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  1. [Rectal prolapse revealing a tumor: The role of abdominal ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Bequet, E; Stiennon, L; Lhomme, A; Piette, C; Hoyoux, C; Rausin, L; Guidi, O

    2016-07-01

    Rectal prolapse is rare in children and usually benign. However, there are various diseases that can be associated with it, such as cystic fibrosis or other causes of increased abdominal pressure. Here, we review the various underlying conditions that pediatricians or pediatric gastroenterologists should consider in the case of rectal prolapse. We report on three cases of children with a rectal prolapse and intra-abdominal tumors. Current recommendations and practice do not include a systematic check via abdominal imaging in cases of rectal prolapse. However, in some situations, imaging is indicated to detect a possible expansive process. Thus, in the presence of recurrent prolapse or of associated urinary or neurological signs, imaging is justified so as to allow for an early diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms. Given its lack of radiation exposure and good sensitivity in children, ultrasound imaging is the first choice. PMID:27265581

  2. Abdominal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  3. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  5. [Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels].

    PubMed

    Oviedo-García, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Á

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter.

  6. [Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation.

  7. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  8. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  9. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Z; Sakijan, A S; Annuar, N; Kooi, G H

    1990-12-01

    Ultrasound examinations were done to evaluate clinically palpable abdominal masses in 125 children. The examinations were normal in 21 patients. In 15 patients, the clinically palpable masses were actually anterior abdominal wall abscesses or hematomas. Final diagnosis was available in 87 of 89 patients with intraabdominal masses detected on ultrasound. The majority (71%) were retroperitoneal masses where two-thirds were of renal origin. Ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 68 patients (78%). All cases of hydronephrosis were correctly diagnosed based on characteristic ultrasound appearances. Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information.

  10. Ultrasound evaluation of abdominal masses in Ethiopian child patients.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Assefa Getachew; Nigussie, Yared

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of abdominal masses and evaluate the value of ultrasound in paediatric abdominal masses. We used a cross-sectional study of abdominal masses in children attending a university teaching hospital. The common abdominal masses were: Wilms' tumour, 12 (14.8%); lymphoma, 11 (13.6%); appendiceal mass/abscess, 11 (13.6%); neuroblastoma, 7 (8.6%); TB, 6 (7.4%); hydronephrosis, 5 (6.2%); abdominal wall abscess, 6 (7.4%); hydatidcyst, 4 (4.9%); mesenteric cyst, 3 (3.7%); and intussusceptions, 3 (3.7%). Identification of a purely cystic mass was suggestive of benign lesion (odds ratio [OR] = 118, P = 0.0001) and masses found in the <5 years age group tend to be malignant (OR = 2.77). The most common sites of origin were kidneys, retroperitoneal extra renal and gastrointestinal tract. The overall diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was 88.9%.

  11. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Beau

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of an office-based, family physician–administered ultrasound examination to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Design A prospective observational study. Consecutive patients were approached by nonphysician staff. Setting Rural family physician offices in Grand Forks and Revelstoke, BC. Participants The Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery screening recommendations for AAA were used to help select patients who were at risk of AAA. All men 65 years of age or older were included. Women 65 years of age or older were included if they were current smokers or had diabetes, hypertension, a history of coronary artery disease, or a family history of AAA. Main outcome measures A focused “quick screen,” which measured the maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta using point-of-care ultrasound technology, was performed in the office by a resident physician trained in emergency ultrasonography. Each patient was then booked for a criterion standard scan (ie, a conventional abdominal ultrasound scan performed by a technician and interpreted by a radiologist). The maximal abdominal aortic diameter measured by ultrasound in the office was compared with that measured by the criterion standard method. The time to screen each patient was recorded. Results Forty-five patients were included in data analysis; 62% of participants were men. The mean age was 73 years. The mean pairwise difference between the office-based ultrasound scan and the criterion standard scan was not statistically significant. The mean absolute difference between the 2 scans was 0.20 cm (95% CI 0.15 to 0.25 cm). Correlation between the scans was 0.81. The office-based ultrasound scan had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The mean time to screen each patient was 212 seconds (95% CI 194 to 230 seconds). Conclusion Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening can be safely performed in the office by family physicians who are trained to use point

  12. A 10-year restrospective evaluation of ultrasound in pregnant abdominal trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Quinn C; Brown, Michele A; Dehqanzada, Zia A; Doucet, Jay; Coimbra, Raul; Casola, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    The pregnant abdominal trauma patient presents a unique diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of abdominal sonography for the detection of clinically important injuries in pregnant abdominal trauma patients. A retrospective review was performed of a trauma center database from 2001 to 2011. Medical records were reviewed to determine initial abdominal imaging test results and clinical course. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ultrasound for detection of traumatic injury were calculated. Of 19,128 patients with suspected abdominal trauma, 385 (2 %) were pregnant. Of these, 372 (97 %) received ultrasound as the initial abdominal imaging test. All 13 pregnant patients who did not receive ultrasound received abdominal CT. Seven pregnant patients underwent both ultrasound and CT. Seven ultrasound examinations were positive, leading to one therapeutic Cesarean section and one laparotomy. One ultrasound was considered false positive (no injury was seen on subsequent CT). There were 365 negative ultrasound examinations. Of these, 364 were true negative (no abdominal injury subsequently found). One ultrasound was considered false negative (a large fetal subchorionic hemorrhage seen on subsequent dedicated obstetrical ultrasound). Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 85.7 %. Specificity and negative predictive value were 99.7 %. Abdominal sonography is an effective and sufficient imaging examination in pregnant abdominal trauma patients. When performed as part of the initial assessment using an abbreviated trauma protocol with brief modifications for pregnancy, ultrasound minimizes diagnostic delay, obviates radiation risk, and provides high sensitivity for injury in the pregnant population.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Sessa, Barbara; Trinci, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Baseline ultrasound is essential in the early assessment of patients with a huge haemoperitoneum undergoing an immediate abdominal surgery; nevertheless, even with a highly experienced operator, it is not sufficient to exclude parenchymal injuries. More recently, a new ultrasound technique using second generation contrast agents, named contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been developed. This technique allows all the vascular phase to be performed in real time, increasing ultrasound capability to detect parenchymal injuries, enhancing some qualitative findings, such as lesion extension, margins and its relationship with capsule and vessels. CEUS has been demonstrated to be almost as sensitive as contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of traumatic injuries in patients with low-energy isolated abdominal trauma, with levels of sensitivity and specificity up to 95%. Several studies demonstrated its ability to detect lesions occurring in the liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys and also to recognize active bleeding as hyperechoic bands appearing as round or oval spots of variable size. Its role seems to be really relevant in paediatric patients, thus avoiding a routine exposure to ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, CEUS is strongly operator dependent, and it has some limitations, such as the cost of contrast media, lack of panoramicity, the difficulty to explore some deep regions and the poor ability to detect injuries to the urinary tract. On the other hand, it is timesaving, and it has several advantages, such as its portability, the safety of contrast agent, the lack to ionizing radiation exposure and therefore its repeatability, which allows follow-up of those traumas managed conservatively, especially in cases of fertile females and paediatric patients. PMID:26607647

  14. Monitoring the biological activity of abdominal aortic aneurysms Beyond Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Newby, David E; Robson, Jennifer M J

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are an important cause of morbidity and, when ruptured, are associated with >80% mortality. Current management decisions are based on assessment of aneurysm diameter by abdominal ultrasound. However, AAA growth is non-linear and rupture can occur at small diameters or may never occur in those with large AAAs. There is a need to develop better imaging biomarkers that can identify the potential risk of rupture independent of the aneurysm diameter. Key pathobiological processes of AAA progression and rupture include neovascularisation, necrotic inflammation, microcalcification and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes represent key targets for emerging imaging techniques and may confer an increased risk of expansion or rupture over and above the known patient-related risk factors. Magnetic resonance imaging, using ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide, can identify and track hotspots of macrophage activity. Positron emission tomography, using a variety of targeted tracers, can detect areas of inflammation, angiogenesis, hypoxia and microcalcification. By going beyond the simple monitoring of diameter expansion using ultrasound, these cellular and molecular imaging techniques may have the potential to allow improved prediction of expansion or rupture and to better guide elective surgical intervention. PMID:26879242

  15. Ultrasound screening for clinically occult abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, M; Chan, A

    1988-01-01

    In a review of the records of 74 patients who had undergone repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm at a community hospital between 1977 and 1983 we found that the aneurysm had been undiagnosed before rupture in 35%; these patients had an operative death rate of 50%, whereas elective repair carried a death rate of 4%. The characteristic patient was an obese man over the age of 55 years with hypertension, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. Ultrasound examination was performed in 45 patients with these characteristics, and six aneurysms were diagnosed. Either surgery or computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. The rate of false-negative results was estimated by review of the charts of 100 men over the age of 55 years who had undergone abdominal ultrasonography for other indications: no undetected aneurysms were discovered over 3 years of follow-up. Routine screening in this high-risk group would improve the rate of diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition before rupture and offer the patient the lower mortality rate associated with elective surgery. PMID:3281738

  16. Robotic-assisted, ultrasound-guided abdominal cerclage during pregnancy: overcoming minimally invasive surgery limitations?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Teresa M; Borahay, Mostafa A; Fox, Karin A; Kilic, Gokhan S

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report robotic abdominal cerclage placement under ultrasound guidance. The da Vinci Si system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) allows a simultaneous display of the operative field and transvaginal ultrasound images. Additionally, the vaginal ultrasound probe assisted in the manipulation of the uterus to improve visualization without placing excessive pressure on the gravid uterus. Ultrasound guidance improves needle placement accuracy and reduces potential for injuries.

  17. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Marc; Zwolak, Robert; Velazquez, Omaida; Makaroun, Michel; Fairman, Ronald; Cronenwett, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been shown to be beneficial and cost-effective for men aged 65-74. However, most screening studies have been conducted in Europe and Australia, where attendance for screening was higher than the single large U.S. study involving only veterans. The prevalence of AAA in the U.S. general population is not well defined, nor is the best method of recruitment for screening. Letters of invitation for a free screening ultrasound for AAA were sent to 30,000 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries from the hospital referral region of three university-affiliated hospitals without restriction by age, gender, or comorbidity. Attendance for screening was calculated by age, gender, and travel distance to the screening center. Telephone calls to a random sample of nonresponders were made to determine the reason for failure to attend. Prevalence of AAA by ultrasound and known risk factors for AAA (e.g., age, gender, smoking status) were determined. The attendance rate was 7% (2,005). Attendance was greater with male gender (p < 0.01), younger age (p < 0.05), and decreased travel distance to the screening center (p < 0.05). The primary reasons for failure to attend included incorrect address or vital status, poor health, and lack of interest. Prevalence of previously undetected AAA was 2.8% in men and 0.2% in women. AAA was predicted by smoking status and male gender (p < 0.01 for each). Unselected invitation of Medicare beneficiaries for ultrasound screening for AAA results in a low attendance and low yield of AAA. The prevalence estimates from this study may not reflect the entire Medicare population given the low attendance and may reflect the healthy habits of those most interested in screening. Patients should be selected for screening based on their suitability for repair if an AAA is found as well as their risk factors for AAA. The best method of recruitment for screening of those most at risk for AAA in the United

  18. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Marc; Zwolak, Robert; Velazquez, Omaida; Makaroun, Michel; Fairman, Ronald; Cronenwett, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been shown to be beneficial and cost-effective for men aged 65-74. However, most screening studies have been conducted in Europe and Australia, where attendance for screening was higher than the single large U.S. study involving only veterans. The prevalence of AAA in the U.S. general population is not well defined, nor is the best method of recruitment for screening. Letters of invitation for a free screening ultrasound for AAA were sent to 30,000 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries from the hospital referral region of three university-affiliated hospitals without restriction by age, gender, or comorbidity. Attendance for screening was calculated by age, gender, and travel distance to the screening center. Telephone calls to a random sample of nonresponders were made to determine the reason for failure to attend. Prevalence of AAA by ultrasound and known risk factors for AAA (e.g., age, gender, smoking status) were determined. The attendance rate was 7% (2,005). Attendance was greater with male gender (p < 0.01), younger age (p < 0.05), and decreased travel distance to the screening center (p < 0.05). The primary reasons for failure to attend included incorrect address or vital status, poor health, and lack of interest. Prevalence of previously undetected AAA was 2.8% in men and 0.2% in women. AAA was predicted by smoking status and male gender (p < 0.01 for each). Unselected invitation of Medicare beneficiaries for ultrasound screening for AAA results in a low attendance and low yield of AAA. The prevalence estimates from this study may not reflect the entire Medicare population given the low attendance and may reflect the healthy habits of those most interested in screening. Patients should be selected for screening based on their suitability for repair if an AAA is found as well as their risk factors for AAA. The best method of recruitment for screening of those most at risk for AAA in the United

  19. 3D visualization of strain in abdominal aortic aneurysms based on navigated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekken, Reidar; Kaspersen, Jon Harald; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn; Hernes, Toril A. N.; Myhre, Hans Olav

    2007-03-01

    The criterion for recommending treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is that the diameter exceeds 50-55 mm or shows a rapid increase. Our hypothesis is that a more accurate prediction of aneurysm rupture is obtained by estimating arterial wall strain from patient specific measurements. Measuring strain in specific parts of the aneurysm reveals differences in load or tissue properties. We have previously presented a method for in vivo estimation of circumferential strain by ultrasound. In the present work, a position sensor attached to the ultrasound probe was used for combining several 2D ultrasound sectors into a 3D model. The ultrasound was registered to a computed-tomography scan (CT), and the strain values were mapped onto a model segmented from these CT data. This gave an intuitive coupling between anatomy and strain, which may benefit both data acquisition and the interpretation of strain. In addition to potentially provide information relevant for assessing the rupture risk of the aneurysm in itself, this model could be used for validating simulations of fluid-structure interactions. Further, the measurements could be integrated with the simulations in order to increase the amount of patient specific information, thus producing a more reliable and accurate model of the biomechanics of the individual aneurysm. This approach makes it possible to extract several parameters potentially relevant for predicting rupture risk, and may therefore extend the basis for clinical decision making.

  20. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33 mm (range 20 to 74 mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll. PMID:26371387

  1. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33 mm (range 20 to 74 mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll.

  2. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  3. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E; Chaer, Rabih A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  4. [Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Sáez-Fernández, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Díaz-Rodríguez, N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information.

  5. Pleuropulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis: CT and ultrasound findings

    PubMed Central

    Shim, S S; Kim, Y; Lee, J K; Lee, J H; Song, D E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review radiological images of patients with Paragonimus westermani (PW) that simultaneously involved the chest and abdomen. Methods Our study included four patients with serologically and histopathologically confirmed paragonimiasis. Abdomen CT (n=3) and chest CT (n=3) scans were available, and abdominal wall ultrasonography was performed in all patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of these patients. Results The most common abdominal CT findings were ascites and intraperitoneal or abdominal wall nodules. Low-attenuated serpentine lesions of the liver were another common and relatively specific feature. Conclusion Radiologists should consider the possibility of PW when these abdominal CT findings are noted, especially with pleural effusion or subpleural nodules in patients with initial abdominal symptoms. PMID:22457403

  6. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  7. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  8. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  9. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  10. [Emergency ultrasound in patients with abdominal pain - where should we "look"].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tanja; Heinz, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is without doubt the imaging technique of choice in patients with acute abdominal pain. Point-of-care ultrasound examinations can help to reduce the number of possible differential diagnoses by exclusion or - as a best case scenario - show us directly the correct diagnosis. Hence patients can benefit from a very early appropriate therapeutic approach. This article illustrates where and how we should "look". After focusing on basic technical settings, typical pathological sonomorphologic changes in patients with some of the most important illnesses are characterized (e. g. acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, acute diverticulitis, acute pancreatitis and urinary tract occlusion). Ultrasound beginners are the target group of this survey.

  11. Abdominal and obstetric applications of a dynamically focused phased array real time ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C L; Trought, W S; von Ramm, O T; Thurstone, F L

    1980-05-01

    Abdominal and obstetric applications of a dynamically focused phased array real time ultrasonic system are described. This work was performed utilising both the Thaumascan (two-dimensional, high resolution, actual time, ultrasound, multi-element array scanner) and the first commercial unit based on this system, the Grumman RT-400. Examples of normal and pathological anatomy are presented from over 300 examinations performed to date, including a series of 28 abdominal aortic aneurysms studied with the RT-400. Following electronic alterations in the Thaumascan with resultant improvement in the grey scale, prospective analyses in 86 obstetric and 23 abdominal examinations were undertaken. These studies indicate that fetal, intra-uterine, and abdominal structures can be rapidly and consistently imaged. The value of real time ultrasonic scanning in obstetric and abdominal examinations is illustrated. The principles of dynamically focused phased arrays are described, and the merits and limitations of these systems are discussed.

  12. Preoperative ultrasound and gallium-67 evaluation of abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1984-08-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography followed by gallium (Ga)-67 scintigraphy in 21 patients, aged 1 to 14 years, appearing with abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was analyzed. All cases were confirmed by biopsy; in a majority (16 patients), the tissue was obtained from an abdominal mass at the time of laparotomy subsequent to the imaging studies. Nineteen satisfactory abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed; 18 were interpreted as characteristic of NHL. Sixteen of these were of masses involving the gastrointestinal tract. All 21 patients had /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy that demonstrated abnormal radionuclide accumulation in the abdomen. In no instance was the final diagnosis different from the one predicted by the combined imaging studies. Ultrasonography is recommended as the initial test in the evaluation of clinical presentations consistent with abdominal NHL to expedite suitable management and prevent inappropriate surgery.

  13. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors' own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5-6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia - peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement - a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent symptom of

  14. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes

    PubMed Central

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors’ own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5–6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia – peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement – a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent

  15. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  16. [Differential diagnosis and treatment of complex renal cysts detected by ultrasound screening of the abdominal cavity organs].

    PubMed

    Ukhal', M I; Ukhal', E M; Kvasha, A N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound screening of the abdominal cavity organs was performed in 98 patients, and renal cysts were revealed in 31 patientsare. 11 (26,6%) of 31 patients had renal cysts with complex structure. In 4 patients, complex cysts were located in parapelvic zone, in 7 patients - in different parts of the renal parenchyma. Pharmaco-Doppler sonography and computed tomography with bolus contrast enhancement in 7 patients with complex parenchymal cysts had revealed indirect signs of a malignant process - septums, thickening of the walls of cysts and septums, foci of calcination, increased blood circulation in the thickened renal cyst walls, venous stasis on the periphery of cysts and renal medulla, increasing the density of the thickened walls. Results of morphological studies have confirmed the presence of a malignant process in 5 of these 7 patients. In 4 patients with parapelvic cysts malignant process in ectomized layers was not revealed.

  17. [Value and sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound in preoperative histologic diagnosis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Trebing, G; Meyer, L; Scheele, J

    1998-01-01

    In a retrospective study we compared the findings of our abdominal ultra-sound diagnostic of the gallbladder and the common bile duct with the results ot preoperative ERCP, intraoperative findings and the histological results. The test parameters were the size of the gallbladder, the number and the size of biliary calculi, the thickness and the constitution of the wall of the gallbladder and the consecutive grade of inflammation, the wideness of the common bile duct and the suspicion of a choledocholithiasis, respectively. In acute cholecystitis we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours, in symtomatic cholecystolithiasis without cholecystitis an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. If there was suspicion of a choledocholithiasis we performed a preoperative ERCP. Altogether we had correct findings of the common bile duct in our ultrasound diagnostic in 133 of 136 cases (97.8%), only in 3 of 136 cases (2.2%) we had false negative ultrasound findings. With a generous indication to ERCP caused by anamnestic and/or laboratory findings the obstruction of the bile duct could be diagnosted and eliminated in 2 of these 3 cases preoperatively. In all cases of bile duct dilatation (7 mm and more) we found an obstruction of the common bile duct. Our results demonstrate that abdominal ultrasound is a high-efficiency method in the preoperative diagnostic of gallbladder and common bile duct stones.

  18. Using an abdominal phantom to teach urology residents ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle placement

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Pauline; Odisho, Anobel; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Usawachintachit, Manint; Hu, Weiguo; Li, Jianxing; Chi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: To assess the effect of a hands-on ultrasound training session to teach urologic trainees ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle placement. Materials and methods: University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) urology residents completed a time trial, placing a needle into a phantom model target under ultrasound guidance. Participants were randomized into three educational exposure groups: Group 1's time trial occurred prior to any teaching intervention, group 2's after experiencing a hands-on training module, and group 3's after exposure to both the training module and one-on-one attending feedback. Needle placement speed and accuracy as well as trainees' perceived confidence in utilizing ultrasound were measured. Results: The study cohort consisted of 15 resident trainees. Seven were randomized to group 1, three to group 2, and five to group 3. All residents reported minimal prior ultrasound experience. Their confidence in using ultrasound improved significantly after completing the training module with the most significant improvement seen among junior residents. Time to needle placement was fastest after receiving attending feedback (46.6sec in group 3 vs. 82.7sec in groups 1 and 2, p<0.01). Accuracy also improved with attending feedback, though the number of repositioning attempts did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: A hands-on training module and use of an abdominal phantom trainer increased resident confidence and skill in their use of ultrasound to guide percutaneous needle positioning. Attending feedback is critical for improving accuracy in needle guidance toward a target. Ultrasound-guided needle positioning is a teachable skill and can be applicable to multiple urologic procedures. PMID:27564282

  19. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    PubMed

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP.

  20. [Ultrasound scanning of abdominal contusions in children: experience at the Yopougon CHU (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    N'Goan, A M; Aguehounde, C; N'Gbesso, R D; Moh, N; Roux, C; Keita, K

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasound scans were used to study 23 cases of abdominal contusion in children, between January 1992 and December 1993. Thirteen boys and 10 girls were studied. They were all aged between 4 and 14 years, with a mean age of 6 years. The main causes of their injuries were road accidents (12 cases) and play (11 cases). Ultrasound scans were normal in 6 patients and pathological in 17 patients. The most frequently observed injuries were visceral effects (12 cases), almost always associated with hemoperitoneum. In three cases, hemoperitoneum was detected in the absence of visceral effects. The spleen (4 cases) and the liver (4 cases) were the most frequently injured organs. The other injuries detected included renal hematoma, bladder rupture and parietal hematoma. Diagnosis on the basis of ultrasound scans was found to be incorrect in three cases where diagnosis was repeated after the scan. One case involved a blocked perforation of the rectum, one a benign cyst and the other a mesenteric cyst. Despite these misdiagnoses, ultrasound scanning is a highly sensitive and specific method for examination of contusions in children. It is very useful and often sufficient for accurate diagnosis, particularly in units with only modest technical support. PMID:9480035

  1. Ultrasound evaluation of the symmetry of abdominal muscles in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Gogola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9–24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied. PMID:25729192

  2. Diagnosis of abdominal abscesses with computed tomography, ultrasound, and /sup 111/In leukocyte scans

    SciTech Connect

    Knochel, J.Q.; Koehler, P.R.; Lee, T.G.; Welch, D.M.

    1980-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scans are all used in the evaluation of abdominal abscesses. In this study, 170 patients in whom one, two, or all three of these modalities were used were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnostic accuracy of 96% for CT, 90% for ultrasound, and 92% for /sup 111/In leukocyte scans was achieved. It was often necessary to use more than one modality to arrive at a correct diagnosis. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the causes for false positive or false negative interpretations of each of these modalities are reviewed. Analysis of the different examinations resulted in a suggested sequence by which patients can be examined, based upon their clinical condition. Patients who are not critically ill and/or who have no localizing signs should be studied first with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scans. If, however, localizing signs are present or the patient's condition necessitates prompt intervention, CT or ultrasound should be the first study performed.

  3. Ultrasound in newborns and children suffering from non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: imaging with clinical and surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    di Giacomo, Vincenza; Trinci, Margherita; van der Byl, Giulia; Catania, Vincenzo Davide; Calisti, Alessandro; Miele, Vittorio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review ultrasonographic appearance of the most common causes of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients and to understand the applications and limitations of this technique giving a practical approach showing different clinical cases. A pictorial review of cases was made presenting the most common causes of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; sonographic features are discussed. Ultrasound in conjunction with Color Doppler imaging is a valuable tool in the evaluation of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; causes of acute abdomen in children could vary depending on the ages of the children.

  4. [FIRST EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY OF A TWO-STREAM LOW-FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Lifshits, Yu Z; Babayev, E; Afremov, M; Valetskiy, V L; Grigoruk, A V; Omelchenko, A N

    2015-09-01

    Biophysical peculiarities of action on tissues of a two-strem low-frequency ultrasound (TSLFU) technology, elaborated by "Arobella Medical LLC" (USA) firm, were studied. Capacity of ultrasound to separate a pathologically-changed and healthy tissues, to divide the structures in accordance to their bioacoustical parameters constitutes the technology peculiarities. The presence of such a biophysical effect permits to achieve high resectability (R0) in patients with oncological diseases. Antibacterial effect and stimulation of intraorgan microcirculation with ultrasound irradiation were noted. Biophysical peculiarities of TSLFU were successfully applied in surgical treatment of 48 patients, suffering inflammatory and oncological diseases of the abdominal cavity organs.

  5. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part I: The visceroperitoneal bordeline, anatomy and the method of examination.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2012-12-01

    It needs to be emphasized that ultrasonography is a primary test performed in order to evaluate the abdominal wall and structures located in their vicinity. It allows for the determination of the anatomy and lesions in this localization. Thorough knowledge concerning the ultrasound anatomy of the tested structures constitutes a basis of all diagnostic successes. Therefore, this part of the article is devoted to this subject matter. The possibility to diagnose intra-abdominal adhesions with ultrasound is underestimated and rarely used. The aim of this paper is to discuss and document the ultrasound anatomy of the posterior surface of the abdominal wall as well as to present techniques directed at the detection of adhesions, in particular the visceroperitoneal ones. The posterior surface of the abdominal wall constitutes an extensive tissue area of complex structure, with folds and ligaments surrounded by various amounts of the epiperitoneal fat. In some places, this tissue separates the components of the fascia and peritoneum complex. The ultrasound manifestation of this complex is two hyperechogenic lines placed parallelly to each other in the places where they are not separated by the accumulated adipose tissue. Another factor which separates the peritoneum from the viscera is of dynamic character. It is a so-called visceral slide induced by easy or deep breathing. Its size should not be lower than 1 cm and the deflections gradually and symmetrically diminish from the epigastric to hypogastric region. Last but not least, the evaluation of the reciprocal relation of the abdominal wall with viscera may be aided by rhythmical manual compressions on the abdominal wall (ballottement sign) performed below the applied ultrasound transducer. During this test, the size of the visceral slide in relation to the abdominal wall is observed. The maneuver is usually performed in uncooperative patients or those with shallow breath. The authors' own experiences indicate that the

  6. Agreement between objective and subjective assessment of image quality in ultrasound abdominal aortic aneurism screening

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenhulme, S; Keeble, C; Moore, S; Evans, J A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement between objective and subjective assessment of image quality of ultrasound scanners used for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening. Methods: Nine ultrasound scanners were used to acquire longitudinal and transverse images of the abdominal aorta. 100 images were acquired per scanner from which 5 longitudinal and 5 transverse images were randomly selected. 33 practitioners scored 90 images blinded to the scanner type and subject characteristics and were required to state whether or not the images were of adequate diagnostic quality. Odds ratios were used to rank the subjective image quality of the scanners. For objective testing, three standard test objects were used to assess penetration and resolution and used to rank the scanners. Results: The subjective diagnostic image quality was ten times greater for the highest ranked scanner than for the lowest ranked scanner. It was greater at depths of <5.0 cm (odds ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 3.56, 12.57) than at depths of 15.1–20.0 cm. There was a larger range of odds ratios for transverse images than for longitudinal images. No relationship was seen between subjective scanner rankings and test object scores. Conclusion: Large variation was seen in the image quality when evaluated both subjectively and objectively. Objective scores did not predict subjective scanner rankings. Further work is needed to investigate the utility of both subjective and objective image quality measurements. Advances in knowledge: Ratings of clinical image quality and image quality measured using test objects did not agree, even in the limited scenario of AAA screening. PMID:25494526

  7. Intramuscular abdominal wall endometriosis treated by ultrasound-guided ethanol injection.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Çil, A Said; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

    2014-12-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition that usually develops in a surgical scar resulting from a Caesarean section. While commonly seen in the cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue at the Caesarean scar level, its intramuscular localization is quite rare. Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature. Wide surgical excision may create a defect in the abdominal wall and may increase the risk of hernia formation and mesh complications. This case report describes the clinical and radiological findings and treatment modalities of endometriosis that have appeared in the rectus abdominis muscle of a 25-year-old patient at the Caesarean scar level. Sclerotherapy may be used for endometrioma. We present a new and alternative treatment method using ultrasound-guided intralesional ethanol injection for AWE. Compared with the complications of surgical excision, the complications of sclerotherapy by ethanol are at a more acceptable level. Sclerotherapy by ethanol injection may be an alternative treatment to surgery for AWE.

  8. Ultrasound-guided continuous transverse abdominis plane block for abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rao V; Field, J B

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new regional analgesic technique for postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. Its efficacy is not clear, and thus it needs to be explored for its regular utilisation on prolonged period. The objective was to study the continuous local anaesthetic infusion effect on postoperative analgesia. Continuous use of TAP block as an analgesic technique has not been evaluated prospectively in clinical trials. This study evaluates the efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in comparison with PCA fentanyl in major abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods: There were 20 patients in the study, allocated to TAP and control groups. The parameters measured were pain scores on a numerical rating scale (NRS) of 0-10 at various time intervals and the amount of fentanyl used as rescue analgesia. Patient satisfaction scores were recorded in the TAP block group and along with any complications related to the block. Results: The postoperative median pain scores on coughing on day one were 6.0 for control group and 2.0 for the TAP group (P = 0.02); on day two, the equivalent scores were 7.0 and 2.0 (P = 0.01). The fentanyl requirement at one hour was 203 μ for the control group and 78 μg for the TAP group (P = 0.03); at day one, the control and TAP requirements were 1237 μg and 664 μg respectively (P = 0.01). Three TAP patients rated their satisfaction as ‘excellent’, four as ‘satisfied, and two as ‘poor’. Conclusion: TAP block is a promising technique for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal surgeries. Our study demonstrated lower pain scores in the TAP group with reduced fentanyl requirement. Further, a large scale study is needed to establish the efficacy of TAP block in this setting. PMID:21897502

  9. The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Fabio; Miele, Vittorio; Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice in the assessment of multiple trauma patients. However, in patients who suffered from low-energy abdominal trauma, the use of CT is controversial, since the probability of injury is low and therefore most of the studies are normal. Thus, conventional US imaging has increasingly been employed as the initial imaging modality in the work-up of minor traumatic emergency condition. More recently, the introduction of a new contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) technique, using second-generation ultrasound contrast agents, has led to a notable increase in the diagnostic accuracy of US in many organs. Therefore, in trauma patients, following assessment with conventional US imaging, a CEUS exam can be performed, to provide a more reliable assessment of solid organ injuries. CEUS has the potential to detect active bleeding from a variety of traumatic origins. Similar to CT, active extravasation is considered when there is evidence of contrast agent collection with echogenicity similar to that of an adjacent vessel. On the other hand, at least some drawbacks have to be addressed, including operator competence and reduced panoramic view. Moreover, CEUS, like conventional US imaging, cannot depict some lesions, such as diaphragmatic ruptures, bowel, and mesenteric traumatic injuries. This technique represents a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be performed at patient's bedside and is therefore extremely helpful for the follow-up of solid organs traumas managed conservatively, especially in pediatric patients and women of fertile age. Moreover, it may reduce the number of CT scans and expedite patient discharge.

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with

  11. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with

  12. Revealing different aggregation pathways of amyloidogenic proteins by ultrasound velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Smirnovas, Vytautas; Winter, Roland

    2008-04-15

    In this work, we performed a detailed thermodynamic study, including ultrasound velocimetry, densimetry, calorimetry, and FTIR spectroscopy, of an aggregation-prone protein (insulin) under different salt-screening conditions to gain a deeper insight into the scenario of physicochemical events during its temperature-induced unfolding and aggregation reactions. Differences in aggregation and fibrillization pathways are reflected in changes of the partial molar volume, the coefficients of thermal expansion and compressibility, and the infrared spectral properties of the protein. Combining all experimental data allows setting up a scheme for the temperature-dependent insulin aggregation reaction in the presence and absence of NaCl. As revealed by complementary atomic force microscopy studies, under charge-screening conditions, a process involving structural reorganization, ripening, and formation of more compact nuclei from amorphous oligomers is involved in the formation of mature fibrillar morphologies. In this work, our focus was to put forward a comprehensive discussion of the use of ultrasound velocimetry in disentangling different aggregation pathways. In fact, ultrasound velocimetry proved to be very sensitive to changes in aggregation pathway, highlighting the importance of density and compressibility changes in the different aggregation and fibrillization reactions of the protein.

  13. Advantages of percutaneous abdominal biopsy under PET-CT/ultrasound fusion imaging guidance: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Cevasco, Luca; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Pinna, Francesco; Belli, Fiorenza; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; De Caro, Giovanni; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that can investigate the metabolic characteristics of tissues. Currently, PET images are acquired and co-registered with a computed tomography (CT) scan (PET-CT), which is employed for correction of attenuation and anatomical localization. In spite of the high negative predictive value of PET, false-positive results may occur; indeed, Fluorine 18 ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake is not specific to cancer. As (18)F-FDG uptake may also be seen in non-malignant infectious or inflammatory processes, FDG-avid lesions may necessitate biopsy to confirm or rule out malignancy. However, some PET-positive lesions may have little or no correlative ultrasound (US) and/or CT findings (i.e., low conspicuity on morphological imaging). Since it is not possible to perform biopsy under PET guidance alone, owing to intrinsic technical limitations, PET information has to be integrated into a CT- or US-guided biopsy procedure (multimodal US/PET-CT fusion imaging). The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the technique of multimodal imaging fusion between real-time US and PET/CT, and to provide an overview of the clinical settings in which this multimodal integration may be useful in guiding biopsy procedures in PET-positive abdominal lesions.

  14. A navigation system for flexible endoscopes using abdominal 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Kaar, M.; Bathia, Amon; Bathia, Amar; Lampret, A.; Birkfellner, W.; Hummel, J.; Figl, M.

    2014-09-01

    A navigation system for flexible endoscopes equipped with ultrasound (US) scan heads is presented. In contrast to similar systems, abdominal 3D-US is used for image fusion of the pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) to the endoscopic US. A 3D-US scan, tracked with an optical tracking system (OTS), is taken pre-operatively together with the CT scan. The CT is calibrated using the OTS, providing the transformation from CT to 3D-US. Immediately before intervention a 3D-US tracked with an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) is acquired and registered intra-modal to the preoperative 3D-US. The endoscopic US is calibrated using the EMTS and registered to the pre-operative CT by an intra-modal 3D-US/3D-US registration. Phantom studies showed a registration error for the US to CT registration of 5.1 mm ± 2.8 mm. 3D-US/3D-US registration of patient data gave an error of 4.1 mm compared to 2.8 mm with the phantom. From this we estimate an error on patient experiments of 5.6 mm.

  15. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study*

    PubMed Central

    Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Siqueira, Daniel Emílio Dalledone; Jacobsen, Octavio Barcellos; Baracat, Jamal; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Menezes, Fábio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01). Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation. PMID:27777476

  16. Reliability of ultrasound measurement of automatic activity of the abdominal muscle in participants with and without chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) imaging has been considered as a non-invasive technique to measure thickness and estimate relative abdominal muscle activity. Although some studies have assessed the reliability of US imaging, no study has assessed the reliability of US measurement of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with different levels of stability in participants with chronic low back pain (cLBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate within-day and between-days reliability of US thickness measurements of automatic activity of the abdominal muscles in asymptomatic participants and within-day reliability in those with cLBP. Methods A total of 20 participants (10 with cLBP, 10 healthy) participated in the study. The reliability of US thickness measurements at supine lying and sitting positions (sitting on a chair, sitting on a gym ball with both feet on the ground or lifting one foot off the floor) were assessed. We evaluated within-day reliability in all participants and between-days reliability in asymptomatic participants. Results We found high ICC scores (0.85-0.95) and also small SEM and MDC scores in both groups. The reliability of the measurements was comparable between participants with and without LBP in each position but the SEMs and MDCs was slightly higher in patient group compared with healthy group. It indicates high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all positions. Conclusion US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with low levels of stability in participants with and without LBP. PMID:24479859

  17. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  18. Evaluation Experiment of Ultrasound Computed Tomography for the Abdominal Sound Speed Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Keisuke; Yamada, Akira

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal sound speed tomographic imaging using through-transmission travel time data on the body surface was investigated. To this end, a hundred kHz range low-frequency wave was used to reduce the wave attenuation within an inner body medium. A method was investigated for the reconstruction of the image with the smallest possible number of path data around the abdominal surface. Specifically, the data from a strong scattering spinal cord should be avoided. To fulfill the requirement, the smoothed path algebraic reconstruction technique was introduced. The validity of this method was examined both on the numerically synthesized data and the experimentally measured data for the phantom specimen and actual human subject. It was shown that an abdominal tomographic sound speed image could be successfully obtained by preparing only 32 transducer locations at the circumference around the abdominal surface and their combination of less than 100 number of observation path data as well as by avoiding the data intersecting the spinal cord. In addition, fat regions were extracted having a sound speed lower than the threshold value to demonstrate the possibility of this method for metabolic syndrome diagnosis.

  19. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Janet A.; Scott, Katherine D.; Edwards, John F.

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis. PMID:26740703

  20. Relative Elastic Modulus Imaging Using Sector Ultrasound Data for Abdominal Applications: An Evaluation of Strategies and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wenjun; Varghese, Tomy; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the elastic modulus distribution for one tissue mimicking (TM) phantom and two in vivo biopsy-confirmed liver tumors using curvilinear ultrasound echo data. Spatial distribution of the relative elastic modulus values is determined by solving an inverse problem within a region of interest (ROI). This inverse problem solution requires knowledge of the ultrasonically measured displacement field in a uniform rectilinear grid to ensure that the resolution on the resultant relative elastic modulus elastogram will be uniform over the entire ROI. Taking advantage of a new speckle tracking algorithm, two different displacement tracking strategies are investigated: 1) sector-shaped ultrasound data were converted to ultrasound data on a rectilinear grid prior to speckle tracking and 2) axial and lateral displacements directly obtained from sector-shaped data were converted to vertical and horizontal displacements on a rectilinear grid after speckle tracking. Compared with strain elastography (SE), TM phantom results show that relative elastic modulus imaging (REMI) using Strategy 2 provided higher contrast-to-noise ratios (>300% and 25% increases compared with SE and REMI using Strategy 1, respectively). Furthermore, in phantoms, REMI using Strategy 2 more accurately (a 1.3% difference to shear wave elastography measurements) estimated the elastic contrast ratio between the target and the background, compared with both SE (20%-25%) and REMI using Strategy 1 (4.1%). It was also observed that relative modulus elastograms were more consistent with anatomical structures visualized on corresponding B-mode images for the two in vivo liver cases. Overall, we conclude that applying REMI is feasible for abdominal organs such as the liver. Strategy 2 offered improved and consistent results for the data investigated. PMID:27411219

  1. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  2. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two- ... sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother's pregnancy ...

  3. Value of liver elastography and abdominal ultrasound for detection of complications of allogeneic hemopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Karlas, T; Weber, J; Nehring, C; Kronenberger, R; Tenckhoff, H; Mössner, J; Niederwieser, D; Tröltzsch, M; Lange, T; Keim, V

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic complications contribute to morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hemopoietic SCT. Liver Doppler ultrasound and elastography represent promising methods for pretransplant risk assessment and early detection of complications. Ultrasound (liver and spleen size, liver perfusion) and elastography (transient elastography (TE); right liver lobe acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (r-ARFI); left liver lobe ARFI (l-ARFI)) were prospectively evaluated in patients with indications for allo-SCT. Measurements were performed before and repeatedly after SCT. Results were compared with the incidence of life-threatening complications and death during the first 150 days after SCT. Of 59 included patients, 16 suffered from major complications and 9 of them died within the follow-up period. At baseline, liver and spleen size, liver perfusion, TE and r-ARFI did not differ significantly between patients with and without severe complications. In contrast, l-ARFI was significantly elevated in patients who later developed severe complications (1.58±0.30 m/s vs 1.37±0.27 m/s, P=0.030). After SCT, l-ARFI values remained elevated and TE showed increasing liver stiffness in patients with complications. The value of conventional liver ultrasound for prediction of severe SCT complications is limited. Increased values for TE and l-ARFI are associated with severe SCT complications and demand further evaluation.

  4. Comparison of 99m technetium hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime labelled leucocyte with 111-indium tropolonate labelled granulocyte scanning and ultrasound in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, M J; Joseph, A E; French, A; Saverymuttu, S H; Maxwell, J D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty patients with suspected intra-abdominal abscess were investigated prospectively with ultrasound and with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO) isotope labelled mixed leucocytes, using 111-In tropolonate granulocyte scanning as the reference standard. Twenty five patients had inflammatory bowel disease (three were postoperative): 21 of these had Crohn's disease and four had ulcerative colitis. The remainder comprised nine with postoperative fever and 16 with fever and abdominal pain. An abscess was diagnosed when focal activity on serial 111-In tropolonate and 99m-Tc-HMPOA images at one, three, and 24 hours resulted in activity at least equal to liver activity at 24 hours. Thirteen abscesses were diagnosed using each type of white cell scanning, resulting in 100% sensitivity for 99m-Tc-HMPAO compared with 111-In tropolonate. Bowel inflammation was easily distinguished from abscess on serial images. Eight of these 13 abscesses were detected by ultrasound. Altogether 17 abscesses were found. Ultrasound detected 12, including four liver abscesses which were not purulent and had not been detected by white cell scanning. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 71% (12 of 17) and a specificity of 87% (33 of 38) using all confirmed abscesses as the reference standard. White cell scanning showed a sensitivity of 76% (13 of 17: as a result of the four non-purulent liver abscesses) and a specificity of 100%. 99m-Tc-HMPAO scanning is as accurate as 111-In tropolonate scanning, and has several advantages including simplicity, availability, superior image quality, and reduced radiation dose. Both methods are more sensitive and specific than ultrasound for intra-abdominal abscess detection but ultrasound is advisable if a neutrophil infiltrate is not suspected. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7489945

  5. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  6. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  7. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, He; Bin, Shuying; Chen, Lei; Han, Qunxin; Lin, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 46 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 gustatory receptors (GRs), 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs): 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 12 esterase (ESTs), and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE) were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9), 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12), 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35), and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57) were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this insect

  8. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  9. Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by means of Ultrasound in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality consisting of a mass of pulmonary tissue that presents an abnormal connection with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply coming from an anomalous artery derived from the systemic circulation. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by having pleural coverings that are independent of the normal lungs, with vascular supply usually coming from the aorta or from one of its branches. This diagnosis can be suspected prenatally if an abdominal mass, generally below the diaphragm, is seen. Here, we present a case of a neonate on the second day of life, with ultrasonography showing extralobar pulmonary sequestration located above the left adrenal gland that prenatally simulated a neuroblastoma. PMID:23762717

  10. Management of Respiratory Motion in Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Upper Abdominal Organs: Current Status and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A.; Petrusca, L.; Auboiroux, V.; Valette, P. J.; Salomir, R.; Cotton, F.

    2013-12-15

    Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive therapy considered with increased interest for the ablation of small tumors in deeply located organs while sparing surrounding critical tissues. A multitude of preclinical and clinical studies have showed the feasibility of the method; however, concurrently they showed several obstacles, among which the management of respiratory motion of abdominal organs is at the forefront. The aim of this review is to describe the different methods that have been proposed for managing respiratory motion and to identify their advantages and weaknesses. First, we specify the characteristics of respiratory motion for the liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the problems it causes during HIFU planning, treatment, and monitoring. Second, we make an inventory of the preclinical and clinical approaches used to overcome the problem of organ motion. Third, we analyze their respective benefits and drawbacks to identify the remaining physical, technological, and clinical challenges. We thereby consider the outlook of motion compensation techniques and those that would be the most suitable for clinical use, particularly under magnetic resonance thermometry monitoring.

  11. [Laparoscopic ultrasound in biliary diseases].

    PubMed

    Cociorvei, A; Calu, V

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic ultrasound is an intraoperative exploration of the abdominal viscera using ultrasounds. The aim of this work is to obviate this new method of exploration and to underline its advantages and limits. In this study were enroled 65 pacients with gallbladder stones, admitted in The Surgical Clinic, "Elias" Emergency Hospital, from October 2005 until December 2006. The measured parameters were CBD size and the presence of stones or sludge within CBD, and various methods were compared: abdominal ultrasound, laparoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopic cholangiography. The results allowed us to consider that laparoscopic ultrasound is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocolithiasis. When compared to laparoscopic cholangiography, our study revealed the same specificity and positive predictive value, and a sensitivity of 0.93.

  12. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms. PMID:27677245

  13. Resection of Abdominal Solid Organs Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Zderic, Vesna; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Foley, Jessica L.; Vaezy, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for minimizing blood loss during surgery by hemodynamically isolating large portions of solid organs before their resection. A high-power HIFU device (in-situ intensity of 9000 W/cm2, frequency of 3.3 MHz) was used to produce a wall of cautery for sealing of blood vessels along the resection line in surgically-exposed solid organs (liver lobes, spleen and kidneys) of eight adult pigs. Following HIFU application, the distal portion of the organ was excised using a scalpel. If any blood vessels were still bleeding, additional HIFU application was used to stop the bleeding. The resection was achieved in 6.0 ± 1.5 min (liver), 3.6 ± 1.1 min (spleen) and 2.8 ± 0.6 min (kidneys) of HIFU treatment time, with no occurrence of bleeding for up to 4 hours (until sacrifice). The coagulated region at the resection line had average width of 3 cm and extended through the whole thickness of the organ (up to 4 cm). Blood vessels of up to 1 cm in size were occluded. This method holds promise for future clinical applications in resection of solid tumors and hemorrhage control from high-grade organ injuries. PMID:17498864

  14. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  15. [ENDOVASCULAR ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Maĭstrenko, D N; Generalov, M I; Tarazov, P G; Zherebtsov, F K; Osovskikh, V V; Ivanov, A S; Oleshchuk, A N; Granov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the single-center experience of treatment of 72 patients with abdominal aortic aneurisms and severe accompanied pathology. The aneurisms were repaired by stent-grafts. All the patients had abdominal aortic aneurisms with the diameters from 41 to 84 mm against the background of severe somatic pathology. It was a contraindication to planned open surgery. An installation of stent-graft was successful in all 72 follow-ups. It wasn't necessary to use a conversion to open surgery. The follow-up period consisted of 44,6?2,1 months. Control ultrasound and computer tomography studies hadn't revealed an increase of aneurism sack sizes or "eakages". A reduction of abdominal aortic aneurism sizes was noted in 37 patients on 4-5% during first year after operation. The stent-graft implantation extends the possibilities of abdominal aortic aneurism treatment for patients from a high surgical risk group. PMID:26234059

  16. Diagnosis of abdominal mural aortic thrombus following discovery of common femoral artery and vein thrombosis by point-of-care ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Nadia Maria; Taha, Farook; Vortsman, Eugene; Desai, Poonam; Kindschuh, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a limb-threatening and life-threatening disease process. Mural aortic thrombosis (MAT) is a rare cause of ALI. While there is limited evidence on the use of bedside ultrasound for the detection of ALI or MAT, duplex ultrasound remains the standard in the diagnosis and ultimate medical decision-making in patients with acute and chronic limb ischemia. Point-of-care ultrasound may be used in the evaluation of patients with signs and symptoms of this disease entity. This is a case of a 79-year-old female with a complicated medical history, who presented with a pulseless right leg and abdominal tenderness. The patient quickly decompensated requiring intubation for airway protection. A post-intubation arterial blood gas (ABG) was unsuccessfully attempted in the right femoral artery, prompting an ultrasound-guided ABG. On B-mode ultrasound evaluation, echogenic material was visualized in the right common femoral artery without evidence of Doppler flow signal. Additionally, a partially obstructing echogenic material was also noted at the femoro-saphenous vein junction with only partial compressibility by compression sonography. A computed tomography angiography of the aorta was performed indicating extensive infrarenal aortic thrombosis. The patient expired despite the relatively prompt diagnosis, highlighting the importance of early identification of acute arterial occlusion.

  17. 22-gauge core vs 22-gauge aspiration needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of abdominal masses

    PubMed Central

    Sterlacci, William; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Veits, Lothar; Gönüllü, Pervin; Schachschal, Guido; Groth, Stefan; Anders, Mario; Kontos, Christos K; Topalidis, Theodoros; Hinsch, Andrea; Vieth, Michael; Rösch, Thomas; Denzer, Ulrike W

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the aspiration needle (AN) and core biopsy needle (PC) in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of abdominal masses. METHODS Consecutive patients referred for EUS-FNA were included in this prospective single-center trial. Each patient underwent a puncture of the lesion with both standard 22-gauge (G) AN (Echo Tip Ultra; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) and the novel 22G PC (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) in a randomized fashion; histology was attempted in the PC group only. The main study endpoint was the overall diagnostic accuracy, including the contribution of histology to the final diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures included material adequacy, number of needle passes, and complications. RESULTS Fifty six consecutive patients (29 men; mean age 68 years) with pancreatic lesions (n = 38), lymphadenopathy (n = 13), submucosal tumors (n = 4), or others lesions (n = 1) underwent EUS-FNA using both of the needles in a randomized order. AN and PC reached similar overall results for diagnostic accuracy (AN: 88.9 vs PC: 96.1, P = 0.25), specimen adequacy (AN: 96.4% vs PC: 91.1%, P = 0.38), mean number of passes (AN: 1.5 vs PC: 1.7, P = 0.14), mean cellularity score (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.1, P = 0.058), and complications (none). A diagnosis on the basis of histology was achieved in the PC group in 36 (64.3%) patients, and in 2 of those as the sole modality. In patients with available histology the mean cellularity score was higher for AN (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.0, P = 0.034); no other differences were of statistical significance. CONCLUSION Both needles achieved high overall diagnostic yields and similar performance characteristics for cytological diagnosis; histological analysis was only possible in 2/3 of cases with the new needle.

  18. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  19. Predictors of pain response in patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided neurolysis for abdominal pain caused by pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minaga, Kosuke; Kitano, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Miyata, Takeshi; Imai, Hajime; Yamao, Kentaro; Kamata, Ken; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Naoshi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedures such as EUS-guided celiac ganglia neurolysis (EUS-CGN) and EUS-guided broad plexus neurolysis (EUS-BPN) were developed to treat abdominal cancer-associated pain; however, these procedures are not always effective. The aim of this study was to explore predictors of pain response in EUS-guided neurolysis for pancreatic cancer-associated pain. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 112 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-BPN in our institution. EUS-CGN was added in cases of visible celiac ganglia. The neurolytic-spread area was divided into six sections and evaluated by post-procedural computed tomography scanning. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), and a decrease in VAS scores by ⩾3 points after neurolysis was considered a good pain response. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore predictors of pain response at 1 and 4 weeks, and complications. Results: A good pain response was obtained in 77.7% and 67.9% of patients at 1 and 4 weeks, respectively. In the multivariable analysis of these patients, the combination method (EUS-BPN plus CGN) was a significant positive predictive factor at 1 week (odds ratio = 3.69, p = 0.017) and 4 weeks (odds ratio = 6.37, p = 0.043). The numbers of neurolytic/contrast spread areas (mean ± SD) were 4.98 ± 1.08 and 4.15 ± 1.12 in patients treated with the combination method and single method, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant predictor of complications. Conclusions: EUS-BPN in combination with EUS-CGN was a predictor of a good pain response in EUS-guided neurolysis for pancreatic cancer-related pain. The larger number of neurolytic/contrast spread areas may lead to better outcomes in patients receiving combination treatment. PMID:27366217

  20. A fibromatosis case mimicking abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.

  1. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  2. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... one of the following risk categories: (i) Has a family history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. (ii... who manifests other risk factors in a beneficiary category recommended for screening by the United States Preventive Services Task Force regarding abdominal aortic aneurysms, as specified by the...

  3. Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal

    MedlinePlus

    ... PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  4. An investigation of the reproducibility of ultrasound measures of abdominal muscle activation in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Chris G.; Latimer, Jane; Hodges, Paul W.; Shirley, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) measures are used by clinicians and researchers to evaluate improvements in activity of the abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain. Studies evaluating the reproducibility of these US measures provide some information; however, little is known about the reproducibility of these US measures over time in patients with low back pain. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reproducibility of ultrasound measurements of automatic activation of the lateral abdominal wall muscles using a leg force task in patients with chronic low back pain. Thirty-five participants from an existing randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial participated in the study. A reproducibility analysis was undertaken from all patients using data collected at baseline and after treatment. The reproducibility of measurements of thickness, muscle activation (thickness changes) and muscle improvement/deterioration after intervention (differences in thickness changes from single images made before and after treatment) was analysed. The reproducibility of static images (thickness) was excellent (ICC2,1 = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96–0.97, standard error of the measurement (SEM) = 0.04 cm, smallest detectable change (SDC) = 0.11 cm), the reproducibility of thickness changes was moderate (ICC2,1 = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65–0.76, SEM = 15%, SDC 41%), while the reproducibility of differences in thickness changes from single images with statistical adjustment for duplicate measures was poor (ICC2,1 = 0.44, 95% CI 0.33–0.58, SEM = 21%, SDC = 66.5%). Improvements in the testing protocol must be performed in order to enhance reproducibility of US as an outcome measure for abdominal muscle activation. PMID:19415347

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  6. Polymerase chain reaction amplifying mycobacterial DNA from aspirates obtained by endoscopic ultrasound allows accurate diagnosis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-positive patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Martin; Lameris, Roeland; Corcoran, Craig; Rossouw, Theresa M; Slavik, Tomas; Du Plessis, Johannie; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones A O; Stivaktas, Paraskevi; Potgieter, Fritz; Van der Merwe, Schalk W

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal lymphadenopathy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a diagnostic challenge. We performed a prospective cohort study by recruiting 31 symptomatic HIV + patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy and assessing the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Mean age was 38 years; 52% were female; and mean CD4 count and viral load were 124 cells/μL and 4 log, respectively. EUS confirmed additional mediastinal nodes in 26%. The porta hepatis was the most common abdominal site. Aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA were subjected to cytology, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Mycobacterial infections were confirmed in 67.7%, and 31% had reactive lymphadenopathy. Cytology and culture had low sensitivity, whereas PCR identified 90% of mycobacterial infections. By combining the appearance of aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA and cytologic specimens, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to indicate when analysis with PCR would be useful. PCR performed on material obtained by EUS-FNA was highly accurate in confirming mycobacterial disease and determining genotypic drug resistance.

  7. Harmonic motion imaging for abdominal tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation monitoring: an in vivo feasibility study in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-09-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiationforce- based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess the resulting oscillatory displacement denoting the underlying tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radio-frequency signals using a 1-D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated at a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring.

  8. Harmonic Motion Imaging for Abdominal Tumor Detection and High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation Monitoring: A Feasibility Study in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y.; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiation force-based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess relative tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radiofrequency signals using a 1D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated with a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring. PMID:26415128

  9. [Focused surgical bedside ultrasound: E-FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) - abdominal aortic aneurysm - cholecystolithiasis - acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Studer, Maria; Studer, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound is an easy to learn and highly efficient diagnostic tool to complete the clinical examination and improve bedside decision-making. In the trauma room, surgeons are often required to make a quick decision as to whether or not a patient needs an emergency intervention or whether further diagnostics are required. For this reason, education of surgeons in performing focused emergency ultrasound is pivotal. The goal of ICAN is to improve and expand the education of surgeons in Switzerland. This article provides a short review of the most frequent surgical pathologies encountered in the emergency room.

  10. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Detection and Follow-Up of an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Aorto-Caval Fistula and Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Clevert, D.-A. Stickel, M.; Flach, P.; Strautz, T.; Horng, A.; Jauch, K. W.; Reiser, M.

    2007-06-15

    An aorto-caval fistula is a rare complication of a symptomatic or ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm having a frequency of 3-6%. Patients typically present with clinical signs of diffuse abdominal pain associated with increasing venous congestion and tachycardia, rapid cardiopulmonary decompensation with acute dyspnea, and an audible machinerylike bruit. Perioperative mortality is high, ranging from 20% to 60%. We report a case of an endovascular aortic repair in a patient with a symptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and an aorto-caval fistula. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound seems to be a promising new diagnostic option for the diagnosis and preoperative treatment planning for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms with rupture into the inferior vena cava. It is in addition to computed tomography angiography. It might allow a more rapid and noninvasive diagnosis, especially for patients in intensive care because of its bedside availability. Because the examination is dynamic, additional information about blood flow between the aorta and inferior cava vein can be evaluated.

  11. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  12. Is there a Role for Planned Serial Chest Radiographs and Abdominal Ultrasound Scans in the Resuscitation Room Following Trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Gales, Hannah; Perry, Michael

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite advances in trauma care, significant morbidity and mortality exists which could be reduced if all injuries were immediately identified. Two treatable factors are hypoxia and hypovolaemia which may occur secondary to haemorrhage into the chest and abdomen. Pneumothorax is also a frequent cause of preventable trauma death. Clinical examination is limited and we often rely on imaging. Anecdotally, it seemed some patients were investigated too quickly because their injuries had not evolved sufficiently enough to become detectable. In these patients, repeated assessments and imaging would, therefore, be necessary. PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a retrospective study looking at all patients over a 15-month period with significant chest and abdominal injuries. Patients with a chest or abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) of 3 or above were identified. As a cross reference, those patients who required at least one chest drain, or a laparotomy within 24 h of admission were also identified. Case notes and films were reviewed with particular attention to the presence of initial ‘normal’ imaging. RESULTS A total of 1036 patients were eligible for entry into the trauma database; of these, 170 patients had chest and/or abdominal injuries coded as AIS 3 or more. We were able to identify 7 cases (4%) where initial clinical examination and imaging failed to detect either bleeding (pleural space or abdomen) or a pneumothorax. A further 5 cases were potential missed injuries, but the data were incomplete making confident inclusion in this group impossible. CONCLUSIONS Occult injuries are reported to have an incidence of around 2–5%. Serial imaging in the resuscitation room may enable early identification of chest and abdominal injuries. However, only 12 cases were identified making interpretation of suitable candidates for repeat imaging difficult. The question is which group of patients would benefit from planned repeat imaging before leaving the

  13. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as bilateral hydroureteronephrosis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Galosi, Andrea Benedetto; Grilli Cicilioni, Carlo; Sbrollini, Giulia; Angelini, Andrea; Maselli, Guevar; Carbonari, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (IAAA) producing bilateral hydro-ureteronephrosis. A 74-year-old patient presented to urologist office for bilateral hydronephrosis detected by kidney and bladder ultrasound (US). Patient reported lower urinary tract symptoms and inconstant and slight low back pain irradiated to inguinal region dating 3 weeks. Renal function, urine analysis and abdominal examination were normal. However the repeated ultrasound in the urologist office revealed abdominal aortic aneurism extended to iliac vessels. The patient was sent directly to vascular surgery unit where contrast computerized tomography (CT) and successful surgical repair were done. Final diagnosis was IAAA. The post-operative course was uneventful. Renal function was regular and the hydronephrosis reduced spontaneously under monitoring by CT and US. We review diagnosis and management of hydronephrosis that is sometimes linked to IAAA rather than standard AAA. Abdominal ultrasound is mandatory in any bilateral hydronephrosis and it could save lives. PMID:25641477

  14. Prevalence and sonographic changes compatible with fatty liver disease in patients referred for abdominal ultrasound examination in Aracaju, SE*

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josilda Ferreira; Cruz, Mário Augusto Ferreira; Machado Neto, José; de Santana, Demetrius Silva; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sônia Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and evaluate sonographic findings compatible with changes consistent with hepatic steatosis in patients referred for abdominal ultrasonography at four reference centers in Aracaju, SE, Brazil. Materials and Methods Prospective, descriptive survey, with analytical and quantitative approach, comprising abdominal ultrasonography scans performed with a convex, dynamic 3.75 MHz transducer. Liver dimensions and parenchymal echotexture were evaluated, classifying hepatic steatosis into grades (1, 2 or 3). The SPSS® 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis, adopting p < 0.05 as significance level. Results A total of 800 individuals (561 women and 239 men) were evaluated. The prevalence of steatosis was 29.1%, and the male patients were most affected, presenting with more advanced grades of disease (p = 0.021), as follows: 119 grade 1 (51.0%); 94 grade 2 (40.4%); and 20 grade 3 (8.6%). The median age patients' was 46 years. Conclusion In the present study sample, the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was high, particularly in the male patients. Ultrasonography is suggested as a first choice for the diagnosis of this condition, considering its wide availability, low cost and absence of side effects or risks to the patient. PMID:26929453

  15. [Adrenal injury in blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Abakumov, M M; Smoliar, A N; Barmina, T G; Boĭko, A V; Shalimova, I G

    2009-01-01

    10 patients with adrenal damage were observed during 2.5 years. It amounted 0.93% of all patients with closed abdominal injuries. The right adrenal gland was traumatized in all cases evidently due to it's compression between right lobe of liver and vertebral column. Adrenal damage is observed quite often in combination with injuries of right liver lobe, right kidney and retroperitoneal hematoma formation. 5 patients underwent laparotomy on account of intra-abdominal bleeding, but adrenal damage was never revealed. Ultrasound and tomographic semiotics of adrenal damage was worked out, which allowed ascertaining diagnosis in 80% on application of ultrasound study and in 100% at computer tomography. Injury of one adrenal gland was not accompanied by adrenal failure and did not require hormonal replacement therapy.

  16. Duplex Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography for the Postoperative Follow-Up of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Where Do We Stand Now?

    PubMed Central

    Karanikola, Evridiki; Dalainas, Ilias; Karaolanis, Georgios; Zografos, Georgios; Filis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has rapidly developed to be the preferred method for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with suitable anatomy. EVAR offers the advantage of lower perioperative mortality and morbidity but carries the cost of device-related complications such as endoleak, graft migration, graft thrombosis, and structural graft failure. These complications mandate a lifelong surveillance of EVAR patients and their endografts. The purpose of this study is to review and evaluate the safety of color-duplex ultrasound (CDU) as compared with computed tomography (CT), based on the current literature, for post-EVAR surveillance. The post-EVAR follow-up modalities, CDU versus CT, are evaluated questioning three parameters: (1) accuracy of aneurysm size, (2) detection and classification of endoleaks, and (3) detection of stent-graft deformation. Studies comparing CDU with CT scan for investigation of post-EVAR complications have produced mixed results. Further and long-term research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of CDU versus CT, before CDU can be recommended as the primary imaging modality for EVAR surveillance, in place of CT for stable aneurysms. PMID:25317026

  17. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided abdominal field blocks versus port infiltration in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for post-operative pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ruchi; Joshi, Saurabh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Tiwari, Shashank; Sharma, Nitin; Valecha, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative pain is a major concern for day care surgeries like laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided abdominal field blocks (USAFB) with port site infiltrations for post-operative analgesia in terms of quality of pain relief, opioid consumption and patient satisfaction for day care surgeries Methods: Eighty patients presenting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups either to receive port-site infiltration of local anaesthetic (n = 40, Group A) or USAFB (n = 40, Group B group). Numeric rating scores (NRS) were measured postoperatively to primarily assess the pain severity and opioid requirements. Data were analysed using Chi-Square test/Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Mann–Whitney test/unpaired t-test for quantitative data. Results: The study group (Group B) had significantly reduced NRS and opioid consumption over 24 h. The overall fentanyl consumption in patients receiving port infiltrations was approximately twice (200 ΁ 100 μg) as compared to patients in USAFB group (120 ΁ 74 μg) (P < 0.0001). Maximum fentanyl consumption was 400 μg (Group A) and 262 μg (Group B) over 24 h and the minimum requirement was 50 μg and zero, respectively. Conclusion: Superior post-operative analgesia was observed with USAFB which may help in minimising opioid-related adverse effects and facilitating faster recovery.

  18. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  19. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided abdominal field blocks versus port infiltration in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for post-operative pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ruchi; Joshi, Saurabh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Tiwari, Shashank; Sharma, Nitin; Valecha, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative pain is a major concern for day care surgeries like laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided abdominal field blocks (USAFB) with port site infiltrations for post-operative analgesia in terms of quality of pain relief, opioid consumption and patient satisfaction for day care surgeries Methods: Eighty patients presenting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups either to receive port-site infiltration of local anaesthetic (n = 40, Group A) or USAFB (n = 40, Group B group). Numeric rating scores (NRS) were measured postoperatively to primarily assess the pain severity and opioid requirements. Data were analysed using Chi-Square test/Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Mann–Whitney test/unpaired t-test for quantitative data. Results: The study group (Group B) had significantly reduced NRS and opioid consumption over 24 h. The overall fentanyl consumption in patients receiving port infiltrations was approximately twice (200 ΁ 100 μg) as compared to patients in USAFB group (120 ΁ 74 μg) (P < 0.0001). Maximum fentanyl consumption was 400 μg (Group A) and 262 μg (Group B) over 24 h and the minimum requirement was 50 μg and zero, respectively. Conclusion: Superior post-operative analgesia was observed with USAFB which may help in minimising opioid-related adverse effects and facilitating faster recovery. PMID:27601741

  20. Hydatidemesis: a bizarre presentation of abdominal hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Mishra, M C; Kriplani, A K; Kapur, B M

    1993-06-01

    A 31 year old male presented with high grade fever and abdominal pain of 20 days duration. At the age of 9 he had been operated on for a solitary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst and had been asymptomatic until the age of 21 when he sustained a blunt injury to the abdomen. An exploratory laparotomy for splenic rupture revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts, which were removed. The patient remained well until the present episode. An ultrasound examination revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts. Seven days after admission, the patient developed hydatidemesis (hydatid cysts and membranes in the vomitus) and hydatidenteria (passage of hydatid membranes in the stools), and his pain and fever subsided. A Gastrografin study and a computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed hydatid cysts communicating with the stomach and duodenum. In view of his disseminated recurrent abdominal hydatidosis, he was treated with high dose, long-term albendazole along with regular follow up. This is the first documented case of disseminated abdominal hydatidosis presenting with a cystogastric fistula and hydatidemesis.

  1. Contrast Enhanced Abdominal Ultrasound in the Assessment of Ileal Inflammation in Crohn’s Disease: A Comparison with MR Enterography

    PubMed Central

    Horjus Talabur Horje, C. S.; Roovers, L.; Groenen, M. J. M.; Wahab, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims To prospectively examine the feasibility and accuracy of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the assessment of Crohn’s disease (CD) activity in the terminal ileum in comparison to Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE), using endoscopy as a reference standard. Methods 105 consecutive patients with alleged clinically active CD were assessed by MRE and CEUS. CEUS of the terminal ileum was performed using an intravenous microbubble contrast enhancer. Accuracy values of CEUS and MRE for the presence of active terminal ileitis were evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic method, using endoscopic findings as a reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity values of MRE and CEUS were compared by the McNemar test. Results CEUS was feasible in 98% of patients, MRE in all. Optimal diagnostic accuracy in CEUS was obtained at a peak intensity value of 10%, showing 100% sensitivity, 92% specificity and an accuracy of 99% in demonstrating ileal mucosal inflammation. For MRE, overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were, 87%, 100%, and 88%, respectively. CEUS and MRE were highly correlated in assessing length and wall thickness of the terminal ileum. CEUS identified 11 of 16 MRE-detected strictures, but no fistulae. Conclusion The accuracy of CEUS is comparable to that of MRE in the assessment of active, uncomplicated terminal ileal CD and therefore a valuable bedside alternative to MRE in the follow-up of these patients. PMID:26322970

  2. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  3. Diagnosis of perforated gastric ulcers by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wallstabe, L; Veitt, R; Körner, T

    2002-10-01

    Patients with a perforation of the gastrointestinal tract need fast confirmation of diagnosis and early treatment to improve outcome. Plain abdominal x-ray does not always prove the perforation particularly at early stage. We report about a 62 year-old woman complaining of consistent abdominal pain with sudden onset. Ultrasound was taken as first diagnostic measure, revealing a perforation. The leakage was located in the stomach. Radiography confirmed the pneumoperitoneum without indicating the perforated location. During operation the perforated gastric ulcer was found and sutured. This case report points out the reliability of ultrasound in diagnosing a pneumoperitoneum. Additionally it provides a summary of ultrasound signs seen in perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers and a review of literature.

  4. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  5. Non-invasive characterization of polyurethane-based tissue constructs in a rat abdominal repair model using high frequency ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. PMID:23347836

  6. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  7. Trauma Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  8. Rate of Temperature Decay in Human Muscle Following 3 MHz Ultrasound: The Stretching Window Revealed.

    PubMed

    Draper, D O; Ricard, M D

    1995-10-01

    Researchers have determined that when therapeutic ultrasound vigorously heats connective tissue, it can be effective in increasing extensibility of collagen affected by scar tissue. These findings give credence to the use of continuous thermal ultrasound to heat tissue before stretching, exercise, or friction massage in an effort to decrease joint contractures and increase range of motion. Before our investigation, it was not known how long following an ultrasound treatment the tissue will remain at a vigorous heating level (>3 degrees C). We conducted this study to determine the rate of temperature decay following 3 MHz ultrasound, in order to determine the time period of optimal stretching. Twenty subjects had a 23-gauge hypodermic needle microprobe inserted 1.2 cm deep into the medial aspect of their anesthetized triceps surae muscle. Subjects then received a 3 MHz ultrasound treatment at 1.5 W/cm(2) until the tissue temperature was increased at least 5 degrees C. The mean baseline temperature before each treatment was 33.8 +/- 1.3 degrees C, and it peaked at 39.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C from the ultrasound. Immediately following the treatment, we recorded the rate at which the temperature dropped at 30-second intervals. We ran a stepwise nonlinear regression analysis to predict temperature decay as a function of time following ultrasound treatment. We found a significant nonlinear relationship between time and temperature decay. The average time it took for the temperature to drop each degree as expressed in minutes and seconds was: 1 degrees C = 1:20; 2 degrees C = 3:22; 3 degrees C = 5:50; 4 degrees C = 9:13; 5 degrees C = 14:55; 5.3 degrees C = 18:00 (baseline). We conclude that under similar circumstances where the tissue temperature is raised 5 degrees C, stretching will be effective, on average, for 3.3 minutes following an ultrasound treatment. To increase this stretching window, we suggest that stretching be applied during and immediately after ultrasound

  9. Does contrast-enhanced ultrasound reveal tumor angiogenesis in pancreatic ductal carcinoma? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Mutsumi; Koito, Kazumitsu; Hirokawa, Naoki; Hori, Masakazu; Satoh, Taishi; Hareyama, Masato

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor vascularity of pancreatic carcinoma noninvasively by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) and clarify the diagnostic value of tumor vascularity in subjects with nonresectable advanced pancreatic carcinoma. The study was approved by our institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Twenty-seven subjects with advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma were treated by chemoradiotherapy. Contrast-enhanced US, US guided biopsies and dynamic computed tomography (CT) were performed before and after the therapy. We assigned the intratumoral enhancement pattern of US as an enhanced ultrasound (EU) score, from 1 to 4, according to the degree of enhancement area. Intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) and average vessel diameter (AVD) were calculated by means of CD 34 immunostaining. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) staining was graded on a scale of 1 to 3. EU scores before chemoradiotherapy were compared with IMD, AVD, VEGF, histological grading and hepatic metastasis. After the therapy, local treatment response was evaluated by dynamic CT calculating the maximum area of the tumor, by comparing it with its size in pre- therapy. Subjects who had at least a 50% or more decrease of tumor size lasting more than 4 wk were estimated as partial response (PR), more than a 50% of increase progressive disease (PD) and if neither PR nor PD criteria were met, they were classified as stabled disease (SD). Next, EU scores were compared with IMD, AVD, VEGF and treatment response. Statistically significant differences were evaluated by Pearson's correlation, post-hoc, Spearman's rank correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum and Student's t-test. A p < 0.05 was defined as being statistically significant. Before the therapy, the EU score and IMD were significantly correlated (r = 0.50, p < 0.02), as was VEGF (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). The EU score and AVD were negatively correlated (r = - 0.56, p < 0.02). Significant

  10. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  11. Laparoscopic management of an abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Aarthi; Millican, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the leading causes of significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Abdominal surgeries increase the risk of postoperative adhesions. We here present a case of omental ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a prior history of cesarean section. Case. A 20-year-old female presented with a two-day history of crampy lower abdominal pain. Patient was hemodynamically stable with a beta HCG of 1057 mI/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound did not show an intrauterine pregnancy but revealed an ill-defined mass in the midline pelvis extending to the right of the midline. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed large clots in the pelvis with normal uterus and adnexa. Intra-abdominal survey revealed an omental adhesion close to the right adnexa with a hematoma. Partial omentectomy was completed and the portion of the omentum with the hematoma was sent to pathology for confirmation. Final pathology confirmed the presence of chorionic villi consistent with products of conception. Conclusion. Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare diagnosis and often missed. We recommend careful intra-abdominal survey for an ectopic pregnancy in the presence of hemoperitoneum with normal uterus and adnexa. This can be safely achieved using laparoscopy in early gestational ages when the patient is hemodynamically stable. PMID:25478262

  12. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S

    2016-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  13. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology.

  14. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  15. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  16. A giant subserosal uterine leiomyoma mimicking an abdominal mass: multimodal imaging data.

    PubMed

    Kalayci, Tugce Ozlem; Akatlı, Ayşe Nur; Sönmezgöz, Fitnet; Türkmen Şamdancı, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Giant uterine leiomyomas are extremely rare neoplasms and are challenging both diagnostically and therapeutically. A 49-year-old premenopausal female presented at our Department complaining of abdominal pain and distention for several years. Ultrasound (US), color Doppler US, abdominal computed tomography imaging after administration of contrast material, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma. In this case report, we present abdominopelvic multimodal radiologic imaging findings of our patient with a giant subserosal uterine leiomyoma, in conjunction with histopathological findings.

  17. Ultrasound pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; Placenta previa - ultrasound; Multiple ...

  18. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  19. Ultrasound-mediated structural changes in cells revealed by FTIR spectroscopy: A contribution to the optimization of gene and drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Paola; Di Giambattista, Lucia; Giordani, Serena; Udroiu, Ion; Pozzi, Deleana; Gaudenzi, Silvia; Bedini, Angelico; Giliberti, Claudia; Palomba, Raffaele; Congiu Castellano, Agostina

    2011-12-01

    Ultrasound effects on biological samples are gaining a growing interest concerning in particular, the intracellular delivery of drugs and genes in a safe and in a efficient way. Future progress in this field will require a better understanding of how ultrasound and acoustic cavitation affect the biological system properties. The morphological changes of cells due to ultrasound (US) exposure have been extensively studied, while little attention has been given to the cells structural changes. We have exposed two different cell lines to 1 MHz frequency ultrasound currently used in therapy, Jurkat T-lymphocytes and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, both employed as models respectively in the apoptosis and in the gene therapy studies. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was used as probe to reveal the structural changes in particular molecular groups belonging to the main biological systems. The genotoxic damage of cells exposed to ultrasound was ascertained by the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The FTIR spectroscopy results, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, regarding all cellular components (lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) of the two cell lines, show that Jurkat cells are more sensitive to therapeutic ultrasound in the lipid and protein regions, whereas the NIH-3T3 cells are more sensitive in the nucleic acids region; a meaningful genotoxic effect is present in both cell lines only for long sonication times while in the Jurkat cells also a significant cytotoxic effect is revealed for long times of exposure to ultrasound.

  20. Functional Flow Patterns and Static Blood Pooling in Tumors Revealed by Combined Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Yin, Melissa; Adam, Dan; Foster, F Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in tumor perfusion and microenvironment have been shown to be associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes, raising the need for noninvasive methods of tracking these changes. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCEUS) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging serve as promising candidates-one has the ability to measure tissue perfusion, whereas the other can be used to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the different functional parameters measured with DCEUS and PA imaging, using two morphologically different hind-limb tumor models and drug-induced alterations in an orthotopic breast tumor model. Imaging results showed some correlation between perfusion and oxygen saturation maps and the ability to sensitively monitor antivascular treatment. In addition, DCEUS measurements revealed different vascular densities in the core of specific tumors compared with their rims. Noncorrelated perfusion and hemoglobin concentration measurements facilitated discrimination between blood lakes and necrotic areas. Taken together, our results illustrate the utility of a combined contrast-enhanced ultrasound method with photoacoustic imaging to visualize blood flow patterns in tumors. Cancer Res; 76(15); 4320-31. ©2016 AACR.

  1. [An application of low-invasive access in ultrasound-guided surgery of liquid formation of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space].

    PubMed

    Demin, D B; Laĭkov, A V; Funygin, M S; Chegodaeva, A A; Solodov, Iu Iu; Butina, K V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a low-invasive method in the intraoperative ultrasound-guided surgery. The method had several steps: an access (2-3 cm) was made to a liquid formation with the following aspiration of contents, a necrotic detritus was removed through the wound tract using simultaneous ultrasound examination of efficacy of emptying the cavity with drainage. This means allowed the performance of single-stage sanitization and drainage of cavity formations, which contained the liquid and dense necrotic tissues in the lumen. The method was effective, technically workable in any surgical hospital. At the same time, it was economically reasonable, because there wasn't need to buy an additional equipment. The application of the means considerably shortened a hospital stay and the lethality was reduced.

  2. Coexpression network analysis in abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue reveals regulatory genetic loci for metabolic syndrome and related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Halgrimsdottir, Ingileif; Almstrup, Kristian; Petri, Andreas; Barrett, Amy; Travers, Mary; Rayner, Nigel W; Mägi, Reedik; Pettersson, Fredrik H; Broxholme, John; Neville, Matt J; Wills, Quin F; Cheeseman, Jane; Allen, Maxine; Holmes, Chris C; Spector, Tim D; Fleckner, Jan; McCarthy, Mark I; Karpe, Fredrik; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Zondervan, Krina T

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLU) adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB), from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS-associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6%) were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6%) in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (D(ABD-GLU) = 0.89), seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01). The strongest associated module, significantly enriched for immune response-related processes, contained 94/620 (15%) genes with inter-depot differences. In an independent cohort of 145/141 twins with ABD and WB longitudinal expression data, median variability in ABD due to familiality was greater for MetS-associated versus un-associated modules (ABD: 0.48 versus 0.18, P = 0.08; GLU: 0.54 versus 0.20, P = 7.8×10(-4)). Cis-eQTL analysis of probesets associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01) and/or inter-depot differences (FDR P<0.01) provided evidence for 32 eQTLs. Corresponding eSNPs were tested for association with MetS-related phenotypes in two GWAS of >100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin), was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 6.0×10(-4)); and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10(-4)) and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10(-4)). Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and coexpression

  3. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an uncommon presentation].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Pereira, Laurinda; Amona, Eurides; Pinto, Erique Guedes; Rodrigues, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic, being accidentally found on physical examination or in routinely performed imaging studies. They only require surveillance (which is variable according to the aneurism size) and medical therapy in order to achieve risk factor reduction. However, in certain situations, according to the risk of aneurism rupture, elective surgery or endovascular procedure may be necessary. About 80% of the cases of aneurism rupture occur into the retroperitoneal space, with a high mortality rate. There are uncommon presentations of aneurism rupture as the aorto-caval fistula, which also require fast diagnosis and intervention. The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man, with the previous diagnosis of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction 2 months earlier (undergone primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and tabagism, who was admitted at the emergency department with intense 24-hour-evolution epigastric pain. On physical examination, the Blood Pressure values measured at the lower limbs were about half the ones measured at the upper limbs and there was an abdominal pulsatile mass, with a high-intensity murmur. As the authors suspected aortic dissection, aneurysm, coarctation or thrombosis, it was done a Computed Tomography scanning with intravenous contrast, which revealed a ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm with a mural thrombus. The doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a high debit aorto-caval fistula. The patient was immediately transferred to the Vascular Surgery. However he died 2 hours later, during surgery. PMID:22525642

  4. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  5. Reducing Postoperative Opioid Consumption by Adding an Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block to Multimodal Analgesia for Abdominal Cancer Surgery With Midline Incision

    PubMed Central

    Bashandy, Ghada Mohammad Nabih; Elkholy, Abeer Hassan Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many multimodal analgesia techniques have been tried to provide adequate analgesia for midline incisions extending above and below the umbilicus aiming at limiting the perioperative use of morphine thus limiting side effects. Ultrasound (US) guidance made the anesthesiologist reconsider old techniques for wider clinical use. The rectus sheath block (RSB) is a useful technique under-utilized in the adult population. Objectives: Our study examined the efficacy of a preemptive single-injection rectus sheath block in providing better early postoperative pain scores compared to general anesthesia alone. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients were recruited in this randomized controlled trial. These patients were divided into two groups: RSB group had an RSB after induction of anesthesia and before surgical incision, and GA (general anesthesia) group had general anesthesia alone. Both groups were compared for verbal analogue scale (VAS) score, opioid consumption and hemodynamic variables in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Analgesic requirements in surgical wards were recorded in postoperative days (POD) 0, 1 and 2. Results: The median VAS score was significantly lower in RSB group compared with GA group in all 5 time points in the PACU (P ˂ 0.05). Also PACU morphine consumption was lower in RSB group than GA group patients (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference in means between groups, −4.59 to −2.23 mg). Morphine consumption was also less in the first 2 postoperative days (POD0 and POD1). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block is an easy technique to learn. This technique, when it is used with general anesthesia, will be more effective in reducing pain scores and opioid consumption compared with general anesthesia alone. PMID:25289373

  6. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  7. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  8. Radiological management of abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Mac Erlean, D P; Gibney, R G

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses were drained percutaneously under ultrasound guidance. A success rate of 85.7% was achieved. Subsequent surgery was required in only 5 patients. Postoperative and spontaneous abscesses did equally well. Most intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses are amenable to this form of percutaneous drainage. The procedure requires only local anaesthesia and is well tolerated. Surgical management should probably now be reserved for those cases which are considered unsuitable for percutaneous drainage or which fail to resolve following this procedure. PMID:6842496

  9. Ultrasound reveals negligible cocontraction during isometric plantar flexion and dorsiflexion despite the presence of antagonist electromyographic activity.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Brent J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2015-05-15

    Because of the approximate linear relationship between muscle force and muscle activity, muscle forces are often estimated during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) from torque and surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements. However, sEMG recordings from a target muscle may contain cross-talk originating from nearby muscles, which could lead to erroneous force estimates. Here we used ultrasound imaging to measure in vivo muscle fascicle length (Lf) changes and sEMG to measure muscle activity of the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles during ramp MVICs in plantar and dorsiflexion directions (n = 8). After correcting longitudinal Lf changes for ankle rotation, the antagonist Lf at peak antagonist root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude were significantly longer than the agonist Lf at this sEMG-matched level. On average, Lf shortened from resting length by 1.29 to 2.90 mm when muscles acted as agonists and lengthened from resting length by 0.43 to 1.16 mm when muscles acted as antagonists (depending on the muscle of interest). The lack of fascicle shortening when muscles acted as antagonists indicates that cocontraction was likely to be negligible, despite cocontraction as determined by sEMG of between 7 and 23% MVIC across all muscles. Different interelectrode distances (IEDs) over the plantar flexors revealed significantly higher antagonist RMS amplitudes for the 4-cm IEDs compared with the 2-cm IEDs, which further indicates that cross-talk was present. Consequently, investigators should be wary about performing agonist torque corrections for isometric plantar flexion and dorsiflexion based on the antagonist sEMG trace and predicted antagonist moment.

  10. [Ultrasound in East Africa].

    PubMed

    Gysel, W

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound is poorly established in East Africa because of missing finances and medical staff. The Foundation for medical know how transfer SmW installed in the last 3 years an ultrasound department in all District Hospitals in the South Province Mombasa in Kenya and was teaching the medical staff 2-3 times an year according the guidelines of SGUM and EFSUMB. The project is based on the idea that knowledge transfer is more efficient than money transfer. The project is supervised by public health studies. The first results show that non physicians are able to perform good quality ultrasound examinations. 75% of the obstetrical and 50% of the abdominal ultrasound examinations show therapy-relevant findings. Ultrasound is going to rise to the position of the most important imagine system in developing countries.

  11. Leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sing, T M; Young, N; O'Rourke, I C; Tomlinson, P

    1994-11-01

    A case of leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported, with a brief review of the literature. A 58 year old female presented with shoulder and abdominal pain associated with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever with leucocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed pooling of contrast in the retroperitoneum anterior to a non-dilated abdominal aorta. There was considerable retroperitoneal blood accumulating in a mass-like lesion in the right lower abdomen and pelvis obstructing the right renal collecting system. Laparotomy revealed a 4 cm diameter saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, with a 1 cm diameter neck. Culture of the thrombus grew Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:7993259

  12. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  13. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors.

  14. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  15. Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Vidili, Gianpaolo; Venturelli, Enrica; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Pilo, Giovannantonio; Nicolussi, Paola; Ligios, Ciriaco; Bedognetti, Davide; Sgarrella, Francesco; Manetti, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasonography is a fundamental diagnostic imaging tool in everyday clinical practice. Here, we are unique in describing the use of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as hyperechogenic material, suggesting their potential application as ultrasound contrast agents. Initially, we carried out a thorough investigation to assess the echogenic property of the nanotubes in vitro. We demonstrated their long-lasting ultrasound contrast properties. We also showed that ultrasound signal of functionalized MWCNTs is higher than graphene oxide, pristine MWCNTs, and functionalized single-walled CNTs. Qualitatively, the ultrasound signal of CNTs was equal to that of sulfur hexafluoride (SonoVue), a commercially available contrast agent. Then, we found that MWCNTs were highly echogenic in liver and heart through ex vivo experiments using pig as an animal model. In contrast to the majority of ultrasound contrast agents, we observed in a phantom bladder that the tubes can be visualized within a wide variety of frequencies (i.e., 5.5-10 MHz) and 12.5 MHz using tissue harmonic imaging modality. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo in the pig bladder that MWCNTs can be observed at low frequencies, which are appropriate for abdominal organs. Importantly, we did not report any toxicity of CNTs after 7 d from the injection by animal autopsy, organ histology and immunostaining, blood count, and chemical profile. Our results reveal the enormous potential of CNTs as ultrasound contrast agents, giving support for their future applications as theranostic nanoparticles, combining diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  17. Ultrasound, normal fetus - abdomen measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement. It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, ...

  18. [Laparoscopic treatment of a large trichobezoar in the stomach with gastric perforation and abdominal wall abscess].

    PubMed

    Zaharie, F; Iancu, C; Tanţău, M; Mocan, L; Bartoş, A; Mihăileanu, F; Iancu, D; Tomuş, C; Zaharie, R; Vlad, L

    2010-01-01

    Trichobezoar represents a mass of swallowed hair inside the stomach. Here we report a 17-year-old girl who presented in our department with symptoms of gastric ulcer. Ultrasound examination followed by upper endoscopy revealed a large trichobezoar in the stomach with simultaneous gastric perforation. Laparoscopy also revealed a penetration into the anterior abdominal wall accompanied by abscess at this level. We performed a laparoscopic gastrotomy with trichobezoar extraction and laparoscopic treatment of perforation and abdominal wall abscess. The postoperative evolution was normal and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. We show that laparoscopic approach may be safely used in the treatment of the large gastric complicated trichobezoar. Several laparoscopic approaches were described for the treatment of tricobezoar and its complications but as far as we know this is the first report of laparoscopic treatment of large tricobezoar and associate gastric perforation.

  19. High-speed ultrasound imaging in dense suspensions reveals impact-activated solidification due to dynamic shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Endao; Peters, Ivo R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-07-01

    A remarkable property of dense suspensions is that they can transform from liquid-like at rest to solid-like under sudden impact. Previous work showed that this impact-induced solidification involves rapidly moving jamming fronts; however, details of this process have remained unresolved. Here we use high-speed ultrasound imaging to probe non-invasively how the interior of a dense suspension responds to impact. Measuring the speed of sound we demonstrate that the solidification proceeds without a detectable increase in packing fraction, and imaging the evolving flow field we find that the shear intensity is maximized right at the jamming front. Taken together, this provides direct experimental evidence for jamming by shear, rather than densification, as driving the transformation to solid-like behaviour. On the basis of these findings we propose a new model to explain the anisotropy in the propagation speed of the fronts and delineate the onset conditions for dynamic shear jamming in suspensions.

  20. First applications of a targeted exome sequencing approach in fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities reveals an important fraction of cases with associated gene defects

    PubMed Central

    Pangalos, Constantinos; Hagnefelt, Birgitta; Lilakos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fetal malformations and other structural abnormalities are relatively frequent findings in the course of routine prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Due to their considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity, the underlying genetic cause is often elusive and the resulting inability to provide a precise diagnosis precludes proper reproductive and fetal risk assessment. We report the development and first applications of an expanded exome sequencing-based test, coupled to a bioinformatics-driven prioritization algorithm, targeting gene disorders presenting with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods. We applied the testing strategy to14 euploid fetuses, from 11 on-going pregnancies and three products of abortion, all with various abnormalities or malformations detected through prenatal ultrasound examination. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was followed by variant prioritization, utilizing a custom analysis pipeline (Fetalis algorithm), targeting 758 genes associated with genetic disorders which may present with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings. Results. A definitive or highly-likely diagnosis was made in 6 of 14 cases (43%), of which 3 were abortuses (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Nemaline myopathy 2) and 3 involved on-going pregnancies (Citrullinemia, Noonan syndrome, PROKR2-related Kallmann syndrome). In the remaining eight on-going pregnancy cases (57%), a ZIC1 variant of unknown clinical significance was detected in one case, while in seven cases testing did not reveal any pathogenic variant(s). Pregnancies were followed-up to birth, resulting in one neonate harboring the PROKR2 mutation, presenting with isolated minor structural cardiac abnormalities, and in seven apparently healthy neonates. Discussion. The expanded targeted exome sequencing-based approach described herein (Fetalis), provides strong evidence suggesting a definite and beneficial increase in our diagnostic capabilities in prenatal diagnosis of

  1. First applications of a targeted exome sequencing approach in fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities reveals an important fraction of cases with associated gene defects.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, Constantinos; Hagnefelt, Birgitta; Lilakos, Konstantinos; Konialis, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fetal malformations and other structural abnormalities are relatively frequent findings in the course of routine prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Due to their considerable genetic and clinical heterogeneity, the underlying genetic cause is often elusive and the resulting inability to provide a precise diagnosis precludes proper reproductive and fetal risk assessment. We report the development and first applications of an expanded exome sequencing-based test, coupled to a bioinformatics-driven prioritization algorithm, targeting gene disorders presenting with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods. We applied the testing strategy to14 euploid fetuses, from 11 on-going pregnancies and three products of abortion, all with various abnormalities or malformations detected through prenatal ultrasound examination. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was followed by variant prioritization, utilizing a custom analysis pipeline (Fetalis algorithm), targeting 758 genes associated with genetic disorders which may present with abnormal fetal ultrasound findings. Results. A definitive or highly-likely diagnosis was made in 6 of 14 cases (43%), of which 3 were abortuses (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Nemaline myopathy 2) and 3 involved on-going pregnancies (Citrullinemia, Noonan syndrome, PROKR2-related Kallmann syndrome). In the remaining eight on-going pregnancy cases (57%), a ZIC1 variant of unknown clinical significance was detected in one case, while in seven cases testing did not reveal any pathogenic variant(s). Pregnancies were followed-up to birth, resulting in one neonate harboring the PROKR2 mutation, presenting with isolated minor structural cardiac abnormalities, and in seven apparently healthy neonates. Discussion. The expanded targeted exome sequencing-based approach described herein (Fetalis), provides strong evidence suggesting a definite and beneficial increase in our diagnostic capabilities in prenatal diagnosis of

  2. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary. PMID:27313923

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  4. Intravascular ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube. This tube is called a catheter. The catheter ...

  5. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... Deane CR, Goss DE. Peripheral arteries and veins. In: Allan PL, Baxter GM, Weston MJ, eds. Allan & Baxter: Clinical Ultrasound . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  8. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  10. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  11. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  12. Temperature-dependent differences in the nonlinear acoustic behavior of ultrasound contrast agents revealed by high-speed imaging and bulk acoustics.

    PubMed

    Mulvana, Helen; Stride, Eleanor; Tang, Mengxing; Hajnal, Jo V; Eckersley, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Previous work by the authors has established that increasing the temperature of the suspending liquid from 20°C to body temperature has a significant impact on the bulk acoustic properties and stability of an ultrasound contrast agent suspension (SonoVue, Bracco Suisse SA, Manno, Lugano, Switzerland). In this paper the influence of temperature on the nonlinear behavior of microbubbles is investigated, because this is one of the most important parameters in the context of diagnostic imaging. High-speed imaging showed that raising the temperature significantly influences the dynamic behavior of individual microbubbles. At body temperature, microbubbles exhibit greater radial excursion and oscillate less spherically, with a greater incidence of jetting and gas expulsion, and therefore collapse, than they do at room temperature. Bulk acoustics revealed an associated increase in the harmonic content of the scattered signals. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting laboratory studies at body temperature if the results are to be interpreted for in vivo applications.

  13. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  14. High-speed ultrasound imaging in dense suspensions reveals impact-activated solidification due to dynamic shear jamming

    PubMed Central

    Han, Endao; Peters, Ivo R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable property of dense suspensions is that they can transform from liquid-like at rest to solid-like under sudden impact. Previous work showed that this impact-induced solidification involves rapidly moving jamming fronts; however, details of this process have remained unresolved. Here we use high-speed ultrasound imaging to probe non-invasively how the interior of a dense suspension responds to impact. Measuring the speed of sound we demonstrate that the solidification proceeds without a detectable increase in packing fraction, and imaging the evolving flow field we find that the shear intensity is maximized right at the jamming front. Taken together, this provides direct experimental evidence for jamming by shear, rather than densification, as driving the transformation to solid-like behaviour. On the basis of these findings we propose a new model to explain the anisotropy in the propagation speed of the fronts and delineate the onset conditions for dynamic shear jamming in suspensions. PMID:27436628

  15. High-speed ultrasound imaging in dense suspensions reveals impact-activated solidification due to dynamic shear jamming.

    PubMed

    Han, Endao; Peters, Ivo R; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable property of dense suspensions is that they can transform from liquid-like at rest to solid-like under sudden impact. Previous work showed that this impact-induced solidification involves rapidly moving jamming fronts; however, details of this process have remained unresolved. Here we use high-speed ultrasound imaging to probe non-invasively how the interior of a dense suspension responds to impact. Measuring the speed of sound we demonstrate that the solidification proceeds without a detectable increase in packing fraction, and imaging the evolving flow field we find that the shear intensity is maximized right at the jamming front. Taken together, this provides direct experimental evidence for jamming by shear, rather than densification, as driving the transformation to solid-like behaviour. On the basis of these findings we propose a new model to explain the anisotropy in the propagation speed of the fronts and delineate the onset conditions for dynamic shear jamming in suspensions. PMID:27436628

  16. Primary abdominal pregnancy in the uterosacral ligament with haemoperitoneum: a near miss.

    PubMed

    Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao; Pochiraju, Manjula

    2014-05-01

    Primary abdominal pregnancy has a higher mortality rate than other ectopic gestations. Delayed diagnosis can be associated with catastrophic haemorrhage. This report describes a spontaneous conception which occurred in the uterosacral ligament in a woman with no known risk factors for an ectopic pregnancy. Extrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound and laparoscopy was performed secondary to haemoperitoneum, which revealed a pregnancy implanted in the right uterosacral ligament. The rarity of this condition signifies the need for reporting all cases to facilitate future research and clinical management.

  17. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula draining from an abdominal scar from previous surgical drainage.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Paraskevas, George; Kotronis, Anastasios; Chatzopoulos, Stavros; Konstantara, Athina; Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Makrantonakis, Apostolos; Kakoutis, Emmanouil

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of cholecystocutaneous fistula draining from an old surgical scar in the right upper abdominal quadrant following chronic calculous cholecystitis. A 71 year old male presented to the emergency department with a persistent bilious drainage from an old surgical scare, from surgical drainage, of the right upper abdominal quadrant for about a week. Cultures from the draining fluid grew Staphylococcus hominis, Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumoniae and tigecycline 50 mg twice a day was administrated intravenously to the patient according to sensitivity results. An abdominal US revealed the presence the gallbladder with calculi in a superficial position and the fistulogram revealed a cholecystocytaneous fistula arising from the fundus of the gallbladder. At laparotomy a fistula track was found connecting the gallbladder fundus to the skin, which was dissected and a cholecystectomy was performed. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula is rarely observed today, mostly as a complication of chronic calculous cholecystitis. Most often it arises from the gallbladder fundus and the clinical presentation is that of a painless draining sinus tract in the right upper quadrant. Diagnosis is aided by abdominal CT scan and ultrasound and treatment is with elective cholecystectomy and excision of the fistula. PMID:22352221

  18. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with a subphrenic abscess revealed by plain abdominal X-ray films and confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer disease is still the major cause of gastrointestinal perforation despite major improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. While the diagnosis of a perforated ulcer is straightforward in typical cases, its clinical onset may be subtle because of comorbidities and/or concurrent therapies. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic myeloid leukemia on maintenance therapy (100mg/day) with imatinib who was found to have a subphrenic abscess resulting from a perforated duodenal ulcer that had been clinically overlooked. Our patient was febrile (38.5°C) with abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. On the abdominal plain X-ray films, a right subphrenic abscess could be seen. On contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography, a huge air-fluid collection extending from the subphrenic to the subhepatic anterior space was observed. After oral administration of 500cm3 of 3 percent diluted diatrizoate meglumine, an extraluminal leakage of the water-soluble iodinated contrast media could then be appreciated as a result of a perforated duodenal ulcer. During surgery, the abscess was drained and extensive adhesiolysis had to be performed to expose the duodenal bulb where the ulcer was first identified by methylene blue administration and then sutured. Conclusions While subphrenic abscesses are well known complications of perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, they have nowadays become rare thanks to advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for peptic ulcer disease. However, when peptic ulcer disease is not clinically suspected, the contribution of imaging may be substantial. PMID:24215711

  19. Desmoid Tumor of the Anterior Abdominal Wall in Female Patients: Comparison with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Krentel, H.; Tchartchian, G.; De Wilde, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    In female patients presenting a tumor of the lower abdominal wall especially after cesarian section, an endometriotic tumor as well as an aggressive desmoid tumor should be considered. Symptoms in correlation with the monthly period can facilitate the presurgical differentiation between endometriosis and fibromatosis. Ultrasound reveals the typical location of both tumors and its remarkable sonographic appearance. In the clinical practice, the desmoid fibromatosis of the lower abdominal wall is a very rare disease. We present a case of a 25-year-old pregnant and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic options by a PubMed literature review. With the knowledge of the prognosis of the desmoid fibromatosis and the respective treatment options including wait and see, complete surgical resection with macroscopically free margins and adjuvant approaches is essential to avoid further interventions and progression of the locally destructive tumor. PMID:22778752

  20. [Gynecological ultrasound examination at the general health care emergency department].

    PubMed

    Forsbom, Otto; Väyrynen, Tapio; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal ultrasound examination is a possible addition for the general health care emergency department. It gives additional information of gynecological illnesses and pregnancy. Ultrasound can guide treatment and make consulting the right specialty easier when treating women with acute abdominal pain. Correctly used ultrasound can also reduce the need for consultation and speed up treatment, especially in early pregnancy. The physician performing the ultrasound should know the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and compare findings to the clinical status and history. Ultrasound can't replace clinical history and status in any situation. A pregnancy test, hemoglobin or CRP are often required to achieve diagnosis.

  1. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  2. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of voluminous formations in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in newborn infants].

    PubMed

    Nestaĭko, O V

    1990-01-01

    Introduction of the ultrasound research method into obstetrical practice has given rise to a possibility of revealing developmental abnormalities and neoformations in the prenatal period. The same method enables identifying volumetric formations in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in the newborn. Ultrasound examination of the newborn presupposes the obligatory use of the equipment working in the real time mode, with a high rate of image design as well as the use of monitors run at a frequency of not less than 5 to 7.5 mHz with a wide visual field and equipped with the electronic switching of emitters. Until now there have been no reported data on the side effects of ultrasonic energies used for diagnosis. That is why this method can be regarded as absolutely safe for children.

  3. Left hepatic lobe herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Herniation of the liver through an anterior abdominal wall hernia defect is rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases have been described in the literature. Case presentation A 70-year-old Mexican woman presented with a one-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice to our Department of General Surgery. Her medical history included an open cholecystectomy from 20 years earlier and excessive weight. She presented with jaundice, abdominal distension with a midline surgical scar, right upper quadrant tenderness, and a large midline abdominal wall defect with dullness upon percussion and protrusion of a large, tender, and firm mass. The results of laboratory tests were suggestive of cholestasis. Ultrasound revealed choledocholithiasis. A computed tomography scan showed a protrusion of the left hepatic lobe through the anterior abdominal wall defect and a well-defined, soft tissue density lesion in the right adrenal topography. An endoscopic common bile duct stone extraction was unsuccessful. During surgery, the right adrenal tumor was resected first. The hernia was approached through a median supraumbilical incision; the totality of the left lobe was protruding through the abdominal wall defect, and once the lobe was reduced to its normal position, a common bile duct surgical exploration with multiple stone extraction was performed. Finally, the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Histopathology revealed an adrenal myelolipoma. Six months after the operation, our patient remains in good health. Conclusions The case of liver herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia in this report represents, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth such case reported in the literature. The rarity of this medical entity makes it almost impossible to specifically describe predisposing risk factors for liver herniation. Obesity, the right adrenal myelolipoma mass effect, and the previous abdominal surgery

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Omar, Asha; Freeman, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in the spleen are less common than in most other abdominal organs. However, they will be regularly encountered by ultrasound practitioners, who carefully evaluate the spleen in their abdominal ultrasound studies. Conventional grey scale and Doppler ultrasound are frequently unable to characterise focal splenic abnormalities; even when clinical and laboratory information is added to the ultrasound findings, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is easy to perform, inexpensive, safe and will usually provide valuable additional information about splenic abnormalities, allowing a definitive or short differential diagnosis to be made. It also identifies those lesions that may require further imaging or biopsy, from those that can be safely dismissed or followed with interval ultrasound imaging. CEUS is also indicated in confirming the nature of suspected accessory splenic tissue and in selected patients with abdominal trauma. This article describes the CEUS examination technique, summarises the indications for CEUS and provides guidance on interpretation of the CEUS findings in splenic ultrasound.

  6. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Józsa, Gergő; Mohay, Gabriella; Pintér, András; Vástyán, Attila

    2015-09-13

    19 children were diagnosed with abdominal cysts of different origin in the Surgical Unit of the Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary between 2010 and 2013. The authors discuss the details of representative cases of a parovarial cyst, an intestinal duplication, and an omental cyst with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, diagnostic tools, and surgical interventions. The authors conclude that abdominal cysts often cause mild symptoms only, and they are discovered accidentally by ultrasound imaging performed for other reasons. In some cases, the cyst can cause severe complaints or even acute abdomen requiring emergency surgery. Laporoscopy may be a valuable method both in diagnosis and surgical therapy. Abdominal CT or MRI are not required in the majority of the patients.

  7. Primary Pancreatic Malignant Lymphoma Diagnosed from Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Aspiration Findings.

    PubMed

    Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Moriyama, Ichiro; Ishihara, Shunji; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Tada, Yasumasa; Oka, Akihiko; Oshima, Naoki; Yuki, Takafumi; Kawashima, Kousaku; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with upper abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography showed a 9-cm mass that was penetrated by the common hepatic artery in the pancreatic head area. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography revealed no stenosis or obstruction of the main pancreatic duct, and a cytologic examination of the patient's pancreatic juice was negative. Next, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed. The immunohistological findings of the specimen revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The size of the tumor was significantly reduced after 8 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone). PMID:26726082

  8. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P

    2016-10-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall.

  9. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  10. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  11. [Therapies by focused ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Grenier, N; Trillaud, H; Palussière, J; Mougenot, C; Quesson, B; Denis De Senneville, B; Moonen, C

    2007-11-01

    Many techniques of thermotherapy have emerged over the last several years in the field of oncology using different types of physical agents, including ultrasound. Only ultrasound can target deep seated lesions non-invasively without need for percutaneous probe insertion. Depending on their utilization, it is possible to select either thermal effects, in a continuous mode, at low temperature (allowing thermo-induced biological effects) or at high temperature (allowing thermoablation), or mechanical effects, in a pulsed mode, at low energy level (allowing biological effects) or at high energy levels (histotripsy). Thermoablation by focused ultrasound is now developing fast for applications in many organs. It gained a well defined role for the treatment of prostatic cancer and uterine leiomyoma but needs to be better evaluated in other organs such as the breast. Treatment of abdominal tumors must still be considered as experimental as long as problems related to acoustic interfaces (produced by ribs and gas) and movement correction are not resolved. Biological applications of focused ultrasound are currently being explored and have a great long term potential.

  12. [Bowel ultrasound in Crohn's disease. Surgical importance].

    PubMed

    Maconi, G; Greco, S; Parente, F; Ardizzone, S; Sampietro, G M; Sartani, A; Danelli, P; Bianchi Porro, G

    2003-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in Crohns disease has a recent history. This method is useful in various situations like: the diagnosis of the disease, the diagnosis of intra-abdominal complications and the follow-up of the operated patient. Moreover, thanks to its practicality of use, ripetibility and accuracy, ultrasounds can represent a first line diagnostic instrument for Crohns disease both in elective and emergency conditions. The authors, in this paper, consider its usefulness and various aspects in these conditions. PMID:15206806

  13. Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Abdominal Aortic Diameter Development

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Background Configuration of the abdominal aorta is related to healthy aging and a variety of disorders. Objectives We aimed to assess heritable and environmental effects on the abdominal aortic diameter. Methods 114 adult (69 monozygotic, 45 same-sex dizygotic) twin pairs (mean age 43.6 ± 16.3 years) underwent abdominal ultrasound with Esaote MyLab 70X ultrasound machine to visualize the abdominal aorta below the level of the origin of the renal arteries and 1-3 cm above the bifurcation. Results Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of the abdominal aortic diameter below the level of the origin of the renal arteries was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14 to 67%] and 55% above the aortic bifurcation (95% CI, 45 to 70%). None of the aortic diameters showed common environmental effects, but unshared environmental effects were responsible for 60% and 45% of the traits, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis documents the moderate heritability and its segment-specific difference of the abdominal aortic diameter. The moderate part of variance was explained by unshared environmental components, emphasizing the importance of lifestyle factors in primary prevention. Further studies in this field may guide future gene-mapping efforts and investigate specific lifestyle factors to prevent abdominal aortic dilatation and its complications. PMID:26559855

  14. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M.; Rogers, B; Walsh, N.

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  15. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  16. The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre for detecting activity in the deep abdominal muscles: is this clinical tool reliable and valid?

    PubMed Central

    Kaping, Karsten; Äng, Björn O; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) is a common clinical tool for manually assessing whether a preferential activation of the deep abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain (LBP) is ‘correct’ or not. The validity and reliability of manual assessment of the ADIM are, however, as yet unknown. This study evaluated the concurrent and discriminative validity and reliability of the manually assessed ADIM. Design Single-blinded cross-sectional study. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 38 participants seeking care for LBP, and 15 healthy subjects. Measures The manual ADIM was assessed as correct or not following a standard procedure. Ultrasound imaging (USI) was used as the concurrent reference (gold standard) for the manually assessed ADIM by calculating a ratio of the change in muscle thickness between the resting and the contracted states: the correlation between manual test and USI was calculated. Discriminative validity was analysed by calculating sensitivity and specificity. A sample of 24 participants was analysed with κ coefficients for interobserver reliability between two raters. Results The concurrent validity between the manual ADIM and the ADIM–USI ratios showed poor correlations (r=0.13–0.40). The discriminative validity of the manually assessed ADIM to predict LBP showed a sensitivity/specificity of 0.30/0.73, while the ADIM–USI ratio to predict LBP showed 0.19/0.87. The interobserver reliability for the manually assessed ADIM revealed substantial agreement: K=0.71, CI (95%) 0.41 to 1.00. Conclusions Although the interobserver reliability of the manually assessed ADIM was high, the concurrent and discriminative validity were both low for examining the preferential activity of the deep abdominal muscles. Neither the manually assessed ADIM nor the ultrasound testing discriminated between participants with LBP and healthy subjects regarding preferential activity of

  17. Ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Management of Splenic Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Python, Johanne L; Wakefield, Brian W; Kondo, Kimi L; Bang, Tami J; Stamm, Elizabeth R; Hurt, K Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Splenic ectopic pregnancies are a rare cause of abdominal pain in reproductive-age women. A 21-year-old woman with worsening abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test presented with hemoperitoneum and no intrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal ultrasound. After 2 nondiagnostic laparoscopies, a splenic pregnancy was diagnosed by computed tomography scan and abdominal ultrasound. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of splenic pregnancies involve exploratory surgery and splenectomy. We report the successful treatment of this splenic ectopic pregnancy with combined intramuscular plus ultrasound-guided percutaneous methotrexate injection, with preservation of the patient's spleen. Abdominal implantation must be considered in patients with pregnancy of unknown location, and in carefully selected patients splenic ectopic pregnancy can be successfully managed by minimally invasive methods. PMID:27221066

  19. Monitoring the Foetal Phase of Gestation in the Queen With a 12.5-MHz Ultrasound Probe and Prediction of the Parturition by Combining the Measurements of Head and Abdominal Diameters.

    PubMed

    Topie, E; Bencharif, D; Briand, L; Tainturier, D

    2015-08-01

    Ten gestations in six domestic shorthair cats (Europeans) were monitored daily during the foetal phase of gestation, from the 28th day after the first mating until parturition, using ultrasound with a 12.5-MHz probe. The development of the various organs over this period was recorded. The diameters of the head (HD) and abdomen (AD) were measured. Skeletal calcification visible on ultrasound occurred in a defined order between the 34th and 40th day of gestation. During the last 30 days of gestation, there was a significant correlation between HD and days before parturition (DBP) (r(2)  = 0.99) and between AD and DBP (r(2)  = 0.98). The following equations were obtained: DBP = -2.10*HD (mm) + 50.74; DBP = -1.01*AD (mm) + 42.19. The confidence intervals were stable over the last 30 days of gestation. For the HD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 53% of cases and ±2 days in 85% of cases. For the AD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 45% of cases and ±2 days in 77% of cases. A table obtained by combining the HD and AD measurements made it possible to estimate the date of parturition within 2 days with a reliability of over 85%.

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  1. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  2. Extra scrotal spermatocele causing lower abdominal pain: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Denis J; Fobia, John B

    2011-03-01

    Lower quadrant abdominal pain is a common complaint evaluated in emergency departments (EDs). The number of differential diagnoses is lowered when the pain in a male patient is associated with a palpable tender mass. These diagnoses include inguinal hernia, inflamed inguinal lymph node, rectus sheath hematoma, cryptorchidism, mass derived from the spermatic cord, and polyorchidism. We report a case of extra scrotal spermatocele causing lower quadrant abdominal pain that was misdiagnosed as an inguinal hernia on several ED visits. Lower quadrant mass and pain caused by a spermatocele are unusual conditions. Upon the patient's third (ED) visit, the painful mass remained located in his right lower quadrant. The lower quadrant mass was movable on palpation and with pressure could be delivered into the superior aspect of the scrotum. The patient had an abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scan and lower quadrant ultrasound. The imaging studies revealed the mass to be a cystic structure. Surgical excision confirmed that the mass was a spermatocele. Differential diagnoses, diagnostic approaches, and treatment are discussed. PMID:20674226

  3. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  4. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jason A; Noble, Vicki E

    2008-05-01

    Bedside emergency ultrasound has been used by emergency physicians for >20 years for a variety of conditions. In adult centers, emergency ultrasound is routinely used in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and biliary disease, and in women with first-trimester pregnancy complications. Although its use has grown dramatically in the last decade in adult emergency departments, only recently has this tool been embraced by pediatric emergency physicians. As the modality advances and becomes more available, it will be important for primary care pediatricians to understand its uses and limitations and to ensure that pediatric emergency physicians have access to the proper training, equipment, and experience. This article is meant to review the current literature relating to emergency ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine, as well as to describe potential pediatric applications.

  5. [Semeiotics of abdominal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, G K; Ramazanova, A M; Guseĭnov, A G

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 119 patients with abdominal tuberculosis permitted the description of the characteristic semiotics of the illness. Today the patients with abdominal tuberculosis are mainly women of child-bearing age with a long-term tuberculosis catamnesis and intoxication, with a history of tuberculosis of different sites, those suffering from tuberculosis or its sequels at present (64%), those with pains (94%), discomfort or swelling of the abdomen (79%), malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (65%), weight loss (86%), malnutrition (72%), anemia (63%), not infrequently with inflammatory induration (43%) or ascites in the abdominal cavity (39%). In addition to this characteristic semiotics, the patients with abdominal tuberculosis may demonstrate the most different and unexpected symptoms up to acute abdomen (23%). To make differential diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, one has often to resort to diagnostic laparotomy, laparoscopy, Koch's test and to trial therapy.

  6. Postoperative fistula of the abdominal wall after laparascopic cholecystectomy due to lost gallstones.

    PubMed

    Weiler, H; Grandel, A

    2002-06-01

    Abdominal fistula caused by cholesterol gallstones, which remained in the abdominal wall after laparascopic cholecystectomy: a laparascopic cholecystectomy was performed in a 60-years-old man who was diagnosed as acute necrosing cholecystitis due to cholecystolithiasis. After removal of the gallbladder using an Endocath some gallstones remained in the excision channel of the abdominal wall. Therefore, a fistula developed in the excision channel postoperatively. As the wound healing was disturbed an investigation of the abdominal wall was performed by ultrasound. In the former excision channel several small, oval, formations with high echogenicity and faint ultrasound shadows were detected, corresponding to additional gallstones. After excision of granulation tissue and removal of the cholesterol stones, complete healing of the fistula in the abdominal wall was achieved. PMID:12044854

  7. Congenital Extrahepatic Abdominal Arteriovenous Fistula and Apparent Patent Ductus Venosus in a Dog.

    PubMed

    White, Robert N; Murphy, Kate; Renfrew, Helen; Shales, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male German shepherd dog presented with a 2 wk history of diarrhea with possible melena followed by inappetence and progressive abdominal distension. Clinical findings, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominal ultrasound were highly suggestive of an extrahepatic abdominal arteriovenous fistula and concurrent patent ductus venosus, which were confirmed during an abdominal exploratory surgery. Renal biopsies taken at the time of surgery confirmed a chronic glomerulopathy. The dog made a good initial recovery from the procedure but was euthanatized 6 wk postoperatively for medically unresponsive renal disease.

  8. Recurrent cholangitis associated with biliary sludge and Phrygian cap anomaly diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography despite normal ultrasound and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Basaranoglu, Metin; Balci, Numan Cem

    2005-06-01

    A 31-year-old woman presented with a one and half years' history of intermittent right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain, high fever and severely painful, warm and reddish swollen skin lesions on the fingers. Acute attack resolution occurred within 2 weeks after treatment with non-specific antibiotics. Low-grade fever (around 37.5 degrees C) and less painful swellings continued for 6 months after each attack. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans did not show any abnormality during the attacks. Biopsy of the skin lesions after the second attack revealed lymphocytic vasculitis. All laboratory studies including rheumatologic serology panel were normal. One month after the complete resolution of the second attack, the patient was observed to have high fever, the same skin lesions on the fingers as at the initial stage, nausea and marked abdominal pain in the RUQ. Routine laboratory studies including complete blood count, liver function tests and serum amylase and lipase levels were normal. An abdominal CT scan revealed a slight thickening of the gallbladder wall (3.9 mm). Two weeks later, abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) were performed because of persistent abdominal pain. They revealed both biliary tract and pancreatic gland alterations consistent with past cholangitis and pancreatitis with coexisting Phrygian cap anomaly and biliary sludge on the neck of the gallbladder.

  9. Abdominal obesity, muscle composition, and insulin resistance in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Freeman, Jennifer; Hudson, Robert; Janssen, Ian

    2002-11-01

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal sc adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed tomography, abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g. leg) AT by magnetic resonance imaging and cardiovascular fitness. Glucose disposal rates were negatively related to visceral AT mass (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). These observations remained significant (P < 0.01) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal sc AT, muscle attenuation, and peak oxygen uptake. Total, abdominal, or leg sc AT or muscle attenuation was not significantly (P > 0.10) related to glucose disposal. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT into anterior and posterior depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of women for abdominal sc AT but with low and high visceral AT. Women with high visceral AT had lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of women matched for visceral AT but high and low abdominal sc AT revealed no statistically different values for insulin sensitivity (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal, abdominal sc AT, muscle composition, and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.

  10. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  11. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed Ultrasound is a painless method that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the ... neck to help with the transmission of the sound waves. Next, the technician moves a wand, called a ...

  12. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  13. [Interventional ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Blázquez Sánchez, N; Fernández Canedo, I; Valdés Vilches, L; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency ultrasound has become increasingly used in dermatology. This technique is accessible, non-invasive, and rapid and provides information in real time. Consequently, it has become of great diagnostic value in dermatology. However, high-frequency ultrasound also has a promising future as a complementary technique in interventional diagnostic procedures, even though its application in this field has been little studied by dermatologists. PMID:26895944

  14. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  15. A Giant Intra Abdominal Mass Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Presentation of Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Kaisar, I; Islam, M F; Salam, M A

    2016-07-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor commonly found in kidney than extra renal sites. Most of the small renal angiomyolipomas are diagnosed incidentally on ultrasound and other imaging studies. Some renal AMLs present clinically when become very big, giant renal angiomyolipoma. Although almost all cases are benign, a relatively rare variant of epitheloid angiomyolipoma has got malignant potential and can even metastasize. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI scan are usually used for diagnosis of angiomyolipoma with high level of accuracy; even though some lesions may be confused as renal cell carcinoma on imaging studies. Here, a 48 year old man presented with a large intra-abdominal mass preoperatively diagnosed as a case of right renal cell carcinoma and radical nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology revealed epitheloid angiomyolipoma (EAML). PMID:27612907

  16. Integration of medical imaging including ultrasound into a new clinical anatomy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the program as a part of anatomy practical sessions, in addition to dedicated lectures and tutorials given by imaging specialists. Surveys were conducted between 2009 and 2012 to evaluate the student acceptance of the integration. Students were asked to rate individual activities as well as provide open-ended comments. The number of students who responded to the surveys varied from 40% to 98%. Over 90% of the respondents were satisfied with the overall quality of teaching in the anatomy units. In summary, 48% to 63% of the responding students thought that the specialist imaging lectures helped them learn effectively; 72% to 77% of students thought that the cross-sectional practical sessions helped them to better understand the imaging modalities of CT, MRI, and ultrasound; 76% to 80% of students considered hands-on ultrasound session to be useful in understanding the application of ultrasound in abdominal imaging. The results also revealed key similarities and differences in student perceptions of the new integrated curriculum for students with both a high and low prior exposure to anatomy. Further evaluation will aid in refining the integrated medical imaging program and providing its future direction.

  17. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    a critical clinical condition of Polycompartment Syndrome. The monitoring of Abdominal Perfusion Pressure (APP) is more correct than the measurement of IAP because it reveals hydrodynamic alterations in the abdominal compartment. The APP (MAP-IAP) depends on arterial flow, venous outflow and capacity of the abdominal compartments response to increased internal volumes. The medical therapy used to decrease IAH and to contrast ACS is intestinal decompression with gastric and rectal tube; colonic endoscopic detention; correction of electrolytic abnormalities and prokinetic agents. Surgery, besides being decompressive and resolutive, must prevent a recurrence of ACS through the "tension-free closure" procedure.

  18. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  19. [Two cases of abdominal bronchogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Watabe, N; Sato, A; Watanabe, I; Yamaguchi, M; Tezuka, H; Abe, H; Sakamoto, K

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of abdominal bronchogenic cyst were reported. In the first case, the cyst was communicated with gastric fundus and existed as gastric abscess. In the second case, the cyst showed high CT number and chemical analysis of the contents revealed high range of Ca, Fe and Amylase levels.

  20. Development of a new Sonovue™ contrast-enhanced ultrasound approach reveals temporal and age-related features of muscle microvascular responses to feeding

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, William Kyle; Phillips, Bethan E; Williams, John P; Rankin, Debbie; Smith, Kenneth; Lund, Jonathan N; Atherton, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Compromised limb blood flow in aging may contribute to the development of sarcopenia, frailty, and the metabolic syndrome. We developed a novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique using Sonovue™ to characterize muscle microvasculature responses to an oral feeding stimulus (15 g essential amino acids) in young (∼20 years) and older (∼70 years) men. Intensity-time replenishment curves were made via an ultrasound probe “fixed” over the quadriceps, with intermittent high mechanical index destruction of microbubbles within muscle vasculature. This permitted real-time measures of microvascular blood volume (MBV), microvascular flow velocity (MFV) and their product, microvascular blood flow (MBF). Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured by Doppler and insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Steady-state contrast concentrations needed for comparison between different physiological states were achieved <150 sec from commencing Sonovue™ infusion, and MFV and MBV measurements were completed <120 sec thereafter. Interindividual coefficients of variation in MBV and MFV were 35–40%, (N = 36). Younger men (N = 6) exhibited biphasic vascular responses to feeding with early increases in MBV (+36%, P < 0.008 45 min post feed) reflecting capillary recruitment, and late increases in MFV (+77%, P < 0.008) and MBF (+130%, P < 0.007 195 min post feed) reflecting more proximal vessel dilatation. Early MBV responses were synchronized with peak insulin but not increased LBF, while later changes in MFV and MBF occurred with insulin at post absorptive values but alongside increased LBF. All circulatory responses were absent in old men (N = 7). Thus, impaired postprandial circulation could impact age-related declines in muscle glucose disposal, protein anabolism, and muscle mass. PMID:24303186

  1. An abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, ZHIMING; CHU, XIUFENG; MENG, XINGCHENG; XU, CHAOYANG

    2013-01-01

    Primary abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS) is a rare carcinoma. The present study reports a case of a primary abdominal EOS involving the greater omentum and also presents a review of the literature on the etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathological features, treatment and prognosis of the disease. The patient in the present study underwent laparoscopic surgery. A pathological examination revealed that the tumor tissues contained malignant and primitive spindle cells with varying amounts of neoplastic osteoid and osseous or cartilaginous tissue. The post-operative follow-up appointments were scheduled at three-month intervals for two years. The tumor recurred three months after the surgery. PMID:24137451

  2. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Terneu, S; Verhelst, D; Thys, F; Ketelslegers, E; Hantson, P; Wittebole, X

    2003-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room because of abdominal pain associated with hematuria and red blood blending to stool. On admission, the physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and diffuse cutaneous hematoma. The laboratory findings showed abnormal clotting tests with high International Normalised Ratio (INR) and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Hemoperitoneum and ureteral hematoma were noted on the abdomen computed tomography. The patient confessed she had ingested difenacoum for several weeks. All the symptoms resolved with fresh frozen plasma perfusion and vitamin K. PMID:14635532

  3. Association between abdominal aortic plaque and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Luo, Songyuan; Luo, Jianfang; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Currently, the association between abdominal aortic plaques and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not yet been clarified clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques by ultrasound imaging and to explore its association with CAD in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Between October 2014 and June 2015, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Cardiology at Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. Ultrasound scanning of the abdominal aortas was performed in 1,667 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. Results Of the 1,667 study patients (male, 68.9%; mean age, 63±11 years) undergoing coronary angiography, 1,268 had CAD. Compared with 399 patients without CAD, 1,268 patients with CAD had higher prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques (37.3% vs 17%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the presence of CAD (odds ratio =2.08; 95% confidence interval =1.50–2.90; P<0.001). Of the 1,268 patients with CAD, the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was 27.0% (98/363) in patients with one-vessel disease, 35.0% (107/306) in patients with two-vessel disease, and 44.7% (268/599) in patients with three-vessel disease. Stepwise increases in the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaque was found depending on the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001; P-value for trend <0.001). In an ordinal logistic regression model, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the severity of CAD according to the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was higher in patients with CAD than in those without CAD. Abdominal aortic plaque was an independent factor associated with the presence and severity of CAD. PMID:27279740

  4. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings in a case of primary chest chondrosarcoma mimicking a porta hepatis mass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Liang, Jin-Yu; Lu, Ming-De; Wang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with upper abdominal pain. The physical examination revealed a palpable hard mass with a well-demarcated lower margin. Laboratory tests indicated hepatitis B viral infection. Computed tomography scan with intravenous contrast depicted a huge well-demarcated heterogeneous mass at the porta hepatis with irregular peripheral rim enhancement. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed peripheral irregular hyper-enhancement in the artery phase and hypo-enhancement in the portal and late phases. The postoperative histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma. This is the first report of contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings of chondrosarcoma. There is some differential diagnosis to be discussed.

  6. CSF shunt complications: what the abdominal imager needs to know.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Eric K; Williams, Todd R; Myers, Daniel T

    2015-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting has been a mainstay in the treatment of hydrocephalus for many decades. With a reported 33,000 shunt placement procedures performed in the US annually, and a lifetime revision rate approaching 50%, abdominal radiologists must be familiar with the typical imaging appearance of an array of shunt complications. Complications related to the peritoneal portion of the shunt have been reported in up to 25% of patients. We present a comprehensive pictorial essay including computed tomography, conventional radiography, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine examples illustrating abdominal complications related to CSF shunting and a review of the current literature. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to provide multimodality imaging examples of CSF shunt complications and familiarize the abdominal imager with the spectrum of findings.

  7. Intra-abdominal fluid aspirate from a dog.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Valentina; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Avallone, Giancarlo; Caniatti, Mario

    2016-02-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered female, Siberian husky, was presented with a 6-months history of progressive abdominal distension, anorexia, and weight loss. The dog appeared normal on physical examination except for marked abdominal distension. A fluid wave was balloted strongly suggesting an abdominal effusion. Ultrasound examination confirmed this clinical finding. Results of the CBC included mild nonregenerative anemia, with an RBC count of 4.9 × 10(6)/µL (reference interval 5.5-8.5 × 10(6)/µL), hemoglobin concentration of 12 g/dL (reference interval 12-18 g/dL), HCT of 36% (reference interval 37-55%), and reticulocytes <60,000/µL. No abnormalities in serum chemistry were detected.

  8. Transport and use of point-of-care ultrasound by a disaster medical assistance team.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Stefan M; Rippey, James

    2009-01-01

    The role of ultrasound in disaster medicine has not been not well established. This report describes the transport and use of point-of-care ultrasound by a Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) responding to a mass-casualty incident due to a cyclone. Ultrasound-competent physicians on the team were able to use portable ultrasound on cyclone casualties to exclude intra-abdominal hemorrhage, pericardial fluid, pneumothoraces, and hemothoraces. Information obtained using ultrasound made initial patient management, and subsequent decisions regarding triage for transport safer and based on more detailed clinical information.

  9. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Yılmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  10. Methods of Patient Warming during Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045

  11. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  12. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise, stop smoking (if you smoke), and reduce stress. If you have high blood pressure or diabetes, take your medicines as your doctor has told you. People over age 65 who have ever smoked should have a screening ultrasound done once.

  14. Emergency department bedside ultrasound diagnosis of retinoblastoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Presley, Bradley C; Flannigan, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    A 30-month-old boy presented to a Haitian emergency department with proptosis, periorbital edema, and progressive blindness. Bedside ultrasound examination revealed bilateral ocular masses with dense calcifications pathognomonic for retinoblastoma. This case illustrates the diagnostic utility of bedside ultrasound for an advanced case of retinoblastoma in a resource-poor setting. Ocular ultrasound technique is also reviewed. PMID:24084617

  15. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  16. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  17. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  18. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training.

  19. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  20. Antiphospholipid Antibodies Predict Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Dejaco, Christian; Chemelli-Steingruber, Iris; Schennach, Harald; Klotz, Werner; Rieger, Michael; Herold, Manfred; Falkensammer, Jürgen; Fraedrich, Gustav; Schirmer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) frequently occur in autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and correlate with a worse clinical outcome. In the present study, we evaluated the association between antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs), markers of inflammation, disease progression and the presence of an intra-aneurysmal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. APLs ELISAs were performed in frozen serum samples of 96 consecutive AAA patients and 48 healthy controls yielding positive test results in 13 patients (13.5%) and 3 controls (6.3%; n.s.). Nine of the 13 aPL-positive AAA patients underwent a second antibody testing >12 weeks apart revealing a positive result in 6 cases. APL-positive patients had increased levels of inflammatory markers compared to aPL-negative patients. Disease progression was defined as an increase of the AAA diameter >0.5 cm/year measured by sonography. Follow-up was performed in 69 patients identifying 41 (59.4%) patients with progressive disease. Performing multipredictor logistic regression analysis adjusting for classical AAA risk factors as confounders, the presence of aPLs at baseline revealed an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI 1.0–86.8, p = 0.049) to predict AAA progression. Fifty-five patients underwent a computed tomography in addition to ultrasound assessment indicating intra-aneurysmal thrombus formation in 82.3%. Median thrombus volume was 46.7 cm3 (1.9–377.5). AAA diameter correlated with the size of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus (corrcoeff = 0.721, p<0.001), however neither the presence nor the size of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus were related to the presence of aPLs. In conclusion, the presence of aPLs is associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers and is an independent predictor of progressive disease in AAA patients. PMID:24979700

  1. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  2. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  3. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  4. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  5. Large Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Intra-abdominal Mass of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Roumina; Monappa, Vidya; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-05-01

    Amongst the varied, diverse causes of intraabdominal masses in infancy and early childhood, gastric teratomas (GTs) account for a very small proportion. A worldwide literature search reveals only around one hundred cases of GT and also supports the fact that its preoperative diagnosis remains elusive. Here we report the case of a two-month-old male who presented to the pediatric surgery outpatient department of Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Karnataka, India, with progressive distension of abdomen since birth. Clinically, a large firm, non-mobile and non-tender mass involving all four quadrants of the abdomen was seen. Ultrasound revealed a large solid-cystic mass with internal septations extending from the epigastrium up to the pelvis. Computed tomography revealed a large intraperitoneal fat containing solid-cystic mass lesion showing curvilinear and chunky areas of calcification, with the mass focally indenting the posterior gastric wall and showing focal polypoidal intragastric extension. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large cystic tumor with a solid component, arising from lesser curvature of the stomach, showing focal intraluminal extension across the posterior gastric wall, and occupying the whole lesser sac and abdominal cavity. The tumor was excised in toto along with the body of the stomach. Histopathological examination showed mature tissue derived from all three germ cell layers and confirmed the diagnosis of mature gastric teratoma. The patient was disease free at one-year follow-up.

  6. Effects of different types of contraction in abdominal bracing on the asymmetry of left and right abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject's left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength. PMID:25540478

  7. US and MRI features in venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrino, F.; Maira, A.; Tarantino, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are classified as vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Venous vascular malformations are the most common type of vascular malformation. They may be isolated or multiple and they rarely affect the trunk. The authors report a rare case of isolated venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall with an emphasis on the related MRI and ultrasound (US) features. PMID:23450707

  8. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  9. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  10. Abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in obese men.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Aru, James; Freeman, Jennifer; Hudson, Robert; Janssen, Ian

    2002-03-01

    We examined the independent relationships among various visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in 89 obese men. Measurements included an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, and abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g., peripheral) AT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OGTT glucose and glucose disposal rates were related (P < 0.05) to visceral AT (r = 0.50 and -0.41, respectively). These observations remained significant (P < 0.05) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT, and maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)). Abdominal subcutaneous AT was not a significant correlate (P > 0.05) of any metabolic variable after control for nonabdominal and visceral AT and VO(2 max). Division of abdominal subcutaneous AT into deep and superficial depots and visceral AT into intra- and extraperitoneal AT depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of men for abdominal subcutaneous AT but also for low and high visceral AT. Men with high visceral AT had higher OGTT glucose values and lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT values (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of men matched for visceral AT but also for high and low abdominal subcutaneous AT revealed no statistically different values for any metabolic variable (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous AT by MRI did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk in obese men.

  11. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  12. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  13. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  14. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  15. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Słapa, Rafał Z; Jakubowski, Wiesław S; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna A

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society.

  16. A New Rat Model for Orthotopic Abdominal Wall Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lao, William W.; Wang, Yen-Ling; Ramirez, Alejandro E.; Cheng, Hui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abdominal wall, one of the most commonly transplanted composite tissues, is less researched and lacking animal models. Its clinical necessities were emphasized in multiple case series to reconstruct large abdominal defects. Previous animal models have only studied components of the abdominal wall transplant. We describe findings from a new model that more likely reflect clinical transplantation. Methods: Full-thickness hemiabdominal wall flap was procured from Brown Norway (BN) rats and transplanted to an orthotopic defect on Lewis rats. Three groups were studied: group 1: Lewis to Lewis syngeneic; group 2: BN to Lewis control; and group 3: BN to Lewis with postoperative cyclosporine. Vascular imaging and cross vessel section were performed along with full-thickness abdominal wall. Immune cell profiling with flow cytometry at different time points was studied in all groups. Results: Syngeneic group had no rejection. Control group consistently showed rejection around postoperative day 6. With cyclosporine treatment, however, transplant and recipient tissue integration was observed. Flow cytometry revealed that innate immunity is responsible for the initial inflammatory events following abdominal wall engraftment. Adaptive immunity cells, specifically interferon-γ-producing T helper (Th) 1 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 cells, dramatically and positively correlate with rejection progression of abdominal wall transplants. Conclusions: Technical, histological, and immunological aspects of a new rat model are described. These results give clues to what occurs in human abdominal wall transplantation. In addition, Th1, a proinflammatory cell, was found to be a potential biomarker for allograft rejection. PMID:25289329

  17. Abdominal wall fat index in neonates: correlation with birth size.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Silva, E; Didier, R; Bandeira, M; Bandeira, F

    2010-06-01

    Low birth weight is associated with obesity in later life and a more central fat distribution has a positive correlation with cardiovascular disease. However, the correlation between visceral adiposity in newborns and birth size is unknown. We measured the visceral adiposity in 118 newborns using the abdominal wall fat index (AFI), ratio between the maximum thickness of preperitoneal and the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat evaluated by ultrasound. There was a weak negative correlation between AFI and birth weight (r = -0.197; P = 0.033) but not with birth length (r = -0.118; P = 0.201), body mass index (r = -0.138; P = 0.176) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.063; P = 0.497). In conclusion, we suggest that AFI is a useful parameter for evaluating the fat distribution in newborns and that visceral adiposity has a weak negative correlation with birth weight.

  18. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  19. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0 years) were analyzed. Stratification was analyzed with abdominal US. The threshold value of wall thickness to diagnose CRC was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The average wall thickness was 2.8±0.4 mm in the surrounding normal tissue and 12.7±5.2 mm in CRC (one-way analysis of variance, P<0.0001). The wall was significantly thicker in CRC compared with the normal colonic wall. The calculated threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC. Stratification was preserved in W, while it was lost in M (Chi-squared test, P=0.0196). The hemoglobin concentration was lower, while the C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were elevated above normal values. The threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC with abdominal US. PMID:27330768

  20. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast.

  1. [Peroperative ultrasound scanning of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, J H; Hernigou, A; Billebaud, T; Bouillot, J L; Plainfosse, M C

    1985-01-01

    Intraoperative realtime high resolution ultrasound scanning of the pancreas seems to be a new and promising procedure. We have performed it in 28 patients: the normal ultrasound picture of pancreatic ducts and parenchyma was defined in 9 patients without pancreatic disease; in 19 patients with pancreatic disease, intraoperative ultrasound was compared with preoperative ultrasound examination. Seven of 8 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 4 of 6 with calcifying chronic pancreatitis had positive findings, respectively. In 3 cancer patients, intraoperative ultrasound investigation avoided a long and unavailing dissection of the tumor by revealing extensive spread. In selected cases, intraoperative sonography allowed to characterize and to localize pancreatic carcinoma: portal vein invasion, relationship of the tumor to the duct of Wirsung and small hepatic metastases. In chronic pancreatitis, intraoperative ultrasound information concerning the dimensions of the pancreatic duct, the structure and the localization of pseudocysts was comparable to that obtained by radiological opacification. Furthermore, intraoperative ultrasound exploration guided proper incision and evacuation of pancreatic pseudocysts in two patients. Operative ultrasound seems to us to be mandatory during pancreatic surgery. Further experience with this technique is needed in a larger number of patients. However, we believe that it could replace intraoperative cholangiography and pancreaticography in the assessment of extension and complications of pancreatic disease.

  2. Abdominal mass lesions in the newborn: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartman, G E; Shochat, S J

    1989-03-01

    Most neonatal abdominal masses will be due to benign retroperitoneal lesions such as hydronephrosis and multicystic dysplastic kidney. Although history and physical examination, plain radiographs and ultrasonography will confirm most diagnoses, severe unilateral hydronephrosis, hemorrhagic neuroblastoma, and intraperitoneal cysts may provide diagnostic difficulties. Masses identified by prenatal ultrasound need careful evaluation as they may represent normal structures, nonsignificant variants, or physiologically significant anomalies. Many lesions will require operative intervention, which can be safely performed in small infants by trained personnel at facilities with appropriate support services. Genuine controversy exists in the management of some of these lesions including MDK, renal vein thrombosis, and acalculous cholecystitis.

  3. Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis Treated with Albendazole. A Pediatric Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Samanta; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Bournissen, Facundo García; González, Nicolás; Ballering, Griselda; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; Altcheh, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Argentina. The standard pharmacological treatment for the disease is albendazole, but surgery is a common alternative. Even though primary infection occurs mainly in the pediatric population, the optimal therapeutic option in pediatrics is not clearly defined and few pediatric cohorts with cystic echinococcosis treated with albendazole have been described to date. Objective To describe therapeutic response to albendazole in a cohort of pediatric patients with abdominal cystic echinococcosis. Population and Methods Patients (0–18 years old) with abdominal cystic echinococcosis who were treated with albendazole between January 1998 and August 2013. Diagnosis of abdominal cystic echinococcosis was made by ultrasound. All patients received albendazole, 10–15 mg/kg/day. Epidemiological data, symptoms, number, location and outcome of the cysts, serology and treatment received were analyzed. The parameter used to assess treatment response was cyst changes evaluated by ultrasound follow up using the WHO-IWGE classification. Results A total of 28 patients (with 46 abdominal cysts) were included in the cohort. Mean age at enrolment was 9.4 years and mean duration of follow-up, 23.8 months. All patients resided in rural areas and had had contact with dogs. The asymptomatic form of the disease was the most common presentation. All patients received albendazole (mean duration: 142.5 days), with low incidence of adverse events. Albendazole had a positive effect on most of the cysts. Surgery was performed in 13 patients. Conclusion Treatment with albendazole for uncomplicated cystic echinococcosis cysts is safe and effective, and can potentially reduce the need for surgical intervention. PMID:27589236

  4. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alessandro Quattrini; Freschi, Giancarlo; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Methods: Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Results: Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P < 0.001), the appearance of micropores and triglyceride leakage and release in the conditioned medium (P < 0.05 at 15 min), or adipose tissue interstitium, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal, and epidermal components and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes. PMID:25289235

  5. Real-Time Intravascular Shear Stress in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L.; Kloner, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISSreal-time) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier–Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn · cm−2. The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn · cm−2 with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn · cm−2, and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn · cm−2 and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn · cm−2. Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn · cm−2 with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn · cm−2. The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

  6. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  7. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  8. Abdominal injuries in belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Jermakian, Jessica S; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30-53 mm and 41-89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0-13.3 mm and 1.2-2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants.

  9. Update on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Evaluation of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Parakkal; Kolbe, Amy B; Fidler, Jeff L; Fletcher, Joel G; Knudsen, John M; Bruining, David H

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and abdominal ultrasound are integral parts of multimodality assessments for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Applications include assessing Crohn's disease (CD) extent and severity, differentiating CD from ulcerative colitis, detecting CD complications, evaluating response to therapy, and demonstrating postoperative recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols are being developed that may reduce or eliminate the need for intravenous contrast agents and better differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. MRE scoring systems have been created to objectively quantify disease activity and response to therapy. By utilizing advanced sonographic imaging techniques, including ultrasound contrast and Doppler assessments, the role of abdominal ultrasonography in the evaluation and management of CD continues to expand. Abdominal ultrasound may function as a low-cost, point-of care assessment tool, especially in CD restricted to the terminal ileum and ileocolic anastomosis. PMID:27231453

  10. Update on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Evaluation of Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Parakkal; Kolbe, Amy B.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Knudsen, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and abdominal ultrasound are integral parts of multimodality assessments for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Applications include assessing Crohn’s disease (CD) extent and severity, differentiating CD from ulcerative colitis, detecting CD complications, evaluating response to therapy, and demonstrating postoperative recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols are being developed that may reduce or eliminate the need for intravenous contrast agents and better differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. MRE scoring systems have been created to objectively quantify disease activity and response to therapy. By utilizing advanced sonographic imaging techniques, including ultrasound contrast and Doppler assessments, the role of abdominal ultrasonography in the evaluation and management of CD continues to expand. Abdominal ultrasound may function as a low-cost, point-of care assessment tool, especially in CD restricted to the terminal ileum and ileocolic anastomosis. PMID:27231453

  11. Choledochal Cyst Mimicking Gallbladder with Stones in a Six-Year-Old with Right-sided Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Subramony, Rachna; Kittisarapong, Nat; Barata, Isabel; Nelson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare but serious bile duct abnormalities are found in young children, usually during the first year of life.1 They require urgent surgical intervention due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma.2 Clinicians should consider this diagnosis and perform a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) when a child presents to the emergency department (ED) with findings of jaundice, abdominal pain, and the presence of an abdominal mass. We present the case of a six-year-old child presenting only with abdominal pain upon arrival to our ED and was ultimately diagnosed by POCUS to have a choledochal cyst. PMID:26265970

  12. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to mesenteric panniculitis treated successfully with endoscopic ultrasonography-guided celiac plexus block: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzani, Waleed; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Greenwald, Eric; Radhi, Jasim; Tse, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a chronic illness that is characterized by fibrosing inflammation of the mesenteries that can lead to intractable abdominal pain. Pain control is a crucial component of the management plan. Most patients will improve with oral corticosteroids treatment, however, some patients will require a trial of other immunosuppressive agents, and a minority of patients will continue to have refractory disease. Endoscopic ultrasound guided celiac plexus block is used frequently to control abdominal pain in patients with pancreatic pathology. To our knowledge there are no case reports describing its use in mesenteric panniculitis patients with refractory abdominal pain. PMID:25992196

  13. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  14. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  15. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  16. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  17. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  18. Respiration correction by clustering in ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaizhi; Chen, Xi; Ding, Mingyue; Sang, Nong

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory motion is a challenging factor for image acquisition, image-guided procedures and perfusion quantification using contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the abdominal and thoracic region. In order to reduce the influence of respiratory motion, respiratory correction methods were investigated. In this paper we propose a novel, cluster-based respiratory correction method. In the proposed method, we assign the image frames of the corresponding respiratory phase using spectral clustering firstly. And then, we achieve the images correction automatically by finding a cluster in which points are close to each other. Unlike the traditional gating method, we don't need to estimate the breathing cycle accurate. It is because images are similar at the corresponding respiratory phase, and they are close in high-dimensional space. The proposed method is tested on simulation image sequence and real ultrasound image sequence. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in quantitative and qualitative.

  19. Combination of CT and ultrasound in the retroperitoneum and pelvis examination.

    PubMed

    Raskin, M M

    1980-01-01

    The retroperitoneum and the pelvis are difficult areas to examine by conventional radiographic means. Pelvic ultrasound can distinguish cystic from solid masses, but is poor in defining tissue planes. Computed tomography (CT) easily detects calcifications, is rarely affected by overlying bowel gas, and usually demonstrates the mass with good definition of tissue planes. Although less accurate than ultrasound in distinguishing cystic from solid masses, CT is superior for demonstrating contiguous anatomical structures such as the rectum, bony pelvis, vertebral bodies, abdominal aorta, and inferior vena cava. Overlying bowel gas often precludes obtaining a diagnostic ultrasound examination of the retroperitoneum. In addition, ultrasound is unable to reproducibly demonstrate soft tissue relationships in the retroperitoneum as does CT. Both CT and ultrasound are capable of providing diagnostic information. Ultrasound can more easily distinguish cystic from solid masses, but CT may be better for determining the extent of disease. CT should become the procedure of choice for evaluation of the retroperitoneum.

  20. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  1. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting. PMID:17312799

  2. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  3. [Aorto-caval fistula as a results of abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture imitating acute renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Zaniewski, Maciej; Ludyga, Tomasz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Kowalewska-Twardela, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Aorto-caval fistula (ACF) is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm. It occurs in 1-6% of cases. The classic diagnostic signs of an ACF (pulsatile abdominal mass with bruit and right ventricular failure) are present only in a half of the patients. The most common diagnostic imaging procedures like ultrasound and computed tomography often are not sufficient enough. This leads to the delay in diagnosis, which has a great impact on the results of operation. We report a case of a patient, who was treated before admission to the Clinic because of azotemia and oliguria suggesting renal failure.

  4. Indium-111 labeled leukocytes in the evaluation of suspected abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R E; Black, R E; Welch, D M; Maxwell, J G

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-eight indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging studies were performed in 53 patients with suspected abdominal abscesses. Twenty-nine studies gave abnoramal results. Nine wound infections were demonstrated, and 14 abscesses were correctly identified. Four studied demonstrated colonic accumulation, one of which remains unexplained, and two accessory spleens were identified. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a sensitive and specific study in evaluating patients with suspected abdominal abscess. Differentiation of abscess from other causes of inflammation has not been a problem. The exact role of leukocyte imaging compared with gallium-67 citrate imaging, ultrasound and computerized tomography remains to be determined.

  5. Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy.

  6. Musculoskeletal ultrasound findings in paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, José Alexandre; Peron Filho, Faustino; Schincariol, Nádia Bossolan; Vierhout, Cláudia Valéria; Provenza, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to South America. The infection is usually asymptomatic and mostly affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts with clinical-radiological dissociation. Joint involvement is rare with no specific pattern or radiological injury. We report a case of paracoccidioidomycosis in which the patient's initial symptoms were hoarseness and arthritis. After an ultrasound examination, we performed the differential diagnosis of other noninfectious arthropathies and analysis of the material collected, which revealed infection with the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

  7. [Pheochromocytoma with retroperitoneal hemorrhage after abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nin, Mikio; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Kamoto, Akihito; Ujike, Takeshi; Nishimura, Kensaku; Miyoshi, Susumu

    2009-11-01

    A 35-year-old man was delivered to the emergency room complaining of right flank pain because of blunt abdominal trauma sustained while playing baseball. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a right adrenal mass and fluid collection around the mass. We diagnosed the mass as pheochromocytoma by endocrinological examination and radioisotopical imaging test. After absorption of the hematoma three months after the injury, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. He had an uncomplicated postoperative course without supplementation of catecholamine. Pathological findings were compatible with pheochromocytoma. Eight months after the operation, he had no evidence of recurrence.

  8. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  9. Diagnostic Imaging of Fetal and Neonatal Abdominal and Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Usha D; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and staging of prenatal and neonatal tumors, and is essential in treatment planning. Though obstetrical ultrasound is the first choice prenatally, fetal MRI continues to play an increasing role as experience with this imaging modality increases. In the neonate, in addition to ultrasound and MRI, CT and nuclear medicine studies can also play an important role. We describe the prenatal and neonatal imaging findings of some of the most common congenital abdominal and soft tissue neoplasms including neuroblastoma, renal, liver and soft tissue tumors. PMID:26168940

  10. Thermal model of local ultrasound heating of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedogovor, V. A.; Sigal, V. L.; Popsuev, E. I.

    1996-09-01

    Possibilities of creation of controlled temperature fields in deep-seated biological tissue with the use of an endocavity ultrasound applicator with surface cooling are considered. Mathematical models are proposed and calculated that make it possible to construct acoustic and thermal fields in biotissues depending on the thermophysical and ultrasound characteristics of the medium being irradiated and to reveal situations and effects that are important for solving problems of practical medicine in the field of local ultrasound hyperthermia and thermotherapy of tissue.

  11. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  12. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  13. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  14. Conservative management of abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Okuş, Ahmet; Sevinç, Barış; Ay, Serden; Arslan, Kemal; Karahan, Ömer; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-operative management of abdominal injuries has recently become more common. Especially non-operative treatment of blunt abdominal trauma is gaining wide acceptance. In this study, the efficacy of non-operative treatment in abdominal trauma (blunt penetrating) is discussed. Material and Methods: All patients who received treatment due to abdominal trauma from November 2008 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, injured organ, type of treatment (operative vs. nonoperative) and mortality data were evaluated. Results: The study includes 115 patients treated for abdominal trauma in our department. The mechanism of trauma was stab wounds in 60%, blunt abdominal trauma in 23.5% and gunshot wounds in 16.5%. Forty-two patients (36.5%) were operated for hemodynamic instability and/or peritonitis on admission. The remaining 63.5% of patients (n=73) were treated nonoperatively, 10 of whom required laparotomy during follow-up. The remaining 63 patients were treated with non-operative management. The success rate for non-operative treatment was 86.3% and there was no difference in terms of the types of injuries. The mortality rate was 4.3% (n= 5) in the whole series, but there were no deaths among the patients who had received non-operative treatment. In the whole patient group 54.2% (n=63) were treated nonoperatively. Conclusion: Nonoperative treatment in abdominal trauma is safe and effective. Patients with clinical stability and normal physical examination findings can be treated nonoperatively with close monitoring. PMID:25931868

  15. [Assessment of velocity of deformation of abdominal aorta wall with the help of the multivox working station].

    PubMed

    Sandrikov, V A; Fisenko, E P; Gavrilov, A V; Lozhkevich, A A; Platova, E N; Arkhipov, I V

    2013-01-01

    Most frequent cause of abnormalities of elastic properties of walls of abdominal aorta is development of atherosclerosis resulting in replacement of elastin by simpler fibrillar proteins and collagen. This subsequently leads to dilation of the aorta and formation of aneurism. Increase of collagen content in the aortic wall correlates with growth of aneurism dimensions. Main method of treatment of aneurisms is implantation of abdominal aortic prosthesis. Detailed preoperative assessment of functional state of the aortic wall is necessary in preoperative period but none of modern imaging instrumental methods including ultrasound study allows to realize this assessment. In this article we present first experience of assessment of aortic wall deformation velocity analyzing results of ultrasound study with the help of the Multivox working station in 36 patients 16 of whom were operated because of aneurism of abdominal aorta. PMID:24654437

  16. Ultrasound screening for neoplasms in children up to 6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzejewski, Grzegorz; Wozniak, Magdalena M.; Pawelec, Agata; Matera, Albert; Kunach, Magdalena; Madej, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Andrzej P.; Nowakowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the ultrasound (US) screening program was to detect neoplastic lesions in children, together with other pathologies of the developmental age in the area of the neck, abdomen, female pelvis, and scrotum in boys. US screening scans, including cervical, abdominal, pelvical, and scrotal US, were performed in the population of asymptomatic children aged from 9 months to 6 years. The children were scanned in Mobile Pediatric US Unit, consisting of 2 independent consulting rooms. The scans of 14,324 children were analyzed, 7247 boys and 7077 girls. Totally 42,538 US examinations were performed, including 14,187 cervical scans, 14,259 abdominal scans, 6942 female pelvical scans, and 7150 scrotal scans. Totally 5426 abnormalities were detected, which represent 12.7% of all examinations and 30% of patients. Three tumors were recognized, which are renal malignant tumor diagnosed as Wilms tumor, neurogenic tumor of the rib, and teratoma of the testis. US screening in pediatric population can be used to reveal lesions inaccessible to clinical examination, like tumors or other pathologies of developmental age before the onset of clinical symptoms. Due to the large number of detected abnormalities it should be recommended to the whole population of certain age. PMID:27759641

  17. Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm after spine surgery in the patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Im, Jung Sik; Lim, Yun-Hee; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Kye-Min

    2010-06-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited disorder of the connective tissue that is characterized by hyperextensible skin, hypermobile joints and abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. A 15-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome underwent thoracolumbar surgery for deformity correction. After surgery, an abdominal aortic rupture occurred, and she complained of abdominal distension had an abdominal circumference of 80 cm. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a pseudoaneurysm and a large hematoma at the retroperitoneum. She died of a massive hemorrhage during subsequent abdominal aortic surgery. PMID:20589181

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Intranodal Lymphangiography With Ethiodized Oil to Treat Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Wataru; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with abdominal distention and pain. A diagnosis of chylous ascites (CA) was made by abdominal paracentesis. Conservative treatment had failed to control CA; therefore, ultrasound-guided intranodal lymphangiography (UIL) with Lipiodol was performed. No obvious Lipiodol leakage was observed in the follow-up computed tomography; however, the persistent abdominal pain was significantly reduced within a day, and CA was resolved within 3 days. We present successful treatment of CA using UIL with Lipiodol. The combination of the technique of UIL and therapeutic lymphangiography with Lipiodol is a promising minimally invasive treatment option for CA.

  19. Abdominal aortic grafting for spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroto; Shibuya, Takashi; Shintani, Takashi; Uenaka, Hisazumi; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    This case report concerns a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection, which developed into claudication and rest pain in the lower extremity. Multi-row detector computed tomography showed the entry site of the abdominal aortic dissection at the second lumbar artery, while the reentry site was found intraoperatively at the median sacral artery, indicating that the false lumen had progressed and compressed the true lumen. A direct approach involving grafting appears to be an effective procedure for resolving mesenteric and lower extremity hypoperfusion due to aortic dissection with a dilated false channel, even during the acute period. PMID:19879731

  20. Scroto-abdominal impalement injury in a skateboard rider.

    PubMed

    Carragher, A M; Sulaiman, S K; Panesar, K J

    1990-01-01

    The injuries sustained by skateboard riders vary from minor cuts and abrasions to fractures. This report describes a unique injury sustained by a young skateboard rider who was impaled on a metal rod. Literature review of over 1,254 skateboard injuries did not reveal any other instances of penetrating abdominal trauma.

  1. The relationships between intra-abdominal echogenicity, cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance in obese children.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Nam-Gi; Kim, Hee-Jung; Cho, Hyo-Min; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    While the abdominal adipose tissue has been identified as an important pathomarker for the cardiometabolic syndrome in adults, the relationships between the cardiometabolic risk factors and abdominal adipose morphology or physical performance levels have not been examined in children with obesity. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between risk factors (BMI and physical activity levels and abdominal fat layers including subcutaneous, intra-abdominal preperitoneal and mesenteric fat thickness in children with obesity. 30 children with obesity (mean ± SD = 10.0 ± 4.5 yrs; 9 girls; BMI > 20) underwent physical performance (curl-ups, sit and reach, push-ups, and a 400-m run), ultrasound measurement of thickness of fat composition of the abdomen, blood pressure, oxygen consumption. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations, ranging from -0.523- 0.898 between the intra-abdominal adipose tissue thickness, cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, heart rate), and the curl-up physical performance test. In conclusion, the present study provides a compelling evidence that the intra-abdominal adipose tissue morphological characteristics were associated with BMI, physical performance, and most importantly cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and heart rate), which eventually contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood.

  2. Diagnostic imaging in head and neck disease: current applications of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Scheible, F W; Leopold, G R

    1978-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become firmly established as a key imaging modality in obstetrics and gynecology. Its role in abdominal and retroperitoneal disease is also well known and continues to expand. Although usage of ultrasound in the head and neck had its beginnings many years ago, the advent of newer high-resolution transducers has allowed for further investigation of diseases in this area. Of particular interest are the thyroid gland and the extracranial carotid arteries. This review summarizes the current utility of gray-scale and real-time ultrasound in evaluating head and neck disease, and discusses potential future applications of the modality.

  3. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  4. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  5. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high

  6. Combined transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass with right gastroepiploic artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Gürer, Onur; Haberal, Ismail; Ozsoy, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery. Case Report: A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery. Conclusions: We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost. PMID:23997852

  7. An Acute Abdominal Catastrophe in a HIV Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaduputi, Vinaya; Patel, Harish; Vootla, Vamshidhar; Khan, Usman; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    We report this case of a 45-year-old man with HIV-AIDS on HAART therapy who presented with acute abdominal pain and renal failure. He was found to have pneumatosis intestinalis on computerized axial tomography scan of the abdomen. He underwent emergent explorative laparotomy, which revealed a necrotic large bowel segment for which a right-sided hemicolectomy and ileostomy were performed. The patient subsequently developed septic shock and hypoxic respiratory failure. He expired a week after the surgical procedure. Acute abdominal events due to vascular catastrophes secondary to hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis have been reported in HIV positive patients.

  8. Ultrasound Dopplerography of abdomen pathology using statistical computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Wapota, Alberto R. W.

    1998-04-01

    The modern ultrasound dopplerography give us the big possibilities in investigation of gemodynamical changes in all stages of abdomen pathology. Many of researches devoted to using of noninvasive methods in practical medicine. Now ultrasound Dopplerography is one of the basic one. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages, including 149 men and 101 women. The basic diagnosis of all patients was the Ischaemic Pancreatitis. The Second diagnoses of pathology were the Ischaemic Disease of Heart, Gypertension, Atherosclerosis, Diabet, Vascular Disease of Extremities. We researched the abdominal aorta and her branches: Arteria Mesenterica Superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC), arteria lienalis (AL). For investigation we use the following equipment: ACUSON 128 XP/10c, BIOMEDIC, GENERAL ELECTRIC (USA, Japan). We analyzed the following componetns of gemodynamical changes of abdominal vessels: index of pulsation, index of resistance, ratio of systol-dystol, speed of blood circulation. Statistical program included the following one: 'basic statistic's,' 'analytic program.' In conclusion we determined that the all gemodynamical components of abdominal vessels had considerable changes in abdominal ischaemia than in normal situation. Using the computer's program for definition degree of gemodynamical changes, we can recommend the individual plan of diagnostical and treatment program.

  9. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (< 3 minutes), also including a vascular (venous) analysis allowing differential diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in

  10. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (< 3 minutes), also including a vascular (venous) analysis allowing differential diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in

  11. Recurrent abdominal pain during childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint among children. A thorough history and physical examination and limited laboratory investigation should enable a physician to make a positive diagnosis of "functional" recurrent abdominal pain in 90% to 95% of cases; an organic cause is identified in only 5% to 10%. The care and thoroughness of the history and physical examination establish the physician's credibility; explaining the clinical basis for the diagnosis and educating the child and parents on what is known about the condition reassures the parents. PMID:8199511

  12. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  13. Laparoscopic excision of intra-abdominal paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Choi, Gi-Hong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Sim, Seo-Bo; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2007-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani of Paragonimus species usually are accompanied by a persistent cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Extrapulmonary paragonimiasis caused by ectopic parasites in aberrant locations such as the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, and brain has been reported and the most commonly involved extrapulmonary organ is the brain. We present a case of 56-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal paragonimiasis who underwent laparoscopic excision of abdominal granuloma caused by parasite infection. An intra-abdominal mass associated with eosinophilia might be related to parasite infection. A laparoscopic approach is the most appropriate treatment modality in such benign abdominal pathology.

  14. A man with dilated superficial abdominal veins: A clinical presentation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Altaf, Sheikh Shoaib; Raina, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clinical presentation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) varies tremendously depending upon the type of lymphoma and the areas of involvement. NHL can rarely present as an abdominal mass compressing the inferior vena cava. The clinical presentation due to obstruction of inferior vena cava has often been called the inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS). It can present acutely or chronically. Case Presentation: A 35-year-old male presented with 3 months history of fever, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal discomfort. His abdominal examination showed dilated superficial veins with blood flowing rostrally. CECT abdomen revealed multiple enlarged some necrotic, retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The inferior vena cava was noted to be compressed by the lymph nodes. The lymph node biopsy revealed non- Hodgkin lymphoma, precursor B cell. Conclusion: An abdominal mass compressing the inferior vena cava is a rare but possible cause for appearance of dilated superficial abdominal veins and should be looked for. PMID:27757210

  15. [Ultrasound in pediatric dermatology].

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, F J; Muñoz-Garza, F Z; Hernández-Martín, A

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous ultrasound is particularly useful in pediatric dermatology to diagnose numerous diseases without the need to use invasive tests. The present articles reviews some frequent dermatological entities in children whose study can be simplified through cutaneous ultrasound. This article also provides practical recommendations reported in the literature that may facilitate ultrasound examination, with special mention of benign tumoural disease, both congenital and acquired, and vascular anomalies.

  16. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  17. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  18. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  19. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. Results A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). Conclusion General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE. PMID:24252303

  20. Pharmacokinetics of quercetin-loaded nanodroplets with ultrasound activation and their use for bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Hung, Shuo-Hui; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Bubble formulations have both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, research on nanobubbles/nanodroplets remains in the initial stages. In this study, a nanodroplet formulation was prepared and loaded with a novel class of chemotherapeutic drug, ie, quercetin, to observe its pharmacokinetic properties and ultrasonic bioimaging of specific sites, namely the abdominal vein and bladder. Four parallel groups were designed to investigate the effects of ultrasound and nanodroplets on the pharmacokinetics of quercetin. These groups were quercetin alone, quercetin triggered with ultrasound, quercetin-encapsulated in nanodroplets, and quercetin encapsulated in nanodroplets triggered with ultrasound. Spherical vesicles with a mean diameter of 280 nm were formed, and quercetin was completely encapsulated within. In vivo ultrasonic imaging confirmed that the nanodroplets could be treated by ultrasound. The results indicate that the initial 5-minute serum concentration, area under the concentration–time curve, elimination half-life, and clearance of quercetin were significantly enhanced by nanodroplets with or without ultrasound. PMID:25945049

  1. Screening for detection of intra-uterine growth retardation by means of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Selbing, A; Wichman, K; Rydén, G

    1984-01-01

    In a two-stage ultrasound screening program the gestational age was assessed by measurement of the fetal crown-rump length in early pregnancy. At an adjusted gestational age between 32 and 35 completed weeks the biparietal diameter, the abdominal circumference, the abdominal area and the ratio between fetal head area and abdominal area were estimated by means of ultrasound measurement. 'Acute' fetal weight was estimated by calculations from biparietal diameter and abdominal diameters. Percentile curves were constructed for these parameters and cut-off limits were tested for the predictability of intra-uterine growth retardation of the fetus. The abdominal circumference and area estimations were equally good for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation. The biparietal diameter alone is of limited value for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation but the combination with abdominal diameters in 'acute' fetal weight estimation can well be used. The ratio between the skull and abdominal areas seems to be of little use for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation of two reasons: difficulty in measurement and low sensitivity. We consider that the assessment of gestational age in early pregnancy is a necessity both for the identification of suspected IUGR by means of ultrasound and the diagnosis of IUGR by measurement of fetal weight at birth. It is concluded that if the gestational age has been assessed by crown-rump length measurement in early pregnancy, a single estimation of the fetal abdominal circumference between 32 and 35 completed gestational weeks and a cut-off limit at the 15th percentile offers a detection rate of about 90% of the growth retarded infants. PMID:6391070

  2. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  3. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  4. Electromagnetically navigated laparoscopic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wilheim, Dirk; Feussner, Hubertus; Schneider, Armin; Harms, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) representation of laparoscopic ultrasound examinations could be helpful in diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy, but has not yet been realised with flexible laparoscopic ultrasound probes. Therefore, an electromagnetic navigation system was integrated into the tip of a conventional laparoscopic ultrasound probe. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound was compared with the imaging data of 3D navigated transcutaneous ultrasound and 3D computed tomography (CT) scan. The 3D CT scan served as the "gold standard". Clinical applicability in standardized operating room (OR) settings, imaging quality, diagnostic potential, and accuracy in volumetric assessment of various well-defined hepatic lesions were analyzed. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound facilitates exact definition of tumor location and margins. As compared with the "gold standard" of the 3D CT scans, 3D laparoscopic ultrasound has a tendency to underestimate the volume of the region of interest (ROI) (Delta3.1%). A comparison of 3D laparoscopy and transcutaneous 3D ultrasonography demonstrated clearly that the former is more accurate for volumetric assessment of the ROI and facilitates a more detailed display of the lesions. 3D laparoscopic ultrasound imaging with a navigated probe is technically feasible. The technique facilitates detailed ultrasound evaluation of laparoscopic procedures that involve visual, in-depth, and volumetric perception of complex liver pathologies. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound may have the potential to promote the practical role of laparoscopic ultrasonography, and become a valuable tool for local ablative therapy. In this article, our clinical experiences with a certified prototype of a 3D laparoscopic ultrasound probe, as well as its in vitro and in vivo evaluation, is reported.

  5. Ultrasound mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Serge; Franceschini, Emilie; Pauzin, Marie-Christine

    2007-02-01

    We introduce a near-field formulation of the acoustic field scattered by a soft tissue organ. This derivation is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle that describes the scattered field as the result of the interferential scheme of all the secondary spherical waves. This leads us to define a new Fourier transform which yields a spectrum whose harmonic components have an elliptical spatial support. Based on these projections, we define an Elliptical Radon transform that enables us to reconstruct either the impedance or the celerity maps of an acoustical model characterized in terms of impedance and celerity fluctuations. The formulation is very similar to that developed in the far-field domain where the Radon transform pair is derived from an harmonic plane wave decomposition. This formulation allows us to introduce the Ductal Tomography, following the example of the Ductal Echography, that provides a systematic inspection of each mammary lobe, in order to reveal breast lesions at an early stage. In order to review the performances obtained with current echographs in view of specific experiment (numerical simulations), we develop a computer phantom that gains in realism. This 2-D anatomical phantom is an axial cut of the ductolobular structure corresponding to a daisy-like internal arrangement with petals (lobes) radiating around the nipple, for healthy and pathological situations. The different constitutive tissues and ducts are characterized in terms of density and celerity parameters whose spatial distributions are defined with specific random density laws. The use of a velocity-pressure formulation permits us to model time domain acoustic wave propagation. Broadband US pulses are transmitted and measured in diffraction around the breast with a ring antenna, the images are reconstructed using the elliptical back-projection-based procedure mentioned above.

  6. Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, D S; Merendino, K A

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with aortic abdominal aneurysms in association with horseshoe kidney are presented, making a total of 34 cases recorded in the literature. In 29 patients, the aneurysm was resected and five patients were non-resectable. Because of the abnormalities in vascular supply to the abnormal kidney, it is important to diagnose the combination of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney preoperatively. An error in diagnosis should be unusual if an intravenous pyelogram is routinely obtained on all patients. This study may reveal abnormalities which will allow the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney to be made or suspected. If the intravenous pyelogram is abnormal, it should be followed by an aortogram. This may substantiate the diagnosis of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney and provide the necessary detailed information regarding the pattern of blood supply and its relationship to functioning tissue. The amount and disposition of functioning renal parenchyma may be further amplified by renal scan. If this sequence is followed, the unanticipated combination of abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney should be rare. PMID:1130850

  7. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  8. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  9. Ultrasound imaging during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1984-01-01

    Review by a panel of experts convened by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) resulted in a recommendation for diagnostic ultrasound imaging in about 1/3 of pregnancies only when medically indicated but not routinely. Ultrasound technology, 1st developed for use in submarine warfare sonar devices, is widely used by physicians because of its clinical significance and because it allows seeing intrauterine structures without exposing the fetus to dangerous radiation. Its most important uses include estimating the gestational age for patients with uncertain clinical dates, evaluating fetal growth, determining the cause of vaginal bleeding, determining fetal presentation, identifying multiple gestation, supplementing amniocentesis or other special procedures, diagnosing, confirming fetal death and locating intrauterine devices. Recently, many physicians have been advocating routine ultrasound screening of all pregnancies but this is an issue of concern among leading physicians and the NIH. The panel stressed the urgent need for additional research on the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Many studies that found adverse reactions associated with ultrasound use in humans suffer from sever methodological flaws. The panel recommended ultrasound not to be used for routine screening. Some studies indicate that no clear benefit from routine screening results. The panel's recommendations were criticized for unnecessarily restricting ultrasound use and for inappropriately sanctioning widespread use of the technology. Human Life International, an anti-abortion organization, opposed using ultrasound to detect fetal abnormalities, contending that this would promote abortion. Some abortion opponents, however, believe ultrasound would cause bonding between the mother and the fetus and discourage abortion. The panel underscored the importance of the skill and training of ultrasound examiners. In regard to informed consent, the

  10. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  11. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated.

  12. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  13. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases.

  14. Management of voluminous abdominal incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, J-L; Poghosyan, T; Pogoshian, T; Corigliano, N; Canard, G; Veyrie, N

    2012-10-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the classic complications after abdominal surgery. The chronic, gradual increase in size of some of these hernias is such that the hernia ring widens to a point where there is a loss of substance in the abdominal wall, herniated organs can become incarcerated or strangulated while poor abdominal motility can alter respiratory function. The surgical treatment of small (<5 cm) incisional hernias is safe and straightforward, by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. For large hernias, surgical repair is often difficult. After reintegration of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity, the abdominal wall defect must be closed anatomically in order to restore the function to the abdominal wall. Prosthetic reinforcement of the abdominal wall is mandatory for long-term successful repair. There are multiple techniques for prosthetic hernia repair, but placement of Dacron mesh in the retromuscular plane is our preference. PMID:23137643

  15. Abdominal Symptoms and Incident Gallstones in a Population Unaware of Gallstone Status

    PubMed Central

    Tue Sørensen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Symptoms associated with newly formed gallstones have never been studied in a population unaware of their gallstones. The objective of this population-based cohort study was to determine which debut of abdominal symptoms was associated with newly formed gallstones. Materials and Methods. A cohort study was performed of a random sample from general population of Copenhagen. Participants had ultrasound examinations and answered questionnaires about abdominal symptoms at baseline and two reexaminations over 12 years. Participants were not informed of gallstone status. Inclusion criteria were no gallstones or cholecystectomy at baseline and attending a reexamination. Results. Of 3,785 participants, 2,845 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Changes in overall abdominal pain were not significantly different between incident gallstones or gallstone-free participants. Multiple adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that incident gallstones were significantly associated with debut of abdominal pain with projection, localized in the whole upper abdomen, and of longer duration. No significant associations for functional symptoms were identified. Conclusions. A new onset of abdominal pain with projection, localized in the whole upper abdomen, and of longer duration is associated with newly formed gallstones in participants unaware of gallstone status. Functional symptoms should not be the indication for surgical treatment. PMID:27504440

  16. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  17. Laparoscopy in the Management of Children with Chronic Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Stuart H.; Bostwick, Howard E.; Halata, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the results of diagnostic laparoscopy in children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: Thirteen children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy. Ages varied from 10 to 17 years. There were six males and seven females. Abdominal pain was present from 3 weeks to 12 months (mean, 2 months). Extensive laboratory and imaging studies did not contribute to the diagnosis. In all patients, the pain was disabling and severe enough to warrant repeated visits to the pediatrician, emergency room visits, or hospital admissions, as well as absence from school. Results: All children recovered uneventfully. Laparoscopic findings that identified the cause of abdominal pain were obtained in 12 of 13 patients. Laparoscopic appendectomy was done in all patients. There were no operative complications. One child presented three months later with incomplete small bowel obstruction, which resolved with conservative management. There were no other postoperative complications. Follow-up varied from six months to three years. Abdominal pain resolved in ten patients. One patient presented eight months later with biliary dyskinesia. She improved following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and later on sphincterotomy, but her pain has not yet completely resolved. One patient presented six months later with abdominal pain secondary to intestinal adhesions. Her pain completely resolved after laparoscopic lysis of adhesions. A third patient who developed lower abdominal pain six months after laparoscopy improved with conservative management and antibiotics for pelvic inflammatory disease. Conclusions: Diagnostic laparoscopy is a valuable procedure in the management of children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain. In the present study, laparoscopic examination revealed the cause of abdominal pain in most patients, and this pain resolved in most cases. Based on our

  18. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapy System and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fucheng; He, Ye; Li, Rui

    2007-05-01

    At the end of last century, a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) tumor therapy system was successfully developed and manufactured in China, which has been already applied to clinical therapy. This article aims to discuss the HIFU therapy system and its application. Detailed research includes the following: power amplifiers for high-power ultrasound, ultrasound transducers with large apertures, accurate 3-D mechanical drives, a software control system (both high-voltage control and low-voltage control), and the B-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment used for treatment monitoring. Research on the dosage of ultrasound required for tumour therapy in multiple human cases has made it possible to relate a dosage formula, presented in this paper, to other significant parameters such as the volume of thermal tumor solidification, the acoustic intensity (I), and the ultrasound emission time (tn). Moreover, the HIFU therapy system can be applied to the clinical treatment of both benign and malignant tumors in the pelvic and abdominal cavity, such as uterine fibroids, liver cancer and pancreatic carcinoma.

  19. High intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    ter Haar, G

    2001-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a technique that was first investigated in the 1940s as a method of destroying selective regions within the brain in neuro-surgical An ultrasound beam can be brought to a tight focus at a distance from its source, and if sufficient energy is concentrated within the focus, the cells lying within this focal volume are killed, whereas those lying elsewhere are spared. This is a noninvasive method of producing selective and trackless tissue destruction in deep seated targets in the body, without damage to overlying tissues. This field, known both as HIFU and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), is reviewed in this article.

  20. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

  1. Ultrasound assessment of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Botelho, M C; Holtfreter, M C; Akpata, R; El Scheich, T; Neumayr, A; Brunetti, E; Hatz, C; Dong, Y; Dietrich, C F

    2016-07-01

    In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued an ultrasound field protocol for assessing the morbidity due to Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni. The experience with this classification has recently been reviewed systematically. The WHO protocol was well accepted worldwide. Here we review the use of ultrasound to assess the morbidity due to schistosomiasis with emphasis on easy, quick, and reproducible ways that can be used in the field. Findings obtained with high-end ultrasound scanners in the hospital setting that might eventually have applications in the field are also described. PMID:27429103

  2. Bedside ocular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Roque, Pedro J; Hatch, Nicholas; Barr, Laurel; Wu, Teresa S

    2014-04-01

    Many ocular emergencies are difficult to diagnose in the emergency setting with conventional physical examination tools. Additionally, persistent efforts to re-examine the eye may be deleterious to a patient's overall condition. Ultrasound is an important tool because it affords physicians a rapid, portable, accurate, and dynamic tool for evaluation of a variety of ocular and orbital diseases. The importance of understanding orbital anatomy, with attention to the firm attachment points of the various layers of the eye, cannot be understated. This article describes the relevant eye anatomy, delves into the ultrasound technique, and illustrates a variety of orbital pathologies detectable by bedside ultrasound.

  3. [ULTRASOUND MONITORING FEATURES OF POSTOPERATIVE HEPATIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS].

    PubMed

    Melia, Kh; Kokaia, N; Manjgaladze, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound features (US) of liver after post operative anti-parasite recurrence treatment of patients with echinococcosis. The clinical analyses of 50 patients were carried out. It was concluded that the use of ultrasound can provide valuable data to the clinician to assess and monitor anti parasitic therapy echinococcosis of liver in post operative period. During the monitoring the positive dynamics of disease was observed in 94,5% of cases, in 5% оf cases toxic hepatites with septic complication was diagnosed, and in 0,5% of cases the disease recurrence was revealed. Ultrasound semiotics of liver after post operative anti-parasite recurrence treatment of patients with echinococcosis was presented. Control and monitoring of patients in the postoperative period echinococcosis with appropriate antirelapse antiparasitic therapy should be held not less than 1-5 years. PMID:26870968

  4. [ULTRASOUND MONITORING FEATURES OF POSTOPERATIVE HEPATIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS].

    PubMed

    Melia, Kh; Kokaia, N; Manjgaladze, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound features (US) of liver after post operative anti-parasite recurrence treatment of patients with echinococcosis. The clinical analyses of 50 patients were carried out. It was concluded that the use of ultrasound can provide valuable data to the clinician to assess and monitor anti parasitic therapy echinococcosis of liver in post operative period. During the monitoring the positive dynamics of disease was observed in 94,5% of cases, in 5% оf cases toxic hepatites with septic complication was diagnosed, and in 0,5% of cases the disease recurrence was revealed. Ultrasound semiotics of liver after post operative anti-parasite recurrence treatment of patients with echinococcosis was presented. Control and monitoring of patients in the postoperative period echinococcosis with appropriate antirelapse antiparasitic therapy should be held not less than 1-5 years.

  5. Current Trends in the Management of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Harris, K.A.; Ameli, F. Michael; Louis, E.L. St.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm has undergone dramatic changes over the last three decades. More sophisticated diagnostic techniques have allowed early elective repair to be carried out. Improvement has resulted in both morbidity and mortality rates. Investigations such as ultrasound, computerized tomographic scanning and arteriography allow easy confirmation of the diagnosis of aortic aneurysms and permit a better assessment of the extent prior to surgical intervention. Improvement in the pre-operative management, particularly in relation to cardiac, renal, and pulmonary disease, has led to greatly improved results. The most important change in surgical technique has been repair of the aneurysm rather than resection. Combined with better post-operative intensive care units, this development has contributed to the improved morbidity and mortality rates. Although the complication rate of elective repair is low, the major cause of death remains myocardial infarction. As a result of all these improvements, indication for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has been extended to patients over the age of 80. Following surgical repair, most patients can be expected to return to normal lifestyles and lifespans. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21263973

  6. Ultrasound for wool dyeing and finishing.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S J; McCall, R A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound at 35-39 kHz on several wool dyeing and finishing processes have been investigated as a way of reducing environmental impact. Ultrasound improved the effectiveness of cleaning scoured wool in water and to a lesser extent in water-nonionic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy did not indicate any surface damage. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased levels of sulphydryl groups on the wool surface suggesting ultrasound caused the removal of thioester-bound lipids. Ultrasound pre-treatment increased the effectiveness of subsequent oxidative-reductive bleaching, but had no effect on the uptake of acid levelling and acid milling dyes. The pre-treatment retarded the uptake of reactive dye, possibly by increasing the crystallinity of the fibre or removing surface bound lipids. Ultrasound did not improve dyeing under conditions that are currently used in industry, but did show potential to reduce the chemical and energy requirements of dyeing wool with reactive and acid milling dyes, but not acid levelling dyes. PMID:20675174

  7. Cushing’s Syndrome Secondary to isolated Micronodular Adrenocortical Disease (iMAD) associated with Rapid Onset Weight Gain and Negative Abdominal MRI Findings in a 3 year old Male

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Rohan K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Fechner, Patricia Y.

    2011-01-01

    Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is uncommon in childhood. CS may be either dependent or independent of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH independent micronodular adrenocortical (MAD) disease may present in the second to third decade of life or between ages 2–3years. It may occur in isolation, or as a part of the Carney complex and it represents an elusive entity to diagnose. We present a 3 year 7 month old boy with isolated MAD (iMAD). Abdominal CT revealed prominent mildly lobulated anteromedial margin of adrenals with nodular appearance. Cardiac echo, thyroid and testicular ultrasounds performed as a work up for Carney complex were normal. Bilateral adrenalectomy confirmed MAD as the cause of CS. We present the history’ and identification of a unique case of iMAD. PMID:20662336

  8. Familial abdominal aortic aneurysm: prevalence and implications for screening.

    PubMed

    Adams, D C; Tulloh, B R; Galloway, S W; Shaw, E; Tulloh, A J; Poskitt, K R

    1993-11-01

    The high prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men over the age of 65 has led to the establishment of ultrasound screening programmes for this group. The apparent familial tendency towards AAA formation suggests that relatives of aneurysm patients may form another subpopulation in whom screening is appropriate. The first degree relatives of 100 consecutive aneurysm patients were identified. Of 110 relatives over 50 years of age, two were known to have had AAA and ultrasound scans were performed on 74, providing information on aortic size for 76 relatives (69%). No further aortic aneurysms (antero-posterior diameter > or = 4.0 cm) were found on scanning. However, nine relatives were demonstrated to have aortic dilatation (2.5-3.9 cm). Aortic dilatation was observed in 21% of male first degree relatives over 50 years of age, affecting 27% of sons and 17% of brothers. Only 4% of the sisters and none of the daughters were found to have aortic dilatation. The prevalence of aortic enlargement seems to be sufficiently high amongst male first degree relatives of AAA patients over 50 years of age to justify aortic screening.

  9. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    PubMed

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient. PMID:27635158

  10. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    PubMed

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient.

  11. Quantitative Ultrasound Characterization of Tumor Cell Death: Ultrasound-Stimulated Microbubbles for Radiation Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung Christina; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Gorjizadeh, Alborz; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Karshafian, Raffi; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of quantitative ultrasound imaging in characterizing cancer cell death caused by enhanced radiation treatments. This investigation focused on developing this ultrasound modality as an imaging-based non-invasive method that can be used to monitor therapeutic ultrasound and radiation effects. High-frequency (25 MHz) ultrasound was used to image tumor responses caused by ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles in combination with radiation. Human prostate xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were treated using 8, 80, or 1000 µL/kg of microbubbles stimulated with ultrasound at 250, 570, or 750 kPa, and exposed to 0, 2, or 8 Gy of radiation. Tumors were imaged prior to treatment and 24 hours after treatment. Spectral analysis of images acquired from treated tumors revealed overall increases in ultrasound backscatter intensity and the spectral intercept parameter. The increase in backscatter intensity compared to the control ranged from 1.9±1.6 dB for the clinical imaging dose of microbubbles (8 µL/kg, 250 kPa, 2 Gy) to 7.0±4.1 dB for the most extreme treatment condition (1000 µL/kg, 750 kPa, 8 Gy). In parallel, in situ end-labelling (ISEL) staining, ceramide, and cyclophilin A staining demonstrated increases in cell death due to DNA fragmentation, ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and release of cyclophilin A as a result of cell membrane permeabilization, respectively. Quantitative ultrasound results indicated changes that paralleled increases in cell death observed from histology analyses supporting its use for non-invasive monitoring of cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:25051356

  12. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  14. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pelvic area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  15. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... hip area, and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  16. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  17. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  18. Ultrasound in perinatology

    SciTech Connect

    Maklad, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    This 19th volume in the series Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound provides an overview and update of some of the recent applications of ultrasound (US) in the pernatal period. Prenatal topics include estimation of gestational age; evaluation of intrauterine growth retardation, non-immune hydrops, and fetal urinary abnormalities; fetal echocardiography; and biophysical scoring. The discussion of postnatal topics includes US studies of the head and abdomen, echocardiography, and interventional procedures.

  19. What is ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Leighton, Timothy G

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on material presented at the start of a Health Protection Agency meeting on ultrasound and infrasound. In answering the question 'what is ultrasound?', it shows that the simple description of a wave which transports mechanical energy through the local vibration of particles at frequencies of 20 kHz or more, with no net transport of the particles themselves, can in every respect be misleading or even incorrect. To explain the complexities responsible for this, the description of ultrasound is first built up from the fundamental properties of these local particle vibrations. This progresses through an exposition of the characteristics of linear waves, in order to explain the propensity for, and properties of, the nonlinear propagation which occurs in many practical ultrasonic fields. Given the Health Protection environment which framed the original presentation, explanation and examples are given of how these complexities affect issues of practical importance. These issues include the measurement and description of fields and exposures, and the ability of ultrasound to affect tissue (through microstreaming, streaming, cavitation, heating, etc.). It is noted that there are two very distinct regimes, in terms of wave characteristics and potential for bioeffect. The first concerns the use of ultrasound in liquids/solids, for measurement or material processing. For biomedical applications (where these two processes are termed diagnosis and therapy, respectively), the issue of hazard has been studied in depth, although this has not been done to such a degree for industrial uses of ultrasound in liquids/solids (sonar, non-destructive testing, ultrasonic processing etc.). However, in the second regime, that of the use of ultrasound in air, although the waves in question tend to be of much lower intensities than those used in liquids/solids, there is a greater mismatch between the extent to which hazard has been studied, and the growth in commercial

  20. [A case report of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Chida, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Kenji; Yamao, Yoko; Shiotuka, Kaori; Ritsuno, Hideaki; Awabuchi, Satoshi; Akoshima, Hiromichi; Sugimura, Mikako; Noguchi, Kenji; Tanabe, Nobukazu; Iwabuchi, Masahiro; Mano, Yutaka; Tadokoro, Keiichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2009-10-01

    In this report, we present a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) arising from the abdominal cavity in a 20-year-old woman. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain. Radiological imaging showed a 15-cm mass penetrating to the proxymal jejunum in the upper abdominal cavity and peritoneal disseminations. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor was ES/pPNET. Although the patient underwent radiation therapy, she died of the disease two months after diagnosis. ES/pPNET in the abdominal cavity is extremely rare and our case showed aggressive behavior and an unfortunate outcome.

  1. Abdominal Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma Associated With Lymphangiomatosis Involving Mesentery and Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yang; He, Tianlin; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy that occurs mainly in the childhood. Adult patients with KH are rare. Imaging findings of KH have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in an adult patient with KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. A 22-year-old female complained of a 9-month history of intermittent melena, weakness, and palpitation. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoproteinemia. Fecal occult blood test was positive. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed a large abdominal mass involving mesentery and ileum. On enhanced MRI, there were many hypervascular nodules in the mass. On FDG PET/CT, the mass and the nodules showed slight FDG uptake. Small bowel capsule endoscopy showed numerous grape-shaped red nodules in the luminal wall of the involved ileum. The patient underwent resection of the abdominal mass and a segment of the ileum invaded by the abdominal mass. KH arising within lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum was confirmed by pathology. After surgery, the patient's symptoms improved. This is the first case of KH associated with lymphangiomatosis involving mesentery and ileum. In this case, the lymphangiomatosis overshadowed the small tumor nodules resulting in unusual imaging findings. Familiarity with these imaging findings is helpful for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of KH. PMID:26871848

  2. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  3. [Ultrasound imaging in laryngology].

    PubMed

    Zajkowski, Piotr; Białek, Ewa J

    2007-01-01

    Modern ultrasound with high resolution transducers, and sensitive power Doppler and color Doppler modes, and other options, such as panoramic and 3D imaging, allows for detailed imaging of many anatomical structures and pathologic lesions of the head and neck. Only the structures situated in the sonographic acoustic shadow: behind bones, calcified cartilages, stones, and behind organs containing gas (f.e. trachea and larynx) can not be visualized. Ultrasound is widely regarded as the first imaging method in the diseases of the thyroid, salivary glands (parotid gland, submandibular gland and sublingual gland), lymph nodes, muscles, soft tissues of the head and neck, and as an valuable adjunct in some laryngeal pathologies. Real time ultrasound examination allows for dynamic assessment of organs and lesions, lets the examiner check the susceptibility of tumors for pressure, which is inaccessible in other imaging methods. Tumors and congenital lesions, inflammation, abscesses, abnormal lymph nodes, cysts, muscle hypertrophy and posttraumatic conditions may be well evaluated with ultrasound. However, most neck tumors (f.e. in the thyroid, salivary glands, and soft tisses) as well as equivocal lymph nodes demand fine needle aspiration biopsy to determine their benign or malignant nature. This paper presents application of ultrasound examination in the head and neck area including limitations of ultrasound diagnostics in many clinical cases. Data taken from Polish and foreign literature and author's experience are included in this paper.

  4. Ultrasound biomicroscopy measurement of skin thickness change induced by cosmetic treatment with ultrasound stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mak, Tak-Man; Huang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Li-Ke; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Moisturizing creams and lotions are commonly used in daily life for beauty and treatment of different skin conditions such as dryness and wrinkling, and ultrasound stimulation has been used to enhance the delivery of ingredients into skin. However, there is a lack of convenient methods to study the effect of ultrasound stimulation on lotion absorption by skin in vivo. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was adopted as a viable tool in this study to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound stimulation on the enhancement of lotion delivery into skin. The forearm skin of 10 male and 10 female young subjects was tested at three different sites, including two lotion treatment sites with (Ultrasound Equipment - UE ON) and without (UE OFF) ultrasound stimulation and a control site without any lotion treatment. 1 MHz ultrasound with a duty cycle of 1.7%, a spatial peak temporal peak pressure of 195 kPa and an average power of 0.43 W was used for the stimulation. The skin thickness before, immediately after (0 min), and 15 and 30 min after the treatment was measured by an ultrasound biomicroscopic system (55 MHz). It was found that the skin thickness significantly increased immediately after the lotion treatment for both UE ON (from 1.379 ± 0.187 mm to 1.466 ± 0.182 mm, p<0.001) and UE OFF (from 1.396 ± 0.193 mm to 1.430 ± 0.194 mm, p<0.001) groups. Further comparison between the two groups revealed that the skin thickness increase of UE ON group was significantly larger than that of UE OFF group (6.5 ± 2.4% vs. 2.5 ± 1.3%, p<0.001). Furthermore, it was disclosed that the enhancement of lotion delivery by ultrasound stimulation was more effective for the female subjects than the male subjects (7.6 ± 2.3% vs. 5.4 ± 2.0% immediately after treatment, p=0.017). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ultrasound biomicroscopy was a feasible method for studying the effectiveness of lotion treatment in vivo, and ultrasound stimulation was effective to enhance the rate of

  5. Rare presentation of multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zou, Yang; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease, which is also known as cystic echinococcosis, is a zoonotic infection caused by the cestode tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and rarely by Echinococcus multilocularis. In this report we describe an unusual case of a 19-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis. The patient recovered after undergoing surgery to excise the cyst. The diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and prevention in this case of multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis are discussed, in light of the relevant literature. PMID:26617932

  6. Rare presentation of multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zou, Yang; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease, which is also known as cystic echinococcosis, is a zoonotic infection caused by the cestode tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and rarely by Echinococcus multilocularis. In this report we describe an unusual case of a 19-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis. The patient recovered after undergoing surgery to excise the cyst. The diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and prevention in this case of multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis are discussed, in light of the relevant literature. PMID:26617932

  7. Experiences of Indonesian mother managing preschool children's acute abdominal pain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chiu-Lien; Huang, Chu-Yu; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Lin, Hung-Ru; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the Indonesian mothers' experiences of managing preschool children's acute abdominal pain. The descriptive qualitative research design comprises semi-structured interviews with 11 Indonesian mothers. The qualitative content analysis revealed three themes, including (1) insight of abdominal pain, (2) "inheritance of the strategies for assessment of management for abdominal pain from the family of origin", (3) "obstacles and insights related to cultural differences". The results presented that pain management was affected by family, environment, cultural background and religious beliefs. Healthcare providers should provide culturally competent pain management care for the patients of difference nationalities.

  8. Mirror artifacts in obstetric ultrasound; case presentation of a ghost twin during the second trimester ultrasound scan

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyunyoung; Hernández-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Patwardhan, Manasi; Goncalves, Luis F.; Aurioles, Alma; Garcia, Maynor; Hassan, Sonia S.; Yeo, Lami

    2014-01-01

    Mirror artifacts are produced by the reflection of ultrasound waves after they propagate through a structure and encounter a strong and smooth interface capable of acting as a mirror. Ultrasound waves bounce back and forth between the mirroring interface and the reflective object and then eventually return to the transducer. The typical display of the mirror artifact consists of two similar structures separated and at a similar distance from the reflective interface. We report a mirror artifact in a patient with a singleton gestation at 18 weeks. The image was interpreted as consistent with a twin gestation using transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound. The differential diagnosis consisted of an abdominal heterotopic pregnancy. The presence of synchronized but opposite movements of both fetuses, and the blurred image of the second fetus, suggested a mirror artifact. The reflective surface was created by the interface located between a distended recto-sigmoid filled with gas and the posterior uterine wall. Mirror artifacts can lead to diagnostic errors. This case illustrates how a distended recto-sigmoid can generate an image that simulates either a twin gestation or an abdominal heterotopic pregnancy. PMID:24071724

  9. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  10. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens.

  11. [Abdominal pain, constipation and anemia].

    PubMed

    Barresi, Fabio; Kunz Caflish, Isabel; Bayly-Schinzel, Leena; Dressel, Holger

    2016-03-30

    We present the case of a 42-year old man who went to the emergency department because of spasmodic abdominal pain. The abdomen was soft. A gastroscopy and a colonoscopy were without pathological findings. The laboratory analyses indicated anemia. The differential blood count showed basophilic granules in the red blood cells. The blood lead level was elevated. A lead poisoning was diagnosed. The cause was the oral intake of an ayurvedic medication which the patient had received in Bangladesh to treat his vitiligo. PMID:27005735

  12. Treatment of neonatal abdominal cysts.

    PubMed

    Dénes, J; Lukäcs, F V; Léb, J; Bognár, M

    1974-01-01

    Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic structures in the newborn appear with a variable clinical picture and in the case of intra-abdominal cysts, surgery is performed mostly on an emergency basis. In such cases the exact preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is seldom made. With early laparotomy, extensive small bowel resection can usually be avoided. Retroperitoneal lesions are mostly of renal origin; in such cases, preoperative diagnosis is easy, being based on specific examinations. In the year 1973, 5 newborns with an intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cyst have been treated surgically. In this series, one infant died after resection of 90% of the small bowel.

  13. Ultrasound measurement of pediatric visceral fat thickness: correlations with metabolic and liver profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hwa; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Kwon, Ah Reum; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal obesity is a fundamental factor underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Because of radiation exposure and cost, computed tomography or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate abdominal adiposity are not appropriate in children. Authors evaluated whether ultrasound results could be an indicator of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods We enrolled 73 subjects (aged 6–16 years) who were evaluated abdominal adiposity by ultrasound. Subcutaneous fat thickness was defined as the measurement from the skin-fat interface to the linea alba, and visceral fat thickness (VFT) was defined as the thickness from the linea alba to the aorta. Anthropometric and biochemical metabolic parameters were also collected and compared. The subjects who met 2 criteria, radiologic confirmed fatty liver and alanine aminotransferase >40, were diagnosed with NAFLD. Results There was a strong positive correlation between VFT and obesity. VFT was highly correlated with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance score (r=0.403, P<0.001). The area under the curve for VFT as a predictor of NAFLD was 0.875 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.787–0.964). VFT of 34.3 mm was found to be the discriminating cutoff for NAFLD (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 71.2%, respectively). Conclusion Ultrasound could be useful in measuring VFT and assessing abdominal adiposity in children. Moreover, increased VFT might be an appropriate prognostic factor for insulin resistance and NAFLD. PMID:27462583

  14. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  15. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  16. Aortic Dissection and Thrombosis Diagnosed by Emergency Ultrasound in a Patient with Leg Pain and Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsung, Ann H.; Nickels, Leslie C.; De Portu, Giuliano; Flach, Eike F.; Stead, Latha Ganti

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of aortic dissection and abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombosis in a 78-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of lower extremity and paralysis for the past 1.5 hours. The initial vital signs in the ED were as follows: blood pressure (BP) 132/88 mmHg, heart rate (HR) 96, respiratory rate (RR) 14, and an oxygen saturation of 94% at room air. Physical exam was notable for pale and cold left leg. The ED physician was unable to palpate or detect a Doppler signal in the left femoral artery. Bedside ultrasound was performed which showed non-pulsatile left femoral artery and limited flow on color Doppler. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening ultrasound was performed showing a 4.99 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and an intra-aortic thrombus with an intimal flap. Vascular surgery was promptly contacted and the patient underwent emergent aorto-bi-femoral bypass, bilateral four compartment fasciotomy, right common femoral artery endarterectomy with profundoplasty, and subsequent left leg amputation. Emergency physicians should utilize bedside ultrasound in patients who present with risk factors or threatening signs and symptoms that may suggest aortic dissection or aneurysm. Bedside ultrasound decreases time to definitive treatment and the mortality of the patients. PMID:23431495

  17. Aortic dissection and thrombosis diagnosed by emergency ultrasound in a patient with leg pain and paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Ann H; Nickels, Leslie C; De Portu, Giuliano; Flach, Eike F; Stead, Latha Ganti

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of aortic dissection and abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombosis in a 78-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of lower extremity and paralysis for the past 1.5 hours. The initial vital signs in the ED were as follows: blood pressure (BP) 132/88 mmHg, heart rate (HR) 96, respiratory rate (RR) 14, and an oxygen saturation of 94% at room air. Physical exam was notable for pale and cold left leg. The ED physician was unable to palpate or detect a Doppler signal in the left femoral artery. Bedside ultrasound was performed which showed non-pulsatile left femoral artery and limited flow on color Doppler. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening ultrasound was performed showing a 4.99 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and an intra-aortic thrombus with an intimal flap. Vascular surgery was promptly contacted and the patient underwent emergent aorto-bi-femoral bypass, bilateral four compartment fasciotomy, right common femoral artery endarterectomy with profundoplasty, and subsequent left leg amputation. Emergency physicians should utilize bedside ultrasound in patients who present with risk factors or threatening signs and symptoms that may suggest aortic dissection or aneurysm. Bedside ultrasound decreases time to definitive treatment and the mortality of the patients.

  18. Ultrasound enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of Parthenium hysterophorus: A mechanistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shuchi; Agarwal, Mayank; Bhatt, Aditya; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-09-01

    This study has attempted to establish the mechanism of the ultrasound-induced enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated and delignified biomass of Parthenium hysterophorus. A dual approach of statistical optimization of hydrolysis followed by application of sonication at optimum conditions has been adopted. The kinetics of hydrolysis shows a marked 6× increase with sonication, while net sugar yield shows marginal rise of ∼ 20%. The statistical experimental design reveals the hydrolysis process to be enzyme limited. Profile of sugar yield in ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis has been analyzed using HCH-1 model coupled with Genetic Algorithm optimization. The trends in the kinetic and physiological parameters of HCH-1 model reveal that sonication enhances enzyme/substrate affinity and reaction velocity of hydrolysis. The product inhibition of enzyme in all forms (free, adsorbed, complexed) also reduces with ultrasound. These effects are attributed to intense micro-convection induced by ultrasound and cavitation in the liquid medium.

  19. Covert contrast in velar fronting: An acoustic and ultrasound study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Buchwald, Adam; Mizoguchi, Ai

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that speech sound acquisition is a gradual process, with instrumental measures frequently revealing covert contrast in errors perceived to involve phonemic substitution. Ultrasound imaging has the potential to expand our understanding of covert contrast by showing whether a child uses different tongue shapes while producing sounds that are perceived as neutralized. This study used an ultrasound measure (Dorsum Excursion Index) and acoustic measures (VOT and spectral moments of the burst) to investigate overt and covert contrast between velar and alveolar stops in child speech. Participants were two children who produced a perceptually overt velar-alveolar contrast and two children who neutralized the contrast via velar fronting. Both acoustic and ultrasound measures revealed significant differences between perceptually distinct velar and alveolar targets. One child with velar fronting demonstrated covert contrast in one acoustic and one ultrasound measure; the other showed no evidence of contrast. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26325303

  20. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  1. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  2. Evaluation of short cycles of ultrasound application in nanoemulsions to obtain nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Simone Pinto; Cruz, Ricardo Machado; dos Santos, Orlando David Henrique

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound is widely used in several chemical reactions and other process, including production of nanocapsules by in situ polymerization. In this work, the main objective was to evaluate the impacts and viability of successive ultrasound application in nanoemulsions to obtain nanocapsules. Initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) concentration, number of ultrasound cycles and reaction time influences on polymerization efficiency and droplet size were evaluated. This work revealed the successful in situ production of nanocapsules using successive shorts cycles of ultrasound. Number of cycles was the only parameter that not exerted significant influence in polymerization yield. Particle size decay was observed in all nanoemulsions after the first ultrasound application, the same was not observed in further cycles. Gravimetric assessment showed remarkable increase of monomer conversion, indicating that once started polymerization continued at least until 28 days after ultrasound application. Concluding, ultrasound short cycles can be used with no harm to formulation, if carefully performed and, furthermore is a potential cost-effective route for polymerization reactions.

  3. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  4. Ultrasound detection of a subperiosteal abscess secondary to coalescent otomastoiditis.

    PubMed

    Grant, R L; Piotto, L

    2005-08-01

    We report the unusual ultrasound appearance of coalescent otomastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess in a 3-month-old boy with a 1-week history of an enlarging lump behind the left ear. Ultrasound examination of the lump revealed subcutaneous oedema with an abscess extending from a defect in the cranial vault as a result of extension of the inflammatory process. We believe that this sonographic appearance has not been previously described in the published literature.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventional procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS. PMID:26078831

  6. Robotically assisted velocity-sensitive triggered focused ultrasound surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Florian; Brunner, Alexander; Jenne, Jürgen W.; Krafft, Axel J.; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) of abdominal organs is challenging due to breathing motion and limited patient access in the MR environment. In this work, an experimental robotically assisted FUS setup was combined with a MR-based navigator technique to realize motion-compensated sonications and online temperature imaging. Experiments were carried out in a static phantom, during periodic manual motion of the phantom without triggering, and with triggering to evaluate the triggering method. In contrast to the non-triggered sonication, the results of the triggered sonication show a confined symmetric temperature distribution. In conclusion, the velocity sensitive navigator can be employed for triggered FUS to compensate for periodic motion. Combined with the robotic FUS setup, flexible treatment of abdominal targets might be realized.

  7. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques.

  8. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Harirah, Hassan M.; Smith, J. Michael; Dixon, C. Luke; Hankins, Gary D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy. PMID:27595049

  9. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Harirah, Hassan M; Smith, J Michael; Dixon, C Luke; Hankins, Gary D V

    2016-07-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy.

  10. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Harirah, Hassan M.; Smith, J. Michael; Dixon, C. Luke; Hankins, Gary D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy.

  11. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Harirah, Hassan M; Smith, J Michael; Dixon, C Luke; Hankins, Gary D V

    2016-07-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy. PMID:27595049

  12. Benefits of an ultrasound-guided ESWL unit.

    PubMed

    Karlin, G; Marino, C; Badlani, G; Smith, A D

    1990-06-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited for imaging of renal calculi for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Ultrasound can localize radiolucent stones, monitor fragmentation in real time, and differentiate the stone from a stent. Its use significantly reduces the radiation exposure to patient and operator, which is particularly desirable in the pediatric patient. Furthermore, sonography-guided lithotripsy can reveal any incidental finding in the affected kidney that may require further evaluation and familiarizes the operator with this increasingly useful imaging method. The ultrasound-guided Sonolith 3000 with its enlarged ellipsoid aperture has a decreased energy focus size and voltage, permitting fragmentation with reduced anesthesia requirements. The initial extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) machine, the Dornier H3, uses fluoroscopy for stone localization and treatment monitoring. Although this imaging method has the benefit of being familiar to urologists, it has some drawbacks, such as difficulty in imaging some types of stones and the radiation exposure of the operator and the patient. We have been using the Technomed Sonolith 3000 ESWL machine, which uses ultrasound to localize stones. During this experience, we have found a number of obvious and not so obvious benefits. For example essentially all calculi are echogenic, irrespective of their radiologic density. Moreover, with ultrasound, fragmentation can be monitored by real-time imaging, making determination of the treatment end point easier, and the stone and stent can be differentiated clearly. Ultrasound also can reveal other pathology and eliminates radiation exposure. Moreover, an ultrasound-guided ESWL unit familiarizes the operator with ultrasound techniques, and the same machine can be used for biliary lithotripsy. All of these features make ultrasound imaging for ESWL desirable.

  13. Estimation of fetal gestational age from ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Valiollah

    1992-06-01

    Estimation of fetal gestational age, weight, and determination of fetal growth from the measurements of certain parameters of fetal head, abdomen, and femur have been well established in prenatal sonography. The measurements are made from the two dimensional, B- mode, ultrasound images of the fetus. The most common parameters measured are, biparietal diameter, occipital frontal diameter, head circumference, femur diaphysis length, and abdominal circumference. Since the fetal head has an elliptical shape and the femur has a linear shape, fitting the ellipse on the image of the fetal head, a line on the image of the femur are the tasks of image processing which are discussed in this paper.

  14. Perioperative management of peritoneal dialysis patients: review of abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A; Krane, N Kevin

    2006-01-01

    On abdominal computed tomography scan for evaluation of hematuria, the index patient, a 23-year-old male, was found to have multiple renal cysts bilaterally. He had been on peritoneal dialysis for 6 years, complicated by intermittent episodes of exit-site infection and peritonitis. Over time, he developed recurrent urinary tract infection and nephrolithiasis with intermittent hematuria. His maintenance dose of recombinant erythropoietin was discontinued, and he maintained a normal hemoglobin level. Annual surveillance of the bilateral renal cysts with magnetic resonance imaging revealed development of a complex cystic mass that warranted further investigation. Following a urology consultation, laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed without complications and with minimal interruption of PD. Pathology evaluation revealed renal cell carcinoma within the renal parenchyma and multiple cystic structures consistent with acquired cystic kidney disease. No clear recommendations exist in the literature regarding continuation or interruption of PD in the perioperative period for planned nephrectomy, tumor resection, or other uncomplicated abdominal or retroperitoneal procedures. A perioperative management strategy for PD patients requiring abdominal or retroperitoneal surgery is outlined here. If these recommendations are followed, patients may continue PD with minimal interruption, preservation of the peritoneal membrane, and few complications.

  15. Thermal Field Imaging Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andereck, D.; Rahal, S.; Fife, S.

    2000-01-01

    is then possible to find the average temperature at different locations along the chamber, thereby determining the temperature profile along the system. (In the future we will construct an array of transducers. This will give us the capability to determine the temperature profile much more rapidly than at present, an important consideration if time-dependent phenomena are to be studied.) To validate our procedure we introduced encapsulated liquid crystal particles into glycerol. The liquid crystal particles' color varies depending on the temperature of the fluid. A photograph of the fluid through transparent sidewalls therefore gives a picture of the temperature field of the convecting fluid, independent of our ultrasound imaging. A representative result is shown in the Figure 1, which reveals a very satisfying correspondence between the two techniques. Therefore we have a great deal of confidence that the ultrasound imaging approach is indeed measuring the actual temperature profile of the fluid. The technique has also been applied to convecting liquid metal flows, and representative data will be presented from those experiments as well.

  16. Mycotic Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in an Infant after Cardiac Catheterization: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Rice, Henry E; Shortell, Cynthia K; Cox, Mitchell W

    2015-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a rare entity in the pediatric population. Children with mycotic (infectious) AAA in particular are at risk of life-threatening rupture due to their rapid expansion coupled with aortic wall thinning and deterioration. Here, we present the case of a 10-month-old infant with prior 2-staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was incidentally discovered to have a mycotic AAA on abdominal ultrasound (US) for evaluation of renovascular hypertension. Before the time of evaluation with US, the infant had developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia 3 days after cardiac catheterization with percutaneous thoracic aortic balloon angioplasty. She had normal aortic contours on contrasted computed tomography scan of the abdomen approximately 2 weeks before the aforementioned US evaluation. This infant subsequently underwent open aneurysmorrhaphy with cryopreserved vein patch angioplasty with resolution of her aneurysmal segment.

  17. Ultrasound-guided biopsies: tricks, needle tips, and other fine points.

    PubMed

    Feld, Rick I

    2004-09-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy of thyroid nodules, abdominal masses, liver masses, random core liver biopsies, as well as aspiration of abdominal or pleural fluid is now routine practice. The ability of US to guide biopsy of abnormalities seen on cross-sectional imaging studies is well recognized as an efficient and effective means of achieving a tissue diagnosis. Its use requires basic knowledge of US image analysis, but clinically useful intuitive and nonintuitive methods can enhance its strengths. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guide to some of these tricks that may be useful in everyday clinical practice. PMID:15322386

  18. Puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery.

    PubMed

    Suonio, S; Huttunen, M

    1994-04-01

    The infectious complications of 122 consecutive abdominal twin deliveries over the period 1984-1989 were analyzed in a prospective clinical study, comparing them with 761 singleton abdominal deliveries over the period 1984-1986. The incidence of endometritis was nearly three-fold after twin deliveries and the incidence of abdominal wound infections nearly two-fold compared with singleton abdominal pregnancies (13.1/4.7% and 5.6/3.0%). The risk of amnionitis was increased ten-fold, 6 hours after rupture of the membranes in abdominal twin delivery, but no connection was found between amnionitis and endometritis, as in singleton abdominal deliveries. Multiple regression analysis indicated only two risk factors as regards puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery: age under 25 years (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence limits 1.9-24.8), an association also seen in singleton abdominal deliveries, and a period of more than 6 hours from rupture of membranes to delivery (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence limits 2.1-28.5). Multiple pregnancy appears to be associated with an increased risk of endometritis. The etiological factors remain unknown, but a large placental bed and/or immunological factors may be implicated. PMID:8160537

  19. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  20. Atypical presentation of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration detected in prenatal care: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Márcio Rodrigues; Costa, Théo Rodrigues; Leite, Mauricio Sérgio Brasil; de Souza, Fernandes Rodrigues; Reis, Alexandre Magno Bahia; Pereira, Bruno Paiva; de Oliveira, Arthur Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe an unusual clinical presentation of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 2-year, 9 month-old patient and assess diagnostic and treatment aspects of this pathology. Case description: An undefined intra-abdominal mass was identified in the right adrenal region in a male fetus. Postnatal evaluation with ultrasound images, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory testing was insufficient to determine the nature of the lesion. After two years, laparoscopic resection of the mass and histopathological examination of the surgical specimen allowed to establish the diagnosis of intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Comments: This malformation can be monitored clinically; however, surgical excision is often performed, probably due to the impossibility of attaining diagnosis with non-invasive methods, such as in the present case, in which the lesion appeared in an unusual position for intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Therefore, the surgical approach seems to be the key to attain the diagnosis and establish the conduct for this type of congenital malformation. PMID:26611889

  1. The effect of resistance exercise direction for hip joint stabilization on lateral abdominal muscle thickness

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance direction in hip joint stabilization exercise on change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy adults were randomly allocated to either a hip stabilization exercise by hip straight resistance group (n=12) or a hip diagonal resistance group (n=14). The outcome measures included contraction thickness ratio in transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique, and TrA lateral slide were assessed during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver by b-mode ultrasound. The researcher measured the abdominal muscle thickness of each participant before the therapist began the intervention and at the moment intervention was applied. There was a significant difference in lateral abdominal muscle thickness between the straight resistance exercise of hip joint group and the diagonal resistance exercise of hip joint group. Significant differences were found between the two groups in the percentage of change of muscle thickness of the TrA (P=0.018) and in the thickness ratio of the TrA (P=0.018). Stability exercise accompanied by diagonal resistance on the hip joint that was applied in this study can induce automatic contraction of the IO and TrA, which provides stability to the lumbar spine. PMID:27807520

  2. Ultrasound in space.

    PubMed

    Martin, David S; South, Donna A; Garcia, Kathleen M; Arbeille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Physiology of the human body in space has been a major concern for space-faring nations since the beginning of the space era. Ultrasound (US) is one of the most cost effective and versatile forms of medical imaging. As such, its use in characterizing microgravity-induced changes in physiology is being realized. In addition to the use of US in related ground-based studies, equipment has also been modified to fly in space. This involves alteration to handle the stresses of launch and different power and cooling requirements. Study protocols also have been altered to accommodate the microgravity environment. Ultrasound studies to date have shown a pattern of adaptation to microgravity that includes changes in cardiac chamber sizes and vertebral spacing. Ultrasound has been and will continue to be an important component in the investigation of physiological and, possibly, pathologic changes occurring in space or as a result of spaceflight.

  3. Ultrasound in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David S.; South, Donna A.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Arbeille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Physiology of the human body in space has been a major concern for space-faring nations since the beginning of the space era. Ultrasound (US) is one of the most cost effective and versatile forms of medical imaging. As such, its use in characterizing microgravity-induced changes in physiology is being realized. In addition to the use of US in related ground-based studies, equipment has also been modified to fly in space. This involves alteration to handle the stresses of launch and different power and cooling requirements. Study protocols also have been altered to accommodate the microgravity environment. Ultrasound studies to date have shown a pattern of adaptation to microgravity that includes changes in cardiac chamber sizes and vertebral spacing. Ultrasound has been and will continue to be an important component in the investigation of physiological and, possibly, pathologic changes occurring in space or as a result of spaceflight.

  4. Ultrasound applications in electrodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boon, Andrea J; Smith, Jay; Harper, C Michel

    2012-01-01

    This review article discusses the current scope of high-resolution diagnostic ultrasound in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, both as a complementary tool to electrodiagnosis and in some cases as a stand-alone imaging modality. Indications, limitations, potential for research, and training and credentialing are discussed. Indications include needle guidance for nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, diagnosis of nerve entrapment, diagnostic muscle imaging via grayscale analysis, and dynamic real-time imaging, including sonopalpation, to provide additional diagnostic information. The role of neuromuscular ultrasound in research is discussed, including the need to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and cost-effectiveness of these techniques when they are used alone or in combination. Training and credentialing are reviewed, specifically noting the challenge of the lack of formal training programs and the relatively long, flat learning curve of diagnostic ultrasound.

  5. Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

  6. Robotically assisted ultrasound interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jienan; Swerdlow, Dan; Wang, Shuxin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a robotic system to assist the physician in minimally invasive ultrasound interventions. In current practice, the physician must manually hold the ultrasound probe in one hand and manipulate the needle with the other hand, which can be challenging, particularly when trying to target small lesions. To assist the physician, the robot should not only be capable of providing the spatial movement needed, but also be able to control the contact force between the ultrasound probe and patient. To meet these requirements, we are developing a prototype system based on a six degree of freedom parallel robot. The system will provide high bandwidth, precision motion, and force control. In this paper we report on our progress to date, including the development of a PC-based control system and the results of our initial experiments.

  7. A Large Pleural Effusion following Abdominal Aortic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramsaran, Vinoo K.; Seeram, Vandana K.; Cury, James; Shujaat, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Chylous ascites and coexistent chylothorax is a rare but important complication following retroperitoneal abdominal surgery. We report a 70-year-old male who developed gradual abdominal distension, chest tightness, and dyspnea five months after having an uncomplicated aortobifemoral bypass performed. Physical examination was consistent with a large right sided effusion and ascites which were confirmed by computed tomography. Thoracentesis yielded an opaque milky fluid with analysis consistent with a chylothorax with a paracentesis revealing fluid that was similar in both appearance and biochemistry. The patient failed initial conservative management so a chest tube was placed followed by chemical pleurodesis. We review the literature of the pathophysiology and treatment approach to such a pleural effusion. PMID:26635989

  8. Ultrasound contrast agent fabricated from microbubbles containing instant adhesives, and its ultrasound imaging ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuta, T.; Tamakawa, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Non-invasive surgery techniques and drug delivery system with acoustic characteristics of ultrasound contrast agent have been studied intensively in recent years. Ultrasound contrast agent collapses easily under the blood circulating and the ultrasound irradiating because it is just a stabilized bubble without solid-shell by surface adsorption of surfactant or lipid. For improving the imaging stability, we proposed the fabrication method of the hollow microcapsule with polymer shell, which can be fabricated just blowing vapor of commonly-used instant adhesive (Cyanoacrylate monomer) into water as microbubbles. Therefore, the cyanoacrylate vapor contained inside microbubble initiates polymerization on the gasliquid interface soon after microbubbles are generated in water. Consequently, hollow microspheres coated by cyanoacrylate thin film are generated. In this report, we revealed that diameter distributions of microbubbles and microcapsules were approximately same and most of them were less than 10 μm, that is, smaller than blood capillary. In addition, we also revealed that hollow microcapsules enhanced the acoustic signal especially in the harmonic contrast imaging and were broken or agglomerated under the ultrasound field. As for the yield of hollow microcapsules, we revealed that sodium dodecyl sulfate addition to water phase instead of deoxycolic acid made the fabrication yield increased.

  9. Ultrasound images of groin pain in the athlete: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ozçakar, Levent; Utku, Burkay

    2014-08-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete is a common condition, with, at times, protracted recovery that leads to prolonged disability. There are soft-tissue and bony contributors to pain, with the mechanism of injury usually an acute or chronic overload of the hip adductor tendons, abdominal aponeurosis, hip joint, or symphysis pubis. The complexity of the regional anatomy often necessitates imaging modalities for precise diagnosis and prompt management. Imaging options include magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear bone scan, radiography, and ultrasound. In this report, we present a series of images that represent the value of musculoskeletal ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of groin pain in the athlete.

  10. The use of ultrasound for dogs and cats in the emergency room: AFAST and TFAST.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Søren R; Lisciandro, Gregory R

    2013-07-01

    Internal injuries are common and often life-threatening conditions that can be challenging to detect based on physical examination, radiographs, and centesis. Recently, ultrasound has been introduced and evaluated in human and veterinary emergency medicine as a point-of-care test for a variety of emergent conditions. This article discusses the indications for point-of-care emergency ultrasound of dogs and cats in the emergency and critical care setting. Techniques for performing focused emergency evaluations are described and the current veterinary and human literature is contrasted, with emphasis on abdominal, pleural, pericardial, and pulmonary evaluation. PMID:23747260

  11. Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

  12. Emergency Department Diagnosis of Dietl Crisis in a 7-Year-Old Girl With Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Burhop, James; Clingenpeel, Joel M; Poirier, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Children with Dietl crisis often experience a delay in diagnosis, with the clinical entity being underdiagnosed. Pain is caused by compression of an aberrant artery crossing dilated kidney. Pain is often worsened after the consumption of liquids and resolves after fluid reabsorption. There are no clear criteria for evaluating ureter obstruction in childhood abdominal pain in the emergency department setting; however, it has been suggested that ultrasound may aid in the diagnosis. As renal parenchyma is typically preserved, and there is a paucity of associated urological complaints, once properly diagnosed, most patients are well served by a pyeloplasty. PMID:25626638

  13. Early ovarian pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound and successfully treated with multidose methotrexate. A case report.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, G; Patacchiola, F; La Posta, V; Bonitatibus, A; Ruggeri, G; Carta, G

    2012-01-01

    A case report of a primary interstitial ovarian pregnancy is presented. A 37-year-old married woman with two children after two Cesarean sections and a spontaneous abortion, with a contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) inserted three years before, presented at five weeks plus five days amenorrhea with a positive pregnancy test and lower abdominal pain but with no vaginal bleeding. Her previous menstrual cycles had been regular. She was hemodynamically stable. On bimanual examination, the uterus was of normal size, and there was an approximate four-cm tender right adnexal mass. Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (b-hCG) was confirmed positive. Ultrasound revealed a well-positioned IUD in the uterus and a right adnexal mass with normal vascular flow on Doppler, that contained a well-defined gestational sac, well-distinct from the quiescent hemorrhagic corpus luteum. There was no fetal node or cardiac activity or free fluid. The patient received four injections of methotrexate intramuscularly using the multidose regimen that involves the administration of methotrexate calculated according to body weight, alternated with 0.1 mg/kg of leucovorin calcium per os after 30 hours until the values of 3-hCG had decreased by 15%. The patient's post-treatment period was uneventful with a full restoration of ovarian morphology and the complete absorption of the gestational sac. This case is the first where diagnosis was made by endovaginal sonography and treatment was made by multidose methotrexate. Spiegelberg criteria for the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy are obsolete; new ultrasound and laboratory criteria are needed for a diagnosis as early as possible without the need of surgery. PMID:23157054

  14. Ultrasound arthroscopy of human knee cartilage and subchondral bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liukkonen, Jukka; Lehenkari, Petri; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Joukainen, Antti; Virén, Tuomas; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Arthroscopic ultrasound imaging enables quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. However, the potential of this technique for evaluation of subchondral bone has not been investigated in vivo. In this study, we address this issue in clinical arthroscopy of the human knee (n = 11) by determining quantitative ultrasound (9 MHz) reflection and backscattering parameters for cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, in each knee, seven anatomical sites were graded using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system based on (i) conventional arthroscopy and (ii) ultrasound images acquired in arthroscopy with a miniature transducer. Ultrasound enabled visualization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. ICRS grades based on ultrasound images were higher (p < 0.05) than those based on conventional arthroscopy. The higher ultrasound-based ICRS grades were expected as ultrasound reveals additional information on, for example, the relative depth of the lesion. In line with previous literature, ultrasound reflection and scattering in cartilage varied significantly (p < 0.05) along the ICRS scale. However, no significant correlation between ultrasound parameters and structure or density of subchondral bone could be demonstrated. To conclude, arthroscopic ultrasound imaging had a significant effect on clinical grading of cartilage, and it was found to provide quantitative information on cartilage. The lack of correlation between the ultrasound parameters and bone properties may be related to lesser bone change or excessive attenuation in overlying cartilage and insufficient power of the applied miniature transducer. PMID:25023111

  15. Ultrasound arthroscopy of human knee cartilage and subchondral bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liukkonen, Jukka; Lehenkari, Petri; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Joukainen, Antti; Virén, Tuomas; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Arthroscopic ultrasound imaging enables quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. However, the potential of this technique for evaluation of subchondral bone has not been investigated in vivo. In this study, we address this issue in clinical arthroscopy of the human knee (n = 11) by determining quantitative ultrasound (9 MHz) reflection and backscattering parameters for cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, in each knee, seven anatomical sites were graded using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system based on (i) conventional arthroscopy and (ii) ultrasound images acquired in arthroscopy with a miniature transducer. Ultrasound enabled visualization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. ICRS grades based on ultrasound images were higher (p < 0.05) than those based on conventional arthroscopy. The higher ultrasound-based ICRS grades were expected as ultrasound reveals additional information on, for example, the relative depth of the lesion. In line with previous literature, ultrasound reflection and scattering in cartilage varied significantly (p < 0.05) along the ICRS scale. However, no significant correlation between ultrasound parameters and structure or density of subchondral bone could be demonstrated. To conclude, arthroscopic ultrasound imaging had a significant effect on clinical grading of cartilage, and it was found to provide quantitative information on cartilage. The lack of correlation between the ultrasound parameters and bone properties may be related to lesser bone change or excessive attenuation in overlying cartilage and insufficient power of the applied miniature transducer.

  16. Ultrasound for neuraxial blockade.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Karthikeyan Kallidaikurichi; Lee, Peter John; Iohom, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Neuraxial blockade is still largely performed as a blind procedure. Despite of developments in the type of needles used and drugs administered, the process of locating the epidural or intra-thecal space is still limited to identification of landmarks by palpation and reliance on tactile feedback of the operator. Ultrasound has provided the long needed "eye" to the procedure and has already shown promise of improving the safety and efficacy or neuraxial blocks. This review focuses on understanding the sonoanatomy of the neuraxial space, performing a systematic pre-procedural ultrasound scan, and reviewing the available evidence. PMID:25463890

  17. [How should anesthesiologists perform ultrasound examinations? Diagnostic use of ultrasound in emergency and intensive care and medicine].

    PubMed

    Maecken, T; Zinke, H; Zenz, M; Grau, T

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging has attained great significance as a tool for diagnostics in emergency and intensive care medicine. The major advantages of this technique are its instantaneous bedside availability and the possibility to perform repeatable examinations. These advantages are based on recent developments, such as portable ultrasound devices offering excellent imaging quality as well as a quick-start-function. Ultrasound imaging in critically ill patients is frequently performed under pressure of time depending on the current acute physical state. All standard examinations in echocardiography, vascular, abdominal and thoracic ultrasound scanning can be applied in these patients. Based on the clinical scenario the duration of examinations may vary from seconds during cardiopulmonary resuscitations to time-consuming repeated scanning. The transition from basic to subject-specific detailed examinations is flowing and has to be adjusted to local conditions. In the field of emergency and intensive care medicine the technique used is whole-body sonography. The goal is to classify the patient's present physical state and to define a targeted therapeutic approach. The characteristics of whole-body sonography are similar to the field of anesthesiology which is an interdisciplinary one. Currently, these characteristics deserve more attention in training in sonography.

  18. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Michiel; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested. PMID:21218081

  19. Ultrasound in the meat industry: general applications and decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Turantaş, Fulya; Kılıç, Gülden Başyiğit; Kılıç, Birol

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the findings of research focused on ultrasound as a "green", nonchemical technology in the meat industry to improve meat quality and safety. An overview of the importance of the decontamination in meat processing and microbial inactivation using ultrasound combined with some other applications is provided along with results of high power ultrasound studies which have been applied and adapted in the meat industry. The research results revealed that ultrasound by itself or in combination with other processing and/or preservation methods has a potential for improving the general quality, marination and tenderness of meat, preventing microbial growth and recontamination in meat and meat products as well as for the determination of defects in carcasses and cleaning process equipment. This review will provide an interpretation of ultrasound applications, an up-to-date summary of published articles, and an overview of the microbial inactivation in meat and poultry and their products by ultrasound. Since there is a need for not only a pathogen-free product but also a quality product; this review also can be accepted as a report on the results of research in the field of meat quality improvements with ultrasound applications.

  20. The Role of Airway and Endobronchial Ultrasound in Perioperative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Jiri; Zemanová, Petra; Lambert, Lukas; Vesela, Michaela Michalkova

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increased use of ultrasound in evaluation of the airway and the lower parts of the respiratory system. Ultrasound examination is fast and reliable and can be performed at the bedside and does not carry the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. Apart from use in diagnostics it may also provide safe guidance for invasive and semi-invasive procedures. Ultrasound examination of the oral cavity structures, epiglottis, vocal cords, and subglottic space may help in the prediction of difficult intubation. Preoperative ultrasound may diagnose vocal cord palsy or deviation or stenosis of the trachea. Ultrasonography can also be used for confirmation of endotracheal tube, double-lumen tube, or laryngeal mask placement. This can be achieved by direct examination of the tube inside the trachea or by indirect methods evaluating lung movements. Postoperative airway ultrasound may reveal laryngeal pathology or subglottic oedema. Conventional ultrasound is a reliable real-time navigational tool for emergency cricothyrotomy or percutaneous dilational tracheostomy. Endobronchial ultrasound is a combination of bronchoscopy and ultrasonography and is used for preoperative examination of lung cancer and solitary pulmonary nodules. The method is also useful for real-time navigated biopsies of such pathological structures. PMID:26788507

  1. The Role of Airway and Endobronchial Ultrasound in Perioperative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Jiri; Zemanová, Petra; Lambert, Lukas; Vesela, Michaela Michalkova

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increased use of ultrasound in evaluation of the airway and the lower parts of the respiratory system. Ultrasound examination is fast and reliable and can be performed at the bedside and does not carry the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. Apart from use in diagnostics it may also provide safe guidance for invasive and semi-invasive procedures. Ultrasound examination of the oral cavity structures, epiglottis, vocal cords, and subglottic space may help in the prediction of difficult intubation. Preoperative ultrasound may diagnose vocal cord palsy or deviation or stenosis of the trachea. Ultrasonography can also be used for confirmation of endotracheal tube, double-lumen tube, or laryngeal mask placement. This can be achieved by direct examination of the tube inside the trachea or by indirect methods evaluating lung movements. Postoperative airway ultrasound may reveal laryngeal pathology or subglottic oedema. Conventional ultrasound is a reliable real-time navigational tool for emergency cricothyrotomy or percutaneous dilational tracheostomy. Endobronchial ultrasound is a combination of bronchoscopy and ultrasonography and is used for preoperative examination of lung cancer and solitary pulmonary nodules. The method is also useful for real-time navigated biopsies of such pathological structures. PMID:26788507

  2. Ultrasound in the meat industry: general applications and decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Turantaş, Fulya; Kılıç, Gülden Başyiğit; Kılıç, Birol

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the findings of research focused on ultrasound as a "green", nonchemical technology in the meat industry to improve meat quality and safety. An overview of the importance of the decontamination in meat processing and microbial inactivation using ultrasound combined with some other applications is provided along with results of high power ultrasound studies which have been applied and adapted in the meat industry. The research results revealed that ultrasound by itself or in combination with other processing and/or preservation methods has a potential for improving the general quality, marination and tenderness of meat, preventing microbial growth and recontamination in meat and meat products as well as for the determination of defects in carcasses and cleaning process equipment. This review will provide an interpretation of ultrasound applications, an up-to-date summary of published articles, and an overview of the microbial inactivation in meat and poultry and their products by ultrasound. Since there is a need for not only a pathogen-free product but also a quality product; this review also can be accepted as a report on the results of research in the field of meat quality improvements with ultrasound applications. PMID:25613122

  3. CT and orbital ultrasound findings in a case of Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Jacob W; Harrie, Roger P; Patel, Bhupendra C; Davis, Don K; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a 2-month history of left periorbital swelling was found to have a large solid intraconal mass on CT scan. Orbital ultrasound showed that the lesion had a cavernous pattern of internal reflectivity. Histopathology revealed hyaline-vascular type Castleman disease (CD). This article represents the first reported orbital ultrasound findings in CD. The findings of CT scan and ultrasound may be useful in the preoperative evaluation of orbital hyaline-vascular type CD.

  4. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  5. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  6. An Effort to Develop an Algorithm to Target Abdominal CT Scans for Patients After Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Pernar, Luise I M; Lockridge, Ryan; McCormack, Colleen; Chen, Judy; Shikora, Scott A; Spector, David; Tavakkoli, Ali; Vernon, Ashley H; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2016-10-01

    Abdominal CT (abdCT) scans are frequently ordered for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain, but often do not reveal intra-abdominal pathology. We aimed to develop an algorithm for rational ordering of abdCTs. We retrospectively reviewed our institution's RYGB patients presenting acutely with abdominal pain, documenting clinical and laboratory data, and scan results. Associations of clinical parameters to abdCT results were examined for outcome predictors. Of 1643 RYGB patients who had surgery between 2005 and 2015, 355 underwent 387 abdCT scans. Based on abdCT, 48 (12 %) patients required surgery and 86 (22 %) another intervention. No clinical or laboratory parameter predicted imaging results. Imaging decisions for RYGB patients do not appear to be amenable to a simple algorithm, and patient work-up should be based on astute clinical judgment.

  7. A rare cause of abdominal lymphadenopathy--tularemia: report of two pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Kanık-Yüksek, Saliha; Kılıç, Selçuk; Senel, Emrah

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis occurs worldwide in the northern hemisphere, with great variation in geographic and temporal occurrence. It generally presents as an acute febrile disease with the major clinical presentations including the six classic forms of tularemia: ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, typhoidal, and pneumonic. In contrast to European countries, where the ulceroglandular form is more prominent, the oropharyngeal form is the most common presentation in Turkey. We present rare cases of oropharyngeal tularemia in a 16-year-old boy and nine-year-old girl. To the best of our knowledge, these are the firstly described abdominal lymphadenopathy cases from Turkey. The second case was admitted with erythema nodosum, and abdominal lymphadenopathy was detected during the investigation. Excisional lymph node biopsy revealed abdominal tularemia. It is necessary to consider tularemia in the differential diagnosis of abdominal lymphadenopathy in tularemia regions. We also conclude that oropharyngeal tularemia can cause lymphadenopathy in any part of the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Poças, F.; Araújo, Tarcísio; Coelho, André; Silva, Donzilia; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with unremarkable past history underwent endoscopy for dyspepsia. She denied weight loss or anorexia. Upper endoscopy revealed a bulge in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach with 4-5 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound was performed which showed a heterogeneous lesion, anechogenic in the major part, with a floating membrane inside, the greatest diameter of 90.8 × 17.2 mm, originated in the left liver lobe. Surgical resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion with an acellular thick fibrous wall, surrounded by a conspicuous inflammatory reaction. The cyst wall revealed a characteristic lamellar pattern of the fibers. In the internal surface of the lesion, there were remains of membranous structures, amidst which a vestigial Protoscolex was noted. In the presented case, a floating membrane was observed, which is a pathognomonic feature, establishing the diagnosis of hydatid cyst type 3. Fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound was not performed due to the certainty in the diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first images by endoscopic ultrasound of hydatid cyst of liver presented as a bulge in the stomach with pathognomonic features, which allowed the definitive diagnosis with no need for further diagnostic tests. PMID:27446863

  9. Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Castro-Poças, F; Araújo, Tarcísio; Coelho, André; Silva, Donzilia; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with unremarkable past history underwent endoscopy for dyspepsia. She denied weight loss or anorexia. Upper endoscopy revealed a bulge in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach with 4-5 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound was performed which showed a heterogeneous lesion, anechogenic in the major part, with a floating membrane inside, the greatest diameter of 90.8 × 17.2 mm, originated in the left liver lobe. Surgical resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion with an acellular thick fibrous wall, surrounded by a conspicuous inflammatory reaction. The cyst wall revealed a characteristic lamellar pattern of the fibers. In the internal surface of the lesion, there were remains of membranous structures, amidst which a vestigial Protoscolex was noted. In the presented case, a floating membrane was observed, which is a pathognomonic feature, establishing the diagnosis of hydatid cyst type 3. Fine needle aspiration guided by ultrasound was not performed due to the certainty in the diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first images by endoscopic ultrasound of hydatid cyst of liver presented as a bulge in the stomach with pathognomonic features, which allowed the definitive diagnosis with no need for further diagnostic tests. PMID:27446863

  10. Cardiac 4D Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'hooge, Jan

    Volumetric cardiac ultrasound imaging has steadily evolved over the last 20 years from an electrocardiography (ECC) gated imaging technique to a true real-time imaging modality. Although the clinical use of echocardiography is still to a large extent based on conventional 2D ultrasound imaging it can be anticipated that the further developments in image quality, data visualization and interaction and image quantification of three-dimensional cardiac ultrasound will gradually make volumetric ultrasound the modality of choice. In this chapter, an overview is given of the technological developments that allow for volumetric imaging of the beating heart by ultrasound.

  11. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  12. Comparison of changes in the contraction of the lateral abdominal muscles between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and breathe held at the maximum expiratory level.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Hirose, Ryohei; Watanabe, Susumu

    2012-10-01

    The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is commonly used as a fundamental component of lumbar stabilization training programs. One potential limitation of lumbar stabilization programs is that it can be difficult and time consuming to train people to perform the ADIM. The transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles are the most powerful muscles involved in expiration. However, little is known about the differences in the recruitment of the abdominal muscles between the ADIM and breathe held at maximum expiratory level (maximum expiration). The thickness of the TrA and IO muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging, and the activity of the EO muscle was measured by electromyography (EMG) in 33 healthy male performing the ADIM and maximum expiration. Maximum expiration produced a significant increase in the thickness of the TrA and IO muscles compared to the ADIM (p < 0.001). The EMG activity of the EO muscle was significantly higher during maximum expiration than during the ADIM (p < 0.001). The intensity of the EMG activity of the EO muscle was approximately 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction during maximum expiration. Thus, maximum expiration may be an effective method for training of co-activation of the lateral abdominal muscles.

  13. Ultrasound and the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist researchers in writing their research protocols and subject consent forms so that both the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and subjects are assured of the minimal risk associated with diagnostic B-scan ultrasound as it is used in speech research. There have been numerous epidemiological studies on fetal…

  14. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  15. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff.

  16. Basic Principles of Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Teresa M.

    Ultrasound has been used in medicine for at least 50 years. Its current importance can be judged by the fact that, of all the various kinds of diagnostic images produced in the world, 1 in 4 is an ultrasound scan. Ultrasound energy is exactly like sound energy, it is a variation in the pressure within a medium. The only difference is that the rate of variation of pressure, the frequency of the wave, is too rapid for humans to hear. Medical ultrasound lies within a frequency range of 30 kHz to 500 MHz. Generally, the lower frequencies (30 kHz to 3 MHz) are for therapeutic purposes, the higher ones (2 to 40 MHz) are for diagnosis (imaging and Doppler), the very highest (50 to 500 MHz) are for microscopic images. For diagnostic purposes two main techniques are employed; the pulse-echo method is used to create images of tissue distribution; the Doppler effect is used to assess tissue movement and blood flow.

  17. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:25807772

  18. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:23868677

  19. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

  20. Ultrasound features of lacrimal gland in Sjogren's syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Seceleanu, Andreea; Pop, Sorin; Preda, Dan; Szabo, Ioan; Rogojan, Liliana; Seceleanu, Radu

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of bilateral lacrimal gland hypertrophy with secondary glaucoma due to the increased episcleralvenous pressure. Diagnostic work-up included clinical methods associated with ultrasound (A- and B-scan, Doppler ultrasound) and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Clinical data revealed proptosis, episcleral congestion, and elevated intraocular pressure. Abnormal Schirmer's test and xerophthalmia were also present. Ultrasound examination identified enlarged masses of a cystic structure in lacrimal fossae bilaterally, superotemporally to the globe, more pronounced on the left side. Doppler ultrasound revealed vascularization and magnetic resonance imaging completed the findings offered by ultrasound methods. Based on the clinical aspect and the possible visual impairment due to secondary glaucoma, the mass lesion on the left side was removed by neurosurgical approach. Histopathology confirmed destruction of the lacrimal gland and immunohistochemistry indicated Sjogren's syndrome lesions. Sonography is able to provide noninvasively much of the information needed by the clinician. The A-scan and B-scan ultrasound techniques and color Doppler allow tracking and discrimination of orbital diseases, such as lacrimal gland lesions. Associated with clinical features, these methods provide the basis of correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy for lacrimal gland pathology.

  1. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signal detection via fractional Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Gençer, Merve; Bilgin, Gökhan; Aydın, Nizamettin

    2013-01-01

    Computerized analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals can aid early detection of asymptomatic circulating emboli. For analysis, physicians use informative features extracted from Doppler ultrasound signals. Time -frequency analysis methods are useful tools to exploit the transient like signals such as Embolic signals. Detection of discriminative features would be the first step toward automated analysis of embolic Doppler ultrasound signals. The most problematic part of setting up emboli detection system is to differentiate embolic signals from confusing similar wave-like patterns such as Doppler speckle and artifacts caused by tissue movement, probe tapping, speaking etc. In this study, discrete version of fractional Fourier transform is presented as a solution in the detection of emboli in digitized Doppler ultrasound signals. An accurate set of parameters are extracted using short time Fourier transform and fractional Fourier transform and the results are compared to reveal detection quality. Experimental results prove the efficiency of fractional Fourier transform in which discriminative features becomes more evident.

  2. Modeling the Growth of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Baxter, Paul D.; Jiang, Tao; Charnell, Aimee M.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Anne B.; Bridge, Katherine I.; Sohrabi, Soroush; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth is a complex process that is incompletely understood. Significant heterogeneity in growth trajectories between patients has led to difficulties in accurately modeling aneurysm growth across cohorts of patients. We set out to compare four models of aneurysm growth commonly used in the literature and confirm which best fits the patient data of our AAA cohort. Methods: Patients with AAA were included in the study if they had two or more abdominal ultrasound scans greater than 3 months apart. Patients were censored from analysis once their AAA exceeded 5.5 cm. Four models were applied using the R environment for statistical computing. Growth estimates and goodness of fit (using the Akaike Information Criterion, AIC) were compared, with p-values based on likelihood ratio testing. Results: Of 510 enrolled patients, 264 met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 1861 imaging studies during 932 cumulative years of surveillance. Overall, growth rates were: (1) 0.35 (0.31,0.39) cm/yr in the growth/time calculation, (2) 0.056 (0.042,0.068) cm/yr in the linear regression model, (3) 0.19 (0.17,0.21) cm/yr in the linear multilevel model, and (4) 0.21 (0.18,0.24) cm/yr in the quadratic multilevel model at time 0, slowing to 0.15 (0.12,0.17) cm/yr at 10 years. AIC was lowest in the quadratic multilevel model (1508) compared to other models (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: AAA growth was heterogeneous between patients; the nested nature of the data is most appropriately modeled by multilevel modeling techniques. PMID:26798704

  3. Laparoscopic repair of abdominal incisional hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal incisional hernia is a common complication after open abdominal operations. Laparoscopic procedures have obvious mini-invasive advantages for surgical treatment of abdominal incisional hernia, especially to cases with big hernia defect. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia has routine mode but the actual operations will be various according to the condition of every hernia. Key points of these operations include design of the position of trocars, closure of defects and fixation of meshes. The details of these issues and experiences of perioperative evaluation and treatment will be talked about in this article. PMID:27761446

  4. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  5. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  6. Isolate abdominal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkurşun, S; Oztürk, H; Celasun, B; Sakarya, M T; Sürer, I

    1997-04-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare abnormalities. They are usually asymptomatic unless secondarily infected or large enough to cause compression of other vital structures. The authors report on a 20-month-old girl who had an abdominal bronchogenic cyst and presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. The evaluation and treatment of this patient is presented as well as a review of the ten previously reported cases. A literature review showed only four cases in the pediatric age group. Excision is recommended to establish diagnosis and alleviate any symptoms. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

  7. Detection of Asymptomatic Renal Calcifications in Astronauts Using a Novel Ultrasound Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) specifically looking for asymptomatic renal calcifications that may be renal stones is typically not done in the terrestrial setting. Standard abdominal US without a renal focus may discover incidental, mineralized renal material (MRM); however punctate solid areas of MRM is less than 3 mm are usually considered subclinical. Detecting these early calcifications before they become symptomatic renal stones is critical to prevent adverse medical and mission outcomes during spaceflight.

  8. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  9. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  10. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  11. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  12. Asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma 15 years after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Tica, V I; Tomescu, C L; Tomescu, Aneta; Micu, Luminiţa; Zaher, M; Bafani, S; Beghim, M; Serbănescu, L; Tica, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is rare and its diagnosis is difficult. However, the consequences may be serious, like recurrences or even malignant transformation. We report a rarer case of asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma, accidentally found during a surgical procedure for a second cesarean section, in a 39-years old patient, without any relevant history of endometriosis. The tumor was subcutaneous, 3/3 cm in size, located in the left angle of the incision from the 15 years previously performed cesarean section and freely mobile in relation with the skin and the fascia. It was excised, with clear margins (to prevent recurrences), during the procedure. The patient was discharged after five days. The postoperative period and the follow-up at one and three months were uneventful. The pathological examination clarified the diagnosis by revealing an endometrioma with decidual reaction. Such a condition may be, therefore, evoked before an abdominal wall tumor, even without specific symptoms, even in a 39-years old woman and longtime after the possible causal surgery. Pathological examination remains the ultimate diagnostic tool. Relevant prophylactic attitude at the end of the cesarean section may be considered.

  13. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    PubMed

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  14. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  15. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  16. Measurement of Thermal Effects of Doppler Ultrasound: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Samir; Bader, Yvonne; Koch, Marianne; Tiringer, Denise; Kollmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultrasound is considered a safe imaging modality and is routinely applied during early pregnancy. However, reservations are expressed concerning the application of Doppler ultrasound in early pregnancy due to energy emission of the ultrasound probe and its conversion to heat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal effects of emitted Doppler ultrasound of different ultrasound machines and probes by means of temperature increase of in-vitro test-media. Methods We investigated the energy-output of 5 vaginal and abdominal probes of 3 ultrasound machines (GE Healthcare, Siemens, Aloka). Two in-vitro test objects were developed at the Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University Vienna (water bath and hydrogel bath). Temperature increase during Doppler ultrasound emission was measured via thermal sensors, which were placed inside the test objects or on the probes’ surface. Each probe was emitting for 5 minutes into the absorbing test object with 3 different TI/MI settings in Spectral Doppler mode. Results During water bath test, temperature increase varied between 0.1 and 1.0°C, depending on probe, setting and focus, and was found highest for spectral Doppler mode alone. Maximum temperature increase was found during the surface heating test, where values up to 2.4°C could be measured within 5 minutes of emission. Conclusions Activation of Doppler ultrasound in the waterbath model causes a significant increase of temperature within one minute. Thermally induced effects on the embryo cannot be excluded when using Doppler ultrasound in early pregnancy. PMID:26302465

  17. A Pancreatic Solid Pseudo-Papillary Tumor Detected After Abdominal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Kazuko; Ideguchi, Hiroshi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Solid pseudo-papillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is a relatively benign tumor that is more frequently reported in females. Most patients usually present with abdominal pain or mass. We experienced the girl who identified SPT with the injury. We diagnosed SPT in a previously healthy 14-year-old Asian girl after abdominal injury. She experienced upper abdominal pain and vomiting after being hit by a basketball. Blood examination revealed a high serum amylase level. Abdominal radiography indicated abnormal bowel gases. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a smooth, peripheral and unilocular mass approximately 55 mm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Based on these observations, acute pancreatitis complicated by a pancreatic mass was initially diagnosed. Therapy for acute pancreatitis was instituted, while we simultaneously investigated the mass. Levels of tumor markers were not profoundly elevated in serum. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed moderate and gradual increase in contrast-enhanced imaging, consistent with findings of SPT of the pancreas. We thus elected surgical resection for her. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed our diagnosis of SPT. SPT of the pancreas should be considered as a differential diagnosis of acute abdomen disorders, especially in instances after minor abdominal injuries in young women, and diagnoses must be confirmed with MRIs.

  18. Spontaneous rupture of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Fatal spontaneous rupture of the lower abdominal aorta in a previously healthy 61-year-old woman is reported; the possibility that she had the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:870895

  19. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  20. Understanding noninguinal abdominal hernias in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Cabry, Robert J; Thorell, Erik; Heck, Keith; Hong, Eugene; Berkson, David

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are common with over 20 million hernia repairs performed worldwide. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. Inguinal and sports hernia have been discussed at length in recent literature, and therefore, they will not be addressed in this article. The noninguinal hernias are much less common but do occur, and knowledge of these hernias is important when assessing the athlete with abdominal pain. Approximately 25% of abdominal wall hernias are noninguinal, and new data show the order of frequency as umbilical, epigastric, incisional, femoral, and all others (i.e., Spigelian, obturator, traumatic). Return-to-play guidelines need to be tailored to the athlete and the needs of their sport. Using guidelines similar to abdominal strain injuries can be a starting point for the treatment plan. Laparoscopic repair is becoming more popular because of safety and efficacy, and it may lead to a more rapid return to play. PMID:24614421

  1. Magnetic Surgical Instruments for Robotic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leong, Florence; Garbin, Nicolo; Natali, Christian Di; Mohammadi, Alireza; Thiruchelvam, Dhan; Oetomo, Denny; Valdastri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    This review looks at the implementation of magnetic-based approaches in surgical instruments for abdominal surgeries. As abdominal surgical techniques advance toward minimizing surgical trauma, surgical instruments are enhanced to support such an objective through the exploration of magnetic-based systems. With this design approach, surgical devices are given the capabilities to be fully inserted intraabdominally to achieve access to all abdominal quadrants, without the conventional rigid link connection with the external unit. The variety of intraabdominal surgical devices are anchored, guided, and actuated by external units, with power and torque transmitted across the abdominal wall through magnetic linkage. This addresses many constraints encountered by conventional laparoscopic tools, such as loss of triangulation, fulcrum effect, and loss/lack of dexterity for surgical tasks. Design requirements of clinical considerations to aid the successful development of magnetic surgical instruments, are also discussed.

  2. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  3. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  4. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  5. Management of abdominal contusion in polytraumatized children.

    PubMed

    Canarelli, J P; Boboyono, J M; Ricard, J; Doidy, L; Collet, L M; Postel, J P

    1991-01-01

    Management of abdominal contusion in polytraumatized children is based on the conservative treatment of spleen and liver lesions when it is possible. Ultrasonography and CTScan can give a good evaluation of splenic, liver, pancreas or kidney lesions. In some cases, if the haemodynamic conditions are good, a non-operative treatment may be proposed. We report our experience of conservative management of intra abdominal lesions in children, about 91 cases in ten years. PMID:1869385

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmectomy in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jebara, Victor A.; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Moulonguet-Deloris, L.; Acar, Christophe; Debauchez, Mathieu; Chachques, J.C.; Glotz, Denis; Duboust, Alain; Langanay, Thierry; Carpentier, Alain

    1990-01-01

    Because renal transplantation is allowing an increased number of patients to survive for prolonged periods, abdominal aortic aneurysms can be expected to occur with growing frequency in these patients. Surgical management of such cases involves the provision of allograft protection. To date, the literature contains 15 reports of abdominal aortic aneurysms in renal allograft recipients. We describe a 16th case and discuss the management of these patients. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:240-4) Images PMID:15227179

  7. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death. PMID:27695177

  8. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  9. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as

  10. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  11. Abdominal apoplexy resulting in small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Don; Guileyardo, Joseph; Casanova, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal apoplexy is a rare hemorrhagic condition involving the small arteries or veins within the abdominal cavity. A high degree of clinical suspicion, followed by appropriate diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention, is critical, as nonoperative mortality approaches 100%. Contrary to most previously reported cases, which were associated with hemoperitoneum, we present a patient in which gastroduodenal artery dissection resulted in an organized retroperitoneal hematoma with local compression of the duodenum and subsequent bowel obstruction, resulting in vomiting, aspiration, and death.

  12. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    PubMed

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  13. Ultrasound features of orbital granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Bernadete; Miller, Neil R; Eberhart, Charles G; Dibernardo, Cathy W

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the echographic characteristics of a rare orbital granular cell tumor and correlate these findings with histopathology. A 56-year-old woman presented with proptosis. Complete ophthalmic and ultrasound examinations were performed. Ultrasound revealed an oval, well-outlined orbital mass in the intraconal space with low-medium reflectivity and regular internal structure. An orbitotomy with complete excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic evaluation showed sheets and nests of cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm in a uniform distribution throughout the lesion. The echographic characteristics correlated well with the morphologic surgical findings and the histologic architecture. This is the first report describing the echographic characteristics of orbital granular cell tumor.

  14. Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Wang, Tao; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Tao; Xu, Chuan; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zheng-cai; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied. Methods Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid. Results Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD (P = -0.008) were all independent predictors of PCD. Conclusions Infected (peri)pancreatic collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease. PMID:25659143

  15. Internal abdominal hernia: Intestinal obstruction due to trans-mesenteric hernia containing transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Orendo-Velásquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus. The X-ray and abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT scan) showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy performed revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia containing part of the transverse colon. The intestine was viable and resection was not necessary. Only the hernia was repaired. DISCUSSION Internal trans-mesenteric hernia constitutes a rare type of internal abdominal hernia, corresponding from 0.2 to 0.9% of bowel obstructions. This type carries a high risk of strangulation and even small hernias can be fatal. This complication is specially related to trans-mesenteric hernias as it tends to volvulize. Unfortunately, the clinical diagnosis is rather difficult. CONCLUSION Trans-mesenteric internal abdominal hernia may be asymptomatic for many years because of its nonspecific symptoms. The role of imaging test is relevant but still does not avoid the necessity of exploratory surgery when clinical features are uncertain. PMID:24880799

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by tension pneumoperitoneum in a scuba diver.

    PubMed

    Bunni, J; Bryson, P J; Higgs, S M

    2012-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency caused by a raised intra-abdominal pressure, which may lead to respiratory, cardiovascular and renal compromise. It is most commonly seen in post-operative and trauma patients and it has a variety of causes. Tension pneumoperitoneum (TP) is a rare cause of abdominal compartment syndrome most often seen after gastrointestinal endoscopy with perforation. We present the case of a fit 52-year-old experienced female diver who developed TP and shock following a routine training dive to 27m. Following accidental inhalation of water, she had an unstaged ascent and, on reaching the surface, developed severe acute abdominal pain and distension. She was brought to our emergency department by air ambulance for assessment. Clinical and radiological examination revealed a shocked patient with dramatic free intra-abdominal gas and signs of abdominal compartment syndrome, which was treated with needle decompression. Symptoms and signs resolved quickly with no need for further surgical intervention. TP is a surgical emergency where surgery can be avoided with prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  18. Ultrasound-guided suprapubic cystostomy catheter placement in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Patrick A; Choi, Toni; Durham, Brittan A

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a series of patients undergoing ultrasound-guided suprapubic cystostomy catheter placement in the Emergency Department. A series of 17 consecutive patients who underwent emergent real-time ultrasound-guided suprapubic cystostomy in the ED over a 2-year period is reported. The procedure was facilitated by direct ultrasound imaging of the bladder using a Digital Sonoace 5500 machine. Procedural notes and follow-up records were analyzed for efficacy, safety, and complications. The results demonstrated that trans-abdominal ultrasound confirmed urinary retention before drainage in each of the 17 cases enrolled. Each patient required emergent suprapubic cystostomy catheter placement for acute urinary outflow obstruction because urethral bladder catheterization was not possible or was contraindicated. Continuous real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy placement and decompression of the bladder was successful in all 17 (100%, 90-100% CI: 95%) cases. There were no complications reported. In conclusion, real-time ultrasound imaging of the bladder was successful for the purpose of aiding the guidance of a suprapubic cystostomy catheter placement in the ED and might represent an improvement from the standard blind method presently used.

  19. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique. PMID:25636803

  20. Biofouling control with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.R.

    2000-06-01

    Experiments have been carried out on a small-scale simulated cooling water system using a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens to represent the slime-forming microbial community, to examine the opportunities for control using ultrasound. Glass tubes (18 mm I.D. x 1 m long) through which contaminated water flowed at 1 m/s were dosed with ultrasound along the tube axis. Glass tubes were employed to facilitate the use of infrared absorbance for biofilm accumulation assessment. The preliminary results demonstrate that control of biofilm formation and the removal of established biofilms on the inside of tubes may be achieved by the technology, but there may be some limitations with respect to removal.

  1. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  2. Sparsity driven ultrasound imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; C¸etin, Müjdat; Karl, W. Clem

    2012-01-01

    An image formation framework for ultrasound imaging from synthetic transducer arrays based on sparsity-driven regularization functionals using single-frequency Fourier domain data is proposed. The framework involves the use of a physics-based forward model of the ultrasound observation process, the formulation of image formation as the solution of an associated optimization problem, and the solution of that problem through efficient numerical algorithms. The sparsity-driven, model-based approach estimates a complex-valued reflectivity field and preserves physical features in the scene while suppressing spurious artifacts. It also provides robust reconstructions in the case of sparse and reduced observation apertures. The effectiveness of the proposed imaging strategy is demonstrated using experimental data. PMID:22352501

  3. Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

    Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

  4. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  5. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated.

  6. Clinical ophthalmic ultrasound improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. B.; Piro, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution ultrasound images of eye and orbit was proposed. The parameters of the switched array configuration to reduce data collection time to a few milliseconds to avoid eye motion problems in the eye itself were established. An assessment of the effects of eye motion on the performance of the system was obtained. The principles of synthetic techniques are discussed. Likely applications are considered.

  7. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  8. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  9. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Roy, David; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  10. Content-based ultrasound image retrieval using a coarse to fine approach.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong-Min; Kim, Bum-Soo; Yoon, Ock-Kyung; Park, Chul-Hyung; Won, Jong-Un; Park, Kil-Houm

    2002-12-01

    One of the current issues for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is extending retrieval technologies to deal with multimedia information. This is particularly important for medical applications that assist in diagnostic processes and pathology studies. Accordingly, this paper presents a new approach to content-based image retrieval (CBIR) for a clinical ultrasound image database (DB). The proposed algorithm consists of two stages so as to maximize the retrieval efficiency. In the first stage, a coarse retrieval is performed using the statistical characteristics of the wavelet coefficients that narrow the search by eliminating up to 70% of the total DB images. In the second stage, a fine retrieval is carried out using the Legendre moment of the global histogram pdf on the reduced image set preretrieved by the coarse retrieval. When tested on an abdominal ultrasound image DB and compared with various other methods, the proposed algorithm gave promising results for applying CBIR to clinical ultrasound images. PMID:12594091

  11. Abdominal exploration in captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Oliveira, I R S; Alves, N D; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    This study determines the morphology and ultrasound features of the abdominal organs in male, nestling and healthy collared peccaries. The bladder wall is hyperechogenic, with a thickness of 0.2 ± 0.08 cm. The kidneys present a well-defined cortex, medulla and pelvis, and the dimensions are 2.56 ± 0.3 × 4.6 ± 0.8 cm for the left and 2.51 ± 0.4 × 4.86 ± 1.1 cm for the right kidney. The spleen has a uniform echotexture over its entire surface. The largest dimensions of the liver are 2.0 ± 0.57 cm for the left lobe and 1.42 ± 0.66 cm for the caudate lobe. The liver presents a homogeneous echotexture in the majority of cases, but sometimes some hyperechoic spots are present. The stomach wall has a thickness of 0.42 ± 0.28 cm. The bowel loops show alternate hyperechoic and hypoechoic layers with a uniform diameter and a wall thickness of 0.19 ± 0.07 cm.

  12. Advances in determining abdominal aortic aneurysm size and growth.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Lioudaki, Stella; Pantidis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Ioannou, Christos V

    2016-02-28

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common pathology in the aging population of the developed world which carries a significant mortality in excess of 80% in case of rupture. Aneurysmal disease probably represents the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention and therefore the ability to accurately and reproducibly record aneurysm size and growth over time is of outmost importance. In the same time that imaging techniques may be limited by intra- and inter-observer variability and there may be inconsistencies due to different modalities [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT)], rapid technologic advancement have taken aortic imaging to the next level. Digital imaging, multi-detector scanners, thin slice CT and most- importantly the ability to perform 3-dimensional reconstruction and image post-processing have currently become widely available rendering most of the imaging modalities used in the past out of date. The aim of the current article is to report on various imaging methods and current state of the art techniques used to record aneurysm size and growth. Moreover we aim to emphasize on the future research directions and report on techniques which probably will be widely used and incorporated in clinical practice in the near future. PMID:26981224

  13. [The 452th case: rash, hypotension, abdominal pain and headache].

    PubMed

    Bian, S N; Yang, H H; Wang, Q; Xu, D; Zhao, Y

    2016-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized with multiple organ involvements. Acute acalculous cholecystitis(AAC) is an extremely rare manifestation of digestive system involvement in SLE. We reported a case of 32-year-old woman who complained skin rashes for two weeks and stomachache and oliguria for one day. She had rashes at onset, and developed fever, stomachache, hypotension and headache. Physical examination at admission indicated blood pressure 76/47 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), heart rate 107 beats/min, warm acra. Murphy's sign was positive. Ultrasound suggested the enlarged gallbladder with surrounding hypoecho band yet no biliary calculi were found. A diagnosis of SLE was made, characteristic with distributive shock at the onset and AAC, complicated with neuropsychiatric lupus and lupus nephritis. She had an acute and severe course of disease, which had been relieved after treatment of high dose glucocorticoid and immunosuppressants. This case arouses clinicians to pay more attention to AAC as a rare form of disease flare in SLE. Early diagnosis of AAC is crucial to a favorable prognosis and in avoid of abdominal surgery. PMID:27586989

  14. Advances in determining abdominal aortic aneurysm size and growth

    PubMed Central

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Lioudaki, Stella; Pantidis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Ioannou, Christos V

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common pathology in the aging population of the developed world which carries a significant mortality in excess of 80% in case of rupture. Aneurysmal disease probably represents the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention and therefore the ability to accurately and reproducibly record aneurysm size and growth over time is of outmost importance. In the same time that imaging techniques may be limited by intra- and inter-observer variability and there may be inconsistencies due to different modalities [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT)], rapid technologic advancement have taken aortic imaging to the next level. Digital imaging, multi-detector scanners, thin slice CT and most- importantly the ability to perform 3-dimensional reconstruction and image post-processing have currently become widely available rendering most of the imaging modalities used in the past out of date. The aim of the current article is to report on various imaging methods and current state of the art techniques used to record aneurysm size and growth. Moreover we aim to emphasize on the future research directions and report on techniques which probably will be widely used and incorporated in clinical practice in the near future. PMID:26981224

  15. Detection of vascular defects during operation by imaging ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, B; Coelho, J C; Flanigan, D P; Schuler, J J; Machi, J; Beitler, J C

    1982-01-01

    Real-time high resolution ultrasound imaging was employed during reconstructive vascular operation in 165 patients. The purpose of this diagnostic procedure was to detect unrecognized strictures, thrombi, and intimal flaps in order to permit their surgical correction at the primary operation. Defects were discovered in 48 patients (29%). In 34 patients (21%), because of size and location, defects were not considered sufficiently significant to warrant re-exploration. In 14 patients (8%), ultrasound revealed defects that prompted immediate re-exploration. Patients with ultrasound defects considered to be insignificant did as well as patients with no demonstrable defects. In the 14 patients who were re-explored, 12 had major defects that were corrected. These 12 patients also did well after operation. In two of the 14 patients, defects could not be found at re-exploration. Both these patients experienced early thrombosis of bypass grafts. In 56 patients, ultrasound was compared with arteriography at the same operation. The accuracy of operative ultrasound and operative arteriography was 96% and 85%, respectively. Operative ultrasound is more accurate, simpler and safer than arteriography and may be the preferred method for detection of vascular defects at reconstructive surgery. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7125733

  16. Chronic Stress Increases Vulnerability to Diet-Related Abdominal Fat, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Kornfeld, Sarah; Picard, Martin; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter; Stanhope, Kimber; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In preclinical studies, the combination of chronic stress and a high sugar/fat diet is a more potent driver of visceral adiposity than diet alone, a process mediated by peripheral Neuropeptide Y (NPY). Methods In a human model of chronic stress, we investigated whether the synergistic combination of highly palatable foods (HPF; high sugar/fat) and stress was associated with elevated metabolic risk. Using a case-control design, we compared 33 post-menopausal caregivers (the chronic stress group) to 28 age-matched low-stress control women on reported HPF consumption (modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire), waistline circumference, truncal fat ultrasound, and insulin sensitivity using a three-hour oral glucose tolerance test. A fasting blood draw was assayed for plasma NPY and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxyguanosine and F2-Isoprostanes). Results Among chronically stressed women only, greater HPF consumption was associated with greater abdominal adiposity, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance at baseline (all p’s ≤.01). Furthermore, plasma NPY was significantly elevated in chronically stressed women (p<.01), and the association of HPF with abdominal adiposity was stronger among women with high versus low NPY. There were no significant predictions of change over one-year, likely due to high stability (little change) in the primary outcomes over this period. Discussion Chronic stress is associated with enhanced vulnerability to diet-related metabolic risk (abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress). Stress-induced peripheral NPY may play a mechanistic role. PMID:24882154

  17. Iliopsoas Bursa-Hip Capsule Connection Leading to Intra-abdominal Fluid Extravasation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Daniel R; Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-11-01

    Intra-abdominal fluid extravasation is a rare complication of hip arthroscopy, with a reported incidence of 0.16%. Associated risk factors include recent acetabular fracture, extra-articular procedures, iliopsoas tenotomy, and high fluid pump pressure. These previously reported risk factors were not present in the 48-year-old woman reported in this article. The patient elected to undergo hip arthroscopy for mechanical hip pain that persisted for 18 months. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a "normal variant communication [between] the iliopsoas bursa" and the hip capsule. Postoperative examination showed a tense, distended abdomen. After extubation, the patient had severe abdominal and pleuritic chest pain. Postoperative imaging showed significant retro- and intraperitoneal fluid extravasation. Ultrasound-guided paracentesis was used to drain the intraperitoneal fluid collection, with a significant decrease in pain. The patient returned home less than 24 hours later, with no further complications. The authors believe that the preexisting connection between the hip capsule and the iliopsoas bursa allowed the arthroscopy fluid to easily track proximally within the tendon sheath, despite relatively low fluid pump pressure. Surgeons should be aware of this possible "normal variant communication," which may be considered a relative contraindication to hip arthroscopy, especially in patients with arthritic changes on preoperative imaging. This must be addressed with the patient preoperatively, with proper counseling and patient selection. If arthroscopy is pursued, the surgical and anesthesia teams must be vigilant for signs of intra-abdominal fluid extravasation and must be prepared to treat this potentially serious complication.

  18. Thoracic paravertebral blocks in abdominal surgery - a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdadly, K; Madjdpour, C; Chin, K J

    2016-09-01

    Thoracic paravertebral blocks (TPVBs) have an extensive evidence base as part of a multimodal analgesic strategy for thoracic and breast surgery and have gained popularity with the advent of ultrasound guidance. However, this role is poorly defined in the context of abdominal surgery. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, to clarify the impact of TPVB on perioperative analgesic outcomes in adult abdominal surgery. We identified 20 published trials involving a total of 1044 patients that met inclusion criteria; however there was significant heterogeneity in terms of type of surgery, TPVB technique, comparator groups and study quality. Pain scores and opioid requirements in the early postoperative period were generally improved when compared with systemic analgesia, but there was insufficient evidence for any definitive conclusions regarding comparison with epidural analgesia or other peripheral block techniques, or the benefit of continuous TPVB techniques. The reported primary block failure rate was 2.8% and the incidence of complications was 1.2% (6/504); there were no instances of pneumothorax. TPVB therefore appears to be a promising analgesic technique for abdominal surgery in terms of efficacy and safety. But further well-designed and adequately powered studies are needed to confirm its utility, particularly with respect to other regional anaesthesia techniques.

  19. [Echography of palpable abdominal masses in adults. Apropos of 92 cases].

    PubMed

    Poncin, J; Bousquet, J C; Hassan, M

    1984-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of 92 cases of palpable abdominal masses in adults, lesions being of undetermined origin clinically but verified by ultrasound imaging. Final distribution of organs affected showed considerable divergence between the different intra- and retro-peritoneal organs and the various pathological conditions involved, with a predominance of malignant tumors. This dispersion means that a discriminating examination such as ultrasonography must be practised. Ultrasound imaging was able to identify the affected organ in 86 p. 100 cases using a precise semiological analysis (mass center, interface). Diagnostic difficulties (14 p. 100 cases) are due to restrictions in semiological factors, large masses, and certain topographic or morphologic clinical forms. Ultrasound regularly provides macroscopic data: shape of mass, and size reduced by approximately 15 p. 100 in all cases. Regional and metastatic extension is also underestimated in approximately 1/4 cases. If these limitations are accepted, the use of ultrasonography appears to be the primary procedure required, this determining the therapeutic decision.

  20. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  1. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed by characteristic symptoms for at least 12 weeks during the preceding 12 months in the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation. The irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are distinguished by symptom-based diagnostic criteria. Unspecified FBD lacks criteria for the other FBDs. Diagnostic testing is individualized, depending on patient age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is defined as either the FAP syndrome, which requires at least six months of pain with poor relation to gut function and loss of daily activities, or unspecified FAP, which lacks criteria for the FAP syndrome. An organic cause for the pain must be excluded, but aspects of the patient's pain behavior are of primary importance. Treatment of the FBDs relies upon confident diagnosis, explanation, and reassurance. Diet alteration, drug treatment, and psychotherapy may be beneficial, depending on the symptoms and psychological features.


Keywords: functional bowel disorder; functional constipation; functional diarrhea; irritable bowel syndrome; functional abdominal pain; functional abdominal bloating; Rome II PMID:10457044

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. [Ultrasound imaging of coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shigeto

    2014-09-01

    Coronary arterial anatomy and the terminology were reviewed. There is a specific portion of coronary artery aneurysm in Kawasaki disease. To investigate coronary arterial lesion, ultrasound imaging is useful because of non-invasive, high special and time resolu tion method. I explained the patient posture, the approaching method to the coronary arter ies, ultrasound setting, measurement of coronary arterial diameter and diastolic measurement.

  4. Endobronchial ultrasound elastography

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Herth, Felix J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques have recently become available as advanced diagnostic tools for tissue characterization. Strain elastography is a real-time technique used with transcutaneous ultrasound (US) and endoscopic US. Convincing evidence is available demonstrating a significant value of strain elastography for the discrimination of benign and malignant lymph nodes (LNs). This paper reviews preliminary data demonstrating the feasibility of performing real-time elastography during endobronchial US (EBUS) and a potential application of this technique for selection of LNs for EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in patients with lung cancer and extrathoracic malignancies. PMID:27503154

  5. Therapeutic Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology has evolved dramatically over the past 20 years, from being a supplementary diagnostic aid available only in large medical centers to being a core diagnostic and therapeutic tool that is widely available. Although formal recommendations and practice guidelines have not been developed, there are considerable data supporting the use of EUS for its technical accuracy in diagnosing pancreaticobiliary and gastrointestinal pathology. Endosonography is now routine practice not only for pathologic diagnosis and tumor staging but also for drainage of cystic lesions and celiac plexus neurolysis. In this article, we cover the use of EUS in biliary and pancreatic intervention, ablative therapy, enterostomy, and vascular intervention. PMID:27118942

  6. Imaging By Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Maria R.

    1986-01-01

    Imaging by ultrasound has dramatically changed the investigation and management of many clinical problems. It is useful in many different parts of the body. In this brief discussion, the following topics are considered: hepatic lesions, bleeding in early pregnancy, gynecological pathology (adnexal lesions), aortic aneurysms, thyroid nodules and scrotal masses. The usefulness of duplex carotid sonography, which combines ultrasonic imaging and Doppler studies, is also discussed. Other topics (gallstones, biliary obstruction, renal calculi, hydronephrosis) are discussed in the appropriate sections. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21267202

  7. Dynamic ultrasound with postural change facilitated the detection of an incisional hernia in a case with negative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Wongsithichai, Patcharaporn; Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-09-01

    Incisional hernias commonly develop after abdominal surgeries with a lower incidence in patients receiving laparoscopy. Diagnosis through a non-surgical approach is usually made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance images (MRI) but both image modalities require patients to be examined in a supine position. We reported a case noticing a mass over her right lower abdomen after a laparoscopic liver segmentectomy with negative findings of hernia on MRI. A hernia sac was found by ultrasound with the patient being standing, highlighting the utility of dynamic ultrasound with postural change in investigation of incisional hernias.

  8. Emergency point-of-care ultrasound diagnosis of hematocolpometra and imperforate hymen in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jason W; Kwan, Charisse W

    2014-02-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented to the pediatric emergency department with a history of difficulty voiding and was found to have a firm, tender suprapubic mass on examination. Transabdominal emergency point-of-care ultrasound was used at the bedside to diagnose hematocolpometra due to an imperforate hymen. The diagnosis was confirmed by a comprehensive abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the radiology suite. The patient was discharged on oral contraceptive medication and scheduled for an outpatient surgical hymenectomy following consultation with the gynecology service.

  9. What's new in urologic ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Anupam; Naranje, Priyanka; Pavunesan, Santhosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an imaging technology that has evolved swiftly and has come a long way since its beginnings. It is a commonly used initial diagnostic imaging modality as it is rapid, effective, portable, relatively inexpensive, and causes no harm to human health. In the last few decades, there have been significant technological improvements in the equipment as well as the development of contrast agents that allowed ultrasound to be even more widely adopted for urologic imaging. Ultrasound is an excellent guidance tool for an array of urologic interventional procedures and also has therapeutic application in the form of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for tumor ablation. This article focuses on the recent advances in ultrasound technology and its emerging clinical applications in urology. PMID:26166960

  10. Efficacy of ultrasound in removal of intraradicular posts using different techniques.

    PubMed

    Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Alfredo, Edson; Vansan, Luis Pascoal; Fonseca, Tabajara Sabbag; Ferraz, José Antonio Brufato; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2005-09-01

    The efficacy of ultrasound in removing cast metal posts was evaluated in this in vitro study using one or two ultrasound units and ultrasonic vibration for various lengths of time. The crowns of 30 healthy maxillary canines were removed, the roots were embedded in acrylic resin blocks, and the root canals were treated endodontically. The canals were prepared and their impressions were taken with self-curing acrylic resin. After casting with copper-aluminum alloy, the posts were blasted with aluminum oxide and cemented with Panavia F resin cement. The specimens were divided into five groups. In groups I and II, only one ultrasound unit was used for 30 and 60 s, respectively; in groups III and IV, two ultrasound units were used simultaneously for 30 and 60 s, respectively; in group V, ultrasound was not used (control). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied with an Enac OE-5 ultrasound unit and an ST-09 tip. All samples were subjected to traction on an Instron machine (model 4444) at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Analysis of the results revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups (ANOVA, P < 0.01); however the difference between groups II and IV was not statistically significant. The efficacy of ultrasound in removing intraradicular posts was confirmed, and the most effective technique was the use of two ultrasound units, independent of the length of time ultrasound was applied.

  11. Psychosocial factors and childhood recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Boey, Christopher Chiong-Meng; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in children is not a single condition but a description of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which fit into a definite pattern, such as the irritable bowel syndrome, while others do not. Organic disorders may be present, but in the majority of children they cannot be detected. Although children with recurrent abdominal pain do not generally have psychological or psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that psychosocial stress plays an important role in this condition. This review will look into some of this evidence. The precise pathophysiology that results in abdominal pain is still not clearly understood, but the current belief is that visceral hypersensitivity or hyperalgesia and changes in the brain-gut axis linking the central and enteric nervous systems are important mechanisms. PMID:12423267

  12. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  13. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  14. Spatiotemporal Clutter Filtering of Ultrafast Ultrasound Data Highly Increases Doppler and fUltrasound Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Demené, Charlie; Deffieux, Thomas; Pernot, Mathieu; Osmanski, Bruno-Félix; Biran, Valérie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Franqui, Stéphanie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Cohen, Ivan; Baud, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-01

    Ultrafast ultrasonic imaging is a rapidly developing field based on the unfocused transmission of plane or diverging ultrasound waves. This recent approach to ultrasound imaging leads to a large increase in raw ultrasound data available per acquisition. Bigger synchronous ultrasound imaging datasets can be exploited in order to strongly improve the discrimination between tissue and blood motion in the field of Doppler imaging. Here we propose a spatiotemporal singular value decomposition clutter rejection of ultrasonic data acquired at ultrafast frame rate. The singular value decomposition (SVD) takes benefits of the different features of tissue and blood motion in terms of spatiotemporal coherence and strongly outperforms conventional clutter rejection filters based on high pass temporal filtering. Whereas classical clutter filters operate on the temporal dimension only, SVD clutter filtering provides up to a four-dimensional approach (3D in space and 1D in time). We demonstrate the performance of SVD clutter filtering with a flow phantom study that showed an increased performance compared to other classical filters (better contrast to noise ratio with tissue motion between 1 and 10mm/s and axial blood flow as low as 2.6 mm/s). SVD clutter filtering revealed previously undetected blood flows such as microvascular networks or blood flows corrupted by significant tissue or probe motion artifacts. We report in vivo applications including small animal fUltrasound brain imaging (blood flow detection limit of 0.5 mm/s) and several clinical imaging cases, such as neonate brain imaging, liver or kidney Doppler imaging.

  15. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2013-08-23

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  16. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  17. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2013-08-23

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences.

  18. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  19. Bubble gum simulating abdominal calcifications.

    PubMed

    Geller, E; Smergel, E M

    1992-01-01

    CT examination of the abdomens of two children demonstrated sites of high attenuation in the stomach, which were revealed to be bubble gum. Investigation of the CT appearance of samples of chewing gum showed that it consistently has high attenuation (178-345 HU). The attenuation of gum base, which contains calcium carbonate, was 476 HU. In addition, examination of a volunteer who had swallowed bubble gum confirmed the CT appearance. PMID:1523059

  20. Use of In-labeled autologous leukocytes to image an abdominal abscess in a horse

    SciTech Connect

    Koblik, P.D.; Lofstedt, J.; Jakowski, R.M.; Johnson, K.L.

    1985-06-15

    Indium 111-labeled autologous leukocytes were used to image an abdominal abscess in a horse with a palpable abdominal mass and history of Streptococcus equi infection. A focal area of radioactivity was identified in the location corresponding to the abscess. Imaging of this focal uptake was optimal 48 hours after injection. Similar scans obtained in 2 clinically normal horses revealed no evidence of focal radioactivity in this region. The cell labeling procedure gave acceptable labeling efficiency (87.5%) but an excessive number of damaged WBC, resulting in persistent lung radioactivity on all images. No adverse effects were noted. Radiation measured in the horse and its excreta were well within acceptable limits.