abdominal surgery are very unlikely in patients with a CRP below 159 mg/L on POD 3. This can aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge and prevent overuse of imaging.

  7. Optical design of a robotic TV camera probe for minimally invasive abdominal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todaro, Susanna; He, Weiyi; Killinger, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    Minimally invasive techniques are a promising new field of surgery; however, they limit the surgeon's access points and maneuverability. In order to increase the number of access points in minimally invasive abdominal surgery, a proposed implantable medical probe braces to the abdominal wall and provides illumination and video signal. The probe is cylindrical, about 25 mm long and 10 mm in diameter. A ring of LEDs on the end of the probe illuminates the tissue, and the resulting image is focused onto an HD video detector. It was necessary to apply beam-shaping reflectors to collimate the light onto a small target area, to avoid illuminating areas not picked up by the video. These reflectors were designed and simulated using the optical ray tracing software TracePro. Two LED chip geometries and three types of reflector geometries were analyzed, and the parameters for each geometry were optimized. For the straight-edged reflectors, the intensity patterns and optimization were compared to experimental results. Although parabolic reflectors produced the best collimation, cone reflectors with a 20-degree half-angle produced significant collimation at a much cheaper price. This work was supported by NSF REU program (award No DMR-1004873).

  8. Effectiveness of Ginger Essential Oil on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Ri; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of aromatherapy with ginger essential oil on nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients. This was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group and repeated measures. The experimental group (n = 30) received ginger essential oil inhalation. The placebo control group (n = 30) received normal saline inhalation. The level of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured using a Korean version of the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 h after aromatherapy administration. The data were collected from July 23 to August 22, 2012. Nausea and vomiting scores were significantly lower in the experimental group with ginger essential oil inhalation than those in the placebo control group with normal saline. In the experimental group, the nausea and vomiting scores decreased considerably in the first 6 h after inhaled aromatherapy with ginger essential oil. Findings indicate that ginger essential oil inhalation has implications for alleviating postoperative nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients.

  9. [Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of blunt abdominal trauma in patients undergoing surgery at the General Hospital of National Reference of N'Djamena, Chad: about 49 cases].

    PubMed

    Choua, Ouchemi; Rimtebaye, Kimassoum; Yamingue, Ngueidjo; Moussa, Kalli; Kaboro, Mignagnal

    2017-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are common. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 49 patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent surgery at the General Hospital of National Reference of N'Djamena, Chad over a period of 5 years. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic parameters of patients were studied. The study included 42 men and 7 women, mean age 21.3 years. The causes of blunt abdominal traumas were: road traffic accidents in 61.2% of cases; wall collapses (14.3%); assaults (8.2%). Blunt abdominal traumas were more frequent in August (14.28%) and October (16.32%). The waiting time for admission in hospital was 6-12h in 43% of cases. At discharge, wounded patients used private car in 85.7% of cases. Clinically, patients were often hemodynamically stable (55.1%). Medical imaging was dominated by direct radiography of the abdomen (57.1%). The most observed lesions were those located only in the small intestine (16.32%) or related to that of the bladder (8.16%) and spleen (2.04%). Laparotomy was negative in 6.12% of cases. Morbidity (12.2%) was dominated by abdominal wall abscess. Mortality rate was 6.1%. Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of blunt abdominal traumas. It is important to minimize delays in diagnosis, and treatment. Road safety measures should be implemented to prevent accidents.

  10. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boden, Ianthe; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-24

    To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute risk reduction of 15% (95% confidence interval 7% to 22%) and a number needed to treat of 7

  11. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Design Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Setting Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Interventions Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. Results The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute

  12. Time perspective as a predictor of acute postsurgical pain and coping with pain following abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sobol-Kwapinska, M; Plotek, W; Bąbel, P; Cybulski, M; Kluzik, A; Krystianc, J; Mandecki, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to predict acute postsurgical pain and coping with pain following surgery based on preoperative time perspectives. Time perspective is a basic dimension of psychological time. It is a tendency to focus on a particular time area: the past, the present and the future. Seventy-six patients completed measures of time perspective and pain 24 h before abdominal surgery. During the 3 days after surgery, measures of pain and coping with pain were completed. We performed hierarchical regression analyses to identify predictors of acute postsurgical pain and how patients cope with it. These analyses suggested that a preoperative past-negative time perspective can be a predictor of postoperative pain level and catastrophizing after surgery. The findings of our study indicate the importance of time perspective, especially the past perspective, in dealing with postoperative pain. Our research indicates that a preoperative past-negative time perspective is a significant predictor of acute postsurgical pain intensity and the strongest predictor of pain catastrophizing. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  13. Impact of perioperative nutritional status on the outcome of abdominal surgery in a sub-Saharan Africa setting.

    PubMed

    Mambou Tebou, Christian Gael; Temgoua, Mazou N; Esiene, Agnès; Nana, Blondel Oumarou; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Sobngwi, Eugène

    2017-09-18

    Malnutrition is a clinical condition of multifactorial etiologies and it is associated with several adverse outcomes. In high-income countries, malnutrition has been described as a determinant of delayed wound healing, surgical site infections and mortality in the postoperative period. There is limited information available regarding the outcome of surgery in malnourished patients in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional analytic study was carried out between March and August 2014 in the visceral surgery and the emergency departments of the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. All consecutive consenting preoperative and postoperative patients of abdominal surgical procedures were enrolled. Variables studied were: socio-demographic characteristics, medical and surgical past histories, nutritional survey, anthropometric parameters and serum albumin level in order to determine the nutritional risk index (or Buzby score). A total of 85 patients aged from 19 to 50 years with mean age of 34.4 ± 8 years were included. The most performed abdominal surgical procedure was appendectomy (30.6%). The prevalence of preoperative malnutrition according to the Buzby score was 39.1%. Mean postoperative weight lost was 2.9 ± 1.2 kg and mean decrease in postoperative serum albumin was 4.2 ± 0.2 g. A normal postoperative serum albumin was associated with a favorable outcome [OR (95% CI) = 55 (13.4-224.3), p < 0.001]. The prevalence of malnutrition is high in our visceral surgery and emergency departments; this is associated with an increased risk of adverse early postoperative outcomes. Overall, our results emphasize the need of optimizing perioperative care through routine nutritional assessment and management of surgical patients in Cameroon.

  14. The LIPPSMAck POP (Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal - with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy) trial: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boden, Ianthe; Browning, Laura; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Reeve, Julie; El-Ansary, Doa; Robertson, Iain K; Denehy, Linda

    2015-12-15

    Post-operative pulmonary complications are a significant problem following open upper abdominal surgery. Preliminary evidence suggests that a single pre-operative physiotherapy education and preparatory lung expansion training session alone may prevent respiratory complications more effectively than supervised post-operative breathing and coughing exercises. However, the evidence is inconclusive due to methodological limitations. No well-designed, adequately powered, randomised controlled trial has investigated the effect of pre-operative education and training on post-operative respiratory complications, hospital length of stay, and health-related quality of life following upper abdominal surgery. The Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal- with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy (LIPPSMAck POP) trial is a pragmatic, investigator-initiated, bi-national, multi-centre, patient- and assessor-blinded, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority. Four hundred and forty-one patients scheduled for elective open upper abdominal surgery at two Australian and one New Zealand hospital will be randomised using concealed allocation to receive either i) an information booklet or ii) an information booklet, plus one additional pre-operative physiotherapy education and training session. The primary outcome is respiratory complication incidence using standardised diagnostic criteria. Secondary outcomes include hospital length of stay and costs, pneumonia diagnosis, intensive care unit readmission and length of stay, days/h to mobilise >1 min and >10 min, and, at 6 weeks post-surgery, patient reported complications, health-related quality of life, and physical capacity. The LIPPSMAck POP trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial powered and designed to investigate whether a single pre-operative physiotherapy session prevents post-operative respiratory complications. This trial standardises post-operative assisted ambulation and

  15. A randomized controlled trial comparing periodic mask CPAP with physiotherapy after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Denehy, L; Carroll, S; Ntoumenopoulos, G; Jenkins, S

    2001-01-01

    Physiotherapists use a variety of techniques aimed at improving lung volumes and secretion clearance in patients after surgery. Periodic continuous positive airway pressure (PCPAP) is used to treat patients following elective upper abdominal surgery. However, the optimal method of application has not been identified, more specifically, the dosage of application of PCPAP. The present randomized controlled trial compared the effects of two dosages of PCPAP application and 'traditional' physiotherapy upon functional residual capacity (FRC), vital capacity (VC), oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO2), incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications and length of stay with a control group receiving 'traditional' physiotherapy only. Fifty-seven subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups. All groups received 'traditional' physiotherapy twice daily for a minimum of three post-operative days. In addition, two groups received PCPAP for 15 or 30 minutes, four times per day, for three days. Fifty subjects (39 male; 11 female) completed the study. There were no significant differences in any variables between the three groups. The overall incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications was 22% in the control group, 11% and 6% in the PCPAP 15-minute and PCPAP 30-minute groups, respectively. Length of hospital stay was not significantly different between the groups but for subjects who developed post-operative pulmonary complications, the length of stay was significantly greater (Z = -2.32; p = 0.021). The addition of PCPAP to a traditional physiotherapy post-operative treatment regimen after upper abdominal surgery did not significantly affect physiological or clinical outcomes.

  16. Ostomy-related complications after emergent abdominal surgery: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Elisabet; Persson, Eva; Carlsson, Eva; Hallén, Anne-Marie; Fingren, Jeanette; Berndtsson, Ina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate ostomy-related complications and describe ostomy configuration in patients undergoing acute abdominal surgery. The study sample comprised 144 patients with a median age of 67 years (IOR: 53.5-78 years) who underwent an intestinal ostomy as part of an acute abdominal surgical procedure. The research setting was the surgical and gynecological clinics at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden. Ostomy configuration, diameter, height, and the presence of stomal and peristomal complications were assessed by a WOC nurse 1 to 2 times while in hospital, once at the ostomy outpatient clinic 2 weeks after discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following ostomy creation. The types of ostomies evaluated were end colostomy (58%), end ileostomy (18%), loop ileostomy (17%), and loop colostomy (7%). Most stomal or peristomal complications occurred within 1 year after surgery (31 of 57; 54.4%). Necrosis, separation, and stenosis were most common in patients with an end colostomy. Peristomal skin complications occurred in 45% of subjects during the first 6 months after surgery. The ostomy's diameter decreased significantly during the hospital course and over the first 2 weeks following hospital discharge in patients with end colostomy (P< .0001), end ileostomy (P< .0081), loop ileostomy (P= .008), and loop colostomy (ns). Patients with a low ostomy had peristomal skin problems ranging between 21% and 57% over this time period. The frequency of using a pouching system that incorporated convexity was highest in the case of loop ileostomy, used in 67% at 6 months. During the first 2 weeks after discharge, the physical configuration of the ostomy evolves and the pouching system must be frequently adjusted by a WOC nurse. Stomal and peristomal complications are prevalent during the first 2 postoperative years and especially during the first 6 months.

  17. Which octogenarians do poorly after major open abdominal surgery in our Asian population?

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Chen, Chung-Ming; Ng, Chin; Tan, Su-Ming; Tay, Khoon-Hean

    2006-04-01

    As the elderly population grows and surgeons are faced with more octogenarians, there is a need to know how our Asian patients fair after major surgery. A retrospective review of 125 octogenarians who underwent major abdominal surgery between January 1997 and September 2003 was performed. Preoperative condition was assessed using a weighted index of comorbidity used in Charlson Comorbidity Index and classification of patients according to the American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA). Outcome was measured as to whether complications developed, 30-day mortality and whether there was return to premorbid function. The patients had a mean age of 84.6 years (range: 80-106). Nearly half (48.8%, n = 61) the cases were emergency cases. The median index of comorbidity was 3, and 29.6% of patients were classified either ASA III or IV. The operations were mostly stomach, small bowel or large bowel resection. Multivariate analysis revealed that emergency operations were associated with significantly increased odds of morbidity. The overall 30-day mortality was 5.6%, being only 4.7% for elective cases, despite high morbidity rates. ASA classification, comorbidity index >5, development of acute coronary syndrome and anastomotic leakage were found on multivariate analysis to significantly increase the odds of mortality. For elective cases, 82.8% of patients were able to return to their premorbid functional status. Development of complications and comorbidity index >5 were found to predict failure of its occurrence. Low serum albumin and haemoglobin and renal impairment were also predictors of adverse outcome. Efforts to improve outcome in geriatric surgery patients should emphasize a shift of attitude towards elective surgery rather than doing emergency operations when complications occur and also target the optimization of predictors of adverse outcome. Octogenarians should not be denied elective surgery.

  18. Splenic infarction - A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Splenic infarction – A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Case presentations Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Discussion Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. Conclusion In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. PMID:25818369

  20. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeffrey; Ayad, Sabry; Gonzales, Jeffrey J; Mehta, Jaideep; Boublik, Jan; Hutchins, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by administration of a local anesthetic in close proximity, TAP infiltration involves administration and spread of local anesthetic within an anatomical plane of the surgical site.

  1. Venous thrombosis after abdominal surgery. A comparison between subcutaneous heparin and antithrombotic stockings, or both

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, A.; Hansen, P.T.; Lindholt, J.

    1988-01-01

    In an open controlled study, 248 consecutive patients (age more than 40 yrs) admitted for major abdominal surgery were randomized to one of three prophylactic antithrombotic treatments. Eighty-five patients received subcutaneous heparin, 74 patients had graduated compression stockings to the knee (TED stockings), and 89 patients had both subcutaneous heparin and stockings. Treatment began on the evening before operation and continued to complete mobilization, or for not less than five days postoperatively. On the fourth or fifth postoperative day, the patients underwent a /sup 99m/Tc-plasmin test of the lower limbs as a test for deep vein thrombosis. There were 29.7%more » positive tests in the stocking group, 29.4% in the group with heparin prophylaxis, and 25.8% in the combined group. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant.« less

  2. Does antiplatelet therapy affect outcomes of patients receiving abdominal laparoscopic surgery? Lessons from more than 1,000 laparoscopic operations in a single tertiary referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takahisa; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Toshihiro; Yoshimoto, Yasunori; Tada, Seiichiro; Maekawa, Hisatsugu; Shimoike, Norihiro

    2013-12-01

    The effect of antiplatelet therapy (APT) on surgical blood loss and perioperative complications in patients receiving abdominal laparoscopic surgery still remains unclear. A total of 1,075 consecutive patients undergoing abdominal laparoscopic surgery between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed. Our perioperative management protocol consisted of interruption of APT 1 week before surgery and early postoperative reinstitution in low thromboembolic risk patients (n = 160, iAPT group). Preoperative APT was maintained in patients with high thromboembolic risk or emergent situation (n = 52, cAPT group). Perioperative and outcomes variables of cAPT and iAPT groups, including bleeding and thromboembolic complications, were compared with those of patients without APT (non-APT group, n = 863). In this cohort, 715 basic and 360 advanced laparoscopic operations were included. No patient suffering excessive intraoperative bleeding due to continuation of APT was observed. There were 10 postoperative bleeding complications (0.9%) and 3 thromboembolic events (0.3%), but the surgery was free of both complications in the cAPT group. No significant differences were found between the groups in operative blood loss, blood transfusion rate, and the occurrence of bleeding and thromboembolic complications. Multivariable analyses showed that multiple antiplatelet agents (p = 0.015) and intraoperative blood transfusion (p = 0.046) were significant prognostic factors for postoperative bleeding complications. Increased thromboembolic complications were independently associated with high New York Heart Association class (p = 0.019) and history of cerebral infarction (p = 0.048), but not associated with APT use. Abdominal laparoscopic operations were successfully performed without any increase in severe complications in patients with APT compared with the non-APT group under our rigorous perioperative assessment and management. Maintenance of single APT should be considered in patients with high

  3. Laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery in children with sickle cell disease is associated with a shorter hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Goers, Trudie; Panepinto, Julie; Debaun, Michael; Blinder, Morey; Foglia, Robert; Oldham, Keith T; Field, Joshua J

    2008-03-01

    Limited information exists comparing the post-operative complication rate of laparoscopic or open abdominal surgeries in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The primary objective of this study was to compare the outcomes in children with SCD who required laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery for a cholecystectomy or splenectomy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laparoscopic and open abdominal surgeries performed in children with SCD (ages 0-20 years) at two medical centers from 1984 to 2004. The primary outcome measures were the rates of post-operative pain and acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes following laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay following surgery. We also examined the potential contribution of pre-operative (transfusion) and intra-operative factors (operating time, estimated blood loss, and end-operative temperature) to post-operative SCD-related complications. A total of 140 cases were identified, 98 laparoscopic and 42 open. Episodes of post-operative pain and ACS episodes were comparable between laparoscopic and open procedures (pain: 4% vs. 3%, P = 0.619; ACS: 5% vs. 5%, P = 0.933). Additionally, laparoscopic surgeries were associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (2.9 vs. 5.4 days, 95% CI -3.7 to -1.4, P < 0.001). There was no difference in the number of hospital readmissions within 1 month of the surgery. For children with SCD who need a cholecystectomy or splenectomy, laparoscopy is the preferred strategy because of a shorter hospital stay with a similar complication rate compared to open surgeries. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Effect of major abdominal surgery on the host immune response to infection.

    PubMed

    Buttenschoen, Klaus; Fathimani, Kamran; Buttenschoen, Daniela Carli

    2010-06-01

    The present review summarizes key studies on the effects of major abdominal surgery on the host response to infection published during the last 18 months. Surgical trauma causes stereotyped systemic proinflammatory and compensatory anti-inflammatory reactions. It is leukocyte reprogramming rather than general immune suppression. The list of recent findings is long. Preoperative infectious challenge was found to increase survival. Obesity is associated with increased production of interleukin-17A in peritonitis. Abdominal surgery alters expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs). The acute phase reaction down-regulates the transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein. Myosin light chain kinase activation is a final pathway of acute tight junction regulation of gut barrier and zonula occludens 1 protein is an essential effector. The brain is involved in regulating the immune and gut system. Elimination of lipopolysaccharide is challenging. Th1/Th2 ratio is lowered in patients with postoperative complications. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways can inhibit tissue damage. The new substance PXL01 prevents adhesions. Postoperative infection causes incisional hernias. Hypothermia reduced human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression and delayed tumor necrosis factor clearance. Systems biology identified interferon regulatory factor 3 as the negative regulator of TLR signaling. Protective immunity could contribute defeating surgical infections. Systemic inflammation is the usual response to trauma. All organs seem to be involved and linked up in cybernetic systems aiming at reconstitution of homeostasis. Although knowledge is still fragmentary, it is already difficult to integrate known facts and new technologies are required for information processing. Defining criteria to develop therapeutic strategies requires much more insight into molecular mechanisms and cybernetics of organ systems.

  5. Distal small bowel motility and lipid absorption in patients following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Robert J; Ritz, Marc; Matteo, Addolorata C Di; Vozzo, Rosalie; Kwiatek, Monika; Foreman, Robert; Stanley, Brendan; Walsh, Jack; Burnett, Jim; Jury, Paul; Dent, John

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate distal small bowel motility and lipid absorption in patients following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair surgery. METHODS: Nine patients (aged 35-78 years; body mass index (BMI) range: 23-36 kg/m2) post-surgery for AAA repair, and seven healthy control subjects (20-50 years; BMI range: 21-29 kg/m2) were studied. Continuous distal small bowel manometry was performed for up to 72 h, during periods of fasting and enteral feeding (Nutrison®). Recordings were analyzed for the frequency, origin, length of migration, and direction of small intestinal burst activity. Lipid absorption was assessed on the first day and the third day post surgery in a subset of patients using the 13C-triolein-breath test, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects received a 20-min intraduodenal infusion of 50 mL liquid feed mixed with 200 μL 13C-triolein. End-expiratory breath samples were collected for 6 h and analyzed for 13CO2 concentration. RESULTS: The frequency of burst activity in the proximal and distal small intestine was higher in patients than in healthy subjects, under both fasting and fed conditions (P < 0.005). In patients there was a higher proportion of abnormally propagated bursts (71% abnormal), which began to normalize by d 3 (25% abnormal) post-surgery. Lipid absorption data was available for seven patients on d 1 and four patients on d 3 post surgery. In patients, absorption on d 1 post-surgery was half that of healthy control subjects (AUC 13CO2 1 323 ± 244 vs 2 646 ±365; P < 0.05, respectively), and was reduced to the one-fifth that of healthy controls by d 3 (AUC 13CO2 470 ± 832 vs 2 646 ± 365; P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both proximal and distal small intestinal motor activity are transiently disrupted in critically ill patients immediately after major surgery, with abnormal motility patterns extending as far as the ileum. These motor disturbances may contribute to impaired absorption

  6. Tension-free repair during extensive radical surgery for cecal cancer with abdominal wall invasion and inguinal lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaiwu; Chen, Zhihui; Song, Xinming

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of cecal cancer with invasion of the abdominal wall and right inguinal lymph node metastasis. This patient had undergone an appendectomy 2 years previously. He underwent extensive radical right hemicolectomy with anastomosis and tension-free repair of the damaged right lower abdominal wall. The surgery progressed successfully, and the vital signs of the patient were stable (approximately 200 mL blood loss). Postoperative diagnosis revealed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cecum with invasion of the abdominal wall and metastasis of the inguinal lymph nodes (pT4bN2bM1, IV4a). The patient has remained well post-surgery. PMID:24855366

  7. Development of a patient-reported outcome measure of recovery after abdominal surgery: a hypothesized conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Alam, Roshni; Figueiredo, Sabrina M; Balvardi, Saba; Nauche, Bénédicte; Landry, Tara; Lee, Lawrence; Mayo, Nancy E; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-05-17

    We initiated a research program to develop a novel patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to assess postoperative recovery from the perspective of abdominal surgery patients. In light of FDA recommendations, the first stage of our program aimed to, based on previous literature and expert input, develop a hypothesized conceptual framework portraying the health domains that are potentially relevant to the process of recovery after abdominal surgery. This study was conducted in three phases: (1) systematic review to identify PROMs with measurement properties appraised in the context of recovery after abdominal surgery, (2) content analysis to categorize the health domains covered by the PROMs according to the ICF, and (3) two-round Delphi study to gain expert input regarding which of these health domains are relevant to the process of recovery. Participants were experts in perioperative care identified through two major surgical societies (35 invited). The systematic review identified 19 PROMs covering 66 ICF domains. 23 experts (66%) participated in the Delphi process. After Round 2, experts agreed that 22 health domains (8 body functions, 14 activities and participation) are potentially relevant to the process of recovery after abdominal surgery. These domains were organized into a diagram, representing our hypothesized conceptual framework. This hypothesized conceptual framework is an important first step in our research program and will be further refined based on in-depth qualitative interviews with patients. The sound methodological approach used to derive this framework may be valuable for studies aimed to develop PROMs according to FDA standards.

  8. Dose fentanyl injection for blunting the hemodynamic response to intubation increase the risk of reflex bradycardia during major abdominal surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Cheol-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Although supplemental fentanyl has been widely used to blunt the hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopic intubation, its residual vagotonic effect may increase the risk of reflex bradycardia. We compared the incidence and severity of significant reflex bradycardia after a bolus injection of equivalent doses of fentanyl and remifentanil (control drug). Methods In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 220 adult patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive fentanyl (1.5 µg/kg) or remifentanil (1.5 µg/kg). No anticholinergic prophylaxis was administered. Symptomatic reflex bradycardia was defined as a sudden decrease in heart rate to < 50 beats per minute (bpm) or to 50-59 bpm associated with a systolic arterial pressure < 70 mmHg in connection with surgical maneuvers. If bradycardia or hypotension developed, atropine or ephedrine was administered following a predefined treatment protocol. Results In total, 188 subjects (remifentanil, 95; fentanyl, 93) were included. The proportion of subjects with symptomatic reflex bradycardia in the fentanyl group was similar to that in the remifentanil group (30.1% vs. 28.4%, respectively). Atropine and/or ephedrine were needed similarly in both groups. The differences between the group of 55 patients who presented with symptomatic reflex bradycardia were not statistically significant with respect to the lowest heart rate, anesthetic depth-related data (bispectral index and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration), or the proportion of causative surgical maneuvers. Conclusions Fentanyl (1.5 µg/kg) administered intravenously during anesthetic induction is unlikely to increase the incidence and severity of significant reflex bradycardia in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. PMID:23198032

  9. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the postoperative period for prevention of postoperative morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Claire J; Chapman, Timothy M; Mathew, Suneeth F; Herbison, G Peter; Zacharias, Mathew

    2014-08-01

    Major abdominal surgery can be associated with a number of serious complications that may impair patient recovery. In particular, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), including respiratory complications such as atelectasis and pneumonia, are a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and may even contribute to increased mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of therapy that uses a high-pressure gas source to deliver constant positive pressure to the airways throughout both inspiration and expiration. This approach is expected to prevent some pulmonary complications, thus reducing mortality. To determine whether any difference can be found in the rate of mortality and adverse events following major abdominal surgery in patients treated postoperatively with CPAP versus standard care, which may include traditional oxygen delivery systems, physiotherapy and incentive spirometry. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2013, Issue 9; Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to 15 September 2013); EMBASE (1988 to 15 September 2013); Web of Science (to September 2013) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (to September 2013). We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CPAP was compared with standard care for prevention of postoperative mortality and adverse events following major abdominal surgery. We included all adults (adults as defined by individual studies) of both sexes. The intervention of CPAP was applied during the postoperative period. We excluded studies in which participants had received PEEP during surgery. Two review authors independently selected studies that met the selection criteria from all studies identified by the search strategy. Two review authors extracted the data and assessed risk of bias separately, using a data extraction form. Data entry into RevMan was performed by one review author and was checked by another for accuracy. We performed a

  10. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    PubMed

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Postoperative pain management by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in patients undergoing upper abdominal gastrointestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Seiji; Niihata, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Yuki; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in the early postoperative period after upper abdominal gastrointestinal surgery. We also evaluated the postoperative effects of intraoperative analgesic dosage in patients after this surgery. A total of 59 adult patients classified as ASA 1-3 were allocated to one of two groups: Group A, 23 patients who requested IVPCA more than 50 times, and Group B, 36 patients with fewer than 50 requests. IVPCA was induced using morphine 1 mg x ml(-1) without a base dose. The bolus dose was 1 ml and the lock-out time was 5 min. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the total intraoperative remifentanil dosage/body weight/surgical duration, predicted effect-site concentration of fentanyl during extubation, and utilization of flurbiprofen. The doses of morphine were significantly higher, and the visual analogue scale scores for pain at rest and during movement tended to be lower in group A than in group B. The results of this study suggest that the effects of intraoperative analgesics may not be significant. Patients who had received the above mentioned anesthetic regimen intraoperatively also required full postoperative analgesia as well.

  12. Prevention of hypothermia by infusion of warm fluid during abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-xia; You, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Hong; Li, Zhiqing

    2010-12-01

    Perioperative hypothermia can lead to a number of complications for patients after surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of warm fluids in maintaining normal core temperature during the intraoperative period. We studied 30 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II adult patients who required general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. In the control group (n = 15), fluids were infused at room temperature; in the test group (n = 15), fluids were infused at 37° C. In the control group, core temperature decreased to 35.5 ± 0.3° C during the first 3 hours, and then stabilized at the end of anesthesia. In the test group, core temperature decreased during the first 60 minutes, but increased to 36.9 ± 0.3° C at the end of anesthesia. In the control group, eight patients shivered at grade ≥2. In the test group, none of the patients reached grade ≥2 (P < .01). Infusion of warm fluid is effective in keeping patients nearly normothermic and preventing postanesthetic shivering. It may provide an easy and effective method for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Copyright © 2010 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer: a review of the fascial composition of the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Mike, Makio; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2015-02-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has generally been performed for digestive diseases. Many patients with colon cancer undergo laparoscopic procedures. The outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy and open colectomy are the same in terms of the long-time survival. It is important to dissect the embryological plane to harvest the lymph nodes and to avoid bleeding during colon cancer surgery. To date, descriptions of the anatomy of the fascial composition have mainly involved observations unrelated to fundamental embryological concepts, causing confusion regarding the explanations of the surgical procedures, with various vocabularies used without definitions. We therefore examined the fascia of the abdominal space using a fascia concept based on clinical anatomy and embryology. Mobilization of the bilateral sides of the colon involves dissection between the fusion fascia of Toldt and the deep subperitoneal fascia. It is important to understand that the right fusion fascia of Toldt is divided into the posterior pancreatic fascia of Treitz dorsally and the anterior pancreatic fascia ventrally at the second portion of the duodenum. A comprehensive understanding of fascia composition between the stomach and transverse colon is necessary for dissecting the splenic flexure of the colon. As a result of these considerations of the fascia, more accurate surgical procedures can be performed for the excision of colon cancer.

  14. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Abdominal Irradiation That Included or Excluded the Pelvis in Childhood Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Sudour, Helene, E-mail: h.sudour@hotmail.f; Chastagner, Pascal; Claude, Line

    Purpose: To evaluate fertility after abdominal and/or pelvic irradiation in long-term female survivors. Methods and Materials: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004. Data were obtained from medical records and questionnaires sent to the women. Results: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population. Of themore » 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility. A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred. There was a high prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight but not of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account. When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving. Nevertheless, pregnancies can occur in some of these women. The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus. This radiation dose has to be systematically recorded to improve our ability to follow up patients.« less

  15. Changing trends in abdominal surgical complications following cardiac surgery in an era of advanced procedures. A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Awais; Johnson, Daniel J; Chapital, Alyssa B; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Arabia, Francisco A

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal complications following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures may have mortality rates as high as 25%. Advanced procedures such as ventricular assist devices, artificial hearts and cardiac transplantation are being increasingly employed, changing the complexity of interventions. This study was undertaken to examine the changing trends in complications and the impact of cardiac surgery on emergency general surgery (EGS) coverage. A retrospective review was conducted of all CPB procedures admitted to our ICU between Jan. 2007 and Mar. 2010. The procedures included coronary bypass (CABG), valve, combination (including adult congenital) and advanced heart failure (AHF) procedures. The records were reviewed to obtain demographics, need for EGS consult/procedure and outcomes. Mean age of the patients was 66 ± 8.5 years, 71% were male. There were 945 CPB procedures performed on 914 patients during this study period. Over 39 months, 23 EGS consults were obtained, resulting in 10 operations and one hospital death (10% operative mortality). CABG and valve procedures had minimal impact on EGS workload while complex cardiac and AHF procedures accounted for significantly more EGS consultations (p < 0.005) and operations (p < 0.005). The majority of consultations were for small bowel obstruction/ileus (n = 4, 17%), cholecystitis (n = 3, 13%) and to rule out ischemia (n = 2, 9%) In the era of modern critical care and cardiac surgery, advanced technology has increased the volume of complex CPB procedures increasing the EGS workload. Emergency general surgeons working in institutions that perform advanced procedures should be aware of the potential for general surgical complications perioperatively and the resultant nuances that are associated with operative management in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraoperative baseline oxygen consumption as a prognostic factor in emergency open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toshiro; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Tanimoto, Hironari; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Kitano, Yuuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A new anesthesia system, the E-CAIOVX (GE Healthcare) enables the continuous monitoring of oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2) during the surgical operation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of intraoperative baseline VO2 and VCO2 in an emergency open abdominal operation. A total of 103 patients who had an emergency open abdominal operation were enrolled in the study. VO2 and VCO2 were continuously measured from the induction of anesthesia to the end of the operation. There were significant correlations between intraoperative baseline VO2 and body surface area (BSA; P < .001, r = 0.68), VO2 and tidal volume (P < .001, r = 0.59), and VO2 and baseline body temperature (P < .0001, r = 0.49). Also, there were significant correlations between intraoperative baseline VCO2 and BSA (P < .001, r = 0.70), VCO2 and tidal volume (P < .001, r = 0.70), and VCO2 and body temperature (P < .001, r = 0.41). Fifteen (14.6%) of the 103 patients died within 4 months after the operation without having been discharged from hospital. Baseline VO2/BSA was higher in surviving patients (123.7 ± 23.6 mL/min ∙ m(2)) than the deceased (103.8 ± 15.6 mL/min ∙ m(2); P = .002). There was no significant difference in baseline VCO2/BSA levels between surviving (106.2 ± 20.1 mL/min ∙ m(2)) and deceased patients (99.4 ± 21.4 mL/min ∙ m(2)). In multivariate analysis, baseline body temperature lower than 36.2°C (P = .02), serum albumin less than 3.0 g/dL (P = .002), and baseline VO2/BSA less than 111.9 mL/min ∙ m(2) (P = .03) were independent factors. Baseline low VO2/BSA less than 111.9 mL/min ∙ m(2) was one of the poor predictors for the prognosis of an emergency open abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Stephen J; Yow, Heng; Saedon, Mahmud; Shakespeare, Joanna; Hill, Christopher E; Watson, Duncan; Marshall, Colette; Mahmood, Asif; Higman, Daniel; Imray, Christopher He

    2013-05-19

    In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction.A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison.Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0.001) and perioperative

  18. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction. A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison. Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Results Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0

  19. Intraoperative Goal-directed Fluid Therapy in Elective Major Abdominal Surgery: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Katie E; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) with conventional fluid therapy, and determine whether there was a difference in outcome between studies that did and did not use Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adult patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery comparing intraoperative GDFT versus conventional fluid therapy. The outcome measures were postoperative morbidity, length of stay, gastrointestinal function and 30-day mortality. A total of 23 studies were included with 2099 patients: 1040 who underwent GDFT and 1059 who received conventional fluid therapy. GDFT was associated with a significant reduction in morbidity (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.89, P = 0.0007), hospital length of stay (LOS; mean difference -1.55 days, 95% CI -2.73 to -0.36, P = 0.01), intensive care LOS (mean difference -0.63 days, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.09, P = 0.02), and time to passage of feces (mean difference -0.90 days, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.32 days, P = 0.002). However, no difference was seen in mortality, return of flatus, or risk of paralytic ileus. If patients were managed in an ERAS pathway, the only significant reductions were in intensive care LOS (mean difference -0.63 days, 95% CI -0.94 to -0.32, P < 0.0001) and time to passage of feces (mean difference -1.09 days, 95% CI -2.03 to -0.15, P = 0.02). If managed in a traditional care setting, a significant reduction was seen in both overall morbidity (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to -0.84, P = 0.0002) and total hospital LOS (mean difference -2.14, 95% CI -4.15 to -0.13, P = 0.04). GDFT may not be of benefit to all elective patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, particularly those managed in an ERAS setting.

  20. False-negative and false-positive errors in abdominal pain evaluation: failure to diagnose acute appendicitis and unnecessary surgery.

    PubMed

    Graff, L; Russell, J; Seashore, J; Tate, J; Elwell, A; Prete, M; Werdmann, M; Maag, R; Krivenko, C; Radford, M

    2000-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that physician errors (failure to diagnose appendicitis at initial evaluation) correlate with adverse outcome. The authors also postulated that physician errors would correlate with delays in surgery, delays in surgery would correlate with adverse outcomes, and physician errors would occur on patients with atypical presentations. This was a retrospective two-arm observational cohort study at 12 acute care hospitals: 1) consecutive patients who had an appendectomy for appendicitis and 2) consecutive emergency department abdominal pain patients. Outcome measures were adverse events (perforation, abscess) and physician diagnostic performance (false-positive decisions, false-negative decisions). The appendectomy arm of the study included 1, 026 patients with 110 (10.5%) false-positive decisions (range by hospital 4.7% to 19.5%). Of the 916 patients with appendicitis, 170 (18.6%) false-negative decisions were made (range by hospital 10.6% to 27.8%). Patients who had false-negative decisions had increased risks of perforation (r = 0.59, p = 0.058) and of abscess formation (r = 0.81, p = 0.002). For admitted patients, when the inhospital delay before surgery was >20 hours, the risk of perforation was increased [2.9 odds ratio (OR) 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.8]. The amount of delay from initial physician evaluation until surgery varied with physician diagnostic performance: 7.0 hours (95% CI = 6.7 to 7.4) if the initial physician made the diagnosis, 72.4 hours (95% CI = 51.2 to 93.7) if the initial office physician missed the diagnosis, and 63.1 hours (95% CI = 47.9 to 78.4) if the initial emergency physician missed the diagnosis. Patients whose diagnosis was initially missed by the physician had fewer signs and symptoms of appendicitis than patients whose diagnosis was made initially [appendicitis score 2.0 (95% CI = 1.6 to 2.3) vs 6.5 (95% CI = 6.4 to 6.7)]. Older patients (>41 years old) had more false-negative decisions and a higher risk of perforation or

  1. Reporting individual surgeon outcomes does not lead to risk aversion in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Saratzis, A; Thatcher, A; Bath, M F; Sidloff, D A; Bown, M J; Shakespeare, J; Sayers, R D; Imray, C

    2017-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Reporting surgeons' outcomes has recently been introduced in the UK. This has the potential to result in surgeons becoming risk averse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reporting outcomes for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery impacts on the number and risk profile (level of fitness) of patients offered elective treatment. METHODS Publically available National Vascular Registry data were used to compare the number of AAAs treated in those centres across the UK that reported outcomes for the periods 2008-2012, 2009-2013 and 2010-2014. Furthermore, the number and characteristics of patients referred for consideration of elective AAA repair at a single tertiary unit were analysed yearly between 2010 and 2014. Clinic, casualty and theatre event codes were searched to obtain all AAAs treated. The results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were assessed. RESULTS For the 85 centres that reported outcomes in all three five-year periods, the median number of AAAs treated per unit increased between the periods 2008-2012 and 2010-2014 from 192 to 214 per year (p=0.006). In the single centre cohort study, the proportion of patients offered elective AAA repair increased from 74% in 2009-2010 to 81% in 2013-2014, with a maximum of 84% in 2012-2013. The age, aneurysm size and CPET results (anaerobic threshold levels) for those eventually offered elective treatment did not differ significantly between 2010 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support the assumption that reporting individual surgeon outcomes is associated with a risk averse strategy regarding patient selection in aneurysm surgery at present.

  2. Increased visceral tissue perfusion with heated, humidified carbon dioxide insufflation during open abdominal surgery in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Robson, Jonathan P; Kokhanenko, Pavlo; Marshall, Jean K; Phillips, Anthony R; van der Linden, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Tissue perfusion during surgery is important in reducing surgical site infections and promoting healing. This study aimed to determine if insufflation of the open abdomen with heated, humidified (HH) carbon dioxide (CO2) increased visceral tissue perfusion and core body temperature during open abdominal surgery in a rodent model. Using two different rodent models of open abdominal surgery, visceral perfusion and core temperature were measured. Visceral perfusion was investigated using a repeated measures crossover experiment with rodents receiving the same sequence of two alternating treatments: exposure to ambient air (no insufflation) and insufflation with HH CO2. Core body temperature was measured using an independent experimental design with three treatment groups: ambient air, HH CO2 and cold, dry (CD) CO2. Visceral perfusion was measured by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) and core body temperature was measured with a rectal thermometer. Insufflation with HH CO2 into a rodent open abdominal cavity significantly increased visceral tissue perfusion (2.4 perfusion units (PU)/min (95% CI 1.23-3.58); p<0.0001) compared with ambient air, which significantly reduced visceral blood flow (-5.20 PU/min (95% CI -6.83- -3.58); p<0.0001). Insufflation of HH CO2 into the open abdominal cavity significantly increased core body temperature (+1.15 ± 0.14°C) compared with open cavities exposed to ambient air (-0.65 ± 0.52°C; p = 0.037), or cavities insufflated with CD CO2 (-0.73 ± 0.33°C; p = 0.006). Abdominal visceral temperatures also increased with HH CO2 insufflation compared with ambient air or CD CO2, as shown by infrared thermography. This study reports for the first time the use of LASCA to measure visceral perfusion in open abdominal surgery and shows that insufflation of open abdominal cavities with HH CO2 significantly increases visceral tissue perfusion and core body temperature.

  3. Selecting criteria for the right prosthesis in defect of the abdominal wall surgery.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, H; Ion, D; Serban, M B; Ciurea, M

    2009-01-01

    The article is debating a theme of great interest for the defect of the abdominal wall surgery--the use of biocompatible prosthesis. The surgeon is often confused by the avalanche of offers made by the mesh producers, making it mandatory for him to know very well the behavior of these alloplastic structures in the tissue environment. From this point of view, we have discussed both the physicochemical properties and the histological reaction brought by the most common type of meshes: polypropylene, polyethylene - tereftalat, polytetrafluorideethylene. This presentation brings out the minimal but mandatory criteria for any mesh to be accepted, but also the criteria that need to be taken into consideration when we try to improve the qualities of the mesh closer to the desideratum of the "ideal mesh". The main conclusion of this review is that we have to change the myth of the "ideal mesh" with "the right chosen mesh", that based on its chemical, physical, structural and biological qualities will adapt perfectly first to the patient's needs and second to the surgeon's needs.

  4. Port site endometrioma: a rare cause of abdominal wall pain following laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zohaib A; Husain, Fahd; Siddiqui, Zain; Siddiqui, Midhat

    2017-06-18

    Endometriomas are a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. We report a case of a port site endometrioma presenting with an umbilical swelling. The patient underwent a laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis 6 months previously and presented with a swelling around her umbilical port site scar associated with cyclical pain during menses. Ultrasound scan reported a well-defined lesion in the umbilicus and MRI scanning excluded other pathology. As she was symptomatic, she underwent an exploration of the scar and excision of the endometrioma with resolution of her symptoms. Precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of endometrial seeding during laparoscopic surgery. All tissues should be removed in an appropriate retrieval bag and the pneumoperitoneum should be deflated completely before removing ports to reduce the chimney effect of tissue being forced through the port site. The diagnosis should be considered in all women of reproductive age presenting with a painful port site scar. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Positive correlation of employment and psychological well-being for veterans with major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Horner, David J; Wendel, Christopher S; Skeps, Raymond; Rawl, Susan M; Grant, Marcia; Schmidt, C Max; Ko, Clifford Y; Krouse, Robert S

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal stomas (ostomies) have been associated negatively with multiple aspects of health-related quality of life. This article examines the relationship between employment status and psychological well-being (PWB) in veterans who underwent major bowel procedures with or without ostomy. Veterans from 3 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers were surveyed using the City of Hope ostomy-specific questionnaire and the Short Form 36 item Veteran's version (SF-36V). Response rate was 48% (511 of 1,063). Employment and PWB relationship was assessed using multiple regression with age, income, SF-36V physical component summary (PCS), and employment status as independent variables. Employed veterans reported higher PWB compared with unemployed veterans (P = .003). Full-time workers also reported higher PWB than part-time or unemployed workers (P = .001). Ostomy was not an independent predictor of PWB. Employment among veterans after major abdominal surgery may have intrinsic value for PWB. Patients should be encouraged to return to work, or do volunteer work after recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The relationship between preoperative nutritional state and adverse outcome following abdominal and thoracic surgery in children: Results from the NSQIP database.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Abdullah; Afshar, Kourosh; Bedford, Julie; Hintz, Graeme; Skarsgard, Erik D

    2018-05-01

    Anthropometric measurements can be used to define pediatric malnutrition. Our study aims to: (1) characterize the preoperative nutritional status of children undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery, and (2) describe the associations between WHO-defined acute (stunting) and chronic (wasting) undernutrition (Z-scores <-2) and obesity (BMI Z-scores >+2) with 30-day postoperative outcomes. We queried the Pediatric NSQIP Participant Use File and extracted data on patients' age 29days to 18years who underwent abdominal or thoracic procedures. Normalized anthropometric measures were calculated, including weight-for-height for <2years, BMI for ages ≥2years, and height for age. Logistic regression models were developed to assess nutritional outlier status as an independent predictor of postoperative outcome. 23,714 children (88% ≥2y) were evaluated. 4272 (18%) were obese, while 2640 (11.1%) and 904 (3.8%) were stunted and wasted, respectively, after controlling for gender, ASA/procedure/wound classification, preoperative steroid use, need for preoperative nutritional support, and obese children had higher odds of SSIs (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, p=0.001), while stunted children were at increased risk of any 30-day postoperative complication (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, p=0.036). Children who are stunted or obese are at increased risk of adverse outcome after abdominal or thoracic surgery. III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety and efficacy of combined epidural/general anesthesia during major abdominal surgery in patients with increased intracranial pressure: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zabolotskikh, Igor; Trembach, Nikita

    2015-05-15

    The increased intracranial pressure can significantly complicate the perioperative period in major abdominal surgery, increasing the risk of complications, the length of recovery from the surgery, worsening the outcome. Epidural anesthesia has become a routine component of abdominal surgery, but its use in patients with increased intracranial pressure remains controversial. The goal of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of epidural anesthesia, according to monitoring of intracranial pressure in patients with increased intracranial pressure. The study includes 65 surgical patients who were routinely undergone the major abdominal surgery under combined epidural/general anesthesia. Depending on the initial ICP all patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 (N group) - patients with the normal intracranial pressure (≤12 mm Hg, n = 35) and 2 (E group) - patients with the elevated intracranial pressure (ICP > 12 mm Hg, n = 30). During the surgery we evaluated ICP, blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The parameters of recovery from anesthesia and the effectiveness of postoperative analgesia were also assessed. In N group ICP remained stable. In E group ICP decreased during anesthesia, the overall decline was 40% at the end of the operation (from 15 to 9 mm Hg (P <0.05)). The correction of MAP with vasopressors to maintain normal CPP was required mainly in patients with increased ICP (70% vs. 45%, p <0.05). CPP declined by 19% in N group. In E group the CPP reduction was 23%, and then it remained stable at 60 mm Hg. No significant differences in time of the recovery of consciousness, effectiveness of postoperative analgesia and complications between patients with initially normal levels of ICP and patients with ICH were noted. The combination of general and epidural anesthesia is safe and effective in patients with increased intracranial pressure undergoing elective abdominal surgery under the condition of maintaining the arterial

  8. Abdominal lipectomy and mesh repair of midline periumbilical hernia after bariatric surgery: how to spare the umbilicus.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Antonio; Bafghi, Abdi; Negri, Chiara; Gugenheim, J

    2007-09-01

    Abdominal lipectomy is becoming an increasingly common surgical procedure in patients with esthetic deformities resulting from massive weight loss induced by bariatric surgery. Sometimes a midline incisional hernia coexists with the pendulus abdomen. Herein presented is a technique to perform a retromuscular mesh repair of the incisional hernia while sparing the umbilicus. The abdominal lipectomy with concomitant retro-muscular mesh repair of a midline incisional hernia is done sparing the vascular supply of the umbilicus on one side only. 5 consecutive women with pendulus abdomen resulting from bariatric surgery-induced massive weight loss and concomitant midline incisional hernia underwent abdominal lipectomy and incisional hernia mesh repair. Mean BMI was 28.6 kg/m2 (range 26-35), one patient was a smoker, and another had type 2 diabetes requiring oral hypoglycemic agents. Two patients had had a previous incisional hernia repair with intraperitoneal mesh. One patient had partial necrosis of the umbilicus and another experienced necrosis of only the epidermis that recovered fully. The umbilicus can be safely spared during abdominal lipectomy with concomitant midline incisional hernia mesh repair. Recurrent incisional hernia and common risk factors for wound healing such as diabetes and obesity increase the risk of umbilical necrosis.

  9. [Cefamandole as prophylactic A.B. in abdominal surgery. Comparative study of cefamandole versus clindamycin/tobramycin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iarchy, J

    1980-01-01

    A prospective, randomized and controlled study of prophylactic A.B. was made in 100 patients prior to abdominal surgery. Fifty patients received 3 x 2 g of cefamandole I.V. within 24 hrs, the first dose being given at the time of anesthetic induction. Postoperative infections occurred in 2% of this group. Fifty patients received the association Clindamycin-Tobramycin (clindamycin 600 mg - tobramycin 80 mg/8 hrs) for 24 hrs, the first dose also at the induction of anesthesia. The complication rate in this group was 18%. The difference between those 2 groups is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Cefamandole used as a prophylactic antibiotic in abdominal surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative wound infections when compared to the association clindamycin-tobramycin.

  10. Effect of perioperative oxygen supplementation on 30-day surgical site infection rate in abdominal, gynecologic, and breast surgery: the ISO2 randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Pascal; Borgey, France; Boutreux, Sébastien; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Le Coutour, Xavier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Benefits and limitations of supplementation with 80% fraction of inspired oxygen for preventing surgical site infections have not yet been clearly defined. Some studies have reported benefits in colorectal surgery, whereas trials in abdominal and gynecologic surgery have reported either no effect or a deleterious effect. Controlled, randomized, assessor-blind multicenter trial, the ISO2 study, comparing the effects of hyperoxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen, 80%) with those of 30% oxygen on the frequency of surgical site infections in routine abdominal, gynecologic, and breast surgery on 434 patients. Patients not seen in consultation after discharge were contacted. In total, 208 patients received 30% perioperative oxygen and 226 received 80%. There was no difference between the two groups for baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative characteristics, except for oxygen saturation at closure, higher in the 80% group (P=0.01). The frequency of 30-day surgical site infections was 7.2% (15/208) in the 30% group and 6.6% (15/226) in the 80% group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI [0.46-1.84], P=0.81). Frequency of adverse events (nausea and vomiting, sternal pain, cough, hypotension) was similar in the two groups. Desaturation and bradycardia were more frequent in the 30% group. In an updated meta-analysis including the result of this trial and those of eight published randomized trials, the overall relative risk was 0.97; 95% CI (0.68-1.40), I2 (inconsistency degree)=73%, (P=0.88). The routine use of hyperoxygenation throughout abdominal, gynecologic, and breast surgery had no effect on the frequency of 30-day surgical site infections and was not accompanied by more frequent adverse effects.

  11. Combining abdominal and cosmetic breast surgery does not increase short-term complication rates: a comparison of each individual procedure and pretreatment risk stratification tool.

    PubMed

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas W; Vieira, Brittany L; Hume, Keith M; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Simmons, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert X; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-11-01

    Combined abdominal and breast surgery presents a convenient and relatively cost-effective approach for accomplishing both procedures. This study is the largest to date assessing the safety of combined procedures, and it aims to develop a simple pretreatment risk stratification method for patients who desire a combined procedure. All women undergoing abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and/or mastopexy in the TOPS database were identified. Demographics and outcomes for combined procedures were compared to individual procedures using χ(2) and Student's t-tests. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the effect of a combined procedure on 30-day complications. Among combined procedures, a logistic regression model determined point values for pretreatment risk factors including diabetes (1 point), age over 53 (1), obesity (2), and 3+ ASA status (3), creating a 7-point pretreatment risk stratification tool. A total of 58,756 cases met inclusion criteria. Complication rates among combined procedures (9.40%) were greater than those of aesthetic breast surgery (2.66%; P < .001) but did not significantly differ from abdominal procedures (9.75%; P = .530). Nearly 77% of combined cases were classified as low-risk (0 points total) with a 9.78% complication rates. Medium-risk patients (1 to 3 points) had a 16.63% complication rate, and high-risk (4 to 7 points) 38.46%. Combining abdominal and breast procedures is safe in the majority of patients and does not increase 30-day complications rates. The risk stratification tool can continue to ensure favorable outcomes for patients who may desire a combined surgery. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 as a Predictor of Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Kong, Xin-Juan; Jing, Xue; Deng, Run-Jun; Tian, Zi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background The nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002) has been applied increasingly in patients who underwent abdominal surgery for nutritional risk assessment. However, the usefulness of the NRS 2002 for predicting is controversial. This meta-analysis was to examine whether a preoperative evaluation of nutritional risk by NRS 2002 provided prediction of postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods A systematic literature search for published papers was conducted using the following online databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, EBSCO, CRD databases, Cinahl, PsycInfo and BIOSIS previews. The pooled odds ratio (OR) or weight mean difference (WMD) was calculated using a random-effect model or a fix-effect model. Results Eleven studies with a total of 3527 patients included in this study. Postoperative overall complications were more frequent in nutritional risk patients versus patients without nutritional risk (the pooled OR 3.13 [2.51, 3.90] p<0.00001). The pooled OR of mortality for the nutritional risk group and non-nutritional risk group was 3.61 [1.38, 9.47] (p = 0.009). Furthermore, the postoperative hospital stay was significant longer in the preoperative nutritional risk group than in the nutritional normal group (WMD 5.58 [4.21, 6.95] p<0.00001). Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that patients at preoperative nutritional risk have increased complication rates, high mortality and prolonged hospital stay after surgery. However, NRS 2002 needs to be validated in larger samples of patients undergoing abdominal surgery by better reference method. PMID:26172830

  13. Mortality of emergency abdominal surgery in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Surgical mortality data are collected routinely in high-income countries, yet virtually no low- or middle-income countries have outcome surveillance in place. The aim was prospectively to collect worldwide mortality data following emergency abdominal surgery, comparing findings across countries with a low, middle or high Human Development Index (HDI). This was a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Self-selected hospitals performing emergency surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive patients from at least one 2-week interval during July to December 2014. Postoperative mortality was analysed by hierarchical multivariable logistic regression. Data were obtained for 10 745 patients from 357 centres in 58 countries; 6538 were from high-, 2889 from middle- and 1318 from low-HDI settings. The overall mortality rate was 1·6 per cent at 24 h (high 1·1 per cent, middle 1·9 per cent, low 3·4 per cent; P < 0·001), increasing to 5·4 per cent by 30 days (high 4·5 per cent, middle 6·0 per cent, low 8·6 per cent; P < 0·001). Of the 578 patients who died, 404 (69·9 per cent) did so between 24 h and 30 days following surgery (high 74·2 per cent, middle 68·8 per cent, low 60·5 per cent). After adjustment, 30-day mortality remained higher in middle-income (odds ratio (OR) 2·78, 95 per cent c.i. 1·84 to 4·20) and low-income (OR 2·97, 1·84 to 4·81) countries. Surgical safety checklist use was less frequent in low- and middle-income countries, but when used was associated with reduced mortality at 30 days. Mortality is three times higher in low- compared with high-HDI countries even when adjusted for prognostic factors. Patient safety factors may have an important role. NCT02179112 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparison of Flow and Volume Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Tolerance in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amaravadi Sampath; Alaparthi, Gopala Krishna; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Pazhyaottayil, Zulfeequer Chundaanveetil; Ramakrishna, Anand; Krishnakumar, Shyam Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Surgical procedures in abdominal area lead to changes in pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics and impaired physical capacity leading to postoperative pulmonary complications, which can affect up to 80% of upper abdominal surgery. To evaluate the effects of flow and volume incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and exercise tolerance in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a hospital of Mangalore city in Southern India. Thirty-seven males and thirteen females who were undergoing abdominal surgeries were included and allocated into flow and volume incentive spirometry groups by block randomization. All subjects underwent evaluations of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Preoperative and postoperative measurements were taken up to day 5 for both groups. Exercise tolerance measured by Six- Minute Walk Test during preoperative period and measured again at the time of discharge for both groups. Pulmonary function was analysed by post-hoc analysis and carried out using Bonferroni's 't'-test. Exercise tolerance was analysed by Paired 'T'-test. Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) was found to be significantly decreased in 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) postoperative day when compared with preoperative day. On 4(th) and 5(th) postoperative day the pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) was found to be better preserved in both flow and volume incentive spirometry groups. The Six-Minute Walk Test showed a statistically significant improvement in pulmonary function on the day of discharge than in the preoperative period. In terms of distance covered, the volume- incentive spirometry group showed a greater statistically significant improvement from the preoperative period to the time of discharge than was exhibited by the flow incentive spirometry group. Flow and volume incentive spirometry can be safely

  15. Comparison of Flow and Volume Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Tolerance in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amaravadi Sampath; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Pazhyaottayil, Zulfeequer Chundaanveetil; Ramakrishna, Anand; Krishnakumar, Shyam Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical procedures in abdominal area lead to changes in pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics and impaired physical capacity leading to postoperative pulmonary complications, which can affect up to 80% of upper abdominal surgery. Aim To evaluate the effects of flow and volume incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and exercise tolerance in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a hospital of Mangalore city in Southern India. Thirty-seven males and thirteen females who were undergoing abdominal surgeries were included and allocated into flow and volume incentive spirometry groups by block randomization. All subjects underwent evaluations of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Preoperative and postoperative measurements were taken up to day 5 for both groups. Exercise tolerance measured by Six- Minute Walk Test during preoperative period and measured again at the time of discharge for both groups. Pulmonary function was analysed by post-hoc analysis and carried out using Bonferroni’s ‘t’-test. Exercise tolerance was analysed by Paired ‘T’-test. Results Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) was found to be significantly decreased in 1st, 2nd and 3rd postoperative day when compared with preoperative day. On 4th and 5th postoperative day the pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) was found to be better preserved in both flow and volume incentive spirometry groups. The Six-Minute Walk Test showed a statistically significant improvement in pulmonary function on the day of discharge than in the preoperative period. In terms of distance covered, the volume- incentive spirometry group showed a greater statistically significant improvement from the preoperative period to the time of discharge than was exhibited by the flow incentive spirometry group

  16. Effects of preoperative and postoperative resistance exercise interventions on recovery of physical function in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Ferhana; Corbett, Kevin; Bates, Amanda; George, Michelle; Hobbs, Ralph Peter; Hopkins, Malcolm; Hutchins, Irena; Lowery, David Peter; Pellatt-Higgins, Tracy; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Swaine, Ian; Tomlinson, Lee; Woodward, Hazel; Ali, Haythem

    2018-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the effects of preoperative and postoperative resistance exercise training on the recovery of physical function in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer. Data sources A systematic review of English articles using Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library electronic databases was undertaken. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were included if they used a randomised, quasi-randomised or controlled trial study design and compared the effects of a muscle-strengthening exercise intervention (±other therapy) with a comparative non-exercise group; involved adult participants (≥18 years) who had elected to undergo abdominal surgery for cancer; and used muscle strength, physical function, self-reported functional ability, range of motion and/or a performance-based test as an outcome measure. Results Following screening of titles and abstracts of the 588 publications retrieved from the initial search, 24 studies met the inclusion criteria and were accessed for review of the full-text version of the article, and 2 eligible studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. One exercise programme was undertaken preoperatively and the other postoperatively, until discharge from hospital. The exercise interventions of the included studies were performed for five and eight sessions, respectively. There were no differences between groups in either study. Conclusion The only two studies designed to determine whether preoperative or postoperative resistance muscle-strengthening exercise programmes improved or negatively affected physical function outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer provide inconclusive results. PMID:29719727

  17. [Usefulness of peristalsis, flatulence and evacuation for predicting oral route tolerance in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Betsabé; Figueroa-Gallaga, Luis; Sánchez-Castrillo, Christian; Belmonte-Montes, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    to evaluate the usefulness of bowel sounds, flatus and bowel movement presence to predict tolerance of oral intake in patients following major abdominal surgery. nutrition is one of the most important factors in the management of postoperative care. The early oral intake has shown to contribute to a faster recovery. Traditionally the beginning of postoperative feeding after major abdominal surgery is delayed until bowel sounds, flatus and/or bowel movement are present although there is no enough medical evidence for their usefulness. We studied 88 patients following major abdominal surgery. We registered the presence of bowel sounds, flatus and bowel movement each 24 hours in the postoperative period. We analized the relationship between the presence of these signs and the ability to tolerate oral intake. Predictive values, sensitivity, specificity and ROC curves were calculated. results shown that bowel sounds have an acCeptable sensibility but a very low specificity to predict the ability to tolerate oral intake. Unlike bowel sounds, bowel movements shown a low sensibility and a high specificity. Flatus turned out to have and intermediate sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of tolerance of oral feeding. in this study any of these signs were shown as a reliable indicator for beginning oral feeding because they have a moderate to low usefulness.

  18. Effectiveness of heat moisture exchangers (hmes) in preventing perioperative hypothermia among adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general endotracheal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anaegbu, Nc; Olatosi, Oj; Tobi, Ku

    2013-01-01

    Heat Moisture Exchangers (HMEs) conserve heat and moisture during expiration and make this available to inspired gases during subsequent inspiration. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of HMEs in the prevention of perioperative hypothermia in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia relaxant technique with endotrachael intubation (GART.) Lagos University Teaching Hospital, in Modular theatre, Anaesthesia unit. The study was a randomized, controlled, longitudinal, interventional study Methods: 100 ASA I, II and III patients aged 18 to 65 years scheduled for abdominal surgery under GART were randomly assigned to 2 groups, groups H and C. Group H had HMEs, while group C served as controls. Core temperature measured using tympanic probe was every 10 minutes till end of anaesthesia Data from total 99 patients, 49 in group H and 50 in group C were eventually analysed. Although patients in both groups developed hypothermia in the course of anaesthesia, core temperature was significantly lower p< 0.05 after one hour in the control group than the intervention group. The use of HMEs during general anaesthesia with endotrachael intubation did not prevent hypothermia but resulted in higher core temperature and should be part of a multimodal approach in the prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Heat Moisture Exchangers, General endotracheal anaesthesia, Hypothermia, abdominal surgery.

  19. Individualised perioperative open-lung approach versus standard protective ventilation in abdominal surgery (iPROVE): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Carlos; Soro, Marina; Unzueta, Carmen; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Canet, Jaume; Librero, Julián; Pozo, Natividad; Peiró, Salvador; Llombart, Alicia; León, Irene; India, Inmaculada; Aldecoa, Cesar; Díaz-Cambronero, Oscar; Pestaña, David; Redondo, Francisco J; Garutti, Ignacio; Balust, Jaume; García, Jose I; Ibáñez, Maite; Granell, Manuel; Rodríguez, Aurelio; Gallego, Lucía; de la Matta, Manuel; Gonzalez, Rafael; Brunelli, Andrea; García, Javier; Rovira, Lucas; Barrios, Francisco; Torres, Vicente; Hernández, Samuel; Gracia, Estefanía; Giné, Marta; García, María; García, Nuria; Miguel, Lisset; Sánchez, Sergio; Piñeiro, Patricia; Pujol, Roger; García-Del-Valle, Santiago; Valdivia, José; Hernández, María J; Padrón, Oto; Colás, Ana; Puig, Jaume; Azparren, Gonzalo; Tusman, Gerardo; Villar, Jesús; Belda, Javier

    2018-03-01

    The effects of individualised perioperative lung-protective ventilation (based on the open-lung approach [OLA]) on postoperative complications is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of intraoperative and postoperative ventilatory management in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, compared with standard protective ventilation. We did this prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 21 teaching hospitals in Spain. We enrolled patients who were aged 18 years or older, were scheduled to have abdominal surgery with an expected time of longer than 2 h, had intermediate-to-high-risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications, and who had a body-mass index less than 35 kg/m 2 . Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) online to receive one of four lung-protective ventilation strategies using low tidal volume plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): open-lung approach (OLA)-iCPAP (individualised intraoperative ventilation [individualised PEEP after a lung recruitment manoeuvre] plus individualised postoperative continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP]), OLA-CPAP (intraoperative individualised ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), STD-CPAP (standard intraoperative ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), or STD-O 2 (standard intraoperative ventilation plus standard postoperative oxygen therapy). Patients were masked to treatment allocation. Investigators were not masked in the operating and postoperative rooms; after 24 h, data were given to a second investigator who was masked to allocations. The primary outcome was a composite of pulmonary and systemic complications during the first 7 postoperative days. We did the primary analysis using the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02158923. Between Jan 2, 2015, and May 18, 2016, we enrolled 1012 eligible patients. Data were available for 967 patients, whom we included in the final analysis. Risk of pulmonary and systemic

  20. "Candy cane syndrome:" an underappreciated cause of abdominal pain and nausea after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Aryaie, Amir H; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Wen, Yuxiang; Alshehri, Mohammed; Abbas, Mujjahid; Khaitan, Leena

    2017-09-01

    "Candy cane" syndrome (a blind afferent Roux limb at the gastrojejunostomy) has been implicated as a cause of abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis after Roux-n-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) but remains poorly described. To report that "candy cane" syndrome is real and can be treated effectively with revisional bariatric surgery SETTING: All patients underwent "candy cane" resection at University Hospitals of Cleveland. All patients who underwent resection of the "candy cane" between January 2011 and July 2015 were included. All had preoperative workup to identify "candy cane" syndrome. Demographic data; pre-, peri-, and postoperative symptoms; data regarding hospitalization; and postoperative weight loss were assessed through retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed using Student's t test and χ 2 analysis where appropriate. Nineteen patients had resection of the "candy cane" (94% female, mean age 50±11 yr), within 3 to 11 years after initial RYGB. Primary presenting symptoms were epigastric abdominal pain (68%) and nausea/vomiting (32%), particularly with fibrous foods and meats. On upper gastrointestinal study and endoscopy, the afferent blind limb was the most direct outlet from the gastrojejunostomy. Only patients with these preoperative findings were deemed to have "candy cane" syndrome. Eighteen (94%) cases were completed laparoscopically. Length of the "candy cane" ranged from 3 to 22 cm. Median length of stay was 1 day. After resection, 18 (94%) patients had complete resolution of their symptoms (P<.001). Mean body mass index decreased from 33.9±6.1 kg/m 2 preoperatively to 31.7±5.6 kg/m 2 at 6 months (17.4% excess weight loss) and 30.5±6.9 kg/m 2 at 1 year (25.7% excess weight loss). The average length of latest follow-up was 20.7 months. "Candy cane" syndrome is a real phenomenon that can be managed safely with excellent outcomes with resection of the blind afferent limb. A thorough diagnostic workup is paramount to proper identification of this

  1. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of subcostal transversus abdominis plane blocks with epidural analgesia following upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, A; Jeyapalan, I; Graff-Baker, P; Williams, O; Darbar, A; Maheshwaran, A; Powell, R

    2011-06-01

    Subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. We compared their analgesic efficacy with that of epidural analgesia after major upper abdominal surgery in a randomised controlled trial. Adult patients undergoing elective open hepatobiliary or renal surgery were randomly allocated to receive subcostal TAP catheters (n=29) or epidural analgesia (n=33), in addition to a standard postoperative analgesic regimen comprising of regular paracetamol and tramadol as required. The TAP group patients received bilateral subcostal TAP catheters and 1 mg.kg(-1) bupivacaine 0.375% bilaterally every 8 h. The epidural group patients received an infusion of bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 μg.ml(-1) . The primary outcome measure was visual analogue pain scores during coughing at 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. We found no significant differences in median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores during coughing at 8 h between the TAP group (4.0 (2.3-6.0 [0-7.5])) and epidural group (4.0 (2.5-5.3) [0-8.5])) and at 72 h (2.0 (0.8-4.0 [0-5]) and 2.5 (1.0-5.0 [0-6]), respectively). Tramadol consumption was significantly greater in the TAP group (p=0.002). Subcostal TAP catheter boluses may be an effective alternative to epidural infusions for providing postoperative analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. The prevalence of pulmonary complications after thoracic and abdominal surgery and associated risk factors in patients admitted at a government hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe-a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine; Mukombachoto, Rufaro; Nhunzvi, Clement; Kaseke, Farayi; Chikwasha, Vasco; Chengetanai, Samson; Manie, Shamila

    2017-01-01

    The burden of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa has presented unusual and challenging acute surgical problems across all specialties. Thoraco-abdominal surgery cuts through muscle and thereby disrupts the normal anatomy and activity of the respiratory muscles leading to reduced lung volumes and putting the patients at greater risk of developing post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). PPCs remain an important cause of post-operative morbidity, mortality, and impacts on the long-term outcomes of patients post hospital discharge. The objective of the study was to determine the pulmonary complications developing after abdominal and thoracic surgery and the associated risks factors. A retrospective records review of all abdominal and thoracic surgery patients admitted at a central hospital from January 2014 to October 2014 was done. Data collected included demographic data, surgical history, comorbidities and the PPCs present. Out of the 92 patients whose records were reviewed, 55 (59.8%) were males and 84 (91.3%) had abdominal surgery. The mean age of the patients was 42.6 years (SD = 18.4). The common comorbidities were HIV infection noted in 14(15.2%) of the patients and hypertension in 10 (13.0%). Thirty nine (42.4%) developed PPCs and the most common complications were nosocomial pneumonia in 21 (22.8%) patients, ventilator associated pneumonia in 11 (12.0%), and atelectasis in 6 (6.5%) patients. Logistic regression showed that a history of alcohol consumption, prolonged surgery, prolonged stay in hospital or critical care unit, incision type, and comorbidities were significant risk factors for PPCs ( p  < 0.05). The mortality rate was 10.9%. PPCs like nosocomial and ventilator associated pneumonia were common and were associated with increased morbidity and adversely affected clinical outcomes of patients. HIV and hypertension presented significant comorbidities which the health team needed to recognize and address. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of

  3. Gasless laparoscopic surgery plus abdominal wall lifting for giant hiatal hernia-our single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang-Hong; Wu, Ji-Xiang; Yu, Lei; Li, Jian-Ye

    2016-12-01

    Giant hiatal hernia (GHH) comprises 5% of hiatal hernia and is associated with significant complications. The traditional operative procedure, no matter transthoracic or transabdomen repair of giant hiatal hernia, is characteristic of more invasion and more complications. Although laparoscopic repair as a minimally invasive surgery is accepted, a part of patients can not tolerate pneumoperitoneum because of combination with cardiopulmonary diseases or severe posterior mediastinal and neck emphesema during operation. The aim of this article was to analyze our experience in gasless laparoscopic repair with abdominal wall lifting to treat the giant hiatal hernia. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing gasless laparoscopic repair of GHH with abdominal wall lifting from 2012 to 2015 at our institution. The GHH was defined as greater than one-third of the stomach in the chest. Gasless laparoscopic repair of GHH with abdominal wall lifting was attempted in 27 patients. Mean age was 67 years. The results showed that there were no conversions to open surgery and no intraoperative deaths. The mean duration of operation was 100 min (range: 90-130 min). One-side pleura was injured in 4 cases (14.8%). The mean postoperative length of stay was 4 days (range: 3-7 days). Median follow- up was 26 months (range: 6-38 months). Transient dysphagia for solid food occurred in three patients (11.1%), and this symptom disappeared within three months. There was one patient with recurrent hiatal hernia who was reoperated on. Two patients still complained of heartburn three months after surgery. Neither reoperation nor endoscopic treatment due to signs of postoperative esophageal stenosis was required in any patient. Totally, satisfactory outcome was reported in 88.9% patients. It was concluded that the gasless laparoscopic approach with abdominal wall lifting to the repair of GHH is feasible, safe, and effective for the patients who cannot tolerate the pneumoperitoneum.

  4. Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle strength following major abdominal surgery - a randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S R; Fletcher, E; McConnell, A K; Poskitt, K R; Whyman, M R

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of pre-operative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory variables in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] mouth pressure) and pulmonary functions were measured at least 2 weeks before surgery in 80 patients awaiting major abdominal surgery. Patients were then allocated randomly to one of four groups (Group A, control; Group B, deep breathing exercises; Group C, incentive spirometry; Group D, specific IMT). Patients in groups B, C and D were asked to train twice daily, each session lasting 15 min, for at least 2 weeks up to the day before surgery. Outcome measurements were made immediately pre-operatively and postoperatively. In groups A, B and C, MIP did not increase from baseline to pre-operative assessments. In group D, MIP increased from 51.5 cmH(2)O (median) pre-training to 68.5 cmH(2)O (median) post-training pre-operatively (P < 0.01). Postoperatively, groups A, B and C showed a fall in MIP from baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and P = 0.06, respectively). No such significant reduction in postoperative MIP was seen in group D (P = 0.36). Pre-operative specific IMT improves MIP pre-operatively and preserves it postoperatively. Further studies are required to establish if this is associated with reduced pulmonary complications.

  5. Abdominal girth and vertebral column length can adjust spinal anesthesia for lower limb surgery, a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-he; Zhu, Bo; Wei, Chang-na; Yan, Min

    2016-03-24

    Studies have shown that abdominal girth and vertebral column length have high predictive value for spinal spread after administering a dose of plain bupivacaine. we designed a study to identify the specific correlations between abdominal girth, vertebral column length and a 0.5% dosage of plain bupivacaine, which should provide a minimum upper block level (T12) and a suitable upper block level (T10) for lower limb surgeries. A suitable dose of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was administered intrathecally between the L3 and L4 vertebrae for lower limb surgeries. If the upper cephalad spread of the patient by loss of pinprick discrimination was T12 or T10, the patient was enrolled in this study. Five patient variables and intrathecal plain bupivacaine dose were recorded. Linear regression and multiple regression analyses were performed. Totals of 111 patients and 121 patients who lost pinprick discrimination at T12 and T10, respectively, were analyzed in this study. Linear regression analysis showed that only abdominal girth and plain bupivacaine dose were strongly correlated (r =-0.827 for T12, r = -0.806 for T10; both p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both abdominal girth and vertebral column length were the key determinants of plain bupivacaine dose (both p < 0.0001). R(2) was 0.874 and 0.860 for the loss of pinprick discrimination at T12 and T10, respectively. Our data indicated that vertebral column length and abdominal girth were strongly correlated with the dosage of intrathecal plain bupivacaine for the loss of pinprick discrimination at T12 and T10. The two regression equations were YT12 = 3.547 + 0.045X1-0.044X2 and YT10 = 3.848 + 0.047X1- 0.046X2 (Y, 0.5% plain bupivacaine volume; X1, vertebral column length;and X 2, abdominal girth), which can accurately predict the minimum and suitable intrathecal bupivacaine dose for lower limb surgery to a great extent, separately.

  6. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Caudal Epidural for Lower Abdominal Surgery in Children: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bryskin, Robert B; Londergan, Bevan; Wheatley, Rebekah; Heng, Renee; Lewis, Marjorie; Barraza, Mark; Mercer, Erica; Ye, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) has emerged as a safe and effective regional anesthesia technique for providing postoperative lower abdominal analgesia. Complications associated with TAPB are rare and pose a lower overall risk to the patient receiving a TAPB versus a caudal block, which is considered the gold standard for pediatric lower abdominal regional anesthesia. Our study hypothesis was that TAPB would initially be equivalent to caudal block in providing postoperative pain control but would also show improved pain relief beyond the anticipated caudal duration. This study was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Forty-five children between the ages of 1 and 9 undergoing bilateral ureteral reimplantation surgery through a low transverse incision were enrolled. Narcotic requirement, pain scores (FLACC/Wong-Baker FACES), episodes of emesis, and antispasmodic requirement were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 6-hour intervals for 24 hours from the time of block placement. Our protocol used a multimodal approach toward pain management in all children, including randomized regional technique, scheduled ketorolac, morphine as needed, and the antispasmodic, oxybutynin, as needed. Morphine requirement showed no statistical difference during the initial 12 hours (all P ≥ 0.68 at PACU, 6 and 12 hours). However, at 24 hours those patients randomized to receive the TAPB required less cumulative morphine than the caudal group (0.05 mg/kg ± 0.06 vs 0.09 mg/kg ± 0.07, P = 0.03). There was a trend toward fewer episodes of emesis in the TAPB group which reached statistical significance at 18 and 24 hours (6 vs 1 episodes, P = 0.03; and 9 vs 2 episodes, P = 0.02). Pain scores (0-10) were higher in the TAPB group in the PACU (3.46 ± 2.69 vs 1.71 ± 2.1, P = 0.02), but there were no significant differences at all subsequent time points (all P ≥ 0.10). The TAPB group also had a higher requirement for the bladder antispasmodic oxybutynin

  7. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kahloul, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Salah; Nakhli, Mohamed Said; Sfeyhi, Ahmed Nadhir; Azzaza, Mohamed; Chaouch, Ajmi; Naija, Walid

    2017-12-01

    Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the operating theatre of visceral surgery at Sahloul Teaching Hospital over a period of 4 months. Patients aged more than 18 undergoing a scheduled surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients undergoing urgent surgery or presenting hearing or cognitive disorders were excluded. Before induction, patients wore headphones linked to an MP3 player. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group M (with music during surgery) and group C (without music). Hemodynamic parameters, quality of arousal, pain experienced, patient's satisfaction, and awareness incidence during anesthesia were recorded. One hundred and forty patients were included and allocated into 2 groups that were comparable in demographic characteristics, surgical intervention type and anesthesia duration. Comparison of these two groups regarding the hemodynamic profile found more stability in group M for systolic arterial blood pressure. A calm recovery was more often noted in group M (77.1% versus 44%, p < 10 -3 ). The average Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score was lower in the intervention group (33.8 ± 13.63 versus 45.1 ± 16.2; p < 10 -3 ). The satisfaction rate was significantly higher among the experimental group (81.4% versus 51.4%; p < 10 -3 ). The incidence of intraoperative awareness was higher in group C (8 cases versus 3 cases) but the difference was not statistically significant. Music therapy is a non-pharmacological, inexpensive, and non-invasive technique that can significantly enhance patient satisfaction and decrease patients' embarrassing experiences related to perioperative stress, pain, and awareness.

  8. Nutritional status and its impact on time and relocation in postoperative complications of abdominal patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Leide da Silva Nunes, Francisca; Calado Ferreira Pinheiro Gadelha, Patricia; Damasceno de Souza Costa, Milena; Carolina Ribeiro de Amorim, Ana Carolina; Bezerra da Silva, Maria da Guia

    2014-09-01

    The nutritional state is the independent factor that most influences the post-operational results in elective surgeries. to evaluate the influence of the nutritional state on the hospitalization period and on the post-operative complications of patients submitted to abdominal surgery. prospective study with 99 surgical patients over 18 years of age, submitted to abdominal surgeries in the period from April to October of 2013, in the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP). All patients were submitted to anthropometric nutritional evaluations through the body mass Index (BMI), arm circumference (AC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TEST). The biochemical evaluation was carried out from the leukogram and serum albumin results. The identification of candidate patients to nutritional therapy (NT) was carried out through the nutritional risk (NR) evaluation by using the BMI, loss of weight and hypoalbuminemia. The information about post-operational complications, hospitalization period and clinical diagnosis was collected from the medical records. Program SPSS version 13.0 and significance level of 5% were used for the statistical analysis. The malnutrition diagnosed by the AC showed significant positive association with the presence of post-operative complications (p=0.02) and with hospitalization period (p=0.02). The presence of NR was greater when evaluated by hypoalbuminemia (28.9%), however, only 4% of the sample carried out the NT in the pre-operational period. The hospitalization period was greater for patients with malignant neoplasia (p<0.01). The malnutrition diagnosis of patients submitted to abdominal surgeries is associated to greater risk of post-operational complications and longer hospitalization permanence. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Randomized clinical trial of remote ischaemic preconditioning versus no preconditioning in the prevention of perioperative myocardial infarction during open surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T F; Budtz-Lilly, J; Petersen, C N; Hyldgaard, J; Schmidt, J-O; Kroijer, R; Grønholdt, M-L; Eldrup, N

    2018-06-01

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been suggested as a means of protecting vital organs from reperfusion injury during major vascular surgery. This study was designed to determine whether RIPC could reduce the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) during open surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Secondary aims were to see if RIPC could reduce 30-day mortality, multiple organ failure, acute intestinal ischaemia, acute kidney injury and ischaemic stroke. This randomized, non-blinded clinical trial was undertaken at three vascular surgery centres in Denmark. Patients who had open surgery for ruptured AAA were randomized to intervention with RIPC or control in a 1 : 1 ratio. Postoperative complications and deaths were registered, and ECG and blood samples were obtained daily during the hospital stay. Of 200 patients randomized, 142 (72 RIPC, 70 controls) were included. There was no difference in rates of perioperative MI between the RIPC and control groups (36 versus 43 per cent respectively), or in rates of organ failure. However, in the per-protocol analysis 30-day mortality was significantly reduced in the RIPC group (odds ratio 0·46, 95 per cent c.i. 0·22 to 0·99; P = 0·048). RIPC did not reduce the incidence of perioperative MI in patients undergoing open surgery for ruptured AAA. Registration number: NCT00883363 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).

  10. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Epidural Clonidine vs Bupivacaine for Pain Control During and After Lower Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A.; Guirguis, Maged; DeWood, Mark S.; Zaky, Sherif S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists produce safe and effective analgesia, but most investigations studying the analgesic effect of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists postoperatively included previous or concomitant administration of other analgesics. Because clonidine potentiates the effect of these drugs, its own intrinsic analgesic effect has been difficult to establish. This study was designed to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of epidural clonidine vs bupivacaine for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 40 patients aged 18-50 who were scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group I (n=20) received epidural clonidine; Group II (n=20) received epidural bupivacaine. Intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamics, pain scores, and complications were monitored. Results Mean pain scores were significantly lower in Group I compared to Group II (1.5 ± 0.5 compared to 3.4 ± 1.0, respectively) in the first 12 hours after surgery. Sedation was more prominent in Group I until 9 hours after surgery. Opioid requirements were significantly lower in Group I. Respiratory rate was similar in the 2 groups. Group I had larger decreases from baseline in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure than Group II. Heart rate in Group I was reduced from baseline, while it was increased in Group II. Less postoperative nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, pruritus, and shivering were observed in Group I. Conclusion Compared to bupivacaine, epidural clonidine provided effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in selected patients, resulting in a decreased intravenous pain medication requirement and prolonged duration of analgesia after epidural infusion was discontinued. PMID:26130975

  11. Role of heart-rate variability in preoperative assessment of physiological reserves in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Petr; Máca, Jan; Szturz, Pavel; Jor, Ondřej; Kula, Roman; Ševčík, Pavel; Burda, Michal; Adamus, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Background Major abdominal surgery (MAS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of heart-rate variability (HRV) concerning development of postoperative complications in patients undergoing MAS. The secondary objectives were to identify the relationship of HRV and use of vasoactive drugs during anesthesia, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS), and hospital length of stay (H-LOS). Patients and methods Sixty-five patients scheduled for elective MAS were enrolled in a prospective, single-center, observational study. HRV was measured by spectral analysis (SA) preoperatively during orthostatic load. Patients were divided according to cardiac autonomic reactivity (CAR; n=23) and non-cardiac autonomic reactivity (NCAR; n=30). Results The final analysis included 53 patients. No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding type of surgery, use of minimally invasive techniques or epidural catheter, duration of surgery and anesthesia, or the amount of fluid administered intraoperatively. The NCAR group had significantly greater intraoperative blood loss than the CAR group (541.7±541.9 mL vs 269.6±174.3 mL, p<0.05). In the NCAR group, vasoactive drugs were used during anesthesia more frequently (n=21 vs n=4; p<0.001), and more patients had at least one postoperative complication compared to the CAR group (n=19 vs n=4; p<0.01). Furthermore, the NCAR group had more serious complications (Clavien–Dindo ≥ Grade III n=6 vs n=0; p<0.05) and a greater number of complications than the CAR group (n=57 vs n=5; p<0.001). Significant differences were found for two specific subgroups of complications: hypotension requiring vasoactive drugs (NCAR: n=10 vs CAR: n=0; p<0.01) and ileus (NCAR: n=11 vs CAR: n=2; p<0.05). Moreover, significant differences were found in the ICU-LOS (NCAR: 5.7±3.5 days vs CAR: 2.6±0.7 days; p<0.0001) and H-LOS (NCAR: 12.2±5.6 days vs CAR: 7.2

  12. Physiotherapy in upper abdominal surgery - what is current practice in Australia?

    PubMed

    Patman, Shane; Bartley, Alice; Ferraz, Allex; Bunting, Cath

    2017-01-01

    Upper abdominal surgery (UAS) has the potential to cause post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). In the absence of high-quality research regarding post-operative physiotherapy management, consensus-based best practice guidelines formulated by Hanekom et al. (2012) are available to clinicians providing recommendations for post-UAS treatment. Such best practice guidelines have recommended that physiotherapists should be using early mobilisation and respiratory intervention to minimise risk of PPCs. However, recent evidence supports the implementation of mobilisation as a standalone treatment in PPC prevention, though the diversity in literature poses questions regarding ideal current practice. This project aimed to document and report the assessment measures and interventions physiotherapists are utilising following UAS, establishing whether current management is reflective of best practice guidelines and recent evidence. An online survey was completed by 57 experienced Australian physiotherapists working with patients following UAS (35% survey response rate, 63% completion rate). On day one following UAS, when a patient's condition is not medically limited, most physiotherapists routinely mobilise. Additionally, routine chest treatment continues to be implemented, with only 23% ( n  = 11/47) of physiotherapists mobilising patients without accompanying specific respiratory intervention. Variability of screening tools used to identify post-operative patients at high risk of PPC development was evident. Patient-dependent factors such as 'fatigue' and 'non-compliance' were among those identified as barriers to treatment, all influencing the commencement of treatment. Physiotherapists indicated that early mobilisation away from the bedside was the preferred post-operative treatment within the UAS patient population. Many continue to perform routine respiratory interventions despite recent literature suggesting it may provide no additional benefit to preventing

  13. Patients with chronic pain after abdominal surgery show less preoperative endogenous pain inhibition and more postoperative hyperalgesia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Oliver Hamilton; Schreyer, Tobias; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain is common and undesirable after surgery. Progression from acute to chronic pain involves altered pain processing. The authors studied relationships between presence of chronic pain versus preoperative descending pain control (diffuse noxious inhibitory controls; DNICs) and postoperative persistence and spread of skin and deep tissue hyperalgesia (change in electric/pressure pain tolerance thresholds; ePTT/pPTT) up to 6 months postoperatively. In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery under standardized anesthesia, we determined ePTT/pPTT (close to [abdomen] and distant from [leg] incision), eDNIC/pDNIC (change in ePTT/pPTT with cold pressor pain task; only preoperatively), and a 100 mm long pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 mm = no pain, 100 mm = worst pain imaginable), both at rest and on movement preoperatively, and 1 day and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Patients reporting chronic pain 6 months postoperatively had more abdominal and leg skin hyperalgesia over the postoperative period. More inhibitory preoperative eDNIC was associated with less late postoperative pain, without affecting skin hyperalgesia. More inhibitory pDNIC was linked to less postoperative leg deep tissue hyperalgesia, without affecting pain VAS. This pilot study for the first time links chronic pain after surgery, poorer preoperative inhibitory pain modulation (DNIC), and greater postoperative degree, persistence, and spread of hyperalgesia. If confirmed, these results support the potential clinical utility of perioperative pain processing testing.

  14. Abdominal Emergencies in Patients with Stage IV Melanoma: The Role of Surgery: A Single-centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Garmpi, Anna; Gogas, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Melanoma can potentially involve any organ. In this article, we report on a single-centre experience in emergency surgery for M1c melanoma. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with M1c melanoma underwent surgical exploration due to abdominal emergencies. Pre-operative computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis and the location of the affected site. Pre-operative lactate dehydrogenase serum levels and post-operative histopathology findings were recorded. Intestinal obstruction was the most frequent intraoperative finding (75%). The ileum was most frequently affected (28.6%). Multifocal disease and extra-gastrointestinal tract metastases were present in 25% of cases each. Lactate dehydrogenase serum level was increased in 75% of the patients. Most patients underwent an enterectomy. Curative surgery for stage IV melanoma remains debatable, but surgery for patients presenting with abdominal emergencies appears to improve both survival rate and prognosis. Combined novel therapies and surgical resection is currently being studied with promising results. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Robotic Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR): is it possible to offer minimally invasive surgery for abdominal wall complex defects?

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maria Vitória França DO; Guimarães, José Ricardo; Volpe, Paula; Oliveira, Flávio Malcher Martins DE; Domene, Carlos Eduardo; Roll, Sérgio; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti

    2017-01-01

    We describe the preliminary national experience and the early results of the use of robotic surgery to perform the posterior separation of abdominal wall components by the Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR) technique for the correction of complex defects of the abdominal wall. We performed the procedures between 04/2/2015 and 06/15/2015 and the follow-up time was up to six months, with a minimum of two months. The mean surgical time was five hours and 40 minutes. Two patients required laparoscopic re-intervention, since one developed hernia by peritoneal migration of the mesh and one had mesh extrusion. The procedure proved to be technically feasible, with a still long surgical time. Considering the potential advantages of robotic surgery and those related to TAR and the results obtained when these two techniques are associated, we conclude that they seem to be a good option for the correction of complex abdominal wall defects. RESUMO Descrevemos a experiência preliminar nacional na utilização da cirurgia robótica para realizar a separação posterior de componentes da parede abdominal pela técnica transversus abdominis release (TAR) na correção de defeitos complexos da parede abdominal e seus resultados precoces. As cirurgias foram realizadas entre 02/04/2015 e 15/06/2015 e o tempo de acompanhamento dos resultados foi de até seis meses, com tempo mínimo de dois meses. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de cinco horas e 40 minutos. Dois pacientes necessitaram reintervenção por laparoscopia, pois um desenvolveu hérnia por migração peritoneal da tela e um teve escape da tela. A cirurgia provou ser factível do ponto de vista técnico, com um tempo cirúrgico ainda elevado. Tendo em vista as vantagens potenciais da cirurgia robótica e aquelas relacionadas ao TAR e os resultados obtidos ao se associar essas duas técnicas, conclui-se que elas parecem ser uma boa opção para a correção de defeitos complexos da parede abdominal.

  16. Impact of Preoperative Environmental Enrichment on Prevention of Development of Cognitive Impairment following Abdominal Surgery in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takashi; Eguchi, Satoru; Iwata, Hideki; Tamura, Takahiko; Kumagai, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    Sustained neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Here, the authors evaluated the preventive effect of preoperative environmental enrichment (PEE) on the development of neuroinflammation and concomitant POCD in a rat abdominal surgery model. Young and aged rats were assigned to one of four groups using a 2 × 2 experimental design: PEE versus sedentary condition for 14 days, by abdominal surgery versus anesthesia alone (n = 8 in each group). After a 7-day postsurgical recovery period, cognitive function was assessed using a novel object recognition test, followed by measurement of hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Under identical conditions, microglia were isolated from the hippocampus for assessment of cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide. In the sedentary group, aged, but not young, rats receiving surgery showed memory deficits (novel object preference during testing phase of 54.6 ± 7.8% vs. 76.9 ± 11.3% in nonsurgery group, P < 0.05) and increased hippocampal levels of cytokines compared with nonsurgical rats. PEE had no effects on novel object preference in nonsurgery animals (78.6 ± 10.7%), whereas it attenuated surgery-induced impairment of novel object preference (70.9 ± 15.0%, P < 0.05 vs. sedentary/surgery group) as well as increase of cytokine levels in hippocampus. Furthermore, upon ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, cytokines release from hippocampal microglia isolated from aged rats before intervention was significantly higher in comparison with young rats. PEE resulted in reduction of these age-related microglial phenotypic changes. PEE could prevent the development of neuroinflammation and related POCD in aged rats by reversion of a proinflammatory phenotype of hippocampal microglia.

  17. Optimizing Prophylactic CPAP in Patients Without Obstructive Sleep Apnoea for High-Risk Abdominal Surgeries: A Meta-regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Shah, Dipal; Sinha, Ashish; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Trikha, Anjan; Goudra, Basavana Gouda

    2016-04-01

    Prophylactic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can prevent pulmonary adverse events following upper abdominal surgeries. The present meta-regression evaluates and quantifies the effect of degree/duration of (CPAP) on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary events. Medical databases were searched for randomized controlled trials involving adult patients, comparing the outcome in those receiving prophylactic postoperative CPAP versus no CPAP, undergoing high-risk abdominal surgeries. Our meta-analysis evaluated the relationship between the postoperative pulmonary complications and the use of CPAP. Furthermore, meta-regression was used to quantify the effect of cumulative duration and degree of CPAP on the measured outcomes. Seventy-three potentially relevant studies were identified, of which 11 had appropriate data, allowing us to compare a total of 362 and 363 patients in CPAP and control groups, respectively. Qualitatively, Odds ratio for CPAP showed protective effect for pneumonia [0.39 (0.19-0.78)], atelectasis [0.51 (0.32-0.80)] and pulmonary complications [0.37 (0.24-0.56)] with zero heterogeneity. For prevention of pulmonary complications, odds ratio was better for continuous than intermittent CPAP. Meta-regression demonstrated a positive correlation between the degree of CPAP and the incidence of pneumonia with a regression coefficient of +0.61 (95 % CI 0.02-1.21, P = 0.048, τ (2) = 0.078, r (2) = 7.87 %). Overall, adverse effects were similar with or without the use of CPAP. Prophylactic postoperative use of continuous CPAP significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative pneumonia, atelectasis and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgeries. Quantitatively, increasing the CPAP levels does not necessarily enhance the protective effect against pneumonia. Instead, protective effect diminishes with increasing degree of CPAP.

  18. [Efficiency of bupivacaine and association with dexmedetomidine in transversus abdominis plane block ultrasound guided in postoperative pain of abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Aksu, Recep; Patmano, Gülçin; Biçer, Cihangir; Emek, Ertan; Çoruh, Aliye Esmaoğlu

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine used in tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients submitted to lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. After anesthesia induction, ultrasound guided TAP block was performed. TAP block was obtained with 21mL 0.9% saline in Group C (n=31), 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL saline in Group B (n=31), and 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL dexmedetomidine (100μg) in Group BD (n=31). Visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD compared to Group C, at all time points (p<0.05); it was lower in group BD than in group B at 10-24h. In Group B, it was lower than Group C at 2-8h (p<0.05). Total morphine consumption was lower in Group BD compared to other groups and lower in group B than in the controls (p<0.001). Patient satisfaction was higher in Group BD than in other groups and was higher in both study groups than in the controls (p<0.001). Nausea-vomiting scores, antiemetic requirement, or additional analgesic administration were not significant among groups (p>0.05). The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine on TAP block decreased postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption; it also increased patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dexmedetomidine did not have any effect on nausea and vomiting score and antiemetic requirement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Cesarean section by the Misgav Ladach+ with the abdominal opening surgery by the Joel Cohen method].

    PubMed

    Zienkowicz, Z; Suchocki, S; Sleboda, H; Bojarski, M

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 90 Misgav-Ladach cesarean section by the Joel-Cohen method with 45 others with Pfannenstiel incision. The Misgav-Ladach technique involves the Joel-Cohen method, that is a superficial transverse cut in the cutis, a small midline incision in the fascia, then blunt preparation of deeper layers, including the peritoneum, followed by manual transverse traction applied to tear the recti muscles and subcutis. The uterus is also opened using the blunt preparation after a small cut in the midline. After the delivery of the fetus and placenta the uterus is lifted through the incision onto the draped abdominal wall. Then the uterus is closed with one layer of continuous vicryl suture. The abdomen is closed by a continuous suture of fascia, and widely spaced silk stitches of the skin. We sometimes use continuous suture of the skin. We do not close visceral and parietal peritoneum, recti muscles and subcutis. In our experience Misgav-Ladach method is 50% less time consuming, it reduces blood loss by about 250 ml. and allows for a much faster delivery of the fetus than Pfannenstiel method. The post operative outcome of the two methods is similar. Using the blunt preparation in the Joel-Cohen method causes less trauma and shortens convalescence time. We therefore recommend Misgav-Ladach method for cesarean section.

  20. Brief reports: plasma ropivacaine concentrations after ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Wada, Morito; Kitayama, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Takada, Norikazu; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    A rectus sheath block can provide postoperative analgesia for midline incisions. However, information regarding the pharmacokinetics of local anesthetics used in this block is lacking. In this study, we detail the time course of ropivacaine concentrations after this block. Thirty-nine patients undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery were assigned to 3 groups receiving rectus sheath block with 20 mL of different concentrations of ropivacaine. Peak plasma concentrations were dose dependent, and there were no significant differences in the times to peak plasma concentrations. The present data also suggested a slower absorption kinetics profile for ropivacaine after rectus sheath block than other compartment blocks.

  1. Multiparametric evaluation of risk factors associated to seroma formation in abdominal wall surgery.

    PubMed

    Licari, L; Salamone, G; Parinisi, Z; Campanella, S; Sabatino, C; Ciolino, G; De Marco, P; Falco, N; Boventre, S; Gulotta, G

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the main topics in the general surgery since there is not a unanimous consensus concerning to the best surgical methodology to adopt. It seems that prosthetic surgery is the best technique, even if responsible for the development of periprosthetic seroma. The aim of this study is to assess whether the preoperative abnormalities of the bio-humoral parameters may be considered as risk factors for seroma. From July 2016 to July 2017 at the "Policlinico Paolo Giaccone", Palermo, Department of Emergency Surgery, 56 patients included in this study, underwent laparotomic mesh repair. The inclusion criteria were: age > 18 years, incisional hernia W2R0 according to the Chevrel classification and a monoperator technique. The main variables were: sex, age, BMI, smoke, ASA score, and co-morbidities. Among the main serum-blood variables: natraemia, kalaemia, chloraemia, calcaemia, PCR, level of glucose, creatinine, albumin and proteins in the blood. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Univariate analysis highlighted hypo- and hyper-natraemia, hyper-kalaemia, hypo-chloraemia, high levels of PCR, hyper-glycemia, low level of serum-blood albumin and proteins, as statistically significant variables. Multivariate analysis revealed a p<0.05 for PCR, hypo-albuminemia and total serum-blood-protein level. Alterations of pre-operative bio-humoral parameters could be associated to a greater risk of seroma development. A better understanding of such alterations may lead to more efficient risk stratification methods. This could be essential to better address the medical resources, reducing the post-operative complications and the outpatient controls as well as the risk associated to seroma.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing epidural, patient-controlled intravenous morphine, and continuous wound infiltration for postoperative pain management after open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tilleul, P; Aissou, M; Bocquet, F; Thiriat, N; le Grelle, O; Burke, M J; Hutton, J; Beaussier, M

    2012-06-01

    Continuous wound infiltration (CWI), i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (i.v.-PCA), and epidural analgesia (EDA) are analgesic techniques commonly used for pain relief after open abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these techniques. A decision analytic model was developed, including values retrieved from clinical trials and from an observational prospective cohort of 85 patients. Efficacy criteria were based on pain at rest (VAS ≤ 30/100 mm at 24 h). Resource use and costs were evaluated from medical record measurements and published data. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed. When taking into account all resources consumed, the CWI arm (€ 6460) is economically dominant when compared with i.v.-PCA (€ 7273) and EDA (€ 7500). The proportion of patients successfully controlled for their postoperative pain management are 77.4%, 53.9%, and 72.9% for CWI, i.v.-PCA, and EDA, respectively, demonstrating the CWI procedure to be both economically and clinically dominant. PSA reported that CWI remains cost saving in 70.4% of cases in comparison with EDA and in 59.2% of cases when compared with PCA. Device-related costs of using CWI for pain management after abdominal laparotomy are partly counterbalanced by a reduction in resource consumption. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that CWI is the dominant treatment strategy for managing postoperative pain (i.e. more effective and less costly) in comparison with i.v.-PCA. When compared with EDA, CWI is less costly with almost equivalent efficacy. This economic evaluation may be useful for clinicians to design algorithms for pain management after major abdominal surgery.

  3. Evidence regarding patient compliance with incentive spirometry interventions after cardiac, thoracic and abdominal surgeries: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Hamid, Syed Rasul G Syed; Supriyanto, Eko

    2016-01-01

    Evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive spirometry (ISy) on postoperative pulmonary outcomes after thoracic, cardiac and abdominal surgery remains inconclusive. This is attributed to various methodological issues inherent in ISy trials. Patient compliance has also been highlighted as a possible confounding factor; however, the status of evidence regarding patient compliance in these trials is unknown. To explore the status of evidence on patient compliance with ISy interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the above contexts. A systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases was conducted to obtain relevant RCTs from 1972 to 2015 using the inclusion criteria. These were examined for specific ISy parameters, methods used for determining compliance and reporting on compliance. Main outcome measures were comparison of ISy parameters prescribed and assessed, and reporting on compliance. Thirty-six relevant RCTs were obtained. Six ISy parameters were identified in ISy prescriptions from these trials. Almost all (97.2%) of the trials had ISy prescriptions with specific parameters. Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the ISy parameters assessed were significantly lower (Z=-5.433; P<0.001) than those prescribed; 66.7% of the trials indicated use of various methods to assess these parameters. Only six (16.7%) trials included reports on compliance; however, these were also incomprehensive. There is a scarcity and inconsistency of evidence regarding ISy compliance. Compliance data should be obtained using reliable and standardized methods to facilitate comparisons between and among trials. These should be reported comprehensively to facilitate valid inferences regarding ISy intervention effectiveness.

  4. Evidence regarding patient compliance with incentive spirometry interventions after cardiac, thoracic and abdominal surgeries: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Hamid, Syed Rasul G Syed; Supriyanto, Eko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive spirometry (ISy) on postoperative pulmonary outcomes after thoracic, cardiac and abdominal surgery remains inconclusive. This is attributed to various methodological issues inherent in ISy trials. Patient compliance has also been highlighted as a possible confounding factor; however, the status of evidence regarding patient compliance in these trials is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the status of evidence on patient compliance with ISy interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the above contexts. METHOD: A systematic search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases was conducted to obtain relevant RCTs from 1972 to 2015 using the inclusion criteria. These were examined for specific ISy parameters, methods used for determining compliance and reporting on compliance. Main outcome measures were comparison of ISy parameters prescribed and assessed, and reporting on compliance. RESULTS: Thirty-six relevant RCTs were obtained. Six ISy parameters were identified in ISy prescriptions from these trials. Almost all (97.2%) of the trials had ISy prescriptions with specific parameters. Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the ISy parameters assessed were significantly lower (Z=−5.433; P<0.001) than those prescribed; 66.7% of the trials indicated use of various methods to assess these parameters. Only six (16.7%) trials included reports on compliance; however, these were also incomprehensive. CONCLUSIONS: There is a scarcity and inconsistency of evidence regarding ISy compliance. Compliance data should be obtained using reliable and standardized methods to facilitate comparisons between and among trials. These should be reported comprehensively to facilitate valid inferences regarding ISy intervention effectiveness. PMID:26909010

  5. Evaluation of chest and abdominal injuries in trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of poursina teaching hospital, guilan, iran.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Hossein; Kazemnezhad-Leili, Ehsan; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Darzi, Ali Asghar; Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Dehnadi-Moghaddam, Anoush; Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Trauma, especially chest and abdominal trauma are increasing due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads, which leads to an increased incidence of road accidents. Urbanization, industrialization and additional problems are the other associated factors which accelerate this phenomenon. A better understanding of the etiology and pattern of such injuries can help to improve the management and ultimate the outcomes of these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the patients with chest and abdominal trauma hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital, Guilan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the data of all chest and abdominal trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital were collected from March 2011 to March 2012. Information about age, gender, injured areas, type of injury (penetrating or blunt), etiology of the injury, accident location (urban or rural) and patients' discharge outcomes were collected by a questionnaire. In total, 211 patients with a mean age of 34.1 ± 1.68 years was entered into the study. The most common cause of trauma was traffic accidents (51.7%). Among patients with chest trauma, 45 cases (35.4%) had penetrating injuries and 82 cases (64.6%) blunt lesions. The prevalence of chest injuries was 35.5% and rib fractures 26.5%. In chest injuries, the prevalence of hemothorax was 65.3%, pneumothorax 2.7%, lung contusion 4% and emphysema 1.3%, respectively. There were 24 cases (27.9%) with abdominal trauma which had penetrating lesions and 62 cases (72.1%) with blunt lesions. The most common lesions in patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were spleen (24.2%) and liver (12.1%) lesions. The outcomes of the patients were as follow: 95.7% recovery and 4.3% death. The majority of deaths were observed among road traffic victims (77.7%). Considering the fact that road-related accidents are quite predictable and controllable; therefore, the quality promotion of traumatic patients' care

  6. Evaluation of Chest and Abdominal Injuries in Trauma Patients Hospitalized in the Surgery Ward of Poursina Teaching Hospital, Guilan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Hossein; Kazemnezhad-Leili, Ehsan; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Darzi, Ali Asghar; Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Dehnadi-Moghaddam, Anoush; Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background Trauma, especially chest and abdominal trauma are increasing due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads, which leads to an increased incidence of road accidents. Urbanization, industrialization and additional problems are the other associated factors which accelerate this phenomenon. A better understanding of the etiology and pattern of such injuries can help to improve the management and ultimate the outcomes of these patients. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the patients with chest and abdominal trauma hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital, Guilan, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of all chest and abdominal trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital were collected from March 2011 to March 2012. Information about age, gender, injured areas, type of injury (penetrating or blunt), etiology of the injury, accident location (urban or rural) and patients' discharge outcomes were collected by a questionnaire. Results In total, 211 patients with a mean age of 34.1 ± 1.68 years was entered into the study. The most common cause of trauma was traffic accidents (51.7%). Among patients with chest trauma, 45 cases (35.4%) had penetrating injuries and 82 cases (64.6%) blunt lesions. The prevalence of chest injuries was 35.5% and rib fractures 26.5%. In chest injuries, the prevalence of hemothorax was 65.3%, pneumothorax 2.7%, lung contusion 4% and emphysema 1.3%, respectively. There were 24 cases (27.9%) with abdominal trauma which had penetrating lesions and 62 cases (72.1%) with blunt lesions. The most common lesions in patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were spleen (24.2%) and liver (12.1%) lesions. The outcomes of the patients were as follow: 95.7% recovery and 4.3% death. The majority of deaths were observed among road traffic victims (77.7%). Conclusions Considering the fact that road-related accidents are quite predictable and controllable

  7. [Better communication between surgery and anesthesia may provide safer surgery. The exchange of information has been mapped within the framework of "Safe abdominal surgery"].

    PubMed

    Göransson, Katarina; Lundberg, Johan; Ljungqvist, Olle; Ohlsson, Elisabet; Sandblom, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Poor communication between surgical and anesthesia unit personnel may jeopardize patient safety.  Review reports from a national survey on patient safety performed at 17 units 2011-2013 were analyzed in order to identify strategies to reduce risks related to the interaction between surgery and anesthesia. The reports were reviewed in this study by an independent group in order to extract findings related to communication between anesthesia and surgical unit personnel. Suggested strategies to improve patient safety included: uniform national health declaration forms; consistent use of admission notes; uniform systems for documenting medical information; multidisciplinary forum for evaluation of high-risk patients; weekly and daily scheduling of surgical programs; application of the WHO check list; open dialog during surgery; oral and written reports from the surgeon to the postoperative unit; and combined mortality and morbidity conferences.

  8. Preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine, ropivacaine, ketamine, and naloxone treatment for postoperative pain management in upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wong, Chih-Shung; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that preincisional epidural morphine, bupivacaine, and ketamine combined with epidural anesthesia (EA) and general anesthesia (GA) provided pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery. Recent studies reported that ultralow-dose naloxone enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine in rats. This study investigated the benefits of preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine + ropivacaine + ketamine + naloxone (M + R + K + N) treatment for achieving postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. Eighty American Society of Anesthesiology I-II patients scheduled for major upper abdominal surgery were allocated to four groups in a randomized, single-blinded study. All patients received combined GA and EA with a continuous epidural infusion of 2% lidocaine (6-8 mL/h) 30 minutes after pain regimen. After GA induction, in Group I, an epidural pain control regimen (total 10 mL) was administered using 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg; M + R); in Group II, 1% lidocaine 8 (mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + ketamine (20 mg; M + R + K); in Group III, 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + naloxone (2 μg; M + R + N); and in Group IV, 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + ketamine (20 mg) + naloxone (2 μg; M + R + K + N), respectively. All patients received patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with different pain regimens to control subsequent postoperative pain for 3 days following surgery. During the 3-day period following surgery, PCEA consumption (mL), numerical rating scale (NRS) score while cough/moving, and analgesic-related adverse effects were recorded. Total PCEA consumption for the 3-day observation period was 161.5±17.8 mL, 103.2±21.7 mL, 152.4±25.6 mL, and 74.1±16.9 mL for Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. (p < 0.05). The cough/moving NRS

  9. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Khaled; Mohamdin, O W

    2016-01-01

    Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US)-guided rectus sheath (RS) and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for better perioperative analgesia. It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20) received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20) received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients' experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of continuous local anaesthetic wound infiltration versus epidural analgesia for postoperative pain following abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ventham, N T; Hughes, M; O'Neill, S; Johns, N; Brady, R R; Wigmore, S J

    2013-09-01

    Local anaesthetic wound infiltration techniques reduce opiate requirements and pain scores. Wound catheters have been introduced to increase the duration of action of local anaesthetic by continuous infusion. The aim was to compare these infiltration techniques with the current standard of epidural analgesia. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating wound infiltration versus epidural analgesia in abdominal surgery was performed. The primary outcome was pain score at rest after 24 h on a numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at rest at 48 h, and on movement at 24 and 48 h, with subgroup analysis according to incision type and administration regimen(continuous versus bolus), opiate requirements, nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, catheter-related complications and treatment failure. Nine RCTs with a total of 505 patients were included. No differences in pain scores at rest 24 h after surgery were detected between epidural and wound infiltration. There were no significant differences in pain score at rest after 48 h, or on movement at 24 or 48 h after surgery. Epidural analgesia demonstrated a non-significant a trend towards reduced pain scores on movement and reduced opiate requirements. There was a reduced incidence of urinary retention in the wound catheter group. Within a heterogeneous group of RCTs, use of local anaesthetic wound infiltration was associated with pain scores comparable to those obtained with epidural analgesia. Further procedure-specific RCTs including broader measures of recovery are recommended to compare the overall efficacy of epidural and wound infiltration analgesic techniques.

  11. Preoperative biological therapy and short-term outcomes of abdominal surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Matti; Xu, Wei; Dinani, Amreen; Steinhart, A Hillary; Croitoru, Kenneth; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; McLeod, Robin S; Greenberg, Gordon R; Cohen, Zane; Silverberg, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Previous investigations of short-term outcomes after preoperative exposure to biological therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were conflicting. The authors aimed to assess postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent abdominal surgery with recent exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. A retrospective case-control study with detailed matching was performed for subjects with IBD with and without exposure to biologics within 180 days of abdominal surgery. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the groups. 473 procedures were reviewed consisting of 195 patients with exposure to biologics and 278 matched controls. There were no significant differences in most postoperative outcomes such as: length of stay, fever (≥ 38.5°C), urinary tract infection, pneumonia, bacteraemia, readmission, reoperations and mortality. On univariate analysis, procedures on biologics had more wound infections compared with controls (19% vs 11%; p=0.008), but this was not significant in multivariate analysis. Concomitant therapy with biologics and thiopurines was associated with increased frequencies of urinary tract infections (p=0.0007) and wound infections (p=0.0045). Operations performed ≤ 14 days from last biologic dose had similar rates of infections and other outcomes when compared with those performed within 15-30 days or 31-180 days. Patients with detectable preoperative infliximab levels had similar rates of wound infection compared with those with undetectable levels (3/10 vs 0/9; p=0.21). Preoperative treatment with TNF-α antagonists in patients with IBD is not associated with most early postoperative complications. A shorter time interval from last biological dose is not associated with increased postoperative complications. In most cases, surgery should not be delayed, and appropriate biological therapy may be continued perioperatively.

  12. A Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of a Training Walking Program in Patients Recovering from Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Bartosz R; Durmała, Jacek; Ziaja, Krzysztof; Kotyla, Przemysław; Woźniewski, Marek; Błaszczak, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Major surgical procedures as well as general anesthesia contribute to muscle weakness and posture instability and may result in increased postoperative complications and functional disorders resulting from an elective operation. We aim to state the significance of backward walking as a form of interval march training with patients after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Sixty-five patients were randomly divided into three subgroups and three various models of physiotherapy were applied. The participants were males, aged 65-75 years, with stable cardiologic status, absence of neurological disorders, and non-symptomatic aneurysm - non-ruptured, no pain complaints and no motor system impairments. The control group had only routine physiotherapy, since therapeutic groups I and II also had walking exercises, forward in group II and backward in group I. Both experimental groups were applied interval training. The patient data analyzed was as follows: hospitalization period-days; 6-min walking test-distance (m), training heart rate (1/min), mean speed (km/h), MET; spirometry test-FVC(L), FEV1(L), FEV1/FVC and PEF(L/s). The hospital stay period in all groups did not vary significantly. Statistical analysis showed that patients with backward walking had a statistically significantly lower reduction of walking distance in the corridor test when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). After the operation, a significant reduction of mean speed in the control group was noted in comparison with both the forward and backward walking groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the experimental groups in average walking speed as well as in heart rate in all observed groups. Physical training applied to patients after major abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery influences sustaining the level of exercise tolerance to a small extent. Both backward and forward walking seem to be alternative methods when compared to classic post-surgery physiotherapy.

  13. The surgical Apgar score is strongly associated with ICU admission after high-risk intra-abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, Julia B.; Gershengorn, ayley B.; Wunsch, Hannah; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding intensive care unit (ICU) triage decisions for high-risk surgical patients may ultimately facilitate resource allocation and improve outcomes. The surgical Apgar score (SAS) is a simple score that uses intraoperative information on hemodynamics and blood loss to predict postoperative morbidity and mortality, with lower scores associated with worse outcomes. We hypothesized that the SAS would be associated with the decision to admit a patient to the ICU postoperatively. Methods Retrospective cohort study of adults undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery from 2003 to 2010 at an academic medical center. We calculated the SAS (0 – 10) for each patient based on intraoperative heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and estimated blood loss. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of the SAS with the decision to admit a patient directly to the ICU after surgery. Results The cohort consisted of 8,501 patients, with 72.7% having a SAS of 7-10 and less than 5% a SAS of 0-4. A total of 8.7% of patients were transferred immediately to the ICU postoperatively. After multivariate adjustment, there was a strong association between the SAS and the decision to admit a patient to the ICU (adjusted odds ratio 14.41 [95% CI 6.88 – 30.19, P < 0.001] for SAS 0-2, 4.42 [95% CI 3.19 – 6.13, P <0.001] for SAS 3-4, and 2.60 [95% CI 2.08 – 3.24, P < 0.001] for SAS 5-6 compared with SAS 7-8). Conclusions The SAS is strongly associated with clinical decisions regarding immediate ICU admission after high-risk intra-abdominal surgery. These results provide an initial step towards understanding whether intraoperative hemodynamics and blood loss influence ICU triage for post-surgical patients. PMID:23744956

  14. Laparoscopic surgery of postero-lateral segments: a comparison between transthoracic and abdominal approach.

    PubMed

    Fuks, David; Gayet, Brice

    2015-06-01

    Lesions located in the postero-lateral part of the liver (segments 6 and 7) have been considered as poor candidates for a laparoscopic liver resection due to the limited visualization and difficulty in bleeding control. Although no comparison has been done between transthoracic and abdominal resection of tumors located in the postero-lateral segments, we propose a description of these different strategies, specifying the benefits as well as the disadvantages of the various approaches.

  15. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of the opioid receptor antagonist alvimopan in reducing hospital length of stay and time to GI recovery in patients enrolled in a standardized accelerated recovery program after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Shaw, P G; Fecher, I C; Harris, S; Knight, J S

    2012-05-01

    Despite accelerated recovery programs and the widespread uptake of laparoscopic surgery, postoperative ileus remains a significant factor affecting length of stay after abdominal surgery. Alvimopan, an opioid-receptor antagonist, may reduce the incidence of postoperative ileus and expedite hospital discharge. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine the role of alvimopan in accelerating GI recovery and hospital discharge after laparoscopic and open abdominal surgery performed within an accelerated recovery program. Cochrane (1999-2010), Embase (1980-2010), MEDLINE (1980-2010), and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-2010) were searched for relevant double-blinded, randomized controlled trials. Twelve milligrams of alvimopan and placebo were given to patients enrolled in an accelerated recovery program after abdominal surgery. The primary outcomes measured were the length of stay as defined by the writing of the hospital discharge order and GI-3 and GI-2 GI tract recovery. : Three trials were included that reported on a pooled modified intention-to-treat population of 1388 patients; 685 (49%) patients received alvimopan. On meta-analysis, alvimopan reduced time to the hospital discharge order (HR 1.37 (1.21, 1.62), p < 0.0001), GI-3 recovery (HR 1.42 (1.25, 1.62), p < 0.001), and GI-2 recovery (HR 1.49 (1.32, 1.68), p < 0.0001). The search criteria identified only a small number of trials of alvimopan after abdominal surgery with no randomized trials of alvimopan after laparoscopic surgery. In addition, the use of length of hospital stay as the primary outcome measure may be inappropriate, because it is open to many confounding factors. Finally, adverse events, in particular, adverse cardiovascular events, were not considered. Alvimopan 12 mg can further reduce time to GI recovery and hospital discharge in patients undergoing abdominal surgery within an accelerated recovery program. Investigation into the effect of alvimopan

  16. Minimally Invasive, Organ-preserving Surgery for Large Submucosal Tumors in the Abdominal Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Eiji; Tanida, Takashi; Kamei, Aya; Takahashi, Kodai

    2017-06-01

    Surgical resection of submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the abdominal esophagus is not standardized. Enucleation may be a minimally invasive option, whereas its oncological validity is not very clear. Moreover, how to treat the esophageal wall defect after enucleation and necessity of additional antireflux procedure are also undetermined. In 13 patients with a SMT originating the abdominal esophagus laparoscopic enucleation was performed with preserving the integrity of submucosa. When the muscular layer defect was <4 cm it was directly closed by suturing, whereas it was left open in case the defect was larger. Fundoplication was added when the esophagus was dissected posteriorly or the myotomy was not closed. Tumors were resected en-bloc without rupture in all cases. In 5 patients myotomy was closed, whereas in the remaining 8 it was left open. In 11 patients fundoplication was added (Toupet in 5 and Dor in 6). The patients developed neither regurgitation nor stenosis postoperatively. The histopathologic findings revealed leiomyoma in 9 patients, whereas the other 4 were miscellaneous. The average tumor size was 5.5 cm (range, 2.8 to 8.8). Microscopically surgical margin was negative in all cases. Laparoscopic enucleation of SMTs in the abdominal esophagus seems to be safe, reproducible operation enabling preservation of function of the lower esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Even when the muscular defect is not approximated additional fundoplication can minimize the risk of postoperative reflux disease.

  17. Does Intraoperative Systematic Bacterial Sampling During Complete Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) with Hyperthermic Intraoperative Peritoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) Influence Postoperative Treatment? A New Predictive Factor for Postoperative Abdominal Infectious Complications.

    PubMed

    Dazza, Marie; Schwarz, Lilian; Coget, Julien; Frebourg, Noelle; Wood, Gregory; Huet, Emmanuel; Bridoux, Valérie; Veber, Benoit; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2016-12-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an emerging curative treatment option for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. It has a long-term survival benefit but is associated with high rates of morbidity, ranging from 12 % to 65 %, mainly due to infectious complications. We sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of routine intraoperative bacteriological sampling following CRS/HIPEC. Between November 2010 and December 2014, every patients receiving CRS/HIPEC were included. Three samples were routinely collected from standardized locations for intraperitoneal rinsing liquid bacteriological analysis (RLBA) after completion of HIPEC. The clinical and surgical features, bacteriological results, and short-term outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 5 and 45 %, respectively. Among the 75 included patients, 40 % (n = 30) had at least one positive bacterial culture. Risk factors for a positive culture were colorectal resection (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.072, 95 % CI 1.843-8.004; p = 0.009) and blood loss >1000 mL (HR = 4.272, 95 % CI 1.080-18.141; p = 0.031). Among 26 (35 %) patients with abdominal infectious complications, 13 (17 %) experienced isolated complications. A positive RLBA result was independently associated with abdominal infectious complications (HR = 5.108, 95 % CI 1.220-16.336; p = 0.024) and isolated abdominal infectious complications (HR = 4.199, 95 % CI 1.064-15.961; p = 0.04). Forty percent of the RLBA samples obtained following CRS/HIPEC tested positive for bacteria. Bacterial sampling of rinsing liquid should be systematically performed. An aggressive and immediate antibiotic strategy needs to be evaluated.

  18. A Practical Predictive Index for Intra-abdominal Septic Complications After Primary Anastomosis for Crohn's Disease: Change in C-Reactive Protein Level Before Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lugen; Li, Yi; Wang, Honggang; Zhu, Weiming; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-08-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications are difficult to manage in Crohn's disease, which makes prevention especially important. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors for intra-abdominal septic complications after primary anastomosis for Crohn's disease and to seek a practical predictive index for intra-abdominal septic complications. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Based on a computerized database of 344 patients with Crohn's disease who underwent primary anastomosis between 2004 and 2013, the patients were placed into an intra-abdominal septic complications group and a group without intra-abdominal septic complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors, and the predictive accuracy of possible predictors was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall, 39 patients (11.34%) developed intra-abdominal septic complications. Preoperative C-reactive protein level >10 mg/L was found to be an independent risk factor (p < 0.01) for intra-abdominal septic complications. For prediction of intra-abdominal septic complications, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a C-reactive protein cutoff of 14.50 mg/L provided negative and positive predictive values of 96.84% and 34.07%. In addition, the change in C-reactive protein levels over the 2 weeks before surgery was greater in the intra-abdominal septic complications group than the group with no intra-abdominal septic complications (p < 0.01), and the directions of change were opposite, upward in the former and downward in the latter. Apart from being a risk factor for intra-abdominal septic complications (p < 0.01), receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the change in C-reactive protein levels before surgery had a negative predictive value for intra-abdominal septic complications of 98.66% and a positive predictive value of 76

  19. Thoracic Epidural analgesia versus Rectus Sheath Catheters for open midline incisions in major abdominal surgery within an enhanced recovery programme (TERSC): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Kate M; Krige, Anton; Brearley, Sarah G; Lane, Steven; Scott, Michael; Gordon, Anthony C; Carlson, Gordon L

    2014-10-21

    Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is recommended for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery via a midline incision. However, the effectiveness of TEA is variable with high failure rates reported post-operatively. Common side effects such as low blood pressure and motor block can reduce mobility and hinder recovery, and a number of rare but serious complications can also occur following their use.Rectus sheath catheters (RSC) may provide a novel alternative approach to somatic analgesia without the associated adverse effects of TEA. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of both techniques in terms of pain relief, patient experience, post-operative functional recovery, safety and cost-effectiveness. This is a single-centre randomised controlled non-blinded trial, which also includes a nested qualitative study. Over a two-year period, 132 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery via a midline incision will be randomised to receive either TEA or RSC for post-operative analgesia. The primary outcome measures pain scores on moving from a supine to a sitting position at 24 hours post wound closure, and the patient experience between groups evaluated through in-depth interviews. Secondary outcomes include pain scores at rest and on movement at other time points, opiate consumption, functional recovery, morbidity and cost-effectiveness. This will be the first randomised controlled trial comparing thoracic epidurals to ultrasound-guided rectus sheath catheters in adults undergoing elective midline laparotomy. The standardised care provided by an Enhanced Recovery Programme makes this a comparison between two complex pain packages and not simply two analgesic techniques, in order to ascertain if RSC is a viable alternative to TEA. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81223298 (16 January 2014).

  20. Telemedicine, virtual reality, and surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percival D.; Charles, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Two types of synthetic experience are covered: virtual reality (VR) and surgery, and telemedicine. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: geometric models; physiological sensors; surgical applications; virtual cadaver; VR surgical simulation; telesurgery; VR Surgical Trainer; abdominal surgery pilot study; advanced abdominal simulator; examples of telemedicine; and telemedicine spacebridge.

  1. [Computer-assisted operational planning for pediatric abdominal surgery. 3D-visualized MRI with volume rendering].

    PubMed

    Günther, P; Tröger, J; Holland-Cunz, S; Waag, K L; Schenk, J P

    2006-08-01

    Exact surgical planning is necessary for complex operations of pathological changes in anatomical structures of the pediatric abdomen. 3D visualization and computer-assisted operational planning based on CT data are being increasingly used for difficult operations in adults. To minimize radiation exposure and for better soft tissue contrast, sonography and MRI are the preferred diagnostic methods in pediatric patients. Because of manifold difficulties 3D visualization of these MRI data has not been realized so far, even though the field of embryonal malformations and tumors could benefit from this.A newly developed and modified raycasting-based powerful 3D volume rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.2) for the planning of pediatric abdominal surgery is presented. With the help of specifically developed algorithms, a useful surgical planning system is demonstrated. Thanks to the easy handling and high-quality visualization with enormous gain of information, the presented system is now an established part of routine surgical planning.

  2. [Pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment of reperfusion syndrome in the surgery of abdominal aorta aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Medvedskyĭ, E B; Kostylev, M V; Kornitskaia, A I; Gindich, L A; Dominiak, A B; Vlaĭkov, G G

    1999-01-01

    The peroxidal oxidation of the lipids state was studied up, as well as of the whole blood neutrophils functional activity, hemodynamics and microcirculation of lower extremities in surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta aneurysm. The main significance in the reperfusional syndrome pathophysiology, caused by temporary overcompression of aorta, has the neutrophils activation, their interrelationship with the endothelium cells and the activity lowering of the tissue antioxidant system, manifestated by vascular spasm, which is mostly expressed in the patients with stenotic affection of the lower extremities arteries. Positive effect was noted in application of preparation corvitin, which has antioxidant action.

  3. Accuracy and trending ability of the fourth-generation FloTrac/Vigileo System™ in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuma; Hattori, Kohshi; Sumiyoshi, Miho; Kanazawa, Hiroko; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko

    2018-06-01

    The fourth-generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ improved its algorithm to follow changes in systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI). This revision may improve the accuracy and trending ability of CI even in patients who undergo abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery which cause drastic change of SVRI by aortic clamping. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the accuracy and trending ability of the fourth-generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ in patients with AAA surgery by comparing the FloTrac/Vigileo™-derived CI (CI FT ) with that measured by three-dimensional echocardiography (CI 3D ). Twenty-six patients undergoing elective AAA surgery were included in this study. CI FT and CI3 D were determined simultaneously in eight points including before and after aortic clamp. We used CI 3D as the reference method. In the Bland-Altman analysis, CI FT had a wide limit of agreement with CI 3D showing a percentage error of 46.7%. Subgroup analysis showed that the percentage error between CO 3D and CO FT was 56.3% in patients with cardiac index < 2.5 L/min/m 2 and 28.4% in patients with cardiac index ≥ 2.5 L/min/m 2 . SVRI was significantly higher in patients with cardiac index < 2.5 L/min/m 2 (1703 ± 330 vs. 2757 ± 798; p < 0.001). The tracking ability of fourth generation of FloTrac/Vigileo™ after aortic clamp was not clinically acceptable (26.9%). The degree of accuracy of the fourth-generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ in patients with AAA surgery was not acceptable. The tracking ability of the fourth-generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ after aortic clamp was below the acceptable limit.

  4. Comparison of electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in midline abdominal surgery - A double blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Lalgudi Dorairajan; Balaji, Nitesh; Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Kate, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    To compare the electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in patients undergoing abdominal surgery using a midline incision with respect to incision time, blood loss during incision, postoperative incision site pain and wound infection. Patients undergoing midline abdominal surgery were randomized into electrocautery and scalpel groups. The incision dimensions, incision time and blood loss during incision were noted intraoperatively. Postoperative pain and wound infection were recorded on every postoperative day for one week. 41 patients in each of the two groups were analyzed. Gender and age distribution was similar in both the groups. The mean incision time per unit wound area in the electrocautery group and scalpel group was 9.40 ± 3.37 s/cm(2) and 9.07 ± 3.40 s/cm(2) (p = 0.87) respectively. The mean blood loss per unit wound area was significantly lower in the electrocautery group at 6.46 ± 3.94 ml when compared to that of 23.40 ± 15.28 ml in the scalpel group (p= < 0.0001, CI = 11.97-21.89). There was no significant difference in pain on any of the postoperative days between the two groups and there was no significant difference in the wound infection rates between the electrocautery and scalpel groups (14.63% vs. 12.19%; p = 0.347). With a comparable Postoperative incision site pain, wound infection rate and significantly lower blood loss with the equal time taken for the incision, electrocautery can be considered safe and effective in making skin incision in midline laparotomy compared to scalpel incision. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of modulated-frequency and modulated-intensity transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Mitsunori; Tabira, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Takashi; Nishiwada, Takashi; Shomoto, Koji

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for treatment of postoperative pain and pulmonary functions (vital capacity [VC]; cough peak flow, [CPF]) in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. Forty-eight patients were randomly allocated to receive TENS, placebo TENS, or no TENS (control) 1 hour a day for 3 days postoperatively. A 0-100 visual analog scale was used to assess pain at preintervention, mid-intervention, and postintervention on the third postoperative day. Pulmonary functions (VC, CPF) were evaluated by spirometer at preoperation (baseline) and at preintervention, mid-intervention, and postintervention on the third postoperative day. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences between groups at baseline. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the control group with the placebo-TENS and TENS group, at each assessment timepoint. Two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test assessed the difference between the 2 (placebo-TENS×TENS) groups. A value of P<0.01 was considered statistically significant. The baselines were not significantly different between any groups. The TENS group had significant reductions in postoperative pain compared with the placebo group (P<0.01) and control group (P<0.01). There was also improvement in pulmonary functions (VC, CPF) at mid-TENS and post-TENS, but not in the placebo-TENS (P<0.01) or control groups (P<0.01). TENS is a valuable treatment to alleviate postoperative pain and improve pulmonary functions (ie, VC, CPF) in patients following abdominal surgery.

  6. A randomized comparison of intraoperative PerfecTemp and forced-air warming during open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Egan, Cameron; Bernstein, Ethan; Reddy, Desigen; Ali, Madi; Paul, James; Yang, Dongsheng; Sessler, Daniel I

    2011-11-01

    The PerfecTemp is an underbody resistive warming system that combines servocontrolled underbody warming with viscoelastic foam pressure relief. Clinical efficacy of the system has yet to be formally evaluated. We therefore tested the hypothesis that intraoperative distal esophageal (core) temperatures with the PerfecTemp (underbody resistive) warming system are noninferior to upper-body forced-air warming in patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Adults scheduled for elective major open abdominal surgery (liver, pancreas, gynecological, and colorectal surgery) under general anesthesia were enrolled at 2 centers. Patients were randomly assigned to underbody resistive or forced-air warming. Resistive heating started when patients were transferred to the operating room table; forced-air warming started after patients were draped. The primary outcome was noninferiority of intraoperative time-weighted average core temperature, adjusted for baseline characteristics and using a buffer of 0.5°C. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to underbody resistive heating and 34 to forced-air warming. Baseline and surgical characteristics were generally similar. We had sufficient evidence (P=0.018) to conclude that underbody resistive warming is not worse than (i.e., noninferior to) upper-body forced-air warming in the time-weighted average intraoperative temperature, with a mean difference of -0.12°C [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 0.14]. Core temperatures at the end of surgery averaged 36.3°C [95% CI 36 to 36.5] in the resistive warming patients and 36.6°C [95% CI 36.4 to 36.8] in those assigned to forced-air warming for a mean difference of -0.34°C [95% CI -0.69 to 0.01]. Mean intraoperative time-weighted average core temperatures were no different, and significantly noninferior, with underbody resistive heating in comparison with upper-body forced-air warming. Underbody resistive heating may be an alternative to forced

  7. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome After Major Abdominal Surgery Predicted by Early Upregulation of TLR4 and TLR5.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Rajiv; Derwa, Yannick; Bashir, Zora; Giles, Edward; Torrance, Hew D T; Owen, Helen C; O'Dwyer, Michael J; O'Brien, Alastair; Stagg, Andrew J; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Foster, Graham R; Alazawi, William

    2016-05-01

    To study innate immune pathways in patients undergoing hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery to understand mechanisms leading to enhanced inflammatory responses and identifying biomarkers of adverse clinical consequences. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery are at risk of life-threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Early identification of at-risk patients would allow tailored postoperative care and improve survival. Two separate cohorts of patients undergoing major hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery were studied (combined n = 69). Bloods were taken preoperatively, on day 1 and day 2 postoperatively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum were separated and immune phenotype and function assessed ex vivo. Early innate immune dysfunction was evident in 12 patients who subsequently developed SIRS (postoperative day 6) compared with 27 who did not, when no clinical evidence of SIRS was apparent (preoperatively or days 1 and 2). Serum interleukin (IL)-6 concentration and monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB/IL-6 functional pathways were significantly upregulated and overactive in patients who developed SIRS (P < 0.0001). Interferon α-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation was higher preoperatively in patients who developed SIRS. Increased TLR4 and TLR5 gene expression in whole blood was demonstrated in a separate validation cohort of 30 patients undergoing similar surgery. Expression of TLR4/5 on monocytes, particularly intermediate CD14CD16 monocytes, on day 1 or 2 predicted SIRS with accuracy 0.89 to 1.0 (areas under receiver operator curves). These data demonstrate the mechanism for IL-6 overproduction in patients who develop postoperative SIRS and identify markers that predict patients at risk of SIRS 5 days before the onset of clinical signs.

  8. The Surgical Apgar score combined with Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment improves short- but not long-term outcome prediction in older patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Kenig, Jakub; Mastalerz, Kinga; Mitus, Jerzy; Kapelanczyk, Agata

    2018-05-30

    Frailty increases the risk of poor surgical outcomes in the older population. Some measurable intraoperative factors may also influence the final outcome. The Surgical Apgar Score (SAS) is a simple system predicting postoperative mortality and morbidity. However, the usefulness of the SAS remains unknown in fit and frail older patients. We aimed to test this, as well as investigate whether SAS can increase the predictive value of frailty in this group of patients. Consecutive patients ≥70 years of age, needing elective abdominal surgery for cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment was used to determine frailty. Logistic regression was conducted investigating the association between the scores and 30-day postoperative outcomes and 1-year mortality. The study included 165 older patients with a median age of 77 (range 70-93) years. The prevalence of frailty was 38.2%. The most significant predictors of short-term morbidity and mortality were frailty [OR 6.2 (95%CI 2.9-13.4) and 14.9 (95%CI 5.9-38)] and the SAS [OR 12.5 (95%CI 2.8-45) and 29.5 (95%CI 6.3-125)]. At long-term follow-up frailty was the best predictor of mortality: OR 4.6 (95%CI 1.8-17.6). Frailty and the SAS, not age, were significant predictors of 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality both in fit and frail older patients undergoing elective abdominal cancer surgery. At 1-yearfollow-up frailty, not the SAS, was an independent risk factor of mortality. The combination of frailty and the SAS increased predictive accuracy and may be a target of care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  10. How Do We Value Postoperative Recovery?: A Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Patient-reported Outcomes After Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Julio F; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Balvardi, Saba; Lee, Lawrence; Nauche, Bénédicte; Landry, Tara; Mayo, Nancy E; Feldman, Liane S

    2018-04-01

    To appraise the level of evidence supporting the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the context of postoperative recovery after abdominal surgery. There is growing interest in using PROMs to support value-based care in abdominal surgery; however, to draw valid conclusions regarding patient-reported outcomes data, PROMs with robust measurement properties are required. Eight databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched for studies focused on the measurement properties of PROMs in the context of recovery after abdominal surgery. The methodological quality of individual studies was evaluated using the consensus-based COSMIN checklist. Evidence supporting the measurement properties of each PROM was synthetized according to standardized criteria and compared against the International Society of Quality of Life Research minimum standards for the selection of PROMs for outcomes research. We identified 35 studies evaluating 22 PROMs [12 focused on nonspecific surgical populations (55%), 4 focused on abdominal surgery (18%), and 6 generic PROMs (27%)]. The great majority of the studies (74%) received only poor or fair quality ratings. Measurement properties of PROMs were predominantly supported by limited or unknown evidence. None of the PROMs fulfilled International Society of Quality of Life Research's minimum standards, hindering specific recommendations. There is very limited evidence supporting the measurement properties of existing PROMs used in the context of recovery after abdominal surgery. This precludes the use of these PROMs to support value-based surgical care. Further research is required to bridge this major knowledge gap. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42014014349.

  11. Variable Case Detection and Many Unreported Cases of Surgical-Site Infection Following Colon Surgery and Abdominal Hysterectomy in a Statewide Validation.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Michael S; Huang, Susan S; Keller, Vicki; Bruce, Christina B; Kazerouni, N Neely; Janssen, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess hospital surgical-site infection (SSI) identification and reporting following colon surgery and abdominal hysterectomy via a statewide external validation METHODS Infection preventionists (IPs) from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) performed on-site SSI validation for surgical procedures performed in hospitals that voluntarily participated. Validation involved chart review of SSI cases previously reported by hospitals plus review of patient records flagged for review by claims codes suggestive of SSI. We assessed the sensitivity of traditional surveillance and the added benefit of claims-based surveillance. We also evaluated the positive predictive value of claims-based surveillance (ie, workload efficiency). RESULTS Upon validation review, CDPH IPs identified 239 SSIs following colon surgery at 42 hospitals and 76 SSIs following abdominal hysterectomy at 34 hospitals. For colon surgery, traditional surveillance had a sensitivity of 50% (47% for deep incisional or organ/space [DI/OS] SSI), compared to 84% (88% for DI/OS SSI) for claims-based surveillance. For abdominal hysterectomy, traditional surveillance had a sensitivity of 68% (67% for DI/OS SSI) compared to 74% (78% for DI/OS SSI) for claims-based surveillance. Claims-based surveillance was also efficient, with 1 SSI identified for every 2 patients flagged for review who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy and for every 2.6 patients flagged for review who had undergone colon surgery. Overall, CDPH identified previously unreported SSIs in 74% of validation hospitals performing colon surgery and 35% of validation hospitals performing abdominal hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Claims-based surveillance is a standardized approach that hospitals can use to augment traditional surveillance methods and health departments can use for external validation. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1091-1097.

  12. Readmission rates after abdominal surgery: the role of surgeon, primary caregiver, home health, and subacute rehab.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert C G; Brown, Russell; Puffer, Lisa; Block, Stacey; Callender, Glenda; Quillo, Amy; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M

    2011-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate predictive factors of hospital readmission rates in patients undergoing abdominal surgical procedures. Recommendations from MedPAC that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) report upon and determine payments based in part on readmission rates have led to an attendant interest by payers, hospital administrators and far-sighted physicians. Analysis of 266 prospective treated patients undergoing major abdominal surgical procedures from September 2009 to September 2010. All patients were prospectively evaluated for underlying comorbidities, number of preop meds, surgical procedure, incision type, complications, presence or absence of primary and/or secondary caregiver, their education level, discharge number of medications, and discharge location. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Two hundred twenty-six patients were reviewed with 48 (18%) gastric-esophageal, 39(14%) gastrointestinal, 88 (34%) liver, 58 (22%) pancreas, and 33 (12%) other. Seventy-eight (30%) were readmitted for various diagnoses the most common being dehydration (26%). Certain preoperative and intraoperative factors were not found to be significant for readmission being, comorbidities, diagnosis, number of preoperative medications, patient education level, type of operation, blood loss, and complications. Significant predictive factors for readmission were age (≥69 years), number of discharged (DC) meds (≥9 medications), ≤50% oral intake (52% vs. 23%), and DC home with a home health agency (62% vs. 11%) Readmission rates for surgeons WILL become a quality indicator of performance. Quality parameters among Home Health agencies are nonexistent, but will reflect on surgeon’s performance. Greater awareness regarding predictors of readmission rates is necessary to demonstrate improved surgical quality.

  13. Effects of acupuncture and transcutaneous stimulation analgesia on plasma hormone levels during and after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kho, H G; Kloppenborg, P W; van Egmond, J

    1993-05-01

    The effects of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) on plasma adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin (beta E), anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and hydrocortisone (cortisol) were evaluated during and, for four days after surgery in 42 male patients submitted to a standardized major abdominal operation in a comparative study of three different anaesthetic techniques. Group 1 received acupuncture and transcutaneous stimulation as the main non-pharmacological analgesic during surgery. Group 2 received moderate-dose fentanyl (initial bolus of 10 micrograms kg-1 followed by continuous infusion of 5 micrograms kg-1 h-1 for the first hour, and then 4 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Group 3 received a combination of both methods. In all three groups analgesia was supplemented, if necessary, by small bolus injections of 50 micrograms fentanyl. Anaesthesia was induced in all groups with thiopentone 5 mg kg-1 and vecuronium 0.1 mg kg-1 and patients were ventilated (N2O:O2 = 2:1) to achieve normocapnia without the use of a halogenated agent. Pre-operatively acupuncture plus TES in Groups 1 and 3 led to a rise in beta E (P < 0.05) without changes of haemodynamics. After intubation beta E did not increase further. Intubation in Group 2 led to an increase of beta E (P < 0.05) also, and to a rise in pulse rate and blood pressure (P < 0.05) in all three groups. Per-operatively acupuncture plus TES in Group 1 showed a response of circulating NA and cortisol similar to that in Groups 2 and 3, whereas the responses of the circulating A, ACTH, beta E and ADH in Group 1 were more pronounced (P < 0.01). Post-operatively no differences in the hormonal profiles could be discerned between the groups with or without acupuncture plus TES (Group 2 vs. Group 3) nor between those with or without moderate-dose fentanyl anaesthesia (Group 1 vs. Group 3). It is concluded that acupuncture and TES have no effect on the cardiovascular response

  14. The Effect of Structured Preadmission Preoperative Teaching on Patient Outcomes After Abdominal Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, gastric surgery, ventral hernlorrhaphy, bowel resection without ostomy , laparotomy). 3.) Patients with the following...materials I hope will be helpful to you in the study you are planning. I think most of these measures are far more elaborate than what you need, but they...and patterns Eliminative aids used at home Ostomies Diaphioresis Other excretions ACTIVITY AND REST Usual activitieS Ability to perform ADL Tolerance

  15. Investigation of the immediate pre-operative physical capacity of patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery using the 6-minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Soares, S M T P; Jannuzzi, H P C; Kassab, M F O; Nucci, L B; Paschoal, M A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of repetition of the 6-minute walk test in patients scheduled to undergo abdominal surgery within the next 48 hours, and to verify the physical capacity of these subjects before surgery. Cross-sectional study. University teaching hospital. Forty-two patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery within the next 48 hours. Distance walked in the 6-minute walk test, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, dyspnoea and leg fatigue. Thirty-one patients (74%) were able to walk for a longer distance when the test was repeated. In these subjects, the mean increase in distance walked was 35.4 [standard deviation (SD) 19.9]m. Heart rate, dyspnoea and leg fatigue increased significantly over time on both tests (P<0.05). The mean heart rate at the end of the sixth minute was significantly higher on the second test (P=0.022). Peripheral oxygen saturation remained above 90% in both tests. The furthest distance walked was, on average, 461.3 (SD 89.7)m. This value was significantly lower than that predicted for the sample (P<0.001). Patients scheduled to undergo abdominal surgery were able to walk further when they performed a second 6-minute walk test. Moreover, they showed reduced physical ability before surgery. These findings suggest that repetition of the 6-minute walk test may increase the accuracy of the distance walked, which is useful for studies assessing the physical capacity of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patients recovering from abdominal surgery who walked with volunteers had improved postoperative recovery profiles during their hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai; Khankhanian, Pouya; Joshi, Neha; Maa, John; Crevensten, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Early walking as part of a perioperative care program benefits patients who have had surgery. However, the impact of early walking by itself on the mental and physical recovery of postoperative patients has not been examined. We established a program called walking to recovery (WTR) in which college volunteers provided walking assistance to patients recovering after abdominal surgery. Patients who participated in the program were compared with patients who did not. The postoperative recovery profile survey (PRP-17) was administered on day of discharge to 15 participants and 15 non-participants. Medical records were reviewed to obtain indication for surgery, type of surgery, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications. At 1 month post-discharge, a short form (SF)-12v2 questionnaire was administered by telephone to assess postoperative quality of life as defined by mental and physical level of function and measured with the mental component score (MCS) and the physical component score (PCS). The average age of participants and non-participants was similar (48.9 ± 9.8 vs. 51.4 ± 8.7 years; p = 0.28). When the two groups were approximately matched by type and severity of surgery, participants had lower PRP-17 composite scores (9.9 vs. 12.5, p = 0.003) and higher indicator sums (9.8 vs. 8.4, p = 0.04) than non-participants, both of which indicate better postoperative recovery in participants. The mean immobilization score was significantly lower in participants (0.3 vs. 0.8, p = 0.04). Postoperative length of stay and MCS did not differ between the two groups, but in participants there was a trend for higher scores in the PCS. Walking with volunteers was associated with a better PRP during the hospitalization period but not at 1 month follow-up. The WTR program is a sustainable, cost-effective model program for other hospitals to emulate as part of the standard of care of postoperative patients.

  17. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation.

  18. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lígia de A; Samary, Cynthia S; Oliveira, Milena V; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Schultz, Marcus J; Abreu, Marcelo G; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery. Thirty-five Wistar rats were used, of which 28 were anesthetized, and a laparotomy was performed with standardized bowel manipulation. Postoperatively, animals (n = 7/group) were randomly assigned to 4 hours of ventilation with: (1) tidal volume (VT) = 7 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 1 cm H2O without recruitment maneuvers (RMs) (low VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking the low-VT/low-PEEP strategy of PROVHILO; (2) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 3 cm H2O with RMs before laparotomy and hourly thereafter (low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+), mimicking the protective ventilation strategy of IMPROVE; (3) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 6 cm H2O with RMs only before laparotomy (low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+), mimicking the strategy used after intubation and before extubation in PROVHILO; or (4) VT = 14 mL/kg and PEEP = 1 cm H2O without RMs (high VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking conventional ventilation used in IMPROVE. Seven rats were not tracheotomized, operated, or mechanically ventilated, and constituted the healthy nonoperated and nonventilated controls. Low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+ and low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+, compared to low VT/low PEEP/RM- and high VT/low PEEP/RM-, resulted in lower ΔPRS (7.1 ± 0.8 and 10.2 ± 2.1 cm H2O vs 13.9 ± 0.9 and 16.9 ± 0.8 cm H2O, respectively; P< .001) and less mechanical power (63 ± 7 and 79 ± 20 J/min vs 110 ± 10 and 120 ± 20 J/min, respectively; P = .007). Low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+ was associated with less alveolar collapse than low VT/low PEEP/RM- (P = .03). E-cadherin expression

  19. [Early inflammatory response following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparison between endovascular procedure and conventional, open surgery].

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Ivan; Jevtić, Miodrag; Misović, Sidor; Vojvodić, Danilo; Zoranović, Uros; Rusović, Sinisa; Sarac, Momir; Stanojević, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) represents a pathological enlargment of infrarenal portion of aorta for over 50% of its lumen. The only treatment of AAA is a surgical reconstruction of the affected segment. Until the late XX century, surgical reconstruction implied explicit, open repair (OR) of AAA, which was accompanied by a significant morbidity and mortality of the treated patients. Development of endovascular repair of (EVAR) AAA, especially in the last decade, offered another possibility of surgical reconstruction of AAA. The preliminary results of world studies show that complications of such a procedure, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients, are significantly lower than with OR of AAA. The aim of this paper was to present results of comparative clinical prospective study of early inflammatory response after reconstruction of AAA be tween endovascular and open, conventional surgical technique. A comparative clinical prospective study included 39 patients, electively operated on for AAA within the period of December 2008 - February 2010, divided into two groups. The group I counted 21 (54%) of the patients, 58-87 years old (mean 74.3 years), who had been submited to EVAR by the use of excluder stent graft. The group II consisted of 18 (46%) of the patients, 49-82 (mean 66.8) years, operated on using OR technique. All of the treated patients in both groups had AAA larger than 50 mm. The study did not include patients who have been treated as urgent cases, due to the rupture or with simptomatic AAA. Clinical, biochemical and inflamatory parameters in early postoperative period were analyzed, in direct postoperative course (number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, serum circulating levels of cytokine--interleukine (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10). Parameters were monitored on the zero, first, second, third and seventh postoperative days. The study was approved by the Ethics Commitee of the Military Medical Academy. The study showed a statistically significantly

  20. A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial of a gentamicin vancomycin gel (DFA-02) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Berry, Scott M; Bergese, Sergio D; Fleshner, Phillip R; Minkowitz, Harold S; Segura-Vasi, Alvaro M; Itani, Kamal M F; Henderson, Karen W; Rackowski, Felicia P; Aberle, Laura H; Stryjewski, Martin E; Corey, G Ralph; Allenby, Kent S

    2017-06-01

    SI is a significant medical problem. DFA-02 is an investigational bioresorbable modified release gel consisting of both gentamicin (16.8 mg/mL) and vancomycin (18.8 mg/mL). A Phase 2a study, where the drug was applied during surgical incision closure, suggested safety and tolerability but was not designed to assess its efficacy. In a Phase 2b randomized, blinded trial patients undergoing abdominal, primarily colorectal, surgery were randomized (4:1:1) to one of three study arms: DFA-02, matching placebo gel, or standard of care (SOC) involving irrigation of the wound with normal saline. The DFA-02 and placebo gel groups received up to 20 mL of study drug inserted above the fascia during wound closure, and were treated in a double-blind manner; the SOC group was treated in a single-blind manner. The primary endpoint was SSI (adjudicated centrally by a blinded committee) through postoperative day 30. Overall, 445 subjects (intention-to-treat) were randomized at 35 centers with 425 subjects completing the study and being evaluable. There were 67 SSIs (15.8%): 64.2% superficial, 7.5% deep, and 28.4% organ space. The incidence of SSI was not statistically significantly different between the DFA-02 and the placebo gel/SOC arms combined, 42/287 = 14.6% vs 25/138 = 18.1% (p = 0.36), respectively. Rehospitalization within 30 days was also similar between study groups (DFA-02 28.6%, placebo gel 21.4%, SOC 27.3%). In this multicenter, blinded, randomized trial with central adjudication, the gentamicin/vancomycin gel was not associated with a significant reduction in SSI. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomized to one of three study arms: DFA-02 gel consisting of both gentamicin and vancomycin, matching placebo gel, or standard of care (SOC). Of 425 patients completing the study at 35 sites the gentamicin/vancomycin gel was not associated with a significant reduction in SSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Educational program in crisis management for cardiac surgery teams including high realism simulation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Raemer, Daniel B; Schneider, Robert C; Frankel, Allan S; Berry, William R; Agnihotri, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac surgery demands effective teamwork for safe, high-quality care. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a comprehensive program to sharpen performance of experienced cardiac surgical teams in acute crisis management. We developed and implemented an educational program for cardiac surgery based on high realism acute crisis simulation scenarios and interactive whole-unit workshop. The impact of these interventions was assessed with postintervention questionnaires, preintervention and 6-month postintervention surveys, and structured interviews. The realism of the acute crisis simulation scenarios gradually improved; most participants rated both the simulation and whole-unit workshop as very good or excellent. Repeat simulation training was recommended every 6 to 12 months by 82% of the participants. Participants of the interactive workshop identified 2 areas of highest priority: encouraging speaking up about critical information and interprofessional information sharing. They also stressed the importance of briefings, early communication of surgical plan, knowing members of the team, and continued simulation for practice. The pre/post survey response rates were 70% (55/79) and 66% (52/79), respectively. The concept of working as a team improved between surveys (P = .028), with a trend for improvement in gaining common understanding of the plan before a procedure (P = .075) and appropriate resolution of disagreements (P = .092). Interviewees reported that the training had a positive effect on their personal behaviors and patient care, including speaking up more readily and communicating more clearly. Comprehensive team training using simulation and a whole-unit interactive workshop can be successfully deployed for experienced cardiac surgery teams with demonstrable benefits in participant's perception of team performance. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Duration of storage influences the hemoglobin rising effect of red blood cells in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Hessler, Katarina; Krannich, Alexander; Boemke, Willehad; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Meyer, Oliver; Pruß, Axel; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2018-04-17

    After transfusion of senescent red blood cells (RBCs) a considerable fraction is rapidly cleared from the recipients' circulation. Thus, transfusion of senescent RBCs may be less effective in terms of increasing hemoglobin concentration (cHb) after transfusion. Data were retrospectively obtained in patients who underwent major abdominal surgery between 2006 and 2012. Patients were eligible if they received RBCs during surgery and had at least two arterial blood gas analyses performed. The primary endpoint was the increase of recipients' cHb related to the transfusion of 1 unit of RBCs with respect to different storage periods. Four storage periods were defined according to the distribution of RBC storage of the study population. General estimating equation was used for calculation of the primary endpoint and to adjust for confounding variables. A total of 598 arterial blood gas samples from 120 patients, receiving 429 RBC units, were analyzed. Mean (±SD) RBC storage was 21 (±9) days. RBC storage duration and the increase in recipients' cHb were inversely and gradually related; that is, the older the RBCs, the lower the increase in the recipients' cHb after transfusion (storage < 12 days, ΔcHb per unit RBCs +0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.21] g/dL, p < 0.01; storage 12-20 days, +0.66 [0.46-0.86] g/dL, p < 0.01; storage 21-29 days, +0.56 [0.33-0.79] g/dL, p < 0.01; storage ≥30 days, +0.39 [0.07 to 0.71] g/dL, p = 0.02). Transfusion of senescent RBCs increased cHb less effectively than transfusion of fresher RBCs. © 2018 AABB.

  3. Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n = 15) or 80% oxygen (n = 20) during and for 2 h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30 min during anesthesia and 90 min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2 h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P = 0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.10). The median FRC was 1993 mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875 mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615 mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633 mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

  4. Impact of Targeted Preoperative Optimization on Clinical Outcome in Emergency Abdominal Surgeries: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ashish; Debbarma, Miltan; Narang, Neeraj; Saxena, Anudeep; Mahobia, Mamta; Tomar, Gaurav Singh

    2018-01-01

    Perforation peritonitis continues to be one of the most common surgical emergencies that need a surgical intervention most of the times. Anesthesiologists are invariably involved in managing such cases efficiently in perioperative period. The assessment and evaluation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at presentation and 24 h after goal-directed optimization, administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, and definitive source control postoperatively. Outcome assessment in terms of duration of hospital stay and mortality in with or without optimization was also measured. It is a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study in hospital setting. One hundred and one patients aged ≥18 years, of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II (E) with clinical diagnosis of perforation peritonitis posted for surgery were enrolled. Enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A is optimized by goal-directed optimization protocol in the preoperative holding room by anesthesiology residents whereas in Group S, managed by surgery residents in the surgical wards without any fixed algorithm. The assessment of APACHE II score was done as a first step on admission and 24 h postoperatively. Duration of hospital stay and mortality in both the groups were also measured and compared. Categorical data are presented as frequency counts (percent) and compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The statistical significance for categorical variables was determined by Chi-square analysis. For continuous variables, a two-sample t -test was applied. The mean APACHE II score on admission in case and control groups was comparable. Significant lowering of serial scores in case group was observed as compared to control group ( P = 0.02). There was a significant lowering of mean duration of hospital stay seen in case group (9.8 ± 1.7 days) as compared to control group ( P = 0

  5. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  6. Initial experience of restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis by transanal total mesorectal rectal excision and single-incision abdominal laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Leo, C A; Samaranayake, S; Perry-Woodford, Z L; Vitone, L; Faiz, O; Hodgkinson, J D; Shaikh, I; Warusavitarne, J

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is well established for colon cancer, with defined benefits. Use of laparoscopy for the performance of restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileoanal anastomosis is more controversial. Technical aspects include difficult dissection of the distal rectum and a potentially increased risk of anastomotic leakage through multiple firings of the stapler. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties we have used the technique of transanal rectal excision to perform the proctectomy. This paper describes the technique, which is combined with an abdominal approach using a single-incision platform (SIP). Data were collected prospectively for consecutive operations between May 2013 and October 2015, including all cases of restorative proctocolectomy with ileoanal pouch anastomosis performed laparoscopically. Only patients having a transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) assisted by SIP were included. The indication for RPC was ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to medical treatment. The procedure was performed on 16 patients with a median age of 46 (26-70) years. The male:female ratio was 5:3 and the median hospital stay was 6 (3-20) days. The median operation time was 247 (185-470) min and the overall conversion rate to open surgery was 18.7%. The 30-day surgical complication rate was 37.5% (Clavien-Dindo 1 in four patients, 2 in one patient and 3 in one patient). One patient developed anastomotic leakage 2 weeks postoperatively. This initial study has demonstrated the feasibility and safety of TaTME combined with SIP when performing RPC with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for UC. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Jiro; Motohashi, Gyo; Nishida, Kiyotaka; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Ubukata, Hideyuki; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the abdominal cavity. The recurrent DSRCT was diagnosed and removed via lower anterior resection; however, complete resection was impossible due to multiple peritoneal metastases. One year later, the patient developed pain in the right groin due to the growth of metastasized tumor cells in the groin lymph nodes. The affected lymph nodes were removed utilizing an extra-peritoneal approach. At the time of writing, the patient continues to survive without any symptoms 60 months since the initial surgery. In conclusion, surgical debulking is a significant procedure for relieving patient symptoms as well as improving the survival time of patients with metastatic and recurrent DSRCT.

  8. Verification of Data Accuracy in Japan Congenital Cardiovascular Surgery Database Including Its Postprocedural Complication Reports.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Arata; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Tomotaki, Ai; Matsumura, Goki; Fukuchi, Eriko; Hirata, Yasutaka; Murakami, Arata; Hashimoto, Hideki; Ono, Minoru; Miyata, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    Japan Congenital Cardiovascluar Surgical Database (JCCVSD) is a nationwide registry whose data are used for health quality assessment and clinical research in Japan. We evaluated the completeness of case registration and the accuracy of recorded data components including postprocedural mortality and complications in the database via on-site data adjudication. We validated the records from JCCVSD 2010 to 2012 containing congenital cardiovascular surgery data performed in 111 facilities throughout Japan. We randomly chose nine facilities for site visit by the auditor team and conducted on-site data adjudication. We assessed whether the records in JCCVSD matched the data in the source materials. We identified 1,928 cases of eligible surgeries performed at the facilities, of which 1,910 were registered (99.1% completeness), with 6 cases of duplication and 1 inappropriate case registration. Data components including gender, age, and surgery time (hours) were highly accurate with 98% to 100% concordance. Mortality at discharge and at 30 and 90 postoperative days was 100% accurate. Among the five complications studied, reoperation was the most frequently observed, with 16 and 21 cases recorded in the database and source materials, respectively, having a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.99. Validation of JCCVSD database showed high registration completeness and high accuracy especially in the categorical data components. Adjudicated mortality was 100% accurate. While limited in numbers, the recorded cases of postoperative complications all had high specificities but had lower sensitivity (0.67-1.00). Continued activities for data quality improvement and assessment are necessary for optimizing the utility of these registries.

  9. Association of industry sponsorship and positive outcome in randomised controlled trials in general and abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review and empirical study.

    PubMed

    Probst, Pascal; Grummich, Kathrin; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W; Knebel, Phillip; Diener, Markus K

    2014-11-27

    Industry sponsorship has been identified as a factor correlating with positive research findings in several fields of medical science. To date, the influence of industry sponsorship in general and abdominal surgery has not been fully studied. This protocol describes the rationale and planned conduct of a systematic review to determine the association between industry sponsorship and positive outcome in randomised controlled trials in general and abdominal surgery. A literature search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE and additional hand searches in relevant citations will be conducted. In order to cover all relevant areas of general and abdominal surgery, a new literature search strategy called multi-PICO search strategy (MPSS) has been developed. No language restriction will be applied. The search will be limited to publications between January 1985 and July 2014. Information on funding source, outcome, study characteristics and methodological quality will be extracted.The association between industry sponsorship and positive outcome will be tested by a chi-squared test. A multivariate logistic regression analysis will be performed to control for possible confounders, such as number of study centres, multinational trials, methodological quality, journal impact factor and sample size. This study was designed to clarify whether industry-sponsored trials report more positive outcomes than non-industry trials. It will be the first study to evaluate this topic in general and abdominal surgery. The findings of this study will enable surgical societies, in particular, to give advice about cooperation with the industry and disclosure of funding source based on empirical evidence. PROSPERO CRD42014010802.

  10. Value of a step-up diagnosis plan: CRP and CT-scan to diagnose and manage postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Straatman, Jennifer; Cuesta, Miguel A; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Van der Peet, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive protein and CT-scan (computed tomography-scan) imaging for detection of postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery.An observational cohort study was conducted of 399 consecutivepatients undergoing major abdominal surgery between January 2009 and January 2011. Indication for operation, type of surgery, postoperative morbidity, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and mortality were recorded. Clinical parameters were recorded until 14 days postoperatively or until discharge. Regular C-reactive protein (CPR) measurements in peripheral blood and on indication -enhanced CT-scans were performed.Eighty-three out of 399 (20.6 %) patients developed a major complication in the postoperative course after a median of seven days (IQR 4-9 days). One hundred and thirty two patients received additional examination consisting of enhanced CT-scan imaging, and treatment by surgical reintervention or intensive care observation. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications. On the second postoperative dayCRP levels were on average 197.4 mg/L in the uncomplicated group, 220.9 mg/L in patients with a minor complication and 280.1 mg/L in patients with major complications (p < 0,001).CT-scan imaging showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 100 % in diagnosis of major complications. Based on clinical deterioration and the increase of CRP, an additional enhanced CT-scan offered clear discrimination between patients with major abdominal complications and uncomplicated patients. Adequate treatment could then be accomplished.

  11. Dense soft tissue 3D reconstruction refined with super-pixel segmentation for robotic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Penza, Veronica; Ortiz, Jesús; Mattos, Leonardo S; Forgione, Antonello; De Momi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery decreases postoperative infections, but introduces limitations in the surgeon's maneuverability and in the surgical field of view. This work aims at enhancing intra-operative surgical visualization by exploiting the 3D information about the surgical site. An interactive guidance system is proposed wherein the pose of preoperative tissue models is updated online. A critical process involves the intra-operative acquisition of tissue surfaces. It can be achieved using stereoscopic imaging and 3D reconstruction techniques. This work contributes to this process by proposing new methods for improved dense 3D reconstruction of soft tissues, which allows a more accurate deformation identification and facilitates the registration process. Two methods for soft tissue 3D reconstruction are proposed: Method 1 follows the traditional approach of the block matching algorithm. Method 2 performs a nonparametric modified census transform to be more robust to illumination variation. The simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) super-pixel algorithm is exploited for disparity refinement by filling holes in the disparity images. The methods were validated using two video datasets from the Hamlyn Centre, achieving an accuracy of 2.95 and 1.66 mm, respectively. A comparison with ground-truth data demonstrated the disparity refinement procedure: (1) increases the number of reconstructed points by up to 43 % and (2) does not affect the accuracy of the 3D reconstructions significantly. Both methods give results that compare favorably with the state-of-the-art methods. The computational time constraints their applicability in real time, but can be greatly improved by using a GPU implementation.

  12. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Severgnini, Paolo; Jaber, Samir; Canet, Jaume; Wrigge, Hermann; Hiesmayr, Michael; Tschernko, Edda M; Hollmann, Markus W; Binnekade, Jan M; Hedenstierna, Göran; Putensen, Christian; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2011-05-06

    Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO") trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH(2)O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy) or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH(2)O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy). The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574.

  13. Crystalloid versus Colloid for Intraoperative Goal-directed Fluid Therapy Using a Closed-loop System: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Controlled Trial in Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Alexandre; Delaporte, Amelie; Ickx, Brigitte; Touihri, Karim; Stany, Ida; Barvais, Luc; Van Obbergh, Luc; Loi, Patricia; Rinehart, Joseph; Cannesson, Maxime; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The type of fluid and volume regimen given intraoperatively both can impact patient outcome after major surgery. This two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled, double-blind, bi-center superiority study tested the hypothesis that when using closed-loop assisted goal-directed fluid therapy, balanced colloids are associated with fewer postoperative complications compared to balanced crystalloids in patients having major elective abdominal surgery. One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled in the protocol. All patients had maintenance-balanced crystalloid administration of 3 ml · kg · h. A closed-loop system delivered additional 100-ml fluid boluses (patients were randomized to receive either a balanced-crystalloid or colloid solution) according to a predefined goal-directed strategy, using a stroke volume and stroke volume variation monitor. All patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey score, a nine-domain scale, at day 2 postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included all postoperative complications. Patients randomized in the colloid group had a lower Post-Operative Morbidity Survey score (median [interquartile range] of 2 [1 to 3] vs. 3 [1 to 4], difference -1 [95% CI, -1 to 0]; P < 0.001) and a lower incidence of postoperative complications. Total volume of fluid administered intraoperatively and net fluid balance were significantly lower in the colloid group. Under our study conditions, a colloid-based goal-directed fluid therapy was associated with fewer postoperative complications than a crystalloid one. This beneficial effect may be related to a lower intraoperative fluid balance when a balanced colloid was used. However, given the study design, the mechanism for the difference cannot be determined with certainty.

  14. Treatment of ovarian cancer with surgery, short-course chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation.

    PubMed

    Buser, K; Bacchi, M; Goldhirsch, A; Greiner, R; Diener, P; Sessa, C; Jungi, W F; Forni, M; Leyvraz, S; Engeler, V

    1996-01-01

    The primary aim was to induce a high number of pCR in early (FIGO IC, IIB + C) - and advanced (FIGO III-IV) - stage ovarian cancer with a surgery plus 4 cycles of cisplatin and melphalan (PAMP) regimen. The second objective was to prevent relapse with WAR in patients in remission after chemotherapy. 218 eligible patients were treated after staging laparotomy with cisplatin 80 mg/sqm i.v. on day 1 and melphalan 12 mg/sqm i.v. on day 2 q 4 weeks. Response was verified by second-look laparotomy. WAR was carried out with the open field technique on a linear accelerator (daily dose: 1.3 Gy, total dose: 29.9 Gy) in patients with pathological or clinical CR or pathological PR with microscopical residual disease. 146/218 patients (67%, 95% CI: 61%-73%) responded to PAMP: 56 (26%) achieved pCR, 24 (11%), cCR, 56 (26%) pPR and 10 (5%) cPR (c = clinical, p = pathological). Multivariate analyses revealed that in advanced stages (92 cases in remission), the achievement of pCR was the most important factor for longer time to failure (TTF) and survival. Only 51/118 (43%) patients in remission received WAR. Early-stage patients <= 55 years were more likely to have WAR than patients older than 55 years (77% vs. 23%; p = 0.02). Advanced-stage patients with cCR were less likely to be irradiated than patients with pCR or pPR (10% vs. 51%; p = 0.003). Toxicity of PAMP was acceptable with 10% of WHO grade 4 hematologic toxicity. Acute hematological toxicity of WAR caused interruption (33%) or incompleteness (33%) of irradiation in the majority of patients. PAMP is an effective treatment for advanced ovarian cancer with a 67% response rate after 4 cycles. For the majority of patients in remission, WAR as a consolidation treatment was hardly feasible. For these patients new treatment modalities to consolidate remission are needed.

  15. Postoperative Analgesia by a Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Using Different Concentrations of Ropivacaine for Abdominal Surgery: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ni; Wang, Shouyong; Ma, Pengpeng; Liu, Shuting; Shao, Aijie; Xiong, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) has been proven to be an effective means of postoperative anesthesia, but the optimum effective concentration of ropivacaine warrants further research. This study aimed to identify the optimal ropivacaine concentration of TAPB using a meta-analysis. This study consisted of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched online databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science. RCTs investigating the 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption and the rest and dynamic pain scores 2, 12, and 24 hours after surgery were included in this analysis. We also assessed opioid-related side-effects and patient satisfaction 24 hours after surgery. Nineteen RCTs (1217 patients) were included in this meta-analysis, which showed that only TAPB with 0.375% and 0.5% ropivacaine was able to reduce opioid consumption 24 hours after surgery by weighted mean differences of -6.55 and -4.44 mg (morphine IV equivalents), respectively (P<0.05). A meta-regression analysis did not reveal an association between the local anesthetic dose (in mg), surgery, anesthesia, block timing, and the TAPB effect on opioid consumption. Ropivacaine concentrations of 0.375% and 0.5% reduced the 2-hour postoperative pain score and reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting, but this analgesic effect disappeared at 12 and 24 hours. Only TAPB with 0.375% ropivacaine improved the degree of satisfaction 24 hours after surgery (weighted mean difference of 0.87 [0.08-1.66], P=0.03). In terms of efficacy and safety, the use of 0.375% ropivacaine for TAPB is preferred in the clinical work.

  16. Desmoid tumors of the abdominal wall: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Overhaus, Marcus; Decker, Pan; Fischer, Hans Peter; Textor, Hans Jochen; Hirner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential. Case Presentation We report on two female patients with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. Both patients had a history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The histology in both cases revealed a desmoid tumor. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is the first line management of this tumor entity. PMID:12890284

  17. Successful Treatment of Abdominal Cutaneous Entrapment Syndrome Using Ultrasound Guided Injection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong Joo; Seo, Dong Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    There are various origins for chronic abdominal pain. About 10-30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain have abdominal wall pain. Unfortunately, abdominal wall pain is not thought to be the first origin of chronic abdominal pain; therefore, patients usually undergo extensive examinations, including diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the muscular foramen of the rectus abdominis is a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. If abdominal wall pain is considered in earlier stage of chronic abdominal pain, unnecessary invasive procedures are not required and patients will reach symptom free condition as soon as the diagnosis is made. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of a patient with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by ultrasound guided injection therapy. PMID:23862004

  18. Physiotherapy education and training prior to upper abdominal surgery is memorable and has high treatment fidelity: a nested mixed-methods randomised-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Boden, Ianthe; El-Ansary, Doa; Zalucki, Nadia; Robertson, Iain K; Browning, Laura; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Denehy, Linda

    2018-06-01

    To (1) assess memorability and treatment fidelity of pre-operative physiotherapy education prior to elective upper abdominal surgery and, (2) to explore patient opinions on pre-operative education. Mixed-methods analysis of a convenience sample within a larger parallel-group, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Tertiary Australian hospital. Twenty-nine patients having upper abdominal surgery attending pre-admission clinic within six-weeks of surgery. The control group received an information booklet about preventing pulmonary complications with early ambulation and breathing exercises. The experimental group received an additional face-to-face 30-minute physiotherapy education and training session on pulmonary complications, early ambulation, and breathing exercises. Primary outcome was proportion of participants who remembered the taught breathing exercises following surgery. Secondary outcomes were recall of information sub-items and attainment of early ambulation goals. These were measured using standardised scoring of a semi-scripted digitally-recorded interview on the 5th postoperative day, and the attainment of early ambulation goals over the first two postoperative days. Experimental group participants were six-times more likely to remember the breathing exercises (95%CI 1.7 to 22) and 11-times more likely (95%CI 1.6 to 70) to report physiotherapy as the most memorable part of pre-admission clinic. Participants reported physiotherapy education content to be detailed, interesting, and of high value. Some participants reported not reading the booklet and professed a preference for face-to-face information delivery. Face-to-face pre-operative physiotherapy education and training prior to upper abdominal surgery is memorable and has high treatment fidelity. ACTRN-12613000664741. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  20. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  1. Protocol, and practical challenges, for a randomised controlled trial comparing the impact of high intensity interval training against standard care before major abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, John; Zacharias, Matthew; Wilson, Genevieve; Munro, Fran; Thomas, Kate; Gray, Andrew; Baldi, James

    2018-06-25

    Risk factors, such as the number of pre-existing co-morbidities, the extent of the underlying pathology and the magnitude of the required operation, cannot be changed before surgery. It may, however, be possible to improve the cardiopulmonary fitness of the patient with an individualised exercise program. We are performing a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on preoperative cardiopulmonary fitness and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Consecutive eligible patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery are being randomised to HIIT or standard care in a 1:1 ratio. Participants allocated to HIIT will perform 14 exercise sessions on a stationary cycle ergometer, over a period of 4-6 weeks before surgery. The sessions, which are individualised, aim to start with ten repeated 1-min blocks of intense exercise with a target of reaching a heart rate exceeding 90% of the age predicted maximum, followed by 1 min of lower intensity cycling. As endurance improves, the duration of exercise is increased to achieve five 2-min intervals of high intensity exercise followed by 2 min of lower intensity cycling. Each training session lasts approximately 30 min. The primary endpoint, change in peak oxygen consumption (Peak VO 2 ) measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, is assessed at baseline and before surgery. Secondary endpoints include postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and three clinically validated scores: the surgical recovery scale; the postoperative morbidity survey; and the SF-36 quality of life score. The standard deviation for changes in Peak VO 2 will be assessed after the first 30 patients and will be used to calculate the required sample size. We want to assess if 14 sessions of HIIT is sufficient to improve Peak VO 2 by 2 mL/kg/min in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and to explore the best clinical endpoint for a subsequent RCT

  2. Long-term safety of left renal vein division and ligation to expedite complex abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Samson, Russell H; Lepore, Michael R; Showalter, David P; Nair, Deepak G; Lanoue, Julien B

    2009-09-01

    Left renal vein division and ligation (LRVDAL) is performed to facilitate complex abdominal aortic surgery. Surgeons restore continuity of the vein due to concern that ligation could cause renal compromise or hematuria. However, we report the short and long-term safety of left renal vein division and ligation. Between 1992 and 2007, we divided the left renal vein in 56 patients (40 males, 16 females) ages 57 to 84 (average 74-years-old) who were treated for aortic occlusive disease (9) or abdominal aortic aneurysm (47). Patients requiring concomitant renal artery reconstruction were excluded from this review. Suprarenal cross-clamp was used in 51 patients with temporary vessel-loop control of the renal arteries. Creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were measured pre-, post-, and long-term after surgery. Outpatient records of all patients that had survived more than 12 months were also reviewed in order to evaluate the late effects on renal function or symptoms possibly related to LRVDAL. Median procedure duration was 157 (61-375) minutes. Median cross-clamp time was 16 (10-45) minutes. Median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stays were 2 (1-11) days and 7 (4-58) days, respectively. There were no deaths. There were no complications directly related to renal vein ligation. Hematuria, seen in 2 patients, was a result of traumatic insertion of a Foley catheter. Median pre-op and discharge Cr levels were 1.1 mg/dL (0.7-2.4 mg/dL) and 1.1 mg/dL (0.6-2.1 mg/dL), respectively (P < .5). Median change in Cr was 0.0 mg/dL and only increased in 14 patients (maximum increase 0.9 mg/dL). Median pre-op and discharge eGFR was 61 mL/minute (28-137 mL/minute/1.73 m2) and 67 mL/minute (32-138 mL/minute/1.73 m2), respectively (P < .5). Cr and eGFR in the 2 patients with a Cr of >2.0 mg/dL remained unchanged post-op. Only 2 patients with a Cr of <2.0 mg/dL had a post-op Cr >2.0 mg/dL and both returned to normal by day 3 post-op. Thirty-six patients

  3. Central administration of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST prevents abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of circulating ghrelin, food intake and gastric emptying in rats

    PubMed Central

    STENGEL, A.; GOEBEL-STENGEL, M.; WANG, L.; LUCKEY, A.; HU, E.; RIVIER, J.; TACHÉ, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Activation of brain somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) with the stable pan-sst1-5 somatostatin agonist, ODT8-SST blocks acute stress and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated activation of endocrine adrenal sympathetic responses. Brain CRF signaling is involved in delaying gastric emptying (GE) immediately post surgery. We investigated whether activation of brain sst signaling pathways modulates surgical stress-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and food intake. Methods Fasted rats were injected intracisternally (i.c.) with somatostatin agonists and underwent laparotomy and 1-min cecal palpation. GE of a non-nutrient solution and circulating acyl and desacyl ghrelin levels were assessed 50 min post surgery. Food intake was monitored for 24h. Key results The abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of GE (65%), food intake (73% at 2h) and plasma acyl ghrelin levels (67%) was completely prevented by ODT8-SST (1μg/rat, i.c.). The selective sst5 agonist, BIM-23052 prevented surgery-induced delayed GE, whereas selective sst1, sst2 or sst4 agonists had no effect. However, the selective sst2 agonist, S-346-011 (1μg/rat, i.c.) counteracted the abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of acyl ghrelin and food intake but not the delayed GE. The ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (0.93 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) blocked i.p. ghrelin-induced increased GE, while not influencing i.c. ODT8-SST-induced prevention of delayed GE and reduced food intake after surgery. Conclusions & Inferences ODT8-SST acts in the brain to prevent surgery-induced delayed GE likely via activating sst5. ODT8-SST and the sst2 agonist prevent the abdominal surgery-induced decrease in food intake and plasma acyl ghrelin indicating dissociation between brain somatostatin signaling involved in preventing surgery-induced suppression of GE and feeding response. PMID:21569179

  4. Emulation of the laparoscopic environment for image-guided liver surgery via an abdominal phantom system with anatomical ligamenture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiselman, Jon S.; Collins, Jarrod A.; Clements, Logan W.; Weis, Jared A.; Simpson, Amber L.; Geevarghese, Sunil K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    In order to rigorously validate techniques for image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), an accurate mock representation of the intraoperative surgical scene with quantifiable localization of subsurface targets would be highly desirable. However, many attempts to reproduce the laparoscopic environment have encountered limited success due to neglect of several crucial design aspects. The laparoscopic setting is complicated by factors such as gas insufflation of the abdomen, changes in patient orientation, incomplete organ mobilization from ligaments, and limited access to organ surface data. The ability to accurately represent the influences of anatomical changes and procedural limitations is critical for appropriate evaluation of IGLS methodologies such as registration and deformation correction. However, these influences have not yet been comprehensively integrated into a platform usable for assessment of methods in laparoscopic IGLS. In this work, a mock laparoscopic liver simulator was created with realistic ligamenture to emulate the complexities of this constrained surgical environment for the realization of laparoscopic IGLS. The mock surgical system reproduces an insufflated abdominal cavity with dissectible ligaments, variable levels of incline matching intraoperative patient positioning, and port locations in accordance with surgical protocol. True positions of targets embedded in a tissue-mimicking phantom are measured from CT images. Using this setup, image-to-physical registration accuracy was evaluated for simulations of laparoscopic right and left lobe mobilization to assess rigid registration performance under more realistic laparoscopic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that non-rigid organ deformations and the region of organ surface data collected affect the ability to attain highly accurate registrations in laparoscopic applications.

  5. Preoperative immunonutrition suppresses perioperative inflammatory response in patients with major abdominal surgery-a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giger, Urs; Büchler, Markus; Farhadi, Jian; Berger, Dieter; Hüsler, Jürg; Schneider, Heinz; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Krähenbühl, Lukas

    2007-10-01

    Perioperative administration of immunoenriched diets attenuates the perioperative inflammatory response and reduces postoperative infection complications. However, many questions still remain unresolved in this area, such as the length of diet administration, diet composition, and the mechanisms involved. We performed an open, randomized, triple-arm study comparing the effect of two perioperative feeding regimens with a postoperative one. 46 candidates for major elective surgery for malignancy in the upper gastrointestinal tract were randomized to drink preoperatively either 1 L of an immunoenriched formula (Impact) for 5 days (IEF group) or 1 L of Impact plus (Impact enriched with glycine) for 2 days (IEF plus group). The same product as the patient received preoperatively was given to both groups for 7 days postoperatively. In the control group (CON group), patients only received Impact for 7 days postoperatively; there was no preoperative treatment. The main outcome measures were postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels. In the two preoperatively supplemented groups (treatment groups), perioperative endotoxin levels, CRP (postoperative day 7), and TNF-alpha (postoperative days 1 and 3) levels were significantly lower compared to the CON group (p < .01). Furthermore, the length of postoperative IMU/ICU stay (Impact 1.9 +/- 1.3 days; Impact plus 2.2 +/- 1.1 days; control group 5.9 +/- 0.8 days) and length of hospital stay (Impact 19.7 +/- 2.3 days; Impact plus 20.1 +/- 1.3 days; control group 29.1 +/- 3.6 days) were both reduced in the treatment groups compared to the control group. Infectious complications (Impact 2/14 (14%); Impact plus 5/17 (29%); control group 10/15 (67%)) also showed a trend toward reduction in the treatment groups. Perioperative administration of an immunoenriched diet significantly reduces systemic perioperative inflammation and postoperative complications in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery, when compared with

  6. Endoscopic management of pancreatic fistula after pancreatic and other abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Le Moine, Olivier; Matos, Celso; Closset, Jean; Devière, Jacques

    2004-10-01

    Post-operative pancreatic fistulae represent a challenge for all the actors in gastroenterology: for surgeons, because they want to prevent and treat conservatively this complication since re-operation is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates; for radiologists, because they have to provide the best staging and informations without any additional risk; and for endoscopists, because endoluminal treatment is emerging as a safe and effective procedure provided it is performed in highly experienced tertiary centres in the setting of a multidisciplinary approach. Herein, we review the definitions, the causes, the staging and the possible options to prevent or treat post-operative pancreatic fistulae. Special attention is paid to the endoscopic management of this complication: including the relief of ductal obstructions, the stenting of leakages and the drainage of bulging or non-bulging fluid collections. Practical problems and issues are clearly outlined as well as the need for future improvements in staging and management of the patients having such complications.

  7. The effect of ethnicity on in-hospital mortality following emergency abdominal surgery: a national cohort study using Hospital Episode Statistics.

    PubMed

    Vohra, R S; Evison, F; Bejaj, I; Ray, D; Patel, P; Pinkney, T D

    2015-11-01

    Ethnicity has complex effects on health and the delivery of health care in part related to language and cultural barriers. This may be important in patients requiring emergency abdominal surgery where delays have profound impact on outcomes. The aim here was to test if variations in outcomes (e.g. in-hospital mortality) exist by ethnic group following emergency abdominal surgery. Retrospective cohort study using population-level routinely collected administrative data from England (Hospital Episode Statistics). Adult patients undergoing emergency abdominal operations between April 2008 and March 2012 were identified. Operations were divided into: 'major', 'hepatobiliary' or 'appendectomy/minor'. The primary outcome was all cause in-hospital mortality. Univariable and multivariable analysis odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals, CI) adjusting for selected factors were performed. 359,917 patients were identified and 80.7% of patients were White British, 4.7% White (Other), 2.4% Afro-Caribbean, 1.6% Indian, 2.6% Chinese, 3.1% Asian (Other) and 4.9% not known, with crude in-hospital mortality rates of 4.4%, 3.1%, 2.0%, 2.6%, 1.6%, 1.7% and 5.17%, respectively. The majority of patients underwent appendectomy/minor (61.9%) compared to major (20.9%) or hepatobiliary (17.2%) operations (P < 0.001) with an in-hospital mortality of 1.7%, 11.5% and 3.9% respectively. Adjusted mortality was largely similar across ethnic groups except where ethnicity was not recorded (compared to White British patients following major surgery OR 2.05, 95% 1.82-2.31, P < 0.01, hepatobiliary surgery OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.31-3.36, P = 0.01 and appendectomy/minor surgery OR 1.78, 95% 1.52-2.08, P < 0.01). Ethnicity is not associated with poorer outcomes following emergency abdominal surgery. However, ethnicity is not recorded in 5% of this cohort and this represents an important, yet un-definable, group with significantly poorer outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health

  8. Validation of a coding algorithm for intra-abdominal surgeries and adhesion-related complications in an electronic medical records database

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Frank I; Mamtani, Ronac; Haynes, Kevin; Goldberg, David S; Mahmoud, Najjia N.; Lewis, James D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Epidemiological data on adhesion-related complications following intra-abdominal surgery are limited. We tested the accuracy of recording of these surgeries and complications within The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care database within the United Kingdom. METHODS Individuals within THIN from 1995–2011 with an incident intra-abdominal surgery and subsequent bowel obstruction (SBO) or adhesiolysis were identified using diagnostic codes. To compute positive predictive values (PPVs), requests were sent to treating physicians of patients with these diagnostic codes to confirm the surgery, SBO, or adhesiolysis code. Completeness of recording was estimated by comparing observed surgical rates within THIN to expected rates derived from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) dataset within England. Cumulative incidence rates of adhesion-related complications at 5 years were compared to a previously published cohort within Scotland. RESULTS 217 of 245 (89%) questionnaires were returned (180 SBO and 37 adhesiolysis). The PPV of codes for surgery was 94.5% (95%CI: 91–97%). 88.8% of procedure types were correctly coded. The PPV for SBO and adhesiolysis was 86.1% (95% CI: 80–91%) and 89.2% (95% CI: 75–97%), respectively. Colectomy, appendectomy, and cholecystectomy rates within THIN were 99%, 95%, and 84% of rates observed in national HES data, respectively. Cumulative incidence rates of adhesion related complications following colectomy, appendectomy, and small bowel surgery were similar to those published previously. CONCLUSIONS Surgical procedures, SBO, and adhesiolysis can be accurately identified within THIN using diagnostic codes. THIN represents a new tool for assessing patient-specific risk factors for adhesion-related complications and long term outcomes. PMID:26860870

  9. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrates and peptides on postoperative endocrine response, mobilization, nutrition and muscle function in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, M G; Hessov, I; Dela, F; Hansen, H Vind; Haraldsted, V; Rodt, S A

    2003-02-01

    Surgery is succeeded by long-lasting state of relative peripheral insulin resistance, which is reduced by giving glucose infusion or oral carbohydrate-rich drinks immediate before operating instead of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oral carbohydrate or carbohydrate with peptide drinks preoperatively instead of fasting would improve postoperative voluntary muscle strength, nutritional intake and ambulation, decrease postoperative fatigue, anxiety and discomfort, and reduce the endocrine response to surgery. Forty-eight patients were included and randomized into three groups to receive 2 x 400 ml of carbohydrate-rich drinks or to fast overnight and allowed only water. Voluntary grip and quadriceps strength, body composition, pulmonary function, VAS-score of eight parameters of wellbeing, muscle biopsies and insulin, glucagon, IGF-1 and free fatty acids were measured before and after the operation. The basic postoperative regimen for all groups were immediate oral nutrition and early enforced mobilization. Significant postoperative decrease in glycogen synthase activity in the muscle biopsies was reduced in the intervention groups, and in combination, the intervention groups had a less reduced quadriceps strength after one week (-10% vs. -16%, NS) and one month (-5% vs. -13%, P < 0.05). Minor changes in the endocrine response to surgery were found without differences between the groups, and there were no differences between the groups in ambulation time, nutritional intake or subjective measures of wellbeing. Copyright Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 47 (2003)

  10. Results of complex aortic stent grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms stratified according to the proximal landing zone using the Society for Vascular Surgery classification.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay D; Constantinou, Jason; Simring, Dominic; Ramirez, Manfred; Agu, Obiekezie; Hamilton, Hamish; Ivancev, Krassi

    2015-08-01

    Advances in endovascular technology have led to the successful treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, there is currently no consensus on what constitutes a juxtarenal, pararenal, or suprarenal aneurysm. There is emerging evidence that the extent of the aneurysm repair is associated with outcome. We compare the outcomes of 150 consecutive patients treated with a fenestrated or branched stent graft and present the data stratified according to the Society for Vascular Surgery classification based on proximal anatomic landing zones. A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients undergoing fenestrated or branched stent graft insertion in a tertiary center between 2008 and 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. Aneurysms were subdivided into zones according to where the area of proximal seal could be achieved in relation to the visceral arteries. Zone 8 covers the renal arteries, zone 7 covers the superior mesenteric artery, and zone 6 covers the celiac axis. Patient demographics, operative variables, mortality, and major morbidity were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis to assess for differences between zones. During the study period, 150 patients were treated. There were 49 in zone 8, 76 in zone 7, and 25 in zone 6. Prior aortic surgery had been performed in 19 patients, which included 11 patients with previous endovascular aneurysm repairs. There was significantly increased blood loss (P < .001), operative time (P < .0001), total hospital stay (P = .018), and intensive care unit stay (P < .0001) as the zones ascended the aorta. There were 14 inpatient deaths recorded across all zones with a 30-day mortality rate of 8%. Logistic regression analysis for 30 day mortality showed a significant increase as the zones ascended (P = .007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 5-year survival significantly deteriorated as the zones ascended (P = .039), with no significant difference in the freedom from reintervention curves between zones

  11. Implementation of a guideline for physical therapy in the postoperative period of upper abdominal surgery reduces the incidence of atelectasis and length of hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Souza Possa, S; Braga Amador, C; Meira Costa, A; Takahama Sakamoto, E; Seiko Kondo, C; Maida Vasconcellos, A L; Moran de Brito, C M; Pereira Yamaguti, W

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a physical therapy guideline for patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery (UAS) in reducing the incidence of atelectasis and length of hospital stay in the postoperative period. A "before and after" study design with historical control was used. The "before" period included consecutive patients who underwent UAS before guideline implementation (intervention). The "after" period included consecutive patients after guideline implementation. Patients in the pre-intervention period were submitted to a program of physical therapy in which the treatment planning was based on the individual experience of each professional. On the other hand, patients who were included in the post-intervention period underwent a standardized program of physical therapy with a focus on the use of additional strategies (EPAP, incentive spirometry and early mobilization). There was a significant increase in the use of incentive spirometry and positive expiratory airway pressure after guideline implementation. Moreover, it was observed that early ambulation occurred in all patients in the post-intervention period. No patient who adhered totally to the guideline in the post-intervention period developed atelectasis. Individuals in the post-intervention period presented a shorter length of hospital stay (9.2±4.1 days) compared to patients in the pre-intervention period (12.1±8.3 days) (p<0.05). The implementation of a physical therapy guideline for patients undergoing UAS resulted in reduced incidence of atelectasis and reduction in length of hospital stay in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  13. Experimental validation of more realistic computer models for stent-graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, including pre-load assessment.

    PubMed

    Roy, David; Lerouge, Sophie; Inaekyan, Karina; Kauffmann, Claude; Mongrain, Rosaire; Soulez, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Although the endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms is a less invasive alternative than classic open surgery, complications such as endoleak and kinking still need to be addressed. Numerical simulation of endovascular repair is becoming a valuable tool in stent-graft (SG) optimization, patient selection and surgical planning. The experimental and numerical forces required to produce SG deformations were compared in a range of in vivo conditions in the present study. The deformation modes investigated were: bending as well as axial, transversal and radial compressions. In particular, an original method was developed to efficiently account for radial pre-load because of the pre-compression of stents to match the graft dimensions during manufacturing. This is important in order to compute the radial force exerted on the vessel after deployment more accurately. Variations of displacement between the experimental and numerical results ranged from 1.39% for simple leg bending to 5.93% for three-point body bending. Finally, radial pre-load was modeled by increasing Young's modulus of each stent. On average, it was found that Young's modulus had to be augmented by a factor of 2. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8 th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8 th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest ( P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h ( P = 0.001). For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption.

  15. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Results: Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest (P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h (P = 0.001). Conclusion: For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption. PMID:28928569

  16. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P < 0.05). The median postoperative length of stay in the multimodal EON group was 8 days (6, 12) versus 10 days (7, 18) in the conventional care group (P < 0.001). The total cost of treatment and nutritional support were also less in the multi-modal early oral nutrition group (P < 0.001). The effectiveness was 84.9 and 79.9% in the multimodal EON and conventional care group, respectively (P = 0.475). However, the cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 537.6 (506.1, 589.3) and USD 637.8 (593.9, 710.3), respectively (P < 0.001). The multi-modal early oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal

  17. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  18. Abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians: dietary strategies including edible oils, cooking practices and sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S; Misra, A

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods. Although dietary intervention trials are few; the data show that improving quality of carbohydrates (more complex carbohydrates), improving fat quality (more monounsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and increasing protein intake could improve blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, inflammatory markers and hepatic fat, but more studies are needed. Finally, regulatory framework must be tightened to impose taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, oils such as palmolein, and dietary fats and limit trans fats.

  19. Early complications, pain, and quality of life after reconstructive surgery for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis: a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, P; Gunnarsson, U; Strigård, K; Stark, B

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate early complications following retromuscular mesh repair with those after dual layer suture of the anterior rectus sheath in a randomised controlled clinical trial for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis (ARD). Patients with an ARD wider than 3 cm and clinical symptoms related to the ARD were included in a prospective randomised study. They were assigned to either retromuscular inset of a lightweight polypropylene mesh or to dual closure of the anterior rectus fascia using Quill self-locking technology. All patients completed a validated questionnaire for pain assessment (Ventral Hernia Pain Questionnaire, VHPQ) and for quality of life (SF36) prior to and 3 months after surgery. The most frequently seen adverse event was minor wound infection. Of the patients, 14/57 had a superficial wound infection; five related to Quill and nine to mesh repair. No deep wound infections were reported. Patient rating for subjective muscular improvement postoperatively was better in the mesh technique group with a mean of 6.9 (range 0-10) compared to a mean of 4.8 (range 0-10) in the Quill group (p=0.01). The pre- and post-operative SF36 scores improved in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two surgical techniques in terms of early complications and perceived pain at the 3-month follow-up. Both techniques may be considered equally reliable for ARD repair in terms of adverse outcomes during the early postoperative phase, even though patients operated with a mesh experienced better improvement in muscular strength. ClinicalTrial.gov: 2009/227-31/3/PE/96. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert G

    2015-05-06

    The infusion of large amounts of Ringer's lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer's lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid treatment with 9 ml/kg of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) or Ringer's lactate, just after induction of anaesthesia; this was followed by a second-line infusion with 12 ml/kg of either starch or Ringer's lactate over 1 hour. Further therapy was managed at the discretion of the attending anaesthetist. Outcome data consisted of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery time, complications and length of hospital stay. The order of the infusions had no impact on the outcome. Both the administration of ≥ 2 L of Ringer's lactate and the development of a surgical complication were associated with a longer time period of paralytic ileus and food intolerance (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.02), but only surgical complications prolonged the length of hospital stay (P < 0.001). The independent effect of Ringer's lactate and complications of food intolerance time amounted to 2 days each. The infusion of ≥ 1 L of hydroxyethyl starch did not adversely affect gastrointestinal recovery. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolonged the gastrointestinal recovery time in patients undergoing laparoscopic cancer surgery. Surgical complications prolonged the hospital stay.

  1. Preoperative ANemiA among the elderly undergoing major abdominal surgery (PANAMA) study: Protocol for a single-center observational cohort study of preoperative anemia management and the impact on healthcare outcomes.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hairil Rizal; Sim, Yilin Eileen; Sim, Yi Tian Mary; Lamoureux, Ecosse

    2018-05-01

    Preoperative anemia and old age are independent risk factors for perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, despite the high prevalence of anemia in elderly surgical patients, there is limited understanding of the impact of anemia on postoperative complications and postdischarge quality of life in the elderly. This study aims to investigate how anemia impacts elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery in terms of perioperative morbidity, mortality and quality of life for 6 months postoperatively. We will conduct a prospective observational study over 12 months of 382 consecutive patients above 65 years old, who are undergoing elective major abdominal surgery in Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a tertiary public hospital. Baseline clinical assessment including full blood count and iron studies will be done within 1 month before surgery. Our primary outcome is presence of morbidity at fifth postoperative day (POD) as defined by the postoperative morbidity survey (POMS). Secondary outcomes will include 30-day trend of POMS complications, morbidity defined by Clavien Dindo Classification system (CDC) and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI), 6-month mortality, blood transfusion requirements, days alive out of hospital (DaOH), length of index hospital stay, 6-month readmission rates and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). HRQoL will be assessed using EuroQol five-dimensional instrument (EQ-5D) scores at preoperative consult and at 1, 3, and 6 months. The SingHealth Centralised Institutional Review Board (CIRB Ref: 2017/2640) approved this study and consent will be obtained from all participants. This study is funded by the National Medical Research Council, Singapore (HNIG16Dec003) and the findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. Deidentified data will be made available from Dryad Repository upon publication of the results.

  2. Comparison of epidural butorphanol and fentanyl as adjuvants in the lower abdominal surgery: A randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasleen; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. The present study compared the efficacy and safety profile of epidurally administered butorphanol and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine (B). Materials and Methods: A total of 75 adult patients of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged 20-60 years, undergoing lower abdominal under epidural anesthesia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each: B, bupivacaine and butorphanol (BB) and bupivacaine + fentanyl (BF). B (0.5%) 20 ml was administered epidurally in all the three groups with the addition of 1 mg butorphanol in BB group and 100 μg fentanyl in the BF group. The hemodynamic parameters as well as various block characteristics including onset, completion, level and duration of sensory analgesia as well as onset, completion and regression of motor block were observed and compared. Adverse events and post-operative visual analgesia scale scores were also noted and compared. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in all the three groups. Onset and completion of sensory analgesia was earliest in BF group, followed by BB and B group. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in BB group followed by BF as compared with group B. Addition of butorphanol and fentanyl to B had no effect on the time of onset, completion and regression of motor block. No serious cardio-respiratory side effects were observed in any group. Conclusions: Butorphanol and fentanyl as epidural adjuvants are equally safe and provide comparable stable hemodynamics, early onset and establishment of sensory anesthesia. Butorphanol

  3. Paint-only is equivalent to scrub-and-paint in preoperative preparation of abdominal surgery sites.

    PubMed

    Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Smith, David D; Schwarz, Roderich E; Kawachi, Mark H; Wilson, Timothy G; McGonigle, Kathryn F; Wagman, Lawrence D; Paz, I Benjamin

    2005-11-01

    Antiseptic preoperative skin site preparation is used to prepare the operative site before making a surgical incision. The goal of this preparation is a reduction in postoperative wound infection. The most straightforward technique necessary to achieve this goal remains controversial. A prospective randomized trial was designed to prove equivalency for two commonly used techniques of surgical skin site preparation. Two hundred thirty-four patients undergoing nonlaparoscopic abdominal operations were consented for the trial. Exclusion criteria included presence of active infection at the time of operation, neutropenia, history of skin reaction to iodine, or anticipated insertion of prosthetic material at the time of operation. Patients were randomized to receive either a vigorous 5-minute scrub with povidone-iodine soap, followed by absorption with a sterile towel, and a paint with aqueous povidone-iodine or surgical site preparation with a povidone-iodine paint only. The primary end point of the study was wound infection rate at 30 days, defined as presence of clinical signs of infection requiring therapeutic intervention. Patients randomized to the scrub-and-paint arm (n = 115) and the paint-only arm (n = 119) matched at baseline with respect to age, comorbidity, wound classification, mean operative time, placement of drains, prophylactic antibiotic use, and surgical procedure (all p > 0.09). Wound infection occurred in 12 (10%) scrub-and-paint patients, and 12 (10%) paint-only patients. Based on our predefined equivalency parameters, we conclude equivalence of infection rates between the two preparations. Preoperative preparation of the abdomen with a scrub with povidone-iodine soap followed by a paint with aqueous povidone-iodine can be abandoned in favor of a paint with aqueous povidone-iodine alone. This change will result in reductions in operative times and costs.

  4. Pirfenidone vs. sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose as prevention of the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions after colonic surgery. A randomized study in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Bello-Guerrero, Jorge Alberto; Cruz-Santiago, César Alberto; Luna-Martínez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Up to 93% of patients undergoing abdominal surgery will develop intra-abdominal adhesions with the subsequent morbidity that they represent. Various substances have been tested for the prevention of adhesions with controversial results; the aim of our study is to compare the capability of pirfenidone in adhesion prevention against sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose. A randomized, prospective, longitudinal experimental study with Winstar rats. They were divided into 3 groups. The subjects underwent an exploratory laparotomy and they had a 4cm(2) cecal abrasion. The first group received saline on the cecal abrasion, and groups 2 and 3 received pirfenidone and sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose respectively. All rats were sacrificed on the 21st day after surgery and the presence of adhesions was evaluated with the modified Granat scale. Simple frequency, central tendency and dispersion measures were recorded. For the statistical analysis we used Fisher's test. To evaluate adhesions we used the Granat's modified scale. The control group had a median adhesion formation of 3 (range 0-4). The pirfenidone group had 1.5 (range 0-3), and the sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose group had 0 (range 0-1). There was a statistically significant difference to favor sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose against saline and pirfenidone (P<0.009 and P<.022 respectively). The use of sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose is effective for the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions. More experimental studies are needed in search for the optimal adhesion prevention drug. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of morphine added to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia following lower abdominal cancer surgery, a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    El Sherif, Fatma Adel; Mohamed, Sahar Abdel-Baky; Kamal, Shereen Mamdouh

    2017-06-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block used for management of surgical abdominal pain by injecting local anesthetics into the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. We aimed to explore the effect of adding morphine to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided TAP-block in patients undergoing lower abdominal cancer surgery. Randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Clinical trial identifier: NCT02566096. Academic medical center. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study after ethical committee approval. Patients divided into 2 groups (30 each): Bupivacaine group (GB): given ultrasound guided TAP-block 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine diluted in 20ml saline; Morphine group (GM): given ultrasound guided TAP-block with 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine+10mg morphine sulphate diluted in 20ml saline. Patients were observed for total morphine consumption, time for first request of rescue analgesia, sedation scores, hemodynamics and side effects for 24h postoperatively. Morphine added to bupivacaine in TAP block compared to bupivacaine alone reduced total morphine consumption (5.33±1.28mg) (10.70±3.09mg) respectively (p<0.001), prolonged the time to first request of analgesia (10.40±4.96h) (6.97±3.26h) respectively (p<0.008), with a statistically significant decrease in (VAS-M) in GM compared with GB at 12h postoperatively (p<0.002). No significant differences in hemodynamics, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, sedation score, and side effects except for nausea were observed (p>0.05). Addition of morphine to bupivacaine in TAP block is effective method for pain management in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery without serious side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  7. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  8. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hoeffelin, H.; Jacquemin, D.; Defaweux, V.; Nizet, J L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery. PMID:24511536

  9. Preoperative hydration with 0.9% normal saline to prevent acute kidney injury after major elective open abdominal surgery: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana B; Candela-Toha, Angel M; Zamora, Javier; Vera, Jorge; Muriel, Alfonso; Del Rey, Jose M; Liaño, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is the second leading cause of hospital-acquired AKI. Although many preventive strategies have been tested, none of them has been totally effective. We investigated whether preoperative intravenous hydration with 0.9% normal saline could prevent postoperative AKI. Randomised controlled trial. University Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Spain, from June 2006 to February 2011. Total 328 inpatients scheduled for major elective open abdominal surgery. 0.9% normal saline at a dose of 1.5 ml kg h for 12 h before surgery. The primary outcome was the overall postoperative AKI incidence during the first week after surgery defined by risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) and AKI network (AKIN) creatinine criteria. Secondary endpoints were the need for ICU admission, renal replacement therapy during the study period and adverse events and hospital mortality during hospital admission. There was no difference in the incidence of AKI between groups: 4.7% in the normal saline group versus 5.0% in the control group and 11.4% in the 0.9% normal saline group versus 7.9% in the control group as assessed by the RIFLE and AKIN creatinine criteria, respectively. Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence interval) were -0.3% (-5.3 to 4.7%) for RIFLE and 3.5% (-10.2 to 3.6%) for AKIN. ICU admission after surgery was required in 44.5% of all participants. Only 2 (0.7%) patients required renal replacement therapy during the first week after surgery. The analysis of adverse events did not show statistically significant differences between the groups except for pain. In our population, 8 (2.4%) patients died during their hospital admission. Intravenous hydration with 0.9% normal saline before major open abdominal surgery was not effective in preventing postoperative AKI. No safety concerns were identified during the trial. Clinical trials.gov: NCT00953940 and EUDRA CT: 2005-004755-35.

  10. Frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis surgery including frontal recess clearance and middle turbinectomy: A long-term analysis.

    PubMed

    Benkhatar, Hakim; Khettab, Idir; Sultanik, Philippe; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre

    2018-08-01

    To determine the frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis (NP) surgery including frontal recess clearance (FRC) and middle turbinectomy (MT), to search for predictive factors and to analyse surgical management. Longitudinal analysis of 153 patients who consecutively underwent bilateral sphenoethmoidectomy with FRC and MT for NP with a minimum follow-up of 7 years. Decision of revision surgery was made in case of medically refractory chronic frontal sinusitis or frontal mucocele. Univariate and multivariate analysis incorporating clinical and radiological variables were performed. The frontal sinus revision rate was 6.5% (10/153). The mean time between the initial procedure and revision surgery was 3 years, 10 months. Osteitis around the frontal sinus outflow tract (FSOT) was associated with a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery (p=0.01). Asthma and aspirin intolerance did not increase the risk, as well as frontal sinus ostium diameter or residual frontoethmoid cells. Among revised patients, 60% required multiple procedures and 70% required frontal sinus ostium enlargement. Our long-term study reports that NP surgery including FRC and MT is associated with a low frontal sinus revision rate (6.5%). Patients developing osteitis around the FSOT have a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery. As mucosal damage can lead to osteitis, FSOT mucosa should be preserved during initial NP surgery. However, as multiple procedures are common among NP patients requiring frontal sinus revision, frontal sinus ostium enlargement should be considered during first revision in the hope of reducing the need of further revisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Abdominal pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Melissa M; Bates, David Gregory; Andrews, Tina; Adkins, Laura; Thornton, Jennifer; Denham, Jolanda M

    2014-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is broad in any child, and further complicated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Acute causes of abdominal pain may require emergent surgery, such as for appendicitis or obstruction caused by a bezoar. Rapid intervention is necessary and life-saving in children with SCD and acute splenic or hepatic sequestration. The majority of children with SCD presenting to the physician's office or emergency department will have subacute reasons for their abdominal pain, including but not limited to constipation, urinary tract infection, peptic ulcer disease, and cholecystitis. Vaso-occlusive pain often presents in children as abdominal pain, but is a diagnosis of exclusion. The case of a 10-year-old girl with intermittent abdominal pain is used as a starting point to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most acute and common causes of abdominal pain in children with SCD.

  12. Management of complex abdominal wall defects associated with penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Arul, G Suren; Sonka, B J; Lundy, J B; Rickard, R F; Jeffery, S L A

    2015-03-01

    The paradigm of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) has radically improved the management of abdominal trauma, but less well described are the options for managing the abdominal wall itself in an austere environment. This article describes a series of patients with complex abdominal wall problems managed at the UK-led Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Contemporaneous review of a series of patients with complex abdominal wall injuries who presented to the Role 3 MTF between July and November 2012. Five patients with penetrating abdominal trauma associated with significant damage to the abdominal wall were included. All patients were managed using DCS principles, leaving the abdominal wall open at the end of the first procedure. Subsequent management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses. The principles of management identified included minimising tissue loss on initial laparotomy by joining adjacent wounds and marginal debridement of dead tissue; contraction of the abdominal wall was minimised by using topical negative pressure dressing and dermal-holding sutures. Definitive closure was timed to allow oedema to settle and sepsis to be controlled. Closure techniques include delayed primary closure with traction sutures, components separation, and mesh closure with skin grafting. A daily multidisciplinary team discussion was invaluable for optimal decision making regarding the most appropriate means of abdominal closure. Dermal-holding sutures were particularly useful in preventing myostatic contraction of the abdominal wall. A simple flow chart was developed to aid decision making in these patients. This flow chart may prove especially useful in a resource-limited environment in which returning months or years later for closure of a large ventral hernia may not be possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. Protocol for a single-centre, randomised controlled study of a preoperative rehabilitation bundle in the frail and elderly undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Victoria Peixin; Ong, Hwee Kuan; Er, Pei Ling; Hao, Ying; Khan, Shariq Ali; Liu, Christopher Weiyang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Frail patients have decreased physiological reserves and consequently, they are unable to recover as quickly from surgery. Frailty, as an entity, is a risk factor of increased morbidity and mortality. It is also associated with a longer time to discharge. This trial is undertaken to determine if a novel prehabilitation protocol (10-day bundle of interventions—physiotherapy, nutritional supplementation and cognitive training) can reduce the postoperative length of stay of frail patients who are undergoing elective abdominal surgery, compared with standard care. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, single-centre, randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. 62 patients who are frail and undergoing elective abdominal surgery will be recruited and randomised to receive either a novel prehabilitation protocol or standard care. Participants will receive telephone reminders preoperatively to encourage protocol compliance. Data will be collected for up to 30 days postoperatively. The primary outcome of the trial will be the postoperative length of stay and the secondary outcomes are the postoperative complications and functional recovery during the hospital admission. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Singapore General Hospital Institutional Review Board (CIRB Ref: 2016/2584). The study is also listed on ClinicalTrials.gov (Trial number: NCT02921932). All participants will sign an informed consent form before randomisation and translators will be made available to non-English speaking patients. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals as well as national and international conferences. The data collected will also be made available in a public data repository. Trial registration number NCT02921932 (ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:28778994

  14. Protocol for a single-centre, randomised controlled study of a preoperative rehabilitation bundle in the frail and elderly undergoing abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Hairil Rizal; Lien, Victoria Peixin; Ong, Hwee Kuan; Er, Pei Ling; Hao, Ying; Khan, Shariq Ali; Liu, Christopher Weiyang

    2017-08-04

    Frail patients have decreased physiological reserves and consequently, they are unable to recover as quickly from surgery. Frailty, as an entity, is a risk factor of increased morbidity and mortality. It is also associated with a longer time to discharge. This trial is undertaken to determine if a novel prehabilitation protocol (10-day bundle of interventions-physiotherapy, nutritional supplementation and cognitive training) can reduce the postoperative length of stay of frail patients who are undergoing elective abdominal surgery, compared with standard care. This is a prospective, single-centre, randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. 62 patients who are frail and undergoing elective abdominal surgery will be recruited and randomised to receive either a novel prehabilitation protocol or standard care. Participants will receive telephone reminders preoperatively to encourage protocol compliance. Data will be collected for up to 30 days postoperatively. The primary outcome of the trial will be the postoperative length of stay and the secondary outcomes are the postoperative complications and functional recovery during the hospital admission. This study has been approved by the Singapore General Hospital Institutional Review Board (CIRB Ref: 2016/2584). The study is also listed on ClinicalTrials.gov (Trial number: NCT02921932). All participants will sign an informed consent form before randomisation and translators will be made available to non-English speaking patients. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals as well as national and international conferences. The data collected will also be made available in a public data repository. NCT02921932 (ClinicalTrials.gov). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Do we need to establish guidelines for patients with neuromodulation implantable devices, including spinal cord stimulators undergoing nonspinal surgeries?

    PubMed Central

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Tverdohleb, Tatiana; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation is currently approved to treat chronic intractable pain of the trunk and limbs. However, such implantable electronic devices are vulnerable to external electrical currents and magnetic fields. Within the hospitals and modern operating rooms (ORs), there is an abundance of electrical devices and other types of equipment that could interfere with such devices. Despite the increasing number of patients with neuromodulation implantable devices, there are no written guidelines available or consensus of cautions for such patients undergoing unrelated surgery. Case Descriptions: A 60-year-old female with a permanent St. Jude's spinal cord stimulator (SCS) presented for open total abdominal hysterectomy. Both the anesthesia and gynecology staffs were aware of the device presence, but were unaware of any precautions regarding intraoperative management. The device was found to be nonmagnetic resonance imaging compatible, and bipolar cautery was used instead of monopolar cautery. A 59-year-old female with a 9-year-old permanent Medtronic SCS, presented for right total hip arthroplasty. The device was switched off prior to entering the OR, bipolar cautery was used, and grounding pads were placed away from her battery site. In each case, the manufacturer's representative was contacted preoperative. Both surgeries proceeded uneventfully. Conclusions: The Food and Drug Administration safety information manual warns about the use of diathermy, concomitant implanted stimulation devices, lithotripsy, external defibrillation, radiation therapy, ultrasonic scanning, and high-output ultrasound, all of which can lead to permanent implant damage if not turned off prior to undertaking procedures. Lack of uniform guidelines makes intraoperative management, as well as remote anesthesia care of patients with previously implanted SCSs unsafe. PMID:26958424

  16. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  17. Assessment of subclinical acute kidney injury after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery using novel markers: L-FABP and H-FABP.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Michał; Biolik, Grzegorz; Ziaja, Damian; Fojt, Tadeusz; Kędzierski, Leszek; Antoniak, Katarzyna; Janowska, Mirosława; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Ziaja, Krzysztof; Duława, Jan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe complications of repair surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is acute kidney injury (AKI). Even small rises in serum creatinine are associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of AKI after elective AAA surgery using novel markers. The study group consisted of 22 patients with AAA. We measured urinary liver- (u-L-FABP) and heart-type fatty acid-binding proteins (u-H-FABP) before, during and within 3 days after surgery. We found an abrupt and significant elevation of both urine FABPs normalized to urinary creatinine; u-L-FABP reached its peak value 2 hours after aortic clamp release {137.79 (38.57-451.79) vs. 9.94 (6.82-12.42) ng/mg baseline value, p<0.05; values are medians (lower-upper quartile)}. The peak value of u-H-FABP was reported 72 hours after aortic clamp release {16.462 (4.182-37.595) vs. 0.141 (0.014-0.927) ng/mg baseline value, p<0.05}. The serum creatinine level did not changed significantly during the investigation period. The significant rise of both u-L-FABP and u-H-FABP after AAA surgery indicates renal proximal and distal tubule injury in this population. Our results suggest that, after AAA surgery, the distal tubules could be more affected than the proximal ones. u-FABPs could serve as sensitive biomarkers of kidney tubular injury and may allow to detect the very early phases of AKI.

  18. Ethical precepts for medical volunteerism: including local voices and values to guide RHD surgery in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Coors, Marilyn E; Matthew, Thomas L; Matthew, Dayna B

    2015-10-01

    At the invitation of the Rwandan Government, Team Heart, a team of American healthcare professionals, performs volunteer rheumatic heart disease (RHD) surgery in Rwanda every year, and confronts ethical concerns that call for cultural sensitivity. This article describes how five standard bioethical precepts are applied in practice in medical volunteerism related to RHD surgery in Rwanda. The content for the applied precepts stems from semiscripted, transcribed conversations with the authors, two Rwandan cardiologists, a Rwandan nurse and a Rwandan premedical student. The conversations revealed that the criteria for RHD surgical selection in Rwanda are analogous to the patient-selection process involving material scarcity in the USA. Rwandan notions of benefit and harm focus more attention on structural issues, such as shared benefit, national reputation and expansion of expertise, than traditional Western notions. Harm caused by inadequate patient follow-up remains a critical concern. Gender disparities regarding biological and social implications of surgical valve choices impact considerations of justice. Individual agency remains important, but not central to Rwandan concepts of justice, transparency and respect, particularly regarding women. The Rwandan understanding of standard bioethical precepts is substantively similar to the traditionally recognised interpretation with important contextual differences. The communal importance of improving the health of a small number of individuals may be underestimated in previous literature. Moreover, openness and the incorporation of Rwandan stakeholders in difficult ethical choices and long-term contributions to indigenous medical capacity appear to be valued by Rwandans. These descriptions of applied precepts are applicable to different medical missions in other emerging nations following a similar process of inclusion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  19. Laparoscopy In Unexplained Abdominal Pain: Surgeon's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhammad Tariq; Waqar, Shahzad Hussain; Zahid, Muhammad Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained abdominal pain is a common but difficult presenting feature faced by the clinicians. Such patients can undergo a number of investigations with failure to reach any diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad from January 2009 to December 2013. This study included 91 patients of unexplained abdominal pain not diagnosed by routine clinical examination and investigations. These patients were subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy for evaluation of their conditions and to confirm the diagnosis. These patients presented 43% of patients undergoing investigations for abdominal pain. Patients diagnosed with gynaecological problems were excluded to see surgeon's perspective. The findings and the outcomes of the laparoscopy were recorded and data was analyzed. Unexplained abdominal pain is common in females than in males. The most common laparoscopic findings were abdominal tuberculosis followed by appendicitis. Ninety percent patients achieved pain relief after laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopy is both beneficial and safe in majority of patients with unexplained abdominal pain. General surgeons should acquire training and experience in laparoscopic surgery to provide maximum benefit to these difficult patients.

  20. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  1. The effect of prior upper abdominal surgery on outcomes after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: An analysis of the database of the organ procurement transplant network.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jack P; Berger, Nicholas G; Yin, Ziyan; Liu, Ying; Tsai, Susan; Christians, Kathleen K; Clarke, Callisia N; Mogal, Harveshp; Gamblin, T Clark

    2018-05-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the preferred treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in select patients. Many patients listed for OLT have a history of prior upper abdominal surgery (UAS). Repeat abdominal surgery increases operative complexity and may cause a greater incidence of complication. This study sought to compare outcomes after liver transplantation for patients with and without prior UAS. Adult HCC patients undergoing OLT were identified using the database from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (1987-2015). Patients were separated by presence of prior UAS into 2 propensity-matched cohorts. Overall survival (OS) and graft survival (GS) were analyzed by log-rank test and graphed using Kaplan-Meier method. Recipient and donor demographic and clinical characteristics were also studied using Cox regression models. A total of 15,043 patients were identified, of whom 6,205 had prior UAS (41.2%). After 1:1 propensity score matching, cohorts (UAS versus no UAS) contained 4,669 patients. UAS patients experienced shorter GS (122 months vs 129 months; P < .001) and shorter OS (130 months vs 141 months; P < .001). Median duration of stay for both cohorts was 8 days. Multivariate Cox regression models revealed that prior UAS was associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for GS (HR 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.22; P < .001) and OS (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P < .001). Prior UAS is an independent negative predictor of GS and OS after OLT for HCC. OLT performed in patients with UAS remains a well-tolerated and effective treatment for select HCC patients but may alter expected outcomes and influence follow-up protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient cost-sharing and insurance arrangements are associated with hospital readmissions after abdominal surgery: Implications for access and quality health care.

    PubMed

    Youn, Bora; Soley-Bori, Marina; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Haynes, Alex B; Cabral, Howard J; Kazis, Lewis E

    2016-03-01

    Readmission rates after operative procedures are used increasingly as a measure of hospital care quality. Patient access to care may influence readmission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between patient cost-sharing, insurance arrangements, and the risk of postoperative readmissions. Using the MarketScan Research Database (n = 121,002), we examined privately insured, nonelderly patients who underwent abdominal surgery in 2010. The main outcome measures were risk-adjusted unplanned readmissions within 7 days and 30 days of discharge. Odds of readmissions were compared with multivariable logistic regression models. In adjusted models, $1,284 increase in patient out-of-pocket payments during index admission (a difference of one standard deviation) was associated with 19% decrease in the odds of 7-day readmission (odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.85) and 17% decrease in the odds of 30-day readmission (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.81-0.86). Patients in the noncapitated point-of-service plans (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33), preferred provider organization plans (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19), and high-deductible plans (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.26) were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days compared with patients in the capitated health maintenance organization and point-of-service plans. Among privately insured, nonelderly patients, increased patient cost-sharing was associated with lower odds of 7-day and 30-day readmission after abdominal surgery. Insurance arrangements also were significantly associated with postoperative readmissions. Patient cost sharing and insurance arrangements need consideration in the provision of equitable access for quality care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reinforcement of subarachnoid block by epidural volume effect in lower abdominal surgery: A comparison between fentanyl and tramadol for efficacy and block properties

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Atiharsh; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Malviya, Deepak; Arya, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidural volume extension (EVE) is claimed to increase the block height and decrease the dose requirement for intrathecal drug. However, almost all studies have been done in obstetric population and none actually compares the effect of additional drugs added to epidural volume. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five (ASA I and II) patients scheduled for lower abdominal surgery were randomly divided into three groups. All groups received intrathecal 10 mg bupivacaine; two groups received additional 10 ml of normal saline epidurally with 25 mg tramadol or 25 mg of fentanyl. Groups were than compared for maximal block height, rate of sensory block regression to T10, and motor block regression to Bromage scale of 0. Time to first analgesia and adverse effects were also compared among the three groups. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five (ASA I and II) patients scheduled for lower abdominal surgery were randomly divided into three groups. All groups received intrathecal 10 mg bupivacaine; two groups received additional 10 ml of normal saline epidurally with 25 mg tramadol or 25 mg of fentanyl. Groups were than compared for maximal block height, rate of sensory block regression to T10, and motor block regression to Bromage scale of 0. Time to first analgesia and adverse effects were also compared among the three groups. Results: Groups with EVE had statistically significant higher block height, with a significant faster regression that the control group. However, both fentanyl and tramadol groups were inseparable in respect to motor or sensory block regression. Fentanyl group had maximal time to first analgesia, followed by tramadol and control groups. Hemodynamic alterations were also more common in EVE groups. Conclusion: EVE can increase the block height significantly, but it seems to be limited only to the physical property of additional volume in epidural space and fentanyl or tramadol do not seem to differ in their ability to alter block properties. PMID

  4. Laparoscopic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main ACG Site ACG Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / Laparoscopic Surgery Laparoscopic Surgery Basics Overview What is laparoscopic surgery? ... with your doctor whether some type of laparoscopic surgery is most suitable for your ... Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, and Flatulence Common ...

  5. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  6. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    PubMed

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-10-01

    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  7. TextWithSurgeryPatients - A Research Hypothesis in Enhancing Education and Physical Assessment for Abdominal Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Medical surgical nurses may not have the time or resources to provide effective pre- and post-operative instructions for patients in today's healthcare system. And, making timely physical assessments following discharge from the hospital is not always straightforward. Therefore, the risk for readmission associated with post-surgical complications is a concern. At present, mobile healthcare technologies and patient care are precipitously evolving and may serve as a resource to enhance communication between the healthcare provider and patient. A mobile telephone text message (short message service [SMS]) intervention for abdominal surgical patients may foster effective education (communication) and timely self-reported physical assessment in the home environment hence preventing deleterious outcomes. The aim of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using a SMS intervention via smart phones to improve health outcomes via timely communication, reach large numbers of at-risk surgical patients and, establish and sustain uniform protocols in a cost-efficient manner.

  8. Deviation from a preoperative surgical and anaesthetic care plan is associated with increased risk of adverse intraoperative events in major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Gauss, T; Merckx, P; Brasher, C; Kavafyan, J; Le Bihan, E; Aussilhou, B; Belghiti, J; Mantz, J

    2013-02-01

    Perioperative coordination facilitates team communication and planning. The aim of this study was to determine how often deviation from predicted surgical conditions and a pre-established anaesthetic care plan in major abdominal surgery occurred, and whether this was associated with an increase in adverse clinical events. In this prospective observational study, weekly preoperative interdisciplinary team meetings were conducted according to a joint care plan checklist in a tertiary care centre in France. Any discordance with preoperative predictions and deviation from the care plan were noted. A link to the incidence of predetermined adverse intraoperative events was investigated. Intraoperative adverse clinical events (ACEs) occurred in 15 % of all cases and were associated with postoperative complications [relative risk (RR) = 1.5; 95 % confidence interval (1.1; 2.2)]. Quality of prediction of surgical procedural items was modest, with one in five to six items not correctly predicted. Discordant surgical prediction was associated with an increased incidence of ACE. Deviation from the anaesthetic care plan occurred in around 13 %, which was more frequent when surgical prediction was inaccurate (RR > 3) and independently associated with ACE (odds ratio 6). Surgery was more difficult than expected in up to one out of five cases. In a similar proportion, disagreement between preoperative care plans and observed clinical management was independently associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical events.

  9. Systematic review of learning curves for minimally invasive abdominal surgery: a review of the methodology of data collection, depiction of outcomes, and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Harrysson, Iliana J; Cook, Jonathan; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Feldman, Liane S; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh

    2014-07-01

    To determine how minimally invasive surgical learning curves are assessed and define an ideal framework for this assessment. Learning curves have implications for training and adoption of new procedures and devices. In 2000, a review of the learning curve literature was done by Ramsay et al and it called for improved reporting and statistical evaluation of learning curves. Since then, a body of literature is emerging on learning curves but the presentation and analysis vary. A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to August 2012. The inclusion criteria are minimally invasive abdominal surgery formally analyzing the learning curve and English language. 592 (11.1%) of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Time is the most commonly used proxy for the learning curve (508, 86%). Intraoperative outcomes were used in 316 (53%) of the articles, postoperative outcomes in 306 (52%), technical skills in 102 (17%), and patient-oriented outcomes in 38 (6%) articles. Over time, there was evidence of an increase in the relative amount of laparoscopic and robotic studies (P < 0.001) without statistical evidence of a change in the complexity of analysis (P = 0.121). Assessment of learning curves is needed to inform surgical training and evaluate new clinical procedures. An ideal analysis would account for the degree of complexity of individual cases and the inherent differences between surgeons. There is no single proxy that best represents the success of surgery, and hence multiple outcomes should be collected.

  10. Takedown of enterocutaneous fistula and complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Slade, Dominic Alexander James; Carlson, Gordon Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Key steps in managing patients with enterocutaneous fistulation and an abdominal wall defect include dealing effectively with abdominal sepsis and providing safe and effective nutritional support and skin care, then assessing intestinal and abdominal anatomy, before undertaking reconstructive surgery. The complexity, cost, and morbidity associated with such cases justifies creation of specialized centers in which gastroenterologic, hernia, and plastic surgical expertise, as well as experienced wound and stoma nursing and nutritional and psychological support, can be made available for patients with these challenging problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  12. Direct health costs and clinical outcomes of open surgery in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm in Spain. The RECAPTA study.

    PubMed

    Egea, Marta; Fernández-Samos, Rafael; Lechón, José Antonio; Reparaz, Luis; Álvarez, María; Cairols, Marc

    2018-06-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic, progressive disease that often requires surgical repair. This study aimed to assess the healthcare costs and clinical outcomes of open AAA repair in Spain. Observational, retrospective, multicenter study with a one-year follow-up. Healthcare resource use and costs related to the surgical procedure, hospital stay, and follow-up period were assessed. Ninety patients with asymptomatic AAA who underwent open repair were recruited between 2003 and 2009 at three Spanish hospitals. Four patients (4.44%) died in the first 30 postoperative days. Mean [standard deviation] procedure time was 292.83 [72.10] minutes and mean hospital length of stay was 11.44 days [5.42]. Thirty two patients (35.56%) presented in-hospital complications and three patients (3.45%) underwent re-intervention during follow-up. The mean overall cost per patient during the study period was €21,622.59, of which 42.40% (€9,168.19), 52.08% (€11,261.74), and 5.52% (€1,192.66) corresponded to the surgical procedure, the inpatient stay, and the study follow-up period, respectively. Given the economic burden imposed by the treatment of patients admitted with AAA on the Spanish health system, additional efforts comparing the cost of open repair with endovascular treatments are needed to ensure greater efficiency.

  13. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Sleep Quality on Melatonin Levels and Inflammatory Response after Major Abdominal Surgery in an Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Yaşar, Necdet Fatih; Badak, Bartu; Canik, Ağgül; Baş, Sema Şanal; Uslu, Sema; Öner, Setenay; Ateş, Ersin

    2017-09-12

    Disruption of nocturnal sleep in an intensive care unit may remarkably affect production of melatonin, which is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of sleep quality on melatonin levels and inflammation after surgery. Thus, we compared the patients, who were screened in the side-rooms where the lights were dimmed and noise levels were reduced, with the patients who received usual care. Preoperative and postoperative urine 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, serum interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and c-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured and data on sleep quality was collected using the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire. Postoperative CRP and IL-6 levels were greater in the control group than in the experimental group, whereas postoperative 24 h melatonin levels were greater than preoperative levels and the difference was steeper in the experimental group in concordance with sleep quality scores. Thus, the regulation of light and noise in ICUs may help the recovery after major surgeries in patients, potentially by increasing melatonin production, which has anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Does the addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation alter patient outcomes following high-risk open upper abdominal surgery? Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Silva, Y R; Li, S K; Rickard, M J F X

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether the inclusion of deep breathing exercises in physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation confers any additional benefit in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) when patients are treated once daily after elective open upper abdominal surgery. This study also compared postoperative outcomes following early and delayed mobilisation. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Single-centre study in a teaching hospital. Eighty-six high-risk patients undergoing elective open upper abdominal surgery. Three groups: early mobilisation (Group A), early mobilisation plus breathing exercises (Group B), and delayed mobilisation (mobilised from third postoperative day) plus breathing exercises (Group C). PPCs and postoperative outcomes [number of days until discharge from physiotherapy, physiotherapy input and length of stay (LOS)]. There was no significant difference in PPCs between Groups A and B. The LOS for Group A {mean 10.7 [standard deviation (SD) 5.0] days} was significantly shorter than the LOS for Groups B [mean 16.7 (SD 9.7) days] and C [mean 15.2 (SD 9.8) days; P=0.036]. The greatest difference was between Groups A and B (mean difference -5.93, 95% confidence interval -10.22 to -1.65; P=0.008). Group C had fewer smokers (26%) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0%) compared with Group B (53% and 14%, respectively). This may have led to fewer PPCs in Group C, but the difference was not significant. Despite Group C having fewer PPCs and less physiotherapy input, the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy and LOS were similar to Group B. The addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation did not further reduce PPCs compared with mobility alone. PPCs can be reduced with once-daily physiotherapy if the patients are mobilised to a moderate level of exertion. Delayed mobilisation tended to increase physiotherapy input and the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy

  16. A Structured Educational Curriculum Including Online Training Positively Impacts American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination Scores.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Dympna M; London, Daniel A; Siperstein, Allan; Fung, John J; Walsh, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of a structured postgraduate year 1 educational curriculum, including online surgical training, on American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was performed in an academic surgical residency program in a tertiary care hospital, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. The participants were 140 surgical postgraduate year 1 residents from 2000 to 2009. Interns from 2000 to 2004 were grouped together and completed a self-directed learning curriculum. Interns from 2005 to 2009 participated in a structured educational curriculum that included lectures and the use of an online program. Lectures were based on the American College of Surgeons curriculum. The online program consisted of 8 to 12 hours of assigned tutorials and quizzes that corresponded to the lectures and 3 multiple-choice (MC) examinations. Use of a structured educational curriculum led to improved ABSITE scores (66 ± 9%) compared with that of those who had no curriculum (55 ± 10%, p < 0.001). Several variables positively correlated with the ABSITE score: United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 score (p < 0.001), monthly quiz scores (p = 0.003), average MC examination scores (p = 0.005), lecture attendance (p = 0.02), and time spent online (p = 0.04). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the step 1 United States Medical Licensing Examination score, time spent online, and MC examination score are predictive of total the ABSITE score. When ABSITE subscores (basic science and clinical science) were compared, the online curriculum had a greater effect on basic science subscores, whereas lectures had a greater effect on clinical science subscores. Providing surgery residents a structured curriculum with lectures and an online component positively impacts ABSITE scores. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  18. Measuring and improving the quality of postoperative epidural analgesia for major abdominal surgery using statistical process control charts.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Fiona; Haigh, Carol

    2013-10-01

    To explore and improve the quality of continuous epidural analgesia for pain relief using Statistical Process Control tools. Measuring the quality of pain management interventions is complex. Intermittent audits do not accurately capture the results of quality improvement initiatives. The failure rate for one intervention, epidural analgesia, is approximately 30% in everyday practice, so it is an important area for improvement. Continuous measurement and analysis are required to understand the multiple factors involved in providing effective pain relief. Process control and quality improvement Routine prospectively acquired data collection started in 2006. Patients were asked about their pain and side effects of treatment. Statistical Process Control methods were applied for continuous data analysis. A multidisciplinary group worked together to identify reasons for variation in the data and instigated ideas for improvement. The key measure for improvement was a reduction in the percentage of patients with an epidural in severe pain. The baseline control charts illustrated the recorded variation in the rate of several processes and outcomes for 293 surgical patients. The mean visual analogue pain score (VNRS) was four. There was no special cause variation when data were stratified by surgeons, clinical area or patients who had experienced pain before surgery. Fifty-seven per cent of patients were hypotensive on the first day after surgery. We were able to demonstrate a significant improvement in the failure rate of epidurals as the project continued with quality improvement interventions. Statistical Process Control is a useful tool for measuring and improving the quality of pain management. The applications of Statistical Process Control methods offer the potential to learn more about the process of change and outcomes in an Acute Pain Service both locally and nationally. We have been able to develop measures for improvement and benchmarking in routine care that

  19. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  20. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    PubMed

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  2. Comparison of Intravenous Infusion of Tramadol Alone with Combination of Tramadol and Paracetamol for Postoperative Pain after Major Abdominal Surgery in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shayesta; Sofi, Khalid; Dar, Abdul Qayoom

    2017-01-01

    Group B. Conclusion: We recommend use of an infusion of tramadol in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h in the first 24 h after surgery, in combination with a regular per rectal paracetamol in a daily dose of 90 mg/kg/day in four divided doses for children after major abdominal surgery. However, a close nursing supervision is essential to increase the safety profile. PMID:28663644

  3. Comparison of Intravenous Infusion of Tramadol Alone with Combination of Tramadol and Paracetamol for Postoperative Pain after Major Abdominal Surgery in Children.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shayesta; Sofi, Khalid; Dar, Abdul Qayoom

    2017-01-01

    of tramadol in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h in the first 24 h after surgery, in combination with a regular per rectal paracetamol in a daily dose of 90 mg/kg/day in four divided doses for children after major abdominal surgery. However, a close nursing supervision is essential to increase the safety profile.

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An update

    PubMed

    Chuen, Jason; Theivendran, Mayo

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Medical therapy options remain limited and no aneurysm-specific pharmacotherapy is currently available. Recent years have witnessed a significant shift in AAA surgery from open repair to EVAR and expansion of EVAR techniques. General management of cardiovascular risk factors remains key to reducing all-cause mortality for patients with AAA.

  5. [Experience of the three-stage strategy for intestinal fistula complicated with complex abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingchuan; Li, Xuzhao; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Juan

    2017-03-25

    Intestinal fistula, as a serious complication after abdominal surgery, not only leads to a series of pathophysiological changes such as fluid loss, malnutrition and organ dysfunction, but also causes the severe abdominal infection, which often threatens the life of patients. How to make the diagnosis and give the treatment of intestinal fistula is the key to save the lives of high-risk patients. In our hospital, during the past course of diagnosis and treatment for intestinal fistula complicated with severe abdominal infection, based on the combination of literatures at home and abroad with our clinical experiences for many years, an effective three-stage prevention and treatment strategy was formed gradually, which included early diagnosis, effective treatment of infection source, open drainage of abdominal infection and early enteral nutrition support. This strategy subverts the traditional concept of surgery alone, and becomes an effective means to save patients with severe abdominal infection.

  6. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E.-Y.; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22more » fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 {+-} 27 cm{sup 3} and 489 {+-} 34 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001) in Group I patients with Grade 0-1 and Grade 2-3 diarrhea, respectively. The corresponding mean V100 of Group II patients was 56 {+-} 14 cm{sup 3} and 132 {+-} 19 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery.« less

  7. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  8. Expanding the scope of quality measurement in surgery to include nonoperative care: Results from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program emergency general surgery pilot.

    PubMed

    Wandling, Michael W; Ko, Clifford Y; Bankey, Paul E; Cribari, Chris; Cryer, H Gill; Diaz, Jose J; Duane, Therese M; Hameed, S Morad; Hutter, Matthew M; Metzler, Michael H; Regner, Justin L; Reilly, Patrick M; Reines, H David; Sperry, Jason L; Staudenmayer, Kristan L; Utter, Garth H; Crandall, Marie L; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-11-01

    Patients managed nonoperatively have been excluded from risk-adjusted benchmarking programs, including the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Consequently, optimal performance evaluation is not possible for specialties like emergency general surgery (EGS) where nonoperative management is common. We developed a multi-institutional EGS clinical data registry within ACS NSQIP that includes patients managed nonoperatively to evaluate variability in nonoperative care across hospitals and identify gaps in performance assessment that occur when only operative cases are considered. Using ACS NSQIP infrastructure and methodology, surgical consultations for acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, and small bowel obstruction (SBO) were sampled at 13 hospitals that volunteered to participate in the EGS clinical data registry. Standard NSQIP variables and 16 EGS-specific variables were abstracted with 30-day follow-up. To determine the influence of complications in nonoperative patients, rates of adverse outcomes were identified, and hospitals were ranked by performance with and then without including nonoperative cases. Two thousand ninety-one patients with EGS diagnoses were included, 46.6% with appendicitis, 24.3% with cholecystitis, and 29.1% with SBO. The overall rate of nonoperative management was 27.4%, 6.6% for appendicitis, 16.5% for cholecystitis, and 69.9% for SBO. Despite comprising only 27.4% of patients in the EGS pilot, nonoperative management accounted for 67.7% of deaths, 34.3% of serious morbidities, and 41.8% of hospital readmissions. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital diagnosis mix, addition of nonoperative management to hospital performance assessment resulted in 12 of 13 hospitals changing performance rank, with four hospitals changing by three or more positions. This study identifies a gap in performance evaluation when nonoperative patients are excluded from surgical quality

  9. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  10. Prognostically favorable abdominal breast cancer metastases with stomach involvement.

    PubMed

    Akcali, Zafer; Sakalli, Hakan; Ozyilkan, Ozgur; Demirhan, Beyhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2005-05-01

    Abdominal metastases with stomach involvement are rare in breast cancer. The median disease free interval from the time of breast cancer diagnosis to gastric metastasis is usually very long. Treatment is generally palliative, and expected survival time is less than 1 year. A 59-year-old woman with breast cancer developed diffuse abdominal metastases involving stomach, abdominal lymph nodes, and omentum 9 years after she underwent mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis found by stomach specimen examination was invasive lobular carcinoma, and the cells expressed high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors. The abdominal metastases were treated with surgery, postoperative chemotherapy, and further hormonal therapy. This was successful, and the patient has been in remission for more than 3 years. Once the definitive diagnosis of breast cancer metastases to the abdomen including the stomach is established, treatment that targets systemic breast cancer must be initiated. Our patient's extended survival time suggests that surgical treatment could be considered for selected patients.

  11. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    PubMed

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Variable lung protective mechanical ventilation decreases incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction during open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruichun; Chen, Junping; Wu, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of cognitive abilities and can manifest on different neuropsychological features in the early postoperative period. It has been proved that the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) increased the development of delirium and POCD. However, the impact of variable and conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation on the incidence of POCD still remains unknown, which was the aim of this study. 162 patients scheduled to undergo elective gastrointestinal tumor resection via laparotomy in Ningbo No. 2 hospital with expected duration >2 h from June, 2013 to June, 2015 were enrolled in this study. Patients included were divided into two groups according to the scheme of lung protective MV, variable ventilation group (VV group, n=79) and conventional ventilation group (CV group, n=83) by randomization performed by random block randomization. The plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, characteristics of the surgical procedure, incidence of delirium and POCD were collected and compared. Postoperative delirium was detected in 36 of 162 patients (22.2%) and 12 patients of these (16.5%) belonged to the VV group while 24 patients (28.9%) were in the CV group (P=0.036). POCD on the seventh postoperative day in CV group (26/83, 31.3%) was increased in comparison with the VV group (14/79, 17.7%) with significant statistical difference (P=0.045). The levels of inflammatory cytokines were all significantly higher in CV group than those in VV group on the 1st postoperative day (P<0.05). On 7th postoperative day, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in CV group remained much higher compared with VV group (P<0.05). Variable vs conventional lung protective MV decreased the incidence of postoperative delirium and POCD by reducing the systemic proinflammatory response.

  13. Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, Angela; Ugare, Udey G; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A

    2012-11-14

    Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2012, issue 1), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), and ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) all until January 2012; CINAHL until January 2009. We also searched the reference lists of all eligible studies and the trial registers www.controlled-trials.com and www.clinicaltrials.gov in January 2012. Randomised controlled trials of surgical and non surgical interventions among patients with abdominal injury who are haemodynamically stable and with no signs of peritonitis. Two review authors independently applied the search criteria. One study involving participants with penetrating abdominal injury met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form. One study including 51 participants with moderate risk of bias was included. Participants were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. There were no deaths among the participants. Seven participants had complications; 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the non-surgical group; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 who had surgery six (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non-therapeutic. Based on the findings of one study involving 51 participants, which was at moderate risk of bias, there is no evidence to support the use of surgery over observation for people with abdominal trauma.

  14. Treatment of the rectal cancer in casuistic Clinic for Abdominal Surgery, Clinical Centre of the University of Sarajevo (2006.-2010.).

    PubMed

    Kandic, Z; Firdus, N; Kandic, A; Catic, L; Kandic, A; Kandic, E

    2012-01-01

    Malignant disease of the colon and rectum is the most often human neoplasm which comprises about 30% of all digestive tumours. Thereat, cancer of the lower end the colon (rectum) comprises 45 to 48% of all CRC (colorectal cancers). According to "American Society Cancer", only lung and prostate cancer in men and breast and cervix cancer in women are more frequent than CRC. The incidence of colorectal cancer is 20 to 30/100.000 citizens. Rectal cancer is the result of interection of disturbed genetic factors with external factors. The first surgical treatments began with Faget, who did the first rectal extraperitoneal excision (1739). It was improved by Ernest Milles in 1908, and in 1923, Hartman did the resection without anamnesis. In the middle of 20th century, Dixon defined the resective interventions and in Litre did a colostomy. The aim of this study is point out the necessity of early diagnosis and protocolar chirurgical end oncological approach to the treatment of this malignant disease which must be done before choosing any operative procedure in order to prevent postoperative morbidity. On the material of the Clinic for Abdominal Surgery at the Clinical centre University of Sarajevo, during the four-year period (from 2006 to 2010), out of the 406 patients with CRC, 261 of them (64.3%) had cancer of the final part of the colon and rectum. In this case, all the time of the treatment, protocol was strictly applied. Primary surgery was performed on the early stages of the disease. Radiochemotherapy (RCT) followed by operation after 6 to 8 week is applied in the progressive state of the disease with the penetration of the meso rectal fascia with positive lymph-gland assessment (NMR-nuclear magnete resonance). Out of 261 operated patients, 5 of them (1.9%) underwent transanal resections where the tumour was up to 2 cm; 104 patients (39.8%) underwent rectal resection with TME (II and III tumour states of recto-sigma); 24 (9.2%) patients uderwent amputation; 156 (22

  15. A randomised controlled pilot trial to evaluate and optimize the use of anti-platelet agents in the perioperative management in patients undergoing general and abdominal surgery--the APAP trial (ISRCTN45810007).

    PubMed

    Antolovic, D; Rakow, A; Contin, P; Ulrich, A; Rahbari, N N; Büchler, M W; Weitz, J; Koch, M

    2012-02-01

    Surgeons are increasingly confronted by patients on long-term low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). However, owing to a lack of evidence-based data, a widely accepted consensus on the perioperative management of these patients in the setting of non-cardiac surgery has not yet been reached. Primary objective was to evaluate the safety of continuous versus discontinuous use of ASA in the perioperative period in elective general or abdominal surgery. Fifty-two patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy, inguinal hernia repair or colonic/colorectal surgery were recruited to this pilot study. According to cardiological evaluation, non-high-risk patients who were on long-term treatment with low-dose ASA were eligible for inclusion. Patients were allocated randomly to continuous use of ASA or discontinuation of ASA intake for 5 days before until 5 days after surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of major haemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications within 30 days after surgery. A total of 26 patients were allocated to each study group. One patient (3.8%) in the ASA continuation group required re-operation due to post-operative haemorrhage. In neither study group, further bleeding complications occurred. No clinically apparent thromboembolic events were reported in the ASA continuation and the ASA discontinuation group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between both study groups in the secondary endpoints. Perioperative intake of ASA does not seem to influence the incidence of severe bleeding in non-high-risk patients undergoing elective general or abdominal surgery. Further, adequately powered trials are required to confirm the findings of this study.

  16. Ultra-minimally invasive local immune cell therapy and regenerative therapy by multi-piercing surgery for abdominal solid tumor: therapeutic simulation by natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery-assisted needlescopic surgery using 3-mm diameter robots.

    PubMed

    Ohdaira, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Norifumi; Xu, Hao; Mori, Megumu; Uemura, Munenori; Ieiri, Satoshi; Hashizume, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    We have invented multi-piercing surgery (MPS) which could potentially solve the triangular formation loss and device clashing which occur in single-port surgery (SPS), as well as restricted visual field, organ damage by needle-type instruments, and impaired removal of a resected organ from the body which occur in needlescopic surgery (NS). MPS is natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)-assisted NS. We used 3-mm diameter robots as needle-type instruments for MPS to examine the possibility of local immune cell therapy and regenerative therapy using stem cells for pancreatic cancer. In MPS using two robots, the therapeutic cell suspension was injected into a target region of pancreas in two pigs. Both retention of a capsule of liquid cell suspension and invasive level were evaluated. Triangular formation could be ensured. The use of small-diameter robots allowed (1) the surgical separation of the pancreas and the retroperitoneum, and (2) the formation of the capsule containing the immune cell and stem cell suspension. The endoscope for NOTES provided a clear visual field and also assisted the removal of a resected organ from the body. The visual field of the endoscope could be oriented well by using an electromagnetic navigation system. MPS using small-diameter robots could potentially solve the issues inherent in SPS and NS and could allow minimally invasive local immune cell and stem cell therapy.

  17. Health-related quality of life prospectively evaluated by the 8-item short form after endovascular repair versus open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayoshi; Tamaki, Mototsugu; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Motoji, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Okawa, Yasuhide; Tomita, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    Open repair for infra-renal abdominal aortic and iliac artery aneurysms (AAAs) is a robust treatment. On the other hand, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been widespread because of its less invasiveness. However, patients after EVAR frequently require postoperative radiographic examinations and may feel anxiety for their endoleaks. We prospectively evaluated Health-related Quality of Life of the patients with these two fashions using the 8-item Short Form (SF-8). From 2011 to 2013, 89 consecutive elective cases of AAAs were treated. They were prospectively divided into EVAR and open repair groups but not randomly. The exclusion criteria were as follows: perioperative status for other surgeries, infectious aneurysm, severely deteriorated conditions, and patients who cannot answer for these questionnaire or show their consent. The SF-8 questionnaire was completed through interviews preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The SF-8 questionnaire was completed for 55 cases [EVAR group (ER): 25, open repair group (OR): 30]. There was no significant difference between these groups regarding patients' characteristics except congestive heart disease. The preoperative scores of the SF-8 were similar in both groups except physical function and social function, which were lower in ER (p < 0.05). There was no operative death in both groups. Operative duration and hospital stay in EVAR were significantly shorter than those in OR (p < 0.05). Follow-up rate at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was 100, 100, 68.0, and 64.0% in ER, and 100, 90.0, 80.0, and 66.6% in OR, respectively. During follow-up, both groups had no AAAs associated death. Regarding changes of the SF-8 scales, there were some trends at physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) in ER. The PCS decreased at 1 month, gradually increased at 3 months, and levelled off until 12 months. The MCS increased at 1 and 3 months, but gradually went down and

  18. Respiratory System Mechanics During Low Versus High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Substudy of PROVHILO Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    D'Antini, Davide; Huhle, Robert; Herrmann, Jacob; Sulemanji, Demet S; Oto, Jun; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Kaczka, David W; Vidal Melo, Marcos Francisco; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Cinnella, Gilda

    2018-01-01

    In the 2014 PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure (PROVHILO) trial, intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 12 cm H2O) and lung recruitment maneuvers did not decrease postoperative pulmonary complications when compared to low PEEP (0-2 cm H2O) approach without recruitment breaths. However, effects of intraoperative PEEP on lung compliance remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that higher PEEP leads to a dominance of intratidal overdistension, whereas lower PEEP results in intratidal recruitment/derecruitment (R/D). To test our hypothesis, we used the volume-dependent elastance index %E2, a respiratory parameter that allows for noninvasive and radiation-free assessment of dominant overdistension and intratidal R/D. We compared the incidence of intratidal R/D, linear expansion, and overdistension by means of %E2 in a subset of the PROVHILO cohort. In 36 patients from 2 participating centers of the PROVHILO trial, we calculated respiratory system elastance (E), resistance (R), and %E2, a surrogate parameter for intratidal overdistension (%E2 > 30%) and R/D (%E2 < 0%). To test the main hypothesis, we compared the incidence of intratidal overdistension (primary end point) and R/D in higher and lower PEEP groups, as measured by %E2. E was increased in the lower compared to higher PEEP group (18.6 [16…22] vs 13.4 [11.0…17.0] cm H2O·L; P < .01). %E2 was reduced in the lower PEEP group compared to higher PEEP (-15.4 [-28.0…6.5] vs 6.2 [-0.8…14.0] %; P < .05). Intratidal R/D was increased in the lower PEEP group (61% vs 22%; P = .037). The incidence of intratidal overdistension did not differ significantly between groups (6%). During mechanical ventilation with protective tidal volumes in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, lung recruitment followed by PEEP of 12 cm H2O decreased the incidence of intratidal R/D and did not worsen overdistension, when compared

  19. [A comparison of the effects of intravenous fluid warming and skin surface warming on peri-operative body temperature and acid base balance of elderly patients with abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Park, Hyosun; Yoon, Haesang

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intravenous fluid warming and skin surface warming on peri-operative body temperature and acid base balance of abdominal surgical patients under general anesthesia. Data collection was performed from January 4th, to May 31, 2004. The intravenous fluid warming(IFW) group (30 elderly patients) was warmed through an IV line by an Animec set to 37 degrees C. The skin surface warming (SSW) group (30 elderly patients) was warmed by a circulating-water blanket set to 38 degrees C under the back and a 60W heating lamp 40 cm above the chest. The warming continued from induction of general anesthesia to two hours after completion of surgery. Collected data was analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA, and Bonferroni methods. SSW was more effective than IFW in preventing hypothermia(p= .043), preventing a decrease of HCO(3)(-)(p= .000) and preventing base excess (p= .000) respectively. However, there was no difference in pH between the SSW and IFW (p= .401) groups. We conclude that skin surface warming is more effective in preventing hypothermia, and HCO(3)(-) and base excess during general anesthesia, and returning to normal body temperature after surgery than intravenous fluid warming; however, skin surface warming wasn't able to sustain a normal body temperature in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia.

  20. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Open abdominal management after damage-control laparotomy for trauma: a prospective observational American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Dubose, Joseph J; Scalea, Thomas M; Holcomb, John B; Shrestha, Binod; Okoye, Obi; Inaba, Kenji; Bee, Tiffany K; Fabian, Timothy C; Whelan, James; Ivatury, Rao R

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a prospective observational multi-institutional study to examine the natural history of the open abdomen (OA) after trauma and identify risk factors for failure to achieve definitive primary fascial closure (DPC) after OA use in trauma. Adults requiring OA for trauma were enrolled during a 2-year period. Demographics, presentation, and management variables were used to compare primary fascial closure and non-primary fascial closure patients, with logistic regression used to identify independent risk factors for failure to achieve primary fascial closure. A total of 572 patients from 14 American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma centers were enrolled. The majority were male (79%), mean (SD) age 39 (17) years. Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 15 or greater in 85% of patients and 84% had an abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 3 or greater. Overall mortality was 23%. Initial primary fascial closure with unaltered native fascia was achieved in 379 patients (66%). Patients surviving at least 48 hours were grouped into those achieving DPC and those who did not achieve DPC after OA use. After logistic regression, independent risk factors for failure to achieve DPC included the number of reexplorations required (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-1.6; p < 0.001) the development of intra-abdominal abscess/sepsis (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.8; p = 0.011) bloodstream infection (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.7; p = 0.017), acute renal failure (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-5.7; p = 0.007), enteric fistula (AOR, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.2-32.8; p = 0.010) and ISS of greater than 15 (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.9; p = 0.037). Our study identifies independent risk factors associated with failure to achieve primary fascial closure during initial hospitalization after OA use for trauma. Additional study is required to validate appropriate algorithms that optimize the opportunity to achieve primary fascial closure and outcomes in this population

  2. Abdominal compartment syndrome--the prevention and treatment of possible lethal complications following hip arthroscopy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Piontek, Tomasz; Szulc, Andrzej

    2014-11-14

    Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome have been increasingly recognized as a hip arthroscopy complication over the past decade. In the absence of consensus definitions and treatment guidelines, the diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome remains variable from institution to institution. We report the occurrence of the extravasation of fluid into the abdomen during arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement combined with resection of trochanteric bursa and our management of the condition in a 55-year old Caucasian woman. We present an algorithm of treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome, as a hip arthroscopy complication, according to the consensus definitions and recommendations of the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. In the algorithm options, we have included paracentesis and percutaneous catheter decompression as the main point of treatment. Our algorithm will have a broader clinical impact on orthopedic surgery, anesthesiology and emergency medicine.

  3. Da Vinci-assisted abdominal cerclage.

    PubMed

    Barmat, Larry; Glaser, Gretchen; Davis, George; Craparo, Frank

    2007-11-01

    To report the first placement of an abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Case report. Tertiary-care hospital. A 39-year-old female with a history of cervical insufficiency who required a cerclage and was not a candidate for transvaginal cerclage placement. Abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement using the da Vinci robot. Ability to safely and successfully place an abdominal cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Abdominal cerclage was successfully placed using the da Vinci robot. The patient had minimal blood loss and was discharged to home on the same day as surgery. Da Vinci robot-assisted abdominal cerclage placement is an innovative application of robotic surgery and may alter the standard of care for women who require this surgery.

  4. MR imaging evaluation of abdominal pain during pregnancy: appendicitis and other nonobstetric causes.

    PubMed

    Spalluto, Lucy B; Woodfield, Courtney A; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Lazarus, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of the cause of abdominal pain in a pregnant patient is particularly difficult because of multiple confounding factors related to normal pregnancy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful in evaluation of abdominal pain during pregnancy, as it offers the benefit of cross-sectional imaging without ionizing radiation or evidence of harmful effects to the fetus. MR imaging is often performed specifically for diagnosis of possible appendicitis, which is the most common illness necessitating emergency surgery in pregnant patients. However, it is important to look for pathologic processes outside the appendix that may be an alternative source of abdominal pain. Numerous entities other than appendicitis can cause abdominal pain during pregnancy, including processes of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, vascular, and gynecologic origin. MR imaging is useful in diagnosing the cause of abdominal pain in a pregnant patient because of its ability to safely demonstrate a wide range of pathologic conditions in the abdomen and pelvis beyond appendicitis. © RSNA, 2012.

  5. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  6. Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, Angela; Chinnock, Paul; Ikpeme, Ikpeme A

    2015-11-13

    Injury to the abdomen can be blunt or penetrating. Abdominal injury can damage internal organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, and large blood vessels. There are controversies about the best approach to manage abdominal injuries. To assess the effects of surgical and non-surgical interventions in the management of abdominal trauma in a haemodynamically stable and non-peritonitic abdomen. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic+EMBASE (Ovid), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), and clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. We ran the most recent search on 17 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials of surgical interventions and non-surgical interventions involving people with abdominal injury who were haemodynamically stable with no signs of peritonitis. The abdominal injury could be blunt or penetrating. Two review authors independently applied the selection criteria. Data were extracted by two authors using a standard data extraction form, and are reported narratively. Two studies are included, which involved a total of 114 people with penetrating abdominal injuries. Both studies are at moderate risk of bias because the randomisation methods are not fully described, and the original study protocols are no longer available. The studies were undertaken in Finland between 1992 and 2002, by the same two researchers.In one study, 51 people were randomised to surgery or an observation protocol. None of the participants in the study died. Seven people had complications: 5 (18.5%) in the surgical group and 2 (8.3%) in the observation group; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42; Fischer's exact). Among the 27 people who had surgery, 6 (22.2%) surgeries were negative laparotomies, and 15 (55.6%) were non

  7. Orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testes: factors predicting success.

    PubMed

    Stec, Andrew A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Adams, Mark C; Pope, John C; Thomas, John C; Brock, John W

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis. We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis, defined as a nonpalpable testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success. The overall success rate of all orchiopexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively). The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%. While patient selection remains a critical factor, 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division was significantly more successful and a laparoscopic approach was associated with the fewest failures for intra-abdominal testes.

  8. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  9. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  10. Reconfirmation of the anatomy of the left triangular ligament and the appendix fibrosa hepatis in human livers, and its implication in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Kimitaka; Kojima, Itaru; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Yorifuji, Hiroshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the anatomy between the left triangular ligament (LTL) and the appendix fibrosa hepatis (AFH) in order not to sever the AFH when dissecting the LTL. Totals of 43 and 27 cadaveric livers were examined macroscopically and histologically, respectively. The LTL attached itself to the diaphragmatic surface of the AFH through almost all lengths of the AFH. This might be the reason why AFH is so often dissected together with the LTL. There were two types of relation between the LTL and the AFH; in one type, the starting point of the LTL existed on the left liver and in the other type, it was on the AFH. Twenty-five of 27 AFH included remnants of the bile duct and 12 of 25 AFH had comparatively large bile ducts, which was unexceptionally accompanied by the well-developed peribiliary vascular plexus. AFH showed a variety of shapes, such as rectangular (6/43), long triangular (4/43), short triangular (7/43), triangular plus cordlike (11/43), cordlike (12/43) and bifurcated (3/43) types. As AFH sometimes includes relatively large bile ducts, it is recommended for surgeons to sever the AFH not just simply by electrocautery but by ligating its stump securely. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  11. [The etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Dinu, C A; Moraru, D

    2011-01-01

    The study of the etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children, in order to perceive the clinical-etiological correlations and the disorders distribution related to age, gender and the origin of the patients. The criteria for including patients were age (between 0 and 18 years) and the presence of acute abdominal pain before or during the consultation with the physician. The research on acute abdominal pain in children was performed on the level of the Surgery and Pediatrics II clinical departments of the "Sf. Ioan" Children's Emergency Clinical Hospital in Galati, between 01.01.2009 - 01.01.2011. The clinical study performed on the patients registered in the studied groups focused on the identification, the evaluation of the symptoms of acute abdominal pain in children, diagnosing and treating it. The criteria for excluding patients were an age older than 18 years or the absence of acute abdominal pain as a symptom before or during the examination. The statistical analysis used the descriptive and analytical methods. The data was centralized and statistically processed in M.S.EXCEL and S.P.S.S. databases. The patients with acute abdominal pain represent a percentage of 92.9% (2358 cases) of the total number of patients who suffer from abdominal pain (N=2537). The highest frequency of cases is represented by acute appendicitis (1056 cases - 44.8%). In the 5-18 years age group, acute appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, ovarian follicular cysts, acute pyelenophritis and salpingitis are predominant. In the 0-4 years age group gastroenteritis, acute pharyngitis, reactive hepatitis and lower digestive bleeding are predominant. In females, acute appendicitis, gastroenteritis, gastroduodenitis and cystitis are predominant, whereas in males, peritonitis, sepsis through E. coli, the contusion of the abdominal wall and acute pharyngitis are predominant.

  12. Nasogastric tube versus gastrostomy tube for gastric decompression in abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized trial comparing patients' tube-related inconvenience.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Koller, M; Plaul, U; Stinner, B; Gerdes, B; Lorenz, W; Rothmund, M

    2001-11-01

    Perioperative decompression of the stomach is still a common procedure and can be achieved using either nasogastric tubes (NTs) or gastrostomy tubes (GTs). While both procedures appear to be equally effective, some authors believe that NTs are less convenient for patients than GTs. However, to date, no reliable prospective data are available on this issue. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing NTs versus GTs with a total of 110 patients undergoing elective colon surgery. The primary outcome measure was the patient's tube-related inconvenience and pain, assessed in a standardized interview on day 2 after surgery and quantified by means of a visual-analog scale (VAS). A questionnaire including the EORTC QLQ-C30 and additional items regarding retrospective tube-related judgements was administered on the day of discharge and 4 weeks after discharge. Secondary endpoints were the therapy-related morbidity and general complications. When patients were asked which of their drainage tubes (all patients had three or four drainage tubes, such as decompression drains, urinary drains, central venous line) was most inconvenient, 43% (CI 33-53%) in the NT group reported that the NT was most inconvenient, while only 4% (CI 1-10%) of the GT patients judged the GT most inconvenient ( P<0.001, Chi(2) test). This effect was also found in VAS ratings of inconvenience and discomfort ( P<0.01). Also postoperatively (p.o.), NT patients evidenced less preference for their tube system (day 2 p.o.: 71%, CI 61-80%; 4 weeks p.o.: 66%, CI 56-75%) than did GT patients (day 2 p.o.: 94%, CI 88-98%; 4 weeks p.o.: 91% CI 84-96%); again, these differences were statistically significant ( P<0.02; Chi(2) test). No differences between groups emerged regarding global quality of life or conventional clinical outcomes. This prospective randomized trial supports the clinical observation that NT causes more subjective inconvenience than GT. In cases when a prolonged postoperative ileus is

  13. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  14. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  15. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Drain site evisceration of fallopian tube, another reason to discourage abdominal drain: report of a case and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pradeep; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Gupta, Arun; Kaur, Navneet

    2012-04-01

    Placement of a drain following abdominal surgery is common despite a lack of convincing evidence in the current literature to support this practice. The use of intra-abdominal drain is associated with many potential and serious complications. We report a drain site evisceration of the right fallopian tube after the removal of an intra-abdominal drain. The drain was placed in the right iliac fossa in a patient who underwent a lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) for meconium liquor with fetal distress. The Pfannenstiel incision made for LSCS was reopened and the protruding inflamed fimbrial end of the right fallopian tube was excised. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Routine intra-abdominal prophylactic drain following an abdominal surgery including LSCS should be discouraged.

  17. Dentofacial morphology in adolescent or early adult patients with cleft lip and palate after a treatment regimen that included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair.

    PubMed

    Friede, H; Lilja, J

    1994-06-01

    Dentofacial morphology was evaluated in 94 adolescent or early adult patients born with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate. As well as lip closure, the primary treatment included vomer flap surgery and pushback palatal repair. Roentgencephalometric measurements as well as classification of the patients into different classes of dentofacial deformity indicated development of bimaxillary retrognathia with severe midfacial deficiency in about a quarter of the cases. Our results were similar to those reported by other teams who used similar surgical regimen.

  18. Medical Versus Interventional Treatment of Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients With Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Emily; Rao, Krishna; Cinti, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Few studies exist to guide the treatment approach to intra-abdominal abscesses in Crohn disease, which can include antimicrobials alone or in conjunction with percutaneous drainage or surgery. The primary aim of this study is to review outcomes from different treatment approaches to intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn disease. Medical records were reviewed for patients admitted to the University of Michigan health care system with Crohn disease and intra-abdominal abscess over a 4-year period. Outcomes were compared among medical and interventional approaches. The χ 2 test was used to test for statistical significance. Of the 33 patients included, 13 were in the medical group and 20 were in the interventional group. Abscess recurrence/nonresolution occurred in 31% of patients in the medical group and 25% of patients in the interventional group ( P = .7). In this study, there was no significant difference in outcome between medical and interventional therapy for intra-abdominal abscess in Crohn disease.

  19. Efficacy of 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine with Dexamethasone versus 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine alone in Spinal Anaesthesia for Patient Undergoing Lower Abdominal Urological and Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Haque, M M; Aleem, M A; Haque, F H; Siddique, A B; Afrose, R

    2018-04-01

    Spinal anaesthesia with local anaesthetics has limited duration. Different additives have been used to prolong spinal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine in spinal anaesthesia specially whether it would prolong the duration of sensory block/ surgical analgesia and post-operative analgesia/pain free period or not. This randomized, prospective, double-blind, clinical study was conducted in the Department of Anaesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care of Combined Military Hospital, Chittagong from October 2016 to August 2017. Seventy two (72) adult patients scheduled for lower abdominal urological and lower limb orthopedic surgery under spinal anaesthesia were included. They were divided in two groups; each group comprised 36 patients to receive 20mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Bupivacaine group) or 15mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 5mg dexamethasone (Bupivacaine-Dexamethasone/case group) intrathecally. The patients were evaluated for quality, quantity and duration of sensory block/surgical analgesia, post-operative analgesia/pain free period, blood pressure, heart rate, nausea, and vomiting or other complications. There were no significant differences in demographic data, sensory level and onset time of the sensory block between two groups. Duration of sensory block/Surgical analgesia in the bupivacaine group was 92.32±8.34 minutes and in the bupivacaine- dexamethasone/case group was 122.11±10.59 minutes which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). The duration of post-operative analgesia/pain free period was 208.78±41.57 minutes in the bupivacaine group; whereas it was 412.82±71.51 minutes in the bupivacaine-dexamethasone/case group which was also statistically highly significant (p<0.001). The frequency of complications was not different between two groups. This study has shown that the addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in spinal anaesthesia significantly improved the duration

  20. Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Guided by Cardiac Monitoring During High-Risk Abdominal Surgery in Adult Patients: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Esophageal Doppler and Arterial Pulse Pressure Waveform Analysis.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Guillaume; Ruscio, Laura; Benhamou, Dan; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Several minimally invasive techniques for cardiac output monitoring such as the esophageal Doppler (ED) and arterial pulse pressure waveform analysis (APPWA) have been shown to improve surgical outcomes compared with conventional clinical assessment (CCA). To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these techniques in high-risk abdominal surgery from the perspective of the French public health insurance fund. An analytical decision model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ED, APPWA, and CCA. Effectiveness data were defined from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. The clinical end points were avoidance of hospital mortality and avoidance of major complications. Hospital costs were estimated by the cost of corresponding diagnosis-related groups. Both goal-directed therapy strategies evaluated were more effective and less costly than CCA. Perioperative mortality and the rate of major complications were reduced by the use of ED and APPWA. Cost reduction was mainly due to the decrease in the rate of major complications. APPWA was dominant compared with ED in 71.6% and 27.6% and dominated in 23.8% and 20.8% of the cases when the end point considered was "major complications avoided" and "death avoided," respectively. Regarding cost per death avoided, APPWA was more likely to be cost-effective than ED in a wide range of willingness to pay. Cardiac output monitoring during high-risk abdominal surgery is cost-effective and is associated with a reduced rate of hospital mortality and major complications, whatever the device used. The two devices evaluated had negligible costs compared with the observed reduction in hospital costs. Our comparative studies suggest a larger effect with APPWA that needs to be confirmed by further studies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a reconditioning program for elderly abdominal surgery patients: the Elder-friendly Approaches to the Surgical Environment-BEdside reconditioning for Functional ImprovemenTs (EASE-BE FIT) pilot study.

    PubMed

    McComb, Alyssa; Warkentin, Lindsey M; McNeely, Margaret L; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2018-01-01

    Elderly individuals who are hospitalized due to emergency abdominal surgery spend over 80% of their recovery time in bed, resulting in early and rapid muscle loss. As these elderly individuals have a lower physiological reserve, the impact of muscle wasting on function may be profound. The objectives of this study are to (1) create an independently led post-surgical reconditioning program and (2) pilot its implementation, while assessing the feasibility and safety of the program. The BE FIT program was generated with hospital rehabilitation staff to target lower limb strength, balance, and endurance. This pilot study was assessed using a sequential before and after trial, with a cohort of patients aged ≥ 65 years enrolled in the Elder-friendly Approaches to the Surgical Environment (EASE) study. Change in 30-s sit-to-stand performance between postoperative day 2 and discharge was compared between Usual Care pre- and post-BE FIT participants. A total of 66 patients participated in the sub-study, 33 Usual Care and 33 BE FIT. Mean (SD) age was 76.2 (8.78); 44 (67%) were female, with 11 (17%) reporting mild/moderate frailty on the CHSA Clinical Frailty Scale. BE FIT participants had a median of three rehab days and self-reported completing an average of 83% of the exercises. The adjusted between group difference showed that the BE FIT patients were able to complete more stands than the Usual Care (1.9 stands (0.94), p  = 0.05). There were no reported adverse events. The reconditioning program was shown to be safe and feasible within the hospital setting for the elderly emergency abdominal surgery patients. More rigorous assessment is needed to confirm this effectiveness and to better assess patient adherence to self-directed exercise. Registration #NCT02233153 through ClinicalTrials.gov. Registered September 8, 2014.

  2. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  3. Effects of two different strategies of fluid administration on inflammatory mediators, plasma electrolytes and acid/base disorders in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery: a randomized double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Administration of normal saline might increase circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and may cause variation of plasmatic electrolytic and hyperchloremic acidosis, which in turn can impair renal function. Hence the use of balanced solutions could influence the inflammatory cascade triggered by the surgical procedures, the plasmatic electrolyte concentration, the acid–base equilibrium, and the renal function. Methods This is a double blind randomized trial. Forty patients undergoing major abdominal surgery (bowel cancer) were allocated in two groups, the balanced solution (BS) group in which the fluids administered were balanced solutions (colloids and crystalloids); and the unbalanced solution (UBS) group in which the fluids administered were unbalanced solutions (colloids and crystalloids). Measurements were performed after anaesthesia induction (T0), at the end of surgery (T1), within 2 h after surgery (T2) and 24 h after the beginning of surgery (T3). The following data were collected: 1) active matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10; 2) blood gases variables; 3) electrolytes, albumin, total serum protein and the strong ion difference; 4) neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) from urinary sample. Results The BS group exhibited higher circulating level of IL-10 and TIMP-1 and lower level of active MMP-9. The UBS group experienced hypercloremia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, worse acid–base equilibrium and higher level of NGAL. Conclusions The use of balanced solutions was responsible of less alteration of plasmatic electrolytes, acid–base equilibrium, kidney function and it might be associated with an early anti-inflammatory mechanisms triggering. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Ref: NCT01320891). PMID:24059479

  4. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ben Dhaou, Mahdi; Ghorbel, Sofiene; Chouikh, Taieb; Charieg, Awatef; Nouira, Faouzi; Ben Khalifa, Sonia; Khemakhem, Rachid; Jlidi, Said; Chaouachi, Béji

    2010-10-14

    Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization.

  5. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85%) with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%). The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days). In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20). Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization. PMID:20946659

  6. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection versus surgery in early gastric cancer meeting expanded indication including undifferentiated-type tumors: a criteria-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunpyo; Choi, Kee Don; Han, Minkyu; Na, Hee Kyong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Do Hoon; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Yook, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Byung Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2018-05-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) meeting the expanded indication is considered investigational. We aimed to compare long-term outcomes of ESD and surgery for EGC in the expanded indication based on each criterion. This study included 1823 consecutive EGC patients meeting expanded indication conditions and treated at a tertiary referral center: 916 and 907 patients underwent surgery or ESD, respectively. The expanded indication included four discrete criteria: (I) intramucosal differentiated tumor, without ulcers, size >2 cm; (II) intramucosal differentiated tumor, with ulcers, size ≤3 cm; (III) intramucosal undifferentiated tumor, without ulcers, size ≤2 cm; and (IV) submucosal invasion <500 μm (sm1), differentiated tumor, size ≤3 cm. We selected 522 patients in each group by propensity score matching and retrospectively evaluated each group. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS); the secondary outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and treatment-related complications. In all patients and subgroups meeting each criterion, OS and DSS were not significantly different between groups (OS and DSS, all patients: p = 0.354 and p = 0.930; criteria I: p = 0.558 and p = 0.688; criterion II: p = 1.000 and p = 1.000; criterion III: p = 0.750 and p = 0.799; and criterion IV: p = 0.599 and p = 0.871). RFS, in all patients and criterion I, was significantly shorter in the ESD group than in the surgery group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.003, respectively). The surgery group showed higher rates of late and severe treatment-related complications than the ESD group. ESD may be an alternative treatment option to surgery for EGCs meeting expanded indications, including undifferentiated-type tumors.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Pain, Stress, Neuropeptide Y, ACTH, and Cortisol Levels Between a Conventional Postoperative Care Protocol and a Fast-Track Recovery Program in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapritsou, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D; Bozas, Evangelos; Korkolis, Dimitrios P; Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Behavioral Pain Scale [BPS]) and stress responses (3 self-report questions) assessed. NPY, ACTH, and cortisol plasma levels were measured at T1 = day of admission, T2 = day of surgery, and T3 = prior to discharge. ACTH T1 and ACTH T2 levels were positively correlated with self-reported stress levels (ρ = .43 and ρ = .45, respectively, p < .05) in the FT group. NPY levels in the FT group were higher than those in the CON group at all time points ( p ≤ .004); this difference remained significant after adjusting for T1 levels through analysis of covariance for age, gender, and body mass index ( F = .003, F = .149, F = .015, respectively, p > .05). Neuropeptidic levels were higher in the FT group. Future research should evaluate this association further, as these biomarkers might serve as objective indicators of postoperative pain and stress.

  8. Incentive spirometry in major surgeries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Celso R F; Paisani, Denise M; Lunardi, Adriana C

    2011-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the use of incentive spirometry (IS) for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications and for the recovery of pulmonary function in patients undergoing abdominal, cardiac and thoracic surgeries. Searches were performed in the following databases: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, PEDro and Scopus to select randomized controlled trials which the IS was used in pre- and/or post-operative in order to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications and/or recover lung function after abdominal, cardiac and thoracic surgery. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies. In addition, the studies quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Thirty studies were included (14 abdominal, 13 cardiac and 3 thoracic surgery; n=3,370 patients). In the analysis of the methodological quality, studies achieved a PEDro average score of 5.6, 4.7 and 4.8 points in abdominal, cardiac and thoracic surgeries, respectively. Five studies (3 abdominal, 1 cardiac and 1 thoracic surgery) compared the effect of the IS with control gro