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Sample records for abdominal ultrasound scan

  1. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  2. [Ultrasound scanning of abdominal contusions in children: experience at the Yopougon CHU (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    N'Goan, A M; Aguehounde, C; N'Gbesso, R D; Moh, N; Roux, C; Keita, K

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasound scans were used to study 23 cases of abdominal contusion in children, between January 1992 and December 1993. Thirteen boys and 10 girls were studied. They were all aged between 4 and 14 years, with a mean age of 6 years. The main causes of their injuries were road accidents (12 cases) and play (11 cases). Ultrasound scans were normal in 6 patients and pathological in 17 patients. The most frequently observed injuries were visceral effects (12 cases), almost always associated with hemoperitoneum. In three cases, hemoperitoneum was detected in the absence of visceral effects. The spleen (4 cases) and the liver (4 cases) were the most frequently injured organs. The other injuries detected included renal hematoma, bladder rupture and parietal hematoma. Diagnosis on the basis of ultrasound scans was found to be incorrect in three cases where diagnosis was repeated after the scan. One case involved a blocked perforation of the rectum, one a benign cyst and the other a mesenteric cyst. Despite these misdiagnoses, ultrasound scanning is a highly sensitive and specific method for examination of contusions in children. It is very useful and often sufficient for accurate diagnosis, particularly in units with only modest technical support. PMID:9480035

  3. Diagnosis of abdominal abscesses with computed tomography, ultrasound, and /sup 111/In leukocyte scans

    SciTech Connect

    Knochel, J.Q.; Koehler, P.R.; Lee, T.G.; Welch, D.M.

    1980-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scans are all used in the evaluation of abdominal abscesses. In this study, 170 patients in whom one, two, or all three of these modalities were used were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnostic accuracy of 96% for CT, 90% for ultrasound, and 92% for /sup 111/In leukocyte scans was achieved. It was often necessary to use more than one modality to arrive at a correct diagnosis. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the causes for false positive or false negative interpretations of each of these modalities are reviewed. Analysis of the different examinations resulted in a suggested sequence by which patients can be examined, based upon their clinical condition. Patients who are not critically ill and/or who have no localizing signs should be studied first with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scans. If, however, localizing signs are present or the patient's condition necessitates prompt intervention, CT or ultrasound should be the first study performed.

  4. Abdominal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  6. Comparison of 99m technetium hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime labelled leucocyte with 111-indium tropolonate labelled granulocyte scanning and ultrasound in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, M J; Joseph, A E; French, A; Saverymuttu, S H; Maxwell, J D

    1995-01-01

    Fifty patients with suspected intra-abdominal abscess were investigated prospectively with ultrasound and with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO) isotope labelled mixed leucocytes, using 111-In tropolonate granulocyte scanning as the reference standard. Twenty five patients had inflammatory bowel disease (three were postoperative): 21 of these had Crohn's disease and four had ulcerative colitis. The remainder comprised nine with postoperative fever and 16 with fever and abdominal pain. An abscess was diagnosed when focal activity on serial 111-In tropolonate and 99m-Tc-HMPOA images at one, three, and 24 hours resulted in activity at least equal to liver activity at 24 hours. Thirteen abscesses were diagnosed using each type of white cell scanning, resulting in 100% sensitivity for 99m-Tc-HMPAO compared with 111-In tropolonate. Bowel inflammation was easily distinguished from abscess on serial images. Eight of these 13 abscesses were detected by ultrasound. Altogether 17 abscesses were found. Ultrasound detected 12, including four liver abscesses which were not purulent and had not been detected by white cell scanning. Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 71% (12 of 17) and a specificity of 87% (33 of 38) using all confirmed abscesses as the reference standard. White cell scanning showed a sensitivity of 76% (13 of 17: as a result of the four non-purulent liver abscesses) and a specificity of 100%. 99m-Tc-HMPAO scanning is as accurate as 111-In tropolonate scanning, and has several advantages including simplicity, availability, superior image quality, and reduced radiation dose. Both methods are more sensitive and specific than ultrasound for intra-abdominal abscess detection but ultrasound is advisable if a neutrophil infiltrate is not suspected. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7489945

  7. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  8. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  9. Is there a Role for Planned Serial Chest Radiographs and Abdominal Ultrasound Scans in the Resuscitation Room Following Trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Gales, Hannah; Perry, Michael

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite advances in trauma care, significant morbidity and mortality exists which could be reduced if all injuries were immediately identified. Two treatable factors are hypoxia and hypovolaemia which may occur secondary to haemorrhage into the chest and abdomen. Pneumothorax is also a frequent cause of preventable trauma death. Clinical examination is limited and we often rely on imaging. Anecdotally, it seemed some patients were investigated too quickly because their injuries had not evolved sufficiently enough to become detectable. In these patients, repeated assessments and imaging would, therefore, be necessary. PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a retrospective study looking at all patients over a 15-month period with significant chest and abdominal injuries. Patients with a chest or abdominal Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) of 3 or above were identified. As a cross reference, those patients who required at least one chest drain, or a laparotomy within 24 h of admission were also identified. Case notes and films were reviewed with particular attention to the presence of initial ‘normal’ imaging. RESULTS A total of 1036 patients were eligible for entry into the trauma database; of these, 170 patients had chest and/or abdominal injuries coded as AIS 3 or more. We were able to identify 7 cases (4%) where initial clinical examination and imaging failed to detect either bleeding (pleural space or abdomen) or a pneumothorax. A further 5 cases were potential missed injuries, but the data were incomplete making confident inclusion in this group impossible. CONCLUSIONS Occult injuries are reported to have an incidence of around 2–5%. Serial imaging in the resuscitation room may enable early identification of chest and abdominal injuries. However, only 12 cases were identified making interpretation of suitable candidates for repeat imaging difficult. The question is which group of patients would benefit from planned repeat imaging before leaving the

  10. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  11. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Beau

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of an office-based, family physician–administered ultrasound examination to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Design A prospective observational study. Consecutive patients were approached by nonphysician staff. Setting Rural family physician offices in Grand Forks and Revelstoke, BC. Participants The Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery screening recommendations for AAA were used to help select patients who were at risk of AAA. All men 65 years of age or older were included. Women 65 years of age or older were included if they were current smokers or had diabetes, hypertension, a history of coronary artery disease, or a family history of AAA. Main outcome measures A focused “quick screen,” which measured the maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta using point-of-care ultrasound technology, was performed in the office by a resident physician trained in emergency ultrasonography. Each patient was then booked for a criterion standard scan (ie, a conventional abdominal ultrasound scan performed by a technician and interpreted by a radiologist). The maximal abdominal aortic diameter measured by ultrasound in the office was compared with that measured by the criterion standard method. The time to screen each patient was recorded. Results Forty-five patients were included in data analysis; 62% of participants were men. The mean age was 73 years. The mean pairwise difference between the office-based ultrasound scan and the criterion standard scan was not statistically significant. The mean absolute difference between the 2 scans was 0.20 cm (95% CI 0.15 to 0.25 cm). Correlation between the scans was 0.81. The office-based ultrasound scan had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The mean time to screen each patient was 212 seconds (95% CI 194 to 230 seconds). Conclusion Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening can be safely performed in the office by family physicians who are trained to use point

  12. [Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels].

    PubMed

    Oviedo-García, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Á

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter.

  13. Breast ultrasound scans - surgeons' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Piotr; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound- guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment.

  14. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Z; Sakijan, A S; Annuar, N; Kooi, G H

    1990-12-01

    Ultrasound examinations were done to evaluate clinically palpable abdominal masses in 125 children. The examinations were normal in 21 patients. In 15 patients, the clinically palpable masses were actually anterior abdominal wall abscesses or hematomas. Final diagnosis was available in 87 of 89 patients with intraabdominal masses detected on ultrasound. The majority (71%) were retroperitoneal masses where two-thirds were of renal origin. Ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 68 patients (78%). All cases of hydronephrosis were correctly diagnosed based on characteristic ultrasound appearances. Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information.

  15. Ultrasound evaluation of abdominal masses in Ethiopian child patients.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Assefa Getachew; Nigussie, Yared

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of abdominal masses and evaluate the value of ultrasound in paediatric abdominal masses. We used a cross-sectional study of abdominal masses in children attending a university teaching hospital. The common abdominal masses were: Wilms' tumour, 12 (14.8%); lymphoma, 11 (13.6%); appendiceal mass/abscess, 11 (13.6%); neuroblastoma, 7 (8.6%); TB, 6 (7.4%); hydronephrosis, 5 (6.2%); abdominal wall abscess, 6 (7.4%); hydatidcyst, 4 (4.9%); mesenteric cyst, 3 (3.7%); and intussusceptions, 3 (3.7%). Identification of a purely cystic mass was suggestive of benign lesion (odds ratio [OR] = 118, P = 0.0001) and masses found in the <5 years age group tend to be malignant (OR = 2.77). The most common sites of origin were kidneys, retroperitoneal extra renal and gastrointestinal tract. The overall diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was 88.9%.

  16. Abdominal and obstetric applications of a dynamically focused phased array real time ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C L; Trought, W S; von Ramm, O T; Thurstone, F L

    1980-05-01

    Abdominal and obstetric applications of a dynamically focused phased array real time ultrasonic system are described. This work was performed utilising both the Thaumascan (two-dimensional, high resolution, actual time, ultrasound, multi-element array scanner) and the first commercial unit based on this system, the Grumman RT-400. Examples of normal and pathological anatomy are presented from over 300 examinations performed to date, including a series of 28 abdominal aortic aneurysms studied with the RT-400. Following electronic alterations in the Thaumascan with resultant improvement in the grey scale, prospective analyses in 86 obstetric and 23 abdominal examinations were undertaken. These studies indicate that fetal, intra-uterine, and abdominal structures can be rapidly and consistently imaged. The value of real time ultrasonic scanning in obstetric and abdominal examinations is illustrated. The principles of dynamically focused phased arrays are described, and the merits and limitations of these systems are discussed.

  17. [Peroperative ultrasound scanning of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, J H; Hernigou, A; Billebaud, T; Bouillot, J L; Plainfosse, M C

    1985-01-01

    Intraoperative realtime high resolution ultrasound scanning of the pancreas seems to be a new and promising procedure. We have performed it in 28 patients: the normal ultrasound picture of pancreatic ducts and parenchyma was defined in 9 patients without pancreatic disease; in 19 patients with pancreatic disease, intraoperative ultrasound was compared with preoperative ultrasound examination. Seven of 8 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 4 of 6 with calcifying chronic pancreatitis had positive findings, respectively. In 3 cancer patients, intraoperative ultrasound investigation avoided a long and unavailing dissection of the tumor by revealing extensive spread. In selected cases, intraoperative sonography allowed to characterize and to localize pancreatic carcinoma: portal vein invasion, relationship of the tumor to the duct of Wirsung and small hepatic metastases. In chronic pancreatitis, intraoperative ultrasound information concerning the dimensions of the pancreatic duct, the structure and the localization of pseudocysts was comparable to that obtained by radiological opacification. Furthermore, intraoperative ultrasound exploration guided proper incision and evacuation of pancreatic pseudocysts in two patients. Operative ultrasound seems to us to be mandatory during pancreatic surgery. Further experience with this technique is needed in a larger number of patients. However, we believe that it could replace intraoperative cholangiography and pancreaticography in the assessment of extension and complications of pancreatic disease.

  18. Improving cranial ultrasound scanning strategy in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Cranial ultrasound scans are undertaken in this tertiary neonatal intensive care unit by the doctors within the department. A quality improvement project was undertaken by means of two PDSA cycles to determine adherence to neonatal cranial ultrasound scanning schedule, assess the quality of scan reporting, and formulate a comprehensive guideline outlining best practice. The baseline measurements assessed 93 scans of preterm infants and 9 of term infants. The results of this prompted intradepartmental education (PDSA cycle 1) then creation and implementation of a documentation template, a local guideline, and education via presentations, posters, and email (PDSA cycle 2). These encompassed 77 preterm and 5 term scans. In our baseline measurements, 52% of preterm infant scans and 44% of term infant scans were performed to schedule. Of premature baby scan reports, 75% had the time documented and 92% the name of the scanning doctor. After implementing changes PDSA cycle 2 data showed that 74% of preterm infant scans and all term infant scans were performed according to schedule, with 100% having the doctor's name and time of scan documented. We successfully introduced a guideline and documentation template, improving performance to schedule and documentation in most areas. It remains an ongoing challenge to adhere to basic standards of documentation; a template can assist in achieving this. Rotating trainees may offer insight into areas that could benefit from quality improvement. This enthusiasm can be successfully harnessed to implement changes to improve quality of patient care. PMID:27096095

  19. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. METHODS Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. RESULTS Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. DISCUSSION Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery. PMID:26005249

  20. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  1. Scanning phononic lattices with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, R.E.; Wolfe, J.P.; Every, A.V.

    1999-11-01

    A method for probing the elastic properties of newly developed periodic structures using acoustic waves is introduced. Highly anisotropic transmission of surface acoustic waves is observed by continuously scanning the wave vector angle. Preliminary models of wave propagation through multilayers and two-dimensional lattices explain some of the experimental features, while other features can be attributed to the resonant excitation of interface waves. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Ultrasound scanning of the ovarian cycle.

    PubMed

    Hackelöer, B J

    1984-12-01

    Ultrasound scanning of the ovarian cycle is a simple noninvasive technique for monitoring ovarian activity. It helps to predict a mature follicle and the time of ovulation more accurately than the basal body temperature and more rapidly and cheaply than a hormone profile, but still only one facet of ovarian activity. With respect to in vitro fertilization, egg collection can be undertaken by means of sonically guided puncture via the bladder, which is reported later in this issue. Replacement of the embryo can be controlled by sonar visualization of catheter. The use of ultrasound has proved to be extremely helpful in the management of the infertile couple.

  3. Pleuropulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis: CT and ultrasound findings

    PubMed Central

    Shim, S S; Kim, Y; Lee, J K; Lee, J H; Song, D E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review radiological images of patients with Paragonimus westermani (PW) that simultaneously involved the chest and abdomen. Methods Our study included four patients with serologically and histopathologically confirmed paragonimiasis. Abdomen CT (n=3) and chest CT (n=3) scans were available, and abdominal wall ultrasonography was performed in all patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of these patients. Results The most common abdominal CT findings were ascites and intraperitoneal or abdominal wall nodules. Low-attenuated serpentine lesions of the liver were another common and relatively specific feature. Conclusion Radiologists should consider the possibility of PW when these abdominal CT findings are noted, especially with pleural effusion or subpleural nodules in patients with initial abdominal symptoms. PMID:22457403

  4. A 10-year restrospective evaluation of ultrasound in pregnant abdominal trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Quinn C; Brown, Michele A; Dehqanzada, Zia A; Doucet, Jay; Coimbra, Raul; Casola, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    The pregnant abdominal trauma patient presents a unique diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of abdominal sonography for the detection of clinically important injuries in pregnant abdominal trauma patients. A retrospective review was performed of a trauma center database from 2001 to 2011. Medical records were reviewed to determine initial abdominal imaging test results and clinical course. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ultrasound for detection of traumatic injury were calculated. Of 19,128 patients with suspected abdominal trauma, 385 (2 %) were pregnant. Of these, 372 (97 %) received ultrasound as the initial abdominal imaging test. All 13 pregnant patients who did not receive ultrasound received abdominal CT. Seven pregnant patients underwent both ultrasound and CT. Seven ultrasound examinations were positive, leading to one therapeutic Cesarean section and one laparotomy. One ultrasound was considered false positive (no injury was seen on subsequent CT). There were 365 negative ultrasound examinations. Of these, 364 were true negative (no abdominal injury subsequently found). One ultrasound was considered false negative (a large fetal subchorionic hemorrhage seen on subsequent dedicated obstetrical ultrasound). Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 85.7 %. Specificity and negative predictive value were 99.7 %. Abdominal sonography is an effective and sufficient imaging examination in pregnant abdominal trauma patients. When performed as part of the initial assessment using an abbreviated trauma protocol with brief modifications for pregnancy, ultrasound minimizes diagnostic delay, obviates radiation risk, and provides high sensitivity for injury in the pregnant population.

  5. Breast ultrasound scans – surgeons’ expectations

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Piotr; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment. PMID:26675118

  6. [Rectal prolapse revealing a tumor: The role of abdominal ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Bequet, E; Stiennon, L; Lhomme, A; Piette, C; Hoyoux, C; Rausin, L; Guidi, O

    2016-07-01

    Rectal prolapse is rare in children and usually benign. However, there are various diseases that can be associated with it, such as cystic fibrosis or other causes of increased abdominal pressure. Here, we review the various underlying conditions that pediatricians or pediatric gastroenterologists should consider in the case of rectal prolapse. We report on three cases of children with a rectal prolapse and intra-abdominal tumors. Current recommendations and practice do not include a systematic check via abdominal imaging in cases of rectal prolapse. However, in some situations, imaging is indicated to detect a possible expansive process. Thus, in the presence of recurrent prolapse or of associated urinary or neurological signs, imaging is justified so as to allow for an early diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms. Given its lack of radiation exposure and good sensitivity in children, ultrasound imaging is the first choice. PMID:27265581

  7. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Sessa, Barbara; Trinci, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Baseline ultrasound is essential in the early assessment of patients with a huge haemoperitoneum undergoing an immediate abdominal surgery; nevertheless, even with a highly experienced operator, it is not sufficient to exclude parenchymal injuries. More recently, a new ultrasound technique using second generation contrast agents, named contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been developed. This technique allows all the vascular phase to be performed in real time, increasing ultrasound capability to detect parenchymal injuries, enhancing some qualitative findings, such as lesion extension, margins and its relationship with capsule and vessels. CEUS has been demonstrated to be almost as sensitive as contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of traumatic injuries in patients with low-energy isolated abdominal trauma, with levels of sensitivity and specificity up to 95%. Several studies demonstrated its ability to detect lesions occurring in the liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys and also to recognize active bleeding as hyperechoic bands appearing as round or oval spots of variable size. Its role seems to be really relevant in paediatric patients, thus avoiding a routine exposure to ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, CEUS is strongly operator dependent, and it has some limitations, such as the cost of contrast media, lack of panoramicity, the difficulty to explore some deep regions and the poor ability to detect injuries to the urinary tract. On the other hand, it is timesaving, and it has several advantages, such as its portability, the safety of contrast agent, the lack to ionizing radiation exposure and therefore its repeatability, which allows follow-up of those traumas managed conservatively, especially in cases of fertile females and paediatric patients. PMID:26607647

  8. Monitoring the biological activity of abdominal aortic aneurysms Beyond Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Newby, David E; Robson, Jennifer M J

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are an important cause of morbidity and, when ruptured, are associated with >80% mortality. Current management decisions are based on assessment of aneurysm diameter by abdominal ultrasound. However, AAA growth is non-linear and rupture can occur at small diameters or may never occur in those with large AAAs. There is a need to develop better imaging biomarkers that can identify the potential risk of rupture independent of the aneurysm diameter. Key pathobiological processes of AAA progression and rupture include neovascularisation, necrotic inflammation, microcalcification and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes represent key targets for emerging imaging techniques and may confer an increased risk of expansion or rupture over and above the known patient-related risk factors. Magnetic resonance imaging, using ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide, can identify and track hotspots of macrophage activity. Positron emission tomography, using a variety of targeted tracers, can detect areas of inflammation, angiogenesis, hypoxia and microcalcification. By going beyond the simple monitoring of diameter expansion using ultrasound, these cellular and molecular imaging techniques may have the potential to allow improved prediction of expansion or rupture and to better guide elective surgical intervention. PMID:26879242

  9. 3D visualization of strain in abdominal aortic aneurysms based on navigated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekken, Reidar; Kaspersen, Jon Harald; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn; Hernes, Toril A. N.; Myhre, Hans Olav

    2007-03-01

    The criterion for recommending treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is that the diameter exceeds 50-55 mm or shows a rapid increase. Our hypothesis is that a more accurate prediction of aneurysm rupture is obtained by estimating arterial wall strain from patient specific measurements. Measuring strain in specific parts of the aneurysm reveals differences in load or tissue properties. We have previously presented a method for in vivo estimation of circumferential strain by ultrasound. In the present work, a position sensor attached to the ultrasound probe was used for combining several 2D ultrasound sectors into a 3D model. The ultrasound was registered to a computed-tomography scan (CT), and the strain values were mapped onto a model segmented from these CT data. This gave an intuitive coupling between anatomy and strain, which may benefit both data acquisition and the interpretation of strain. In addition to potentially provide information relevant for assessing the rupture risk of the aneurysm in itself, this model could be used for validating simulations of fluid-structure interactions. Further, the measurements could be integrated with the simulations in order to increase the amount of patient specific information, thus producing a more reliable and accurate model of the biomechanics of the individual aneurysm. This approach makes it possible to extract several parameters potentially relevant for predicting rupture risk, and may therefore extend the basis for clinical decision making.

  10. Ultrasound screening for clinically occult abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, M; Chan, A

    1988-01-01

    In a review of the records of 74 patients who had undergone repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm at a community hospital between 1977 and 1983 we found that the aneurysm had been undiagnosed before rupture in 35%; these patients had an operative death rate of 50%, whereas elective repair carried a death rate of 4%. The characteristic patient was an obese man over the age of 55 years with hypertension, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. Ultrasound examination was performed in 45 patients with these characteristics, and six aneurysms were diagnosed. Either surgery or computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. The rate of false-negative results was estimated by review of the charts of 100 men over the age of 55 years who had undergone abdominal ultrasonography for other indications: no undetected aneurysms were discovered over 3 years of follow-up. Routine screening in this high-risk group would improve the rate of diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition before rupture and offer the patient the lower mortality rate associated with elective surgery. PMID:3281738

  11. Robotic-assisted, ultrasound-guided abdominal cerclage during pregnancy: overcoming minimally invasive surgery limitations?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Teresa M; Borahay, Mostafa A; Fox, Karin A; Kilic, Gokhan S

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report robotic abdominal cerclage placement under ultrasound guidance. The da Vinci Si system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) allows a simultaneous display of the operative field and transvaginal ultrasound images. Additionally, the vaginal ultrasound probe assisted in the manipulation of the uterus to improve visualization without placing excessive pressure on the gravid uterus. Ultrasound guidance improves needle placement accuracy and reduces potential for injuries.

  12. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Marc; Zwolak, Robert; Velazquez, Omaida; Makaroun, Michel; Fairman, Ronald; Cronenwett, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been shown to be beneficial and cost-effective for men aged 65-74. However, most screening studies have been conducted in Europe and Australia, where attendance for screening was higher than the single large U.S. study involving only veterans. The prevalence of AAA in the U.S. general population is not well defined, nor is the best method of recruitment for screening. Letters of invitation for a free screening ultrasound for AAA were sent to 30,000 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries from the hospital referral region of three university-affiliated hospitals without restriction by age, gender, or comorbidity. Attendance for screening was calculated by age, gender, and travel distance to the screening center. Telephone calls to a random sample of nonresponders were made to determine the reason for failure to attend. Prevalence of AAA by ultrasound and known risk factors for AAA (e.g., age, gender, smoking status) were determined. The attendance rate was 7% (2,005). Attendance was greater with male gender (p < 0.01), younger age (p < 0.05), and decreased travel distance to the screening center (p < 0.05). The primary reasons for failure to attend included incorrect address or vital status, poor health, and lack of interest. Prevalence of previously undetected AAA was 2.8% in men and 0.2% in women. AAA was predicted by smoking status and male gender (p < 0.01 for each). Unselected invitation of Medicare beneficiaries for ultrasound screening for AAA results in a low attendance and low yield of AAA. The prevalence estimates from this study may not reflect the entire Medicare population given the low attendance and may reflect the healthy habits of those most interested in screening. Patients should be selected for screening based on their suitability for repair if an AAA is found as well as their risk factors for AAA. The best method of recruitment for screening of those most at risk for AAA in the United

  13. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Marc; Zwolak, Robert; Velazquez, Omaida; Makaroun, Michel; Fairman, Ronald; Cronenwett, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been shown to be beneficial and cost-effective for men aged 65-74. However, most screening studies have been conducted in Europe and Australia, where attendance for screening was higher than the single large U.S. study involving only veterans. The prevalence of AAA in the U.S. general population is not well defined, nor is the best method of recruitment for screening. Letters of invitation for a free screening ultrasound for AAA were sent to 30,000 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries from the hospital referral region of three university-affiliated hospitals without restriction by age, gender, or comorbidity. Attendance for screening was calculated by age, gender, and travel distance to the screening center. Telephone calls to a random sample of nonresponders were made to determine the reason for failure to attend. Prevalence of AAA by ultrasound and known risk factors for AAA (e.g., age, gender, smoking status) were determined. The attendance rate was 7% (2,005). Attendance was greater with male gender (p < 0.01), younger age (p < 0.05), and decreased travel distance to the screening center (p < 0.05). The primary reasons for failure to attend included incorrect address or vital status, poor health, and lack of interest. Prevalence of previously undetected AAA was 2.8% in men and 0.2% in women. AAA was predicted by smoking status and male gender (p < 0.01 for each). Unselected invitation of Medicare beneficiaries for ultrasound screening for AAA results in a low attendance and low yield of AAA. The prevalence estimates from this study may not reflect the entire Medicare population given the low attendance and may reflect the healthy habits of those most interested in screening. Patients should be selected for screening based on their suitability for repair if an AAA is found as well as their risk factors for AAA. The best method of recruitment for screening of those most at risk for AAA in the United

  14. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33 mm (range 20 to 74 mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll. PMID:26371387

  15. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33 mm (range 20 to 74 mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll.

  16. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  17. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E; Chaer, Rabih A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  18. [Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Sáez-Fernández, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Díaz-Rodríguez, N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information.

  19. Investigation of a scanned cylindrical ultrasound system for breast hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Tseng, Li-Te; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lin, Win-Li

    2006-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of a scanned cylindrical ultrasound system for producing uniform heating from the central to the superficial portions of the breast or localized heating within the breast at a specific location. The proposed system consists of plane ultrasound transducer(s) mounted on a scanned cylindrical support. The breast was immersed in water and surrounded by this system during the treatment. The control parameters considered are the size of the transducer, the ultrasound frequency, the scan angle and the shifting distance between the axes of the breast and the system. Three-dimensional acoustical and thermal models were used to calculate the temperature distribution. Non-perfused phantom experiments were performed to verify the simulation results. Simulation results indicate that high frequency ultrasound could be used for the superficial heating, and the scan angle of the transducer could be varied to obtain an appropriate high temperature region to cover the desired treatment region. Low frequency ultrasound could be used for deep heating and the high temperature region could be moved by shifting the system. In addition, a combination of low and high frequency ultrasound could result in a portion treatment from the central to the superficial breast or an entire breast treatment. Good agreement was obtained between non-perfused experiments and simulation results. The findings of this study can be used to determine the effects of the control parameters of this system, as well as to select the optimal parameters for a specific treatment.

  20. A navigation system for flexible endoscopes using abdominal 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Kaar, M.; Bathia, Amon; Bathia, Amar; Lampret, A.; Birkfellner, W.; Hummel, J.; Figl, M.

    2014-09-01

    A navigation system for flexible endoscopes equipped with ultrasound (US) scan heads is presented. In contrast to similar systems, abdominal 3D-US is used for image fusion of the pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) to the endoscopic US. A 3D-US scan, tracked with an optical tracking system (OTS), is taken pre-operatively together with the CT scan. The CT is calibrated using the OTS, providing the transformation from CT to 3D-US. Immediately before intervention a 3D-US tracked with an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) is acquired and registered intra-modal to the preoperative 3D-US. The endoscopic US is calibrated using the EMTS and registered to the pre-operative CT by an intra-modal 3D-US/3D-US registration. Phantom studies showed a registration error for the US to CT registration of 5.1 mm ± 2.8 mm. 3D-US/3D-US registration of patient data gave an error of 4.1 mm compared to 2.8 mm with the phantom. From this we estimate an error on patient experiments of 5.6 mm.

  1. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  2. Fast scanning probe for ophthalmic echography using an ultrasound motor.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Riccardo; Caliano, Giosuè; Caronti, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Massimo

    2005-11-01

    High-frequency transducers, up to 35-50 MHz, are widely used in ophthalmic echography to image fine eye structures. Phased-array techniques are not practically applicable at such a high frequency, due to the too small size required for the single transducer element, and mechanical scanning is the only practical alternative. At present, all ophthalmic ultrasound systems use focused single-element, mechanically scanned probes. A good probe positioning and image evaluation feedback requires an image refresh-rate of about 15-30 frames per second, which is achieved in commercial mechanical scanning probes by using electromagnetic motors. In this work, we report the design, construction, and experimental characterization of the first mechanical scanning probe for ophthalmic echography based on a small piezoelectric ultrasound motor. The prototype probe reaches a scanning rate of 15 sectors per second, with very silent operation and little weight. The first high-frequency echographic images obtained with the prototype probe are presented.

  3. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  4. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  5. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  6. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an...

  7. [Emergency ultrasound in patients with abdominal pain - where should we "look"].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tanja; Heinz, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is without doubt the imaging technique of choice in patients with acute abdominal pain. Point-of-care ultrasound examinations can help to reduce the number of possible differential diagnoses by exclusion or - as a best case scenario - show us directly the correct diagnosis. Hence patients can benefit from a very early appropriate therapeutic approach. This article illustrates where and how we should "look". After focusing on basic technical settings, typical pathological sonomorphologic changes in patients with some of the most important illnesses are characterized (e. g. acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, acute diverticulitis, acute pancreatitis and urinary tract occlusion). Ultrasound beginners are the target group of this survey.

  8. Preoperative ultrasound and gallium-67 evaluation of abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1984-08-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography followed by gallium (Ga)-67 scintigraphy in 21 patients, aged 1 to 14 years, appearing with abdominal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was analyzed. All cases were confirmed by biopsy; in a majority (16 patients), the tissue was obtained from an abdominal mass at the time of laparotomy subsequent to the imaging studies. Nineteen satisfactory abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed; 18 were interpreted as characteristic of NHL. Sixteen of these were of masses involving the gastrointestinal tract. All 21 patients had /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy that demonstrated abnormal radionuclide accumulation in the abdomen. In no instance was the final diagnosis different from the one predicted by the combined imaging studies. Ultrasonography is recommended as the initial test in the evaluation of clinical presentations consistent with abdominal NHL to expedite suitable management and prevent inappropriate surgery.

  9. The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in blunt abdominal trauma: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Fabio; Miele, Vittorio; Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice in the assessment of multiple trauma patients. However, in patients who suffered from low-energy abdominal trauma, the use of CT is controversial, since the probability of injury is low and therefore most of the studies are normal. Thus, conventional US imaging has increasingly been employed as the initial imaging modality in the work-up of minor traumatic emergency condition. More recently, the introduction of a new contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) technique, using second-generation ultrasound contrast agents, has led to a notable increase in the diagnostic accuracy of US in many organs. Therefore, in trauma patients, following assessment with conventional US imaging, a CEUS exam can be performed, to provide a more reliable assessment of solid organ injuries. CEUS has the potential to detect active bleeding from a variety of traumatic origins. Similar to CT, active extravasation is considered when there is evidence of contrast agent collection with echogenicity similar to that of an adjacent vessel. On the other hand, at least some drawbacks have to be addressed, including operator competence and reduced panoramic view. Moreover, CEUS, like conventional US imaging, cannot depict some lesions, such as diaphragmatic ruptures, bowel, and mesenteric traumatic injuries. This technique represents a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be performed at patient's bedside and is therefore extremely helpful for the follow-up of solid organs traumas managed conservatively, especially in pediatric patients and women of fertile age. Moreover, it may reduce the number of CT scans and expedite patient discharge.

  10. Advantages of percutaneous abdominal biopsy under PET-CT/ultrasound fusion imaging guidance: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Cevasco, Luca; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Pinna, Francesco; Belli, Fiorenza; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; De Caro, Giovanni; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that can investigate the metabolic characteristics of tissues. Currently, PET images are acquired and co-registered with a computed tomography (CT) scan (PET-CT), which is employed for correction of attenuation and anatomical localization. In spite of the high negative predictive value of PET, false-positive results may occur; indeed, Fluorine 18 ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake is not specific to cancer. As (18)F-FDG uptake may also be seen in non-malignant infectious or inflammatory processes, FDG-avid lesions may necessitate biopsy to confirm or rule out malignancy. However, some PET-positive lesions may have little or no correlative ultrasound (US) and/or CT findings (i.e., low conspicuity on morphological imaging). Since it is not possible to perform biopsy under PET guidance alone, owing to intrinsic technical limitations, PET information has to be integrated into a CT- or US-guided biopsy procedure (multimodal US/PET-CT fusion imaging). The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the technique of multimodal imaging fusion between real-time US and PET/CT, and to provide an overview of the clinical settings in which this multimodal integration may be useful in guiding biopsy procedures in PET-positive abdominal lesions.

  11. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  12. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors' own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5-6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia - peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement - a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent symptom of

  13. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part II: The morphology of changes

    PubMed Central

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Despite their frequent appearance, intra-abdominal adhesions are rarely the subject of clinical studies and academic discussions. For many years the operators have been trying to reduce such unfavourable consequences of interventions in the abdominal structures. The aim of this article is to present the possibilities of intra-abdominal adhesion diagnostics by means of ultrasound imaging based on authors’ own experience and information included in pertinent literature. The anatomy and examination technique of the abdominal wall were discussed in Part I of the article. In order to evaluate intraperitoneal adhesions, one should use a convex transducer with the frequency of 3.5–6 MHz. The article provides numerous examples of US images presenting intra-abdominal adhesions, particularly those which appeared after surgical procedures. The significance of determining their localisation and extensiveness prior to a planned surgical treatment is emphasized. Four types of morphological changes in the ultrasound caused by intra-abdominal adhesions are distinguished and described: visceroperitoneal adhesions, intraperitoneal adhesions, adhesive obstructions as well as adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall with a special form of such changes, i.e. hepatic pseudotumour. Its ultrasound features are as follows:The lesion is localised below the scar in the abdominal wall after their incision.The lesion is localised in the abdominal part of the liver segments III, IV and V.With the US beam focus precisely set, the lack of fascia – peritoneum complex may be noticed. An uneven liver outline or its ventral displacement appears.A hepatic adhesion-related pseudotumour usually has indistinct margins, especially the posterior one, and, gradually, from top to bottom, loses its hypoechogenic nature.In a respiration test, this liver fragment does not present the sliding movement – a neoplastic tumour rarely shows such an effect. The immobility of the liver is a permanent

  14. Construction of Abdominal Probabilistic Atlases and Their Value in Segmentation of Normal Organs in Abdominal CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunjin; Hero, Alfred; Bland, Peyton; Kessler, Marc; Seo, Jongbum; Meyer, Charles

    A good abdominal probabilistic atlas can provide important information to guide segmentation and registration applications in the abdomen. Here we build and test probabilistic atlases using 24 abdominal CT scans with available expert manual segmentations. Atlases are built by picking a target and mapping other training scans onto that target and then summing the results into one probabilistic atlas. We improve our previous abdominal atlas by 1) choosing a least biased target as determined by a statistical tool, i.e. multidimensional scaling operating on bending energy, 2) using a better set of control points to model the deformation, and 3) using higher information content CT scans with visible internal liver structures. One atlas is built in the least biased target space and two atlases are built in other target spaces for performance comparisons. The value of an atlas is assessed based on the resulting segmentations; whichever atlas yields the best segmentation performance is considered the better atlas. We consider two segmentation methods of abdominal volumes after registration with the probabilistic atlas: 1) simple segmentation by atlas thresholding and 2) application of a Bayesian maximum a posteriori method. Using jackknifing we measure the atlas-augmented segmentation performance with respect to manual expert segmentation and show that the atlas built in the least biased target space yields better segmentation performance than atlases built in other target spaces.

  15. An Effort to Develop an Algorithm to Target Abdominal CT Scans for Patients After Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Pernar, Luise I M; Lockridge, Ryan; McCormack, Colleen; Chen, Judy; Shikora, Scott A; Spector, David; Tavakkoli, Ali; Vernon, Ashley H; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2016-10-01

    Abdominal CT (abdCT) scans are frequently ordered for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain, but often do not reveal intra-abdominal pathology. We aimed to develop an algorithm for rational ordering of abdCTs. We retrospectively reviewed our institution's RYGB patients presenting acutely with abdominal pain, documenting clinical and laboratory data, and scan results. Associations of clinical parameters to abdCT results were examined for outcome predictors. Of 1643 RYGB patients who had surgery between 2005 and 2015, 355 underwent 387 abdCT scans. Based on abdCT, 48 (12 %) patients required surgery and 86 (22 %) another intervention. No clinical or laboratory parameter predicted imaging results. Imaging decisions for RYGB patients do not appear to be amenable to a simple algorithm, and patient work-up should be based on astute clinical judgment.

  16. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  17. [Value and sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound in preoperative histologic diagnosis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Trebing, G; Meyer, L; Scheele, J

    1998-01-01

    In a retrospective study we compared the findings of our abdominal ultra-sound diagnostic of the gallbladder and the common bile duct with the results ot preoperative ERCP, intraoperative findings and the histological results. The test parameters were the size of the gallbladder, the number and the size of biliary calculi, the thickness and the constitution of the wall of the gallbladder and the consecutive grade of inflammation, the wideness of the common bile duct and the suspicion of a choledocholithiasis, respectively. In acute cholecystitis we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours, in symtomatic cholecystolithiasis without cholecystitis an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. If there was suspicion of a choledocholithiasis we performed a preoperative ERCP. Altogether we had correct findings of the common bile duct in our ultrasound diagnostic in 133 of 136 cases (97.8%), only in 3 of 136 cases (2.2%) we had false negative ultrasound findings. With a generous indication to ERCP caused by anamnestic and/or laboratory findings the obstruction of the bile duct could be diagnosted and eliminated in 2 of these 3 cases preoperatively. In all cases of bile duct dilatation (7 mm and more) we found an obstruction of the common bile duct. Our results demonstrate that abdominal ultrasound is a high-efficiency method in the preoperative diagnostic of gallbladder and common bile duct stones.

  18. Using an abdominal phantom to teach urology residents ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle placement

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Pauline; Odisho, Anobel; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Usawachintachit, Manint; Hu, Weiguo; Li, Jianxing; Chi, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: To assess the effect of a hands-on ultrasound training session to teach urologic trainees ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle placement. Materials and methods: University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) urology residents completed a time trial, placing a needle into a phantom model target under ultrasound guidance. Participants were randomized into three educational exposure groups: Group 1's time trial occurred prior to any teaching intervention, group 2's after experiencing a hands-on training module, and group 3's after exposure to both the training module and one-on-one attending feedback. Needle placement speed and accuracy as well as trainees' perceived confidence in utilizing ultrasound were measured. Results: The study cohort consisted of 15 resident trainees. Seven were randomized to group 1, three to group 2, and five to group 3. All residents reported minimal prior ultrasound experience. Their confidence in using ultrasound improved significantly after completing the training module with the most significant improvement seen among junior residents. Time to needle placement was fastest after receiving attending feedback (46.6sec in group 3 vs. 82.7sec in groups 1 and 2, p<0.01). Accuracy also improved with attending feedback, though the number of repositioning attempts did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: A hands-on training module and use of an abdominal phantom trainer increased resident confidence and skill in their use of ultrasound to guide percutaneous needle positioning. Attending feedback is critical for improving accuracy in needle guidance toward a target. Ultrasound-guided needle positioning is a teachable skill and can be applicable to multiple urologic procedures. PMID:27564282

  19. Is transabdominal ultrasound scanning of cervical measurement in mid-trimester pregnancy a useful alternative to transvaginal ultrasound scan?

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Kalyansree; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Halder, Atin; Senapati, Sourav; Chaudhury, Sudeshna

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound measurements of the cervix in pregnancy. If transabdominal ultrasound measurement of cervical length is found to provide effective information, it could be used in patient counselling and when making clinical decisions. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty seven pregnant patients between 18–26 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in this prospective study for measuring cervical length, both by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound scan after bladder emptying. Transabdominal and transvaginal measurements were compared and correlated. Results In patients with transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) cervical length ≤32 mm, TVS cervical length was found to be shorter than by transabdominal ultrasound scan (TAS). Most of these patients needed >3 cm of vertical pocket of urine in the bladder for adequate visualisation of the cervix. In patients with TVS cervical length >32 mm, the TVS measurement of the cervix was longer than the TAS measurement of the cervix. In these patients, the cervix could be seen by TAS when there was either ≤3 cm vertical pocket of urine in the bladder or an empty bladder. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant difference between TAS and TVS cervical measurements and that there is a significant association between these two measurements. Conclusion Most of the patients needed variable degrees of bladder filling for adequate visualisation of the cervix. Although minimal bladder filling does not influence TAS measurements of cervical length, moderate fullness of the bladder does cause an apparent increase in TAS measurements of cervical length. If the cervical length is ≥30 mm by TAS, regardless of urine content in the bladder, the patient can be assured vis a vis their risk of preterm labour as far as cervical length is concerned. However, in patients with TAS cervical measurement <30 mm and where the bladder

  20. Wrist ultrasound examination – scanning technique and ultrasound anatomy. Part 1: Dorsal wrist

    PubMed Central

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system is superior to other imaging methods in many aspects, such as multidimensional character of imaging, possibility of dynamic evaluation and precise assessment of soft tissues. Moreover, it is a safe and relatively inexpensive method, broadly available and well-tolerated by patients. A correctly conducted ultrasound examination of the wrist delivers detailed information concerning the condition of tendons, muscles, ligaments, nerves and vessels. However, the knowledge of anatomy is crucial to establish a correct ultrasound diagnosis, also in wrist assessment. An ultrasound examination of the wrist is one of the most common US examinations conducted in patients with rheumatological diseases. Ultrasonographic signs depend on the advancement of the disease. The examination is equally frequently conducted in patients with pain or swelling of the wrist due to non-rheumatological causes. The aim of this publication was to present ultrasound images and anatomic schemes corresponding to them. The correct scanning technique of the dorsal part of the wrist was discussed and some practical tips, thanks to which highly diagnostic images can be obtained, were presented. The following anatomical structures should be visualized in an ultrasound examination of the dorsal wrist: distal radio-ulnar joint, radiocarpal joint, midcarpal joint, carpometacarpal joints, dorsal radiocarpal ligament, compartments of extensor tendons, radial artery, cephalic vein, two small branches of the radial nerve: superficial and deep, as well as certain midcarpal ligaments, particularly the scapholunate ligament and lunotriquetral ligament. The paper was distinguished in 2014 as the “poster of the month” (poster number C-1896) during the poster session of the European Congress of Radiology in Vienna. PMID:26675810

  1. Use of abdominal computed tomography in blunt trauma: Do we scan too much?

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Bryan G.; Bigelow, Eric; Yelle, Jean-Denis; Pagliarello, Guiseppe

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine what proportion of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans ordered after blunt trauma are positive and the applicability and accuracy of existing clinical prediction rules for obtaining a CT scan of the abdomen in this setting. Setting A leading trauma hospital, affiliated with the University of Ottawa. Design A retrospective cohort study. Patients and methods All patients with blunt trauma admitted to hospital over a 1-year period having an Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 who underwent CT of the abdomen during the initial assessment. Recorded data included age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, ISS, type of injuries, number of abdominal CT scans ordered, and scan results. Two clinical prediction rules were found in the literature that identify patients likely to have intra-abdominal injuries. These rules were applied retrospectively to the cohort. The predicted proportion of positive CT scans was compared with the observed proportion, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were estimated. Results Of the 297 patients entered in the study, 109 underwent abdominal CT. The median age was 32 years, 71% were male and the median ISS was 24. In only 36.7% (40 of 109) of scans were findings suggestive of intra-abdominal injuries. Application of one of the clinical prediction rules gave a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 25.5% but excluded 23% of patients because of a GCS score less than 11. The second prediction rule tested could be applied to all patients and was highly sensitive (92.5%) and specific (100.0%). Conclusions The assessment of the abdomen in blunt trauma remains a challenge. Accuracy in predicting positive scans in equivocal cases is poor. Retrospective application of an existing clinical prediction rule was found to be highly accurate in identifying patients with positive CT findings. Prospective use of such a rule could reduce the number of CT scans ordered without missing significant injuries. PMID

  2. Development of a Mechanical Scanning-type Intravascular Ultrasound System Using a Miniature Ultrasound Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Masayuki; Xie, Shangping; Tagawa, Norio; Moriya, Tadashi; Furukawa, Yuji

    2007-07-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plays an important role for the detection of arteriosclerosis, which causes the ischemic heart disease. In mechanical scanning-type IVUS, it is necessary to rotate a transducer or a reflecting mirror. A method that involves rotating the transducer using a torque wire causes image distortion (NURD: non uniform rotation distortion). For a method that involves placing an electromagnetic motor on the tip of an IVUS probe is difficult to miniaturize the probe. Our objectives are to miniaturize the probe (1 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) and to remove NURD. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the feasibility of attaining these objectives by constructing a prototype IVUS system, in which an ultrasound motor using a stator in the form of a helical coil (abbreviated as CS-USM: coiled stator-ultrasonic motor) is incorporated, and to clarify problems that need to be solved in constructing the probe.

  3. Colitis detection on abdominal CT scans by rich feature hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Lay, Nathan; Wei, Zhuoshi; Lu, Le; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Colitis is inflammation of the colon due to neutropenia, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn disease), infection and immune compromise. Colitis is often associated with thickening of the colon wall. The wall of a colon afflicted with colitis is much thicker than normal. For example, the mean wall thickness in Crohn disease is 11-13 mm compared to the wall of the normal colon that should measure less than 3 mm. Colitis can be debilitating or life threatening, and early detection is essential to initiate proper treatment. In this work, we apply high-capacity convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals to detect potential colitis on CT scans. Our method first generates around 3000 category-independent region proposals for each slice of the input CT scan using selective search. Then, a fixed-length feature vector is extracted from each region proposal using a CNN. Finally, each region proposal is classified and assigned a confidence score with linear SVMs. We applied the detection method to 260 images from 26 CT scans of patients with colitis for evaluation. The detection system can achieve 0.85 sensitivity at 1 false positive per image.

  4. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    PubMed

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP.

  5. Survey of current practice in clinical transvaginal ultrasound scanning in the UK.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eleanor; Shaw, Adam; Lees, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    During transvaginal ultrasound scanning, the fetus and other sensitive tissues are placed close to the transducer. Heating of these tissues occurs by direct conduction from the transducer and by absorption of ultrasound in the tissue. The extent of any heating will depend on the equipment and settings used, the duration of the scan, imaging modes and other aspects of scanning practice. To ensure that scans are performed with minimum risk, staff should have an appropriate knowledge of safety and follow guidelines issued by professional bodies. An online survey aiming to document current practice in transvaginal ultrasound in the UK was created and distributed to individuals performing this type of scanning. The survey posed questions about the respondents, the departments where scans were performed, the equipment used, knowledge of ultrasound safety, scanning practice and the frequency, duration and mode of transvaginal ultrasound scans for gynaecology, obstetrics and fertility applications. In all, 294 responses were obtained, mostly from sonographers (94%). From the analysis of the responses, it was clear that there was a good understanding of the general meaning of thermal and mechanical index and high awareness of guidelines issued by professional bodies. However, 40% of respondents stated that they rarely or never monitor Thermal or Mechanical indices during scanning. Scanning practice was consistent in terms of the duration of scans, scan protocols followed and use of imaging modes. The results highlight the importance of continued ultrasound safety training and promotion of safety guidelines to users.

  6. Ultrasound evaluation of the symmetry of abdominal muscles in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Gogola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9–24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied. PMID:25729192

  7. Compounding of ultrasound B-scans of a transfemoral residual limb using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Tania S.; Lee, Peter; Solomonidis, Stephan E.; Spence, William D.

    1998-06-01

    Ultrasound may be used for imaging the trans-femoral residual limb in order to provide information for the improvement of prosthetic socket design. Compounding of several ultrasound B-scans is required for obtaining transverse images of the residual limb. In this paper, a method is presented by which a genetic algorithm is used to match B-scans taken in a horizontal plane around the residual limb for image compounding in order to reduce the effects of patient motion during scanning.

  8. Ultrasound in newborns and children suffering from non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: imaging with clinical and surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    di Giacomo, Vincenza; Trinci, Margherita; van der Byl, Giulia; Catania, Vincenzo Davide; Calisti, Alessandro; Miele, Vittorio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review ultrasonographic appearance of the most common causes of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients and to understand the applications and limitations of this technique giving a practical approach showing different clinical cases. A pictorial review of cases was made presenting the most common causes of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; sonographic features are discussed. Ultrasound in conjunction with Color Doppler imaging is a valuable tool in the evaluation of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; causes of acute abdomen in children could vary depending on the ages of the children.

  9. [FIRST EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY OF A TWO-STREAM LOW-FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Lifshits, Yu Z; Babayev, E; Afremov, M; Valetskiy, V L; Grigoruk, A V; Omelchenko, A N

    2015-09-01

    Biophysical peculiarities of action on tissues of a two-strem low-frequency ultrasound (TSLFU) technology, elaborated by "Arobella Medical LLC" (USA) firm, were studied. Capacity of ultrasound to separate a pathologically-changed and healthy tissues, to divide the structures in accordance to their bioacoustical parameters constitutes the technology peculiarities. The presence of such a biophysical effect permits to achieve high resectability (R0) in patients with oncological diseases. Antibacterial effect and stimulation of intraorgan microcirculation with ultrasound irradiation were noted. Biophysical peculiarities of TSLFU were successfully applied in surgical treatment of 48 patients, suffering inflammatory and oncological diseases of the abdominal cavity organs.

  10. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  11. Intra-abdominal adhesions in ultrasound. Part I: The visceroperitoneal bordeline, anatomy and the method of examination.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta; Walecka, Anna

    2012-12-01

    It needs to be emphasized that ultrasonography is a primary test performed in order to evaluate the abdominal wall and structures located in their vicinity. It allows for the determination of the anatomy and lesions in this localization. Thorough knowledge concerning the ultrasound anatomy of the tested structures constitutes a basis of all diagnostic successes. Therefore, this part of the article is devoted to this subject matter. The possibility to diagnose intra-abdominal adhesions with ultrasound is underestimated and rarely used. The aim of this paper is to discuss and document the ultrasound anatomy of the posterior surface of the abdominal wall as well as to present techniques directed at the detection of adhesions, in particular the visceroperitoneal ones. The posterior surface of the abdominal wall constitutes an extensive tissue area of complex structure, with folds and ligaments surrounded by various amounts of the epiperitoneal fat. In some places, this tissue separates the components of the fascia and peritoneum complex. The ultrasound manifestation of this complex is two hyperechogenic lines placed parallelly to each other in the places where they are not separated by the accumulated adipose tissue. Another factor which separates the peritoneum from the viscera is of dynamic character. It is a so-called visceral slide induced by easy or deep breathing. Its size should not be lower than 1 cm and the deflections gradually and symmetrically diminish from the epigastric to hypogastric region. Last but not least, the evaluation of the reciprocal relation of the abdominal wall with viscera may be aided by rhythmical manual compressions on the abdominal wall (ballottement sign) performed below the applied ultrasound transducer. During this test, the size of the visceral slide in relation to the abdominal wall is observed. The maneuver is usually performed in uncooperative patients or those with shallow breath. The authors' own experiences indicate that the

  12. Agreement between objective and subjective assessment of image quality in ultrasound abdominal aortic aneurism screening

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenhulme, S; Keeble, C; Moore, S; Evans, J A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement between objective and subjective assessment of image quality of ultrasound scanners used for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening. Methods: Nine ultrasound scanners were used to acquire longitudinal and transverse images of the abdominal aorta. 100 images were acquired per scanner from which 5 longitudinal and 5 transverse images were randomly selected. 33 practitioners scored 90 images blinded to the scanner type and subject characteristics and were required to state whether or not the images were of adequate diagnostic quality. Odds ratios were used to rank the subjective image quality of the scanners. For objective testing, three standard test objects were used to assess penetration and resolution and used to rank the scanners. Results: The subjective diagnostic image quality was ten times greater for the highest ranked scanner than for the lowest ranked scanner. It was greater at depths of <5.0 cm (odds ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 3.56, 12.57) than at depths of 15.1–20.0 cm. There was a larger range of odds ratios for transverse images than for longitudinal images. No relationship was seen between subjective scanner rankings and test object scores. Conclusion: Large variation was seen in the image quality when evaluated both subjectively and objectively. Objective scores did not predict subjective scanner rankings. Further work is needed to investigate the utility of both subjective and objective image quality measurements. Advances in knowledge: Ratings of clinical image quality and image quality measured using test objects did not agree, even in the limited scenario of AAA screening. PMID:25494526

  13. Use of ultrasound scanning and body condition score to evaluate composition traits in mature beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was designed to validate the use of ultrasound to evaluate body composition in mature beef cows. Both precision and accuracy of measurement were assessed. Cull cows (n = 87) selected for highly variable fatness were used. Two experienced ultrasound technicians scanned and assigned ...

  14. Heel Ultrasound Scan in Detecting Osteoporosis in Low Trauma Fracture Patients.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Faiz R; Elfandi, Khaled O

    2016-06-27

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic disease with significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of affected patients. Osteoporosis has a significant impact on the economy worldwide. The aim of this study was to find out whether heel ultrasound is as good as central bone densitometry scanning in diagnosing osteoporosis in patients who are at high risk of osteoporosis. This was a prospective study of patients comparing heel ultrasound to central bone densitometry scanning (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) in patients. The recruited patients attended for a DEXA scan of the left hip and lumbar spine. All subjects had an ultrasound of the left heel using the quantitative heel ultrasound machine. The results of DEXA scan were blinded from the results of ultrasound and vice versa. There were 59 patients who took part in the study, 12 men and 47 women. The mean age was 66 years (SD 11.9) and mean weight was 62.5 kg (SD 10.7). The sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound heel test to predict osteoporosis were 53% (95%CI: 29-77) and 86% (95%CI: 75-96) respectively. Specificity for predicting bone mineral density (BMD)-defined osteoporosis was high (86%), but sensitivity was low (53%). A heel ultrasound result in the osteoporotic range was highly predictive of BMD-defined osteoporosis. A positive ultrasound heel test in high risk patients is more useful in ruling in osteoporosis than a negative test to rule out osteoporosis. PMID:27433300

  15. Heel Ultrasound Scan in Detecting Osteoporosis in Low Trauma Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Faiz R.; Elfandi, Khaled O.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic disease with significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of affected patients. Osteoporosis has a significant impact on the economy worldwide. The aim of this study was to find out whether heel ultrasound is as good as central bone densitometry scanning in diagnosing osteoporosis in patients who are at high risk of osteoporosis. This was a prospective study of patients comparing heel ultrasound to central bone densitometry scanning (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) in patients. The recruited patients attended for a DEXA scan of the left hip and lumbar spine. All subjects had an ultrasound of the left heel using the quantitative heel ultrasound machine. The results of DEXA scan were blinded from the results of ultrasound and vice versa. There were 59 patients who took part in the study, 12 men and 47 women. The mean age was 66 years (SD 11.9) and mean weight was 62.5 kg (SD 10.7). The sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound heel test to predict osteoporosis were 53% (95%CI: 29-77) and 86% (95%CI: 75-96) respectively. Specificity for predicting bone mineral density (BMD)-defined osteoporosis was high (86%), but sensitivity was low (53%). A heel ultrasound result in the osteoporotic range was highly predictive of BMD-defined osteoporosis. A positive ultrasound heel test in high risk patients is more useful in ruling in osteoporosis than a negative test to rule out osteoporosis. PMID:27433300

  16. PE-CMOS based C-scan ultrasound for foreign object detection in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T; Lasser, Marvin E; Kula, John; Sarcone, Anita; Wang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a C-scan ultrasound prototype and three imaging modalities for the detection of foreign objects inserted in porcine soft tissue. The object materials include bamboo, plastics, glass and aluminum alloys. The images of foreign objects were acquired using the C-scan ultrasound, a portable B-scan ultrasound, film-based radiography, and computerized radiography. The C-scan ultrasound consists of a plane wave transducer, a compound acoustic lens system, and a newly developed ultrasound sensor array based on the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the images were analyzed to quantitatively evaluate the detectability using different imaging modalities. The experimental results indicate that the C-scan prototype has better CNR values in 4 out of 7 objects than other modalities. Specifically, the C-scan prototype provides more detail information of the soft tissues without the speckle artifacts that are commonly seen with conventional B-scan ultrasound, and has the same orientation as the standard radiographs but without ionizing radiation.

  17. Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

  18. Noninvasive measurement of acoustic field inside mother's uterus generated by ultrasound scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    Sounds in the audible range arising in mother's uterus during conventional ultrasound scanning were recorded noninvasively for the first time. It was found that their level is comparable with the level of spoken language.

  19. Intramuscular abdominal wall endometriosis treated by ultrasound-guided ethanol injection.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Çil, A Said; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

    2014-12-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is a rare condition that usually develops in a surgical scar resulting from a Caesarean section. While commonly seen in the cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue at the Caesarean scar level, its intramuscular localization is quite rare. Its treatment options consist of the excision of the lesion and/or hormonal therapies, although wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the literature. Wide surgical excision may create a defect in the abdominal wall and may increase the risk of hernia formation and mesh complications. This case report describes the clinical and radiological findings and treatment modalities of endometriosis that have appeared in the rectus abdominis muscle of a 25-year-old patient at the Caesarean scar level. Sclerotherapy may be used for endometrioma. We present a new and alternative treatment method using ultrasound-guided intralesional ethanol injection for AWE. Compared with the complications of surgical excision, the complications of sclerotherapy by ethanol are at a more acceptable level. Sclerotherapy by ethanol injection may be an alternative treatment to surgery for AWE.

  20. Ultrasound-guided continuous transverse abdominis plane block for abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rao V; Field, J B

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new regional analgesic technique for postoperative pain in abdominal surgery. Its efficacy is not clear, and thus it needs to be explored for its regular utilisation on prolonged period. The objective was to study the continuous local anaesthetic infusion effect on postoperative analgesia. Continuous use of TAP block as an analgesic technique has not been evaluated prospectively in clinical trials. This study evaluates the efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in comparison with PCA fentanyl in major abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods: There were 20 patients in the study, allocated to TAP and control groups. The parameters measured were pain scores on a numerical rating scale (NRS) of 0-10 at various time intervals and the amount of fentanyl used as rescue analgesia. Patient satisfaction scores were recorded in the TAP block group and along with any complications related to the block. Results: The postoperative median pain scores on coughing on day one were 6.0 for control group and 2.0 for the TAP group (P = 0.02); on day two, the equivalent scores were 7.0 and 2.0 (P = 0.01). The fentanyl requirement at one hour was 203 μ for the control group and 78 μg for the TAP group (P = 0.03); at day one, the control and TAP requirements were 1237 μg and 664 μg respectively (P = 0.01). Three TAP patients rated their satisfaction as ‘excellent’, four as ‘satisfied, and two as ‘poor’. Conclusion: TAP block is a promising technique for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal surgeries. Our study demonstrated lower pain scores in the TAP group with reduced fentanyl requirement. Further, a large scale study is needed to establish the efficacy of TAP block in this setting. PMID:21897502

  1. Mirror artifacts in obstetric ultrasound; case presentation of a ghost twin during the second trimester ultrasound scan

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyunyoung; Hernández-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Patwardhan, Manasi; Goncalves, Luis F.; Aurioles, Alma; Garcia, Maynor; Hassan, Sonia S.; Yeo, Lami

    2014-01-01

    Mirror artifacts are produced by the reflection of ultrasound waves after they propagate through a structure and encounter a strong and smooth interface capable of acting as a mirror. Ultrasound waves bounce back and forth between the mirroring interface and the reflective object and then eventually return to the transducer. The typical display of the mirror artifact consists of two similar structures separated and at a similar distance from the reflective interface. We report a mirror artifact in a patient with a singleton gestation at 18 weeks. The image was interpreted as consistent with a twin gestation using transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound. The differential diagnosis consisted of an abdominal heterotopic pregnancy. The presence of synchronized but opposite movements of both fetuses, and the blurred image of the second fetus, suggested a mirror artifact. The reflective surface was created by the interface located between a distended recto-sigmoid filled with gas and the posterior uterine wall. Mirror artifacts can lead to diagnostic errors. This case illustrates how a distended recto-sigmoid can generate an image that simulates either a twin gestation or an abdominal heterotopic pregnancy. PMID:24071724

  2. Trauma Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  3. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm.

  4. Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: animal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) uses focused ultrasound beams to ablate localized tumors noninvasively. Multiple clinical trials using HIFU treatment of liver, kidney, breast, pancreas and brain tumors have been conducted, while monitoring the temperature distribution with various imaging modalities such as MRI, CT and ultrasound. HIFU has achieved only minimal acceptance partially due to insufficient guidance from the limited temperature monitoring capability and availability. MR proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry is currently the most effective monitoring method; however, it is insensitive in temperature changes in fat, susceptible to motion artifacts, and is high cost. Exploiting the relationship between dielectric properties (i.e. permittivity and conductivity) and tissue temperature, in vivo dielectric property distributions of tissue during heating were reconstructed with our microwave tomographic imaging technology. Previous phantom studies have demonstrated sub-Celsius temperature accuracy and sub-centimeter spatial resolution in microwave thermal imaging. In this paper, initial animal experiments have been conducted to further investigate its potential. In vivo conductivity changes inside the piglet's liver due to focused ultrasound heating were observed in the microwave images with good correlation between conductivity changes and temperature.

  5. Human abdomen recognition using camera and force sensor in medical robot system for automatic ultrasound scan.

    PubMed

    Bin Mustafa, Ammar Safwan; Ishii, Takashi; Matsunaga, Yoshiki; Nakadate, Ryu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kouji; Saito, Akiko; Sugawara, Motoaki; Niki, Kiyomi; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    Physicians use ultrasound scans to obtain real-time images of internal organs, because such scans are safe and inexpensive. However, people in remote areas face difficulties to be scanned due to aging society and physician's shortage. Hence, it is important to develop an autonomous robotic system to perform remote ultrasound scans. Previously, we developed a robotic system for automatic ultrasound scan focusing on human's liver. In order to make it a completely autonomous system, we present in this paper a way to autonomously localize the epigastric region as the starting position for the automatic ultrasound scan. An image processing algorithm marks the umbilicus and mammary papillae on a digital photograph of the patient's abdomen. Then, we made estimation for the location of the epigastric region using the distances between these landmarks. A supporting algorithm distinguishes rib position from epigastrium using the relationship between force and displacement. We implemented these algorithms with the automatic scanning system into an apparatus: a Mitsubishi Electric's MELFA RV-1 six axis manipulator. Tests on 14 healthy male subjects showed the apparatus located the epigastric region with a success rate of 94%. The results suggest that image recognition was effective in localizing a human body part. PMID:24110822

  6. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  7. Utilization of antenatal ultrasound scan and implications for caesarean section: a cross-sectional study in rural Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound scan is a widely accepted component of antenatal care. Studies have looked at the relationship between ultrasound scanning and caesarean section (CS) in certain groups of women in China. However, there are limited data on the utilization of antenatal ultrasound scanning in the general population, including its association with CS. The purpose of this study is to describe the utilization of antenatal ultrasound screening in rural Eastern China and to explore the association between antenatal ultrasound scan and uptake of CS. Methods Based on a cluster randomized sample, a total of 2326 women with childbirth participated in the study. A household survey was conducted to collect socio-economic information, obstetric history and utilization of maternal health services. Results Coverage of antenatal care was 96.8% (2251/2326). During antenatal care, 96.1% (2164/2251) women received ultrasound screening and the reported average number was 2.55. 46.8% women received at least 3 ultrasound scans and the maximum number reached 11. The CS rate was found to be 54.8% (1275/2326). After adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables, it showed a statistically significant association between antenatal ultrasound scans and uptake of CS by multivariate logistic regression model. High husband education level, high maternal age, having previous adverse pregnant outcome and pregnancy complications during the index pregnancy were also found to be risk factors of choosing a CS. Conclusions A high use of antenatal ultrasound scan in rural Eastern China is found and is influenced by socio-demographic and clinical factors. Evidence-based guidelines for antenatal ultrasound scans need to be developed and disseminated to clinicians including physicians, nurses and sonographers. Guidance about the appropriate use of ultrasound scans should also be shared with women in order to discourage unreasonable expectations and demands. It is important to monitor

  8. Duplex ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in the follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparative study*

    PubMed Central

    Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Siqueira, Daniel Emílio Dalledone; Jacobsen, Octavio Barcellos; Baracat, Jamal; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Menezes, Fábio Hüsemann; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare duplex ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) angiography in terms of their performance in detecting endoleaks, as well as in determining the diameter of the aneurysm sac, in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study involving 30 patients who had undergone endovascular repair of infrarenal aortoiliac aneurysms. Duplex ultrasound and CT angiography were performed simultaneously by independent radiologists. Measurements of the aneurysm sac diameter were assessed, and the presence or absence of endoleaks was determined. Results The average diameter of the aneurysm sac, as determined by duplex ultrasound and CT angiography was 6.09 ± 1.95 and 6.27 ± 2.16 cm, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient showing a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.88; p < 0.01). Comparing the duplex ultrasound and CT angiography results regarding the detection of endoleaks, we found that the former had a negative predictive value of 92.59% and a specificity of 96.15%. Conclusion Our results show that there is little variation between the two methods evaluated, and that the choice between the two would have no significant effect on clinical management. Duplex ultrasound could replace CT angiography in the postoperative follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair of the infrarenal aorta, because it is a low-cost procedure without the potential clinical complications related to the use of iodinated contrast and exposure to radiation. PMID:27777476

  9. Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

    2012-03-01

    Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

  10. Predictors of pain response in patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided neurolysis for abdominal pain caused by pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minaga, Kosuke; Kitano, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Miyata, Takeshi; Imai, Hajime; Yamao, Kentaro; Kamata, Ken; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Naoshi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedures such as EUS-guided celiac ganglia neurolysis (EUS-CGN) and EUS-guided broad plexus neurolysis (EUS-BPN) were developed to treat abdominal cancer-associated pain; however, these procedures are not always effective. The aim of this study was to explore predictors of pain response in EUS-guided neurolysis for pancreatic cancer-associated pain. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 112 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-BPN in our institution. EUS-CGN was added in cases of visible celiac ganglia. The neurolytic-spread area was divided into six sections and evaluated by post-procedural computed tomography scanning. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), and a decrease in VAS scores by ⩾3 points after neurolysis was considered a good pain response. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore predictors of pain response at 1 and 4 weeks, and complications. Results: A good pain response was obtained in 77.7% and 67.9% of patients at 1 and 4 weeks, respectively. In the multivariable analysis of these patients, the combination method (EUS-BPN plus CGN) was a significant positive predictive factor at 1 week (odds ratio = 3.69, p = 0.017) and 4 weeks (odds ratio = 6.37, p = 0.043). The numbers of neurolytic/contrast spread areas (mean ± SD) were 4.98 ± 1.08 and 4.15 ± 1.12 in patients treated with the combination method and single method, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no significant predictor of complications. Conclusions: EUS-BPN in combination with EUS-CGN was a predictor of a good pain response in EUS-guided neurolysis for pancreatic cancer-related pain. The larger number of neurolytic/contrast spread areas may lead to better outcomes in patients receiving combination treatment. PMID:27366217

  11. Reliability of ultrasound measurement of automatic activity of the abdominal muscle in participants with and without chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) imaging has been considered as a non-invasive technique to measure thickness and estimate relative abdominal muscle activity. Although some studies have assessed the reliability of US imaging, no study has assessed the reliability of US measurement of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with different levels of stability in participants with chronic low back pain (cLBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate within-day and between-days reliability of US thickness measurements of automatic activity of the abdominal muscles in asymptomatic participants and within-day reliability in those with cLBP. Methods A total of 20 participants (10 with cLBP, 10 healthy) participated in the study. The reliability of US thickness measurements at supine lying and sitting positions (sitting on a chair, sitting on a gym ball with both feet on the ground or lifting one foot off the floor) were assessed. We evaluated within-day reliability in all participants and between-days reliability in asymptomatic participants. Results We found high ICC scores (0.85-0.95) and also small SEM and MDC scores in both groups. The reliability of the measurements was comparable between participants with and without LBP in each position but the SEMs and MDCs was slightly higher in patient group compared with healthy group. It indicates high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all positions. Conclusion US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with low levels of stability in participants with and without LBP. PMID:24479859

  12. Ultrasound scanning of the pelvis and abdomen for staging of gynecological tumors: a review.

    PubMed

    Fischerova, D

    2011-09-01

    This Review documents examination techniques, sonographic features and clinical considerations in ultrasound assessment of gynecological tumors. The methodology of gynecological cancer staging, including assessment of local tumor extent, lymph nodes and distant metastases, is described. With increased technical quality, sonography has become an accurate staging method for early and advanced gynecological tumors. Other complementary imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, can be used as an adjunct to ultrasound in specific cases, but are not essential to tumor staging if sonography is performed by a specialist in gynecological oncology. Ultrasound is established as the method of choice for evaluating local extent of endometrial cancer and is the most important imaging method for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Ultrasound can be used to detect early as well as locally advanced cancers that extend from the vagina, cervix or other locations to the paracolpium, parametria, rectum and sigmoid colon, urinary bladder and other adjacent organs or structures. In cases of ureteric involvement, ultrasound is also helpful in locating the site of obstruction. Furthermore, it is specific for the detection of extrapelvic tumor spread to the abdominal cavity in the form of parietal or visceral carcinomatosis, omental and/or mesenteric infiltration. Ultrasound can be used to assess changes in infiltrated lymph nodes, including demonstration of characteristic sonomorphologic and vascular patterns. Vascular patterns are particularly well visualized in peripheral nodes using high resolution linear array probes or in the pelvis using high-frequency probes. The presence of peripheral or mixed vascularity or displacement of vessels seems to be the sole criterion in the diagnosis of metastatic or lymphomatous nodes. In the investigation of distant metastases, if a normal visceral organ or characteristic diffuse or

  13. Ultrasound M-mode assessment of diaphragmatic kinetics by anterior transverse scanning in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Testa, Americo; Soldati, Gino; Giannuzzi, Rosangela; Berardi, Silvia; Portale, Grazia; Gentiloni Silveri, Nicolò

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set an effective standardized method to assess diaphragmatic kinetics by ultrasound. Forty healthy volunteers were submitted to a B- and M-mode ultrasound study using a convex transducer positioned in the subcostal anterior area for transverse scanning. Ultrasound examination was completed in 38/40 cases (95%), spending on average <10 min for examination. The resting and forced diaphragmatic excursions were 18.4 ± 7.6 and 78.8 ± 13.3 mm, respectively, unrelated to demographic or anthropometric parameters: intraobserver variability on three successive measurements resulted in 6.0% and in 3.9%, respectively. An inexperienced sonographer completed the ultrasound examination in 37/40 cases, spending on average >15 min, with significant, although marginal, interobserver variability (31.9% and 14.7% for resting and forced diaphragmatic excursion, respectively). Bedside ultrasonography by an anterior subcostal transverse scanning on semi-recumbent patient proves to be a safe, feasible, reliable, fast, relatively easy and reproducible way to assess diaphragm movement.

  14. Ultrasound scanning of post-operative wounds--the risks of cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P; Spencer, R C

    1988-05-01

    Ultrasound scanning of surgical wounds is an established procedure for the detection of abscesses. The possible risks of cross-infection resulting from this technique were examined by testing the sterility of the ultrasound probes, the coupling gel and the stand-off medium Kitecko (3 M). The coupling gel was also assessed for any bactericidal properties. Sixty-six per cent of swabs taken from machines in constant use and 33% of the total number of swabs taken were contaminated with skin flora including Staphylococcus aureus. Sterility was achieved using a 70% alcohol wipe. The coupling gel was inherently sterile but had no bactericidal action. The solid stand-off medium Kitecko grew Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species. The implications of these findings in relation to scanning post-operative wounds are discussed.

  15. Improved detection of upper abdominal abscesses by combination of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and /sup 111/In leukocyte scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Luers, P.; Baker, W.J.; Christian, P.E.

    1985-02-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scanning is an excellent technique for detecting abdominal abscesses. However, since labeled leukocytes are normally taken up by the liver and spleen, diagnosing upper abdominal abscesses can be difficult. A prospective study was undertaken to see if having a technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan to compare with the /sup 111/In leukocyte scan would improve the reader's ability to diagnose or exclude upper abdominal abscesses. Ninety patients with suspected upper abdominal abscesses were examined with /sup 111/In leukocyte scans followed immediately by conventional /sup m99/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans in the same projections. In 57% of patients with upper abdominal abscesses and 25% of all patients studied, the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan was essential to diagnose or exclude an upper abdominal abscess. The liver-spleen scan was considered helpful in another 13%. The addition of a /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan to the /sup 111/In leukocyte study is useful when evaluating patients with suspected upper abdominal abscesses.

  16. Do Regular Ultrasound Scans Reduce the Incidence of Stillbirth in Women with Apparently Normal Pregnancies?

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Brenda; Mone, Fionnuala

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of stillbirth in women who have regular ante-natal ultrasound compared to those that have infrequent scans in a low risk population. Study Design A retrospective observational study was performed in a tertiary center with 5,700 deliveries per annum. Data on all deliveries was collected via the Northern Ireland Maternity System Database. Only women with an apparently low risk pregnancy were included. Women who had private antenatal care often had frequent scans in the third trimester. Women who did not have private antenatal care often had scans infrequently. The still birth rate was calculated for both groups of women from 2007 to 2011 and compared using a Chi-squared analysis Results Our study included 23,519 ‘low-risk’ deliveries spanning 2007-2011. This included 2,088 (9%) patients who had frequent ultrasound surveillance and delivery at term and 21,431 (91%) patients who did not. The overall stillbirth rate was 0.34% and 0.20% respectively which was not statistically different (p=0.31). Conclusion There is no difference in the rate of stillbirth between patients who have more frequent ante-natal ultrasound surveillance compared with those who do not in a low risk population. PMID:26170484

  17. Are Prenatal Ultrasound Scans Associated with the Autism Phenotype? Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoch, Yonit K.; Williams, Cori J.; Granich, Joanna; Hunt, Anna M.; Landau, Lou I.; Newnham, John P.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2012-01-01

    An existing randomised controlled trial was used to investigate whether multiple ultrasound scans may be associated with the autism phenotype. From 2,834 single pregnancies, 1,415 were selected at random to receive ultrasound imaging and continuous wave Doppler flow studies at five points throughout pregnancy (Intensive) and 1,419 to receive a…

  18. A scanned focused ultrasound device for hyperthermia: numerical simulation and prototype implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaney, Paul M.; Raynolds, Timothy; Geimer, Shireen D.; Potwin, Lincoln; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2004-07-01

    We are developing a scanned focused ultrasound system for hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer. Focused ultrasound has significant potential as a therapy delivery device because it can focus sufficient heating energy below the skin surface with minimal damage to intervening tissue. However, as a practical therapy system, the focal zone is generally quite small and requires either electronic (in the case of a phased array system) or mechanical steering (for a fixed bowl transducer) to cover a therapeutically useful area. We have devised a simple automated steering system consisting of a focused bowl transducer supported by three vertically movable rods which are connected to computer controlled linear actuators. This scheme is particularly attractive for breast cancer hyperthermia where the support rods can be fed through the base of a liquid coupling tank to treat tumors within the breast while coupled to our noninvasive microwave thermal imaging system. A MATLAB routine has been developed for controlling the rod motion such that the beam focal point scans a horizontal spiral and the subsequent heating zone is cylindrical. In coordination with this effort, a 3D finite element thermal model has been developed to evaluate the temperature distributions from the scanned focused heating. In this way, scanning protocols can be optimized to deliver the most uniform temperature rise to the desired location.

  19. [Differential diagnosis and treatment of complex renal cysts detected by ultrasound screening of the abdominal cavity organs].

    PubMed

    Ukhal', M I; Ukhal', E M; Kvasha, A N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound screening of the abdominal cavity organs was performed in 98 patients, and renal cysts were revealed in 31 patientsare. 11 (26,6%) of 31 patients had renal cysts with complex structure. In 4 patients, complex cysts were located in parapelvic zone, in 7 patients - in different parts of the renal parenchyma. Pharmaco-Doppler sonography and computed tomography with bolus contrast enhancement in 7 patients with complex parenchymal cysts had revealed indirect signs of a malignant process - septums, thickening of the walls of cysts and septums, foci of calcination, increased blood circulation in the thickened renal cyst walls, venous stasis on the periphery of cysts and renal medulla, increasing the density of the thickened walls. Results of morphological studies have confirmed the presence of a malignant process in 5 of these 7 patients. In 4 patients with parapelvic cysts malignant process in ectomized layers was not revealed.

  20. Evaluation Experiment of Ultrasound Computed Tomography for the Abdominal Sound Speed Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Keisuke; Yamada, Akira

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal sound speed tomographic imaging using through-transmission travel time data on the body surface was investigated. To this end, a hundred kHz range low-frequency wave was used to reduce the wave attenuation within an inner body medium. A method was investigated for the reconstruction of the image with the smallest possible number of path data around the abdominal surface. Specifically, the data from a strong scattering spinal cord should be avoided. To fulfill the requirement, the smoothed path algebraic reconstruction technique was introduced. The validity of this method was examined both on the numerically synthesized data and the experimentally measured data for the phantom specimen and actual human subject. It was shown that an abdominal tomographic sound speed image could be successfully obtained by preparing only 32 transducer locations at the circumference around the abdominal surface and their combination of less than 100 number of observation path data as well as by avoiding the data intersecting the spinal cord. In addition, fat regions were extracted having a sound speed lower than the threshold value to demonstrate the possibility of this method for metabolic syndrome diagnosis.

  1. Measurement and Visualization of Three-Dimensional Vertebra Shape by Freehand Ultrasound Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Kazuhiro; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Oshiro, Osamu; Moroi, Keishichiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2005-06-01

    Paracentesis is a common operation for pain clinics and spinal anesthetics administration and requires empirical training and flexible skills to cope with the various cases of individual patients. We propose a method of measuring and visualizing three-dimensional vertebra shapes for assisting anesthesiologists, by an ultrasound imaging technique that is prevalent in many hospitals and has no harmful risks to the human body. The proposed system enables anesthesiologists to investigate vertebra shapes by freehand probing. Three-dimensional reconstruction and graphical rendering can be performed by monitoring the motion of the ultrasound probe and registering the scanned echography into the identical three-dimensional space. Considering the echography imaging features, volume rendering of hard tissue surfaces is achieved and interactive measurement is possible. This paper describes the practicability of the proposed method based on experimental measurement of both phantom and real lumbar vertebre and sacra.

  2. Duplex Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography for the Postoperative Follow-Up of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Where Do We Stand Now?

    PubMed Central

    Karanikola, Evridiki; Dalainas, Ilias; Karaolanis, Georgios; Zografos, Georgios; Filis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has rapidly developed to be the preferred method for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with suitable anatomy. EVAR offers the advantage of lower perioperative mortality and morbidity but carries the cost of device-related complications such as endoleak, graft migration, graft thrombosis, and structural graft failure. These complications mandate a lifelong surveillance of EVAR patients and their endografts. The purpose of this study is to review and evaluate the safety of color-duplex ultrasound (CDU) as compared with computed tomography (CT), based on the current literature, for post-EVAR surveillance. The post-EVAR follow-up modalities, CDU versus CT, are evaluated questioning three parameters: (1) accuracy of aneurysm size, (2) detection and classification of endoleaks, and (3) detection of stent-graft deformation. Studies comparing CDU with CT scan for investigation of post-EVAR complications have produced mixed results. Further and long-term research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of CDU versus CT, before CDU can be recommended as the primary imaging modality for EVAR surveillance, in place of CT for stable aneurysms. PMID:25317026

  3. Relative Elastic Modulus Imaging Using Sector Ultrasound Data for Abdominal Applications: An Evaluation of Strategies and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wenjun; Varghese, Tomy; Jiang, Jingfeng

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the elastic modulus distribution for one tissue mimicking (TM) phantom and two in vivo biopsy-confirmed liver tumors using curvilinear ultrasound echo data. Spatial distribution of the relative elastic modulus values is determined by solving an inverse problem within a region of interest (ROI). This inverse problem solution requires knowledge of the ultrasonically measured displacement field in a uniform rectilinear grid to ensure that the resolution on the resultant relative elastic modulus elastogram will be uniform over the entire ROI. Taking advantage of a new speckle tracking algorithm, two different displacement tracking strategies are investigated: 1) sector-shaped ultrasound data were converted to ultrasound data on a rectilinear grid prior to speckle tracking and 2) axial and lateral displacements directly obtained from sector-shaped data were converted to vertical and horizontal displacements on a rectilinear grid after speckle tracking. Compared with strain elastography (SE), TM phantom results show that relative elastic modulus imaging (REMI) using Strategy 2 provided higher contrast-to-noise ratios (>300% and 25% increases compared with SE and REMI using Strategy 1, respectively). Furthermore, in phantoms, REMI using Strategy 2 more accurately (a 1.3% difference to shear wave elastography measurements) estimated the elastic contrast ratio between the target and the background, compared with both SE (20%-25%) and REMI using Strategy 1 (4.1%). It was also observed that relative modulus elastograms were more consistent with anatomical structures visualized on corresponding B-mode images for the two in vivo liver cases. Overall, we conclude that applying REMI is feasible for abdominal organs such as the liver. Strategy 2 offered improved and consistent results for the data investigated. PMID:27411219

  4. Use of ultrasound scanning and body condition score to evaluate composition traits in mature beef cows.

    PubMed

    Emenheiser, J C; Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Kuehn, L A; Wheeler, T L; Notter, D R; Lewis, R M

    2014-09-01

    The experiment was designed to validate the use of ultrasound to evaluate body composition in mature beef cows. Both precision and accuracy of measurement were assessed. Cull cows (n = 87) selected for highly variable fatness were used. Two experienced ultrasound technicians scanned and assigned BCS to each cow on 2 consecutive days. Ultrasound traits were backfat thickness (UBFT), LM area (ULMA), body wall thickness (UBWT), rump fat depth (URFD), rump muscle depth (URMD), and intramuscular fat (UIMF; %). Cows were then harvested. Carcass traits were HCW, backfat thickness (CBFT), LM area (CLMA), body wall thickness (CBWT), and marbling score (CMS). Correlations between consecutive live measurements were greatest for subcutaneous fat (r > 0.94) and lower for BCS (r > 0.74) and URMD (r > 0.66). Repeatability bias differed from 0 for only 1 technician for URMD and UIMF (P < 0.01). Technicians differed in repeatability SE for only ULMA (P < 0.05). Correlations between live and carcass measurements were high for backfat and body wall thickness (r > 0.90) and slightly less for intramuscular fat and LM area (r = 0.74 to 0.79). Both technicians underestimated all carcass traits with ultrasound, but only CBFT and CBWT prediction bias differed from 0 (P < 0.05). Technicians had similar prediction SE for all traits (P > 0.05). Technician effects generally explained <1% of the total variation in precision. After accounting for technician, animal effects explained 50.4% of remaining variation in differences between repeated BCS (P < 0.0001) but were minimal for scan differences. When cows with mean BCS <4 or >7 were removed, the portion of remaining variation between repeated measurements defined by animal effects increased for most traits and was significant for UBFT and URFD (P = 0.03). Technician effects explained trivial variation in accuracy (P > 0.24). Animal effects explained 87.2, 75.2, and 81.7% (P < 0.0001) of variation remaining for CBFT, CLMA, and CBWT prediction

  5. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  6. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two- ... sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother's pregnancy ...

  7. Practical Use of Ultrasound Scan in Small Ruminant Medicine and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phil

    2016-03-01

    Modern portable ultrasound scan machines provide the veterinary clinician with an inexpensive and noninvasive method to further examine sheep on farms, which should take no more than 5 minutes with the results available immediately. Repeat examinations allow monitoring of the disease process and assessment of therapy. 5 MHz linear array scanners can be used for most organs except the heart and right kidney. Transthoracic ultrasonography is particularly useful for critical evaluation of lung and pleural pathologies. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination can readily identify distended urinary bladder and advanced hydronephrosis.

  8. Value of liver elastography and abdominal ultrasound for detection of complications of allogeneic hemopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Karlas, T; Weber, J; Nehring, C; Kronenberger, R; Tenckhoff, H; Mössner, J; Niederwieser, D; Tröltzsch, M; Lange, T; Keim, V

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic complications contribute to morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hemopoietic SCT. Liver Doppler ultrasound and elastography represent promising methods for pretransplant risk assessment and early detection of complications. Ultrasound (liver and spleen size, liver perfusion) and elastography (transient elastography (TE); right liver lobe acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (r-ARFI); left liver lobe ARFI (l-ARFI)) were prospectively evaluated in patients with indications for allo-SCT. Measurements were performed before and repeatedly after SCT. Results were compared with the incidence of life-threatening complications and death during the first 150 days after SCT. Of 59 included patients, 16 suffered from major complications and 9 of them died within the follow-up period. At baseline, liver and spleen size, liver perfusion, TE and r-ARFI did not differ significantly between patients with and without severe complications. In contrast, l-ARFI was significantly elevated in patients who later developed severe complications (1.58±0.30 m/s vs 1.37±0.27 m/s, P=0.030). After SCT, l-ARFI values remained elevated and TE showed increasing liver stiffness in patients with complications. The value of conventional liver ultrasound for prediction of severe SCT complications is limited. Increased values for TE and l-ARFI are associated with severe SCT complications and demand further evaluation.

  9. A-scan ultrasound system for real-time puncture safety assessment during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Pedro L.; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; von Krüger, M. A.; Pereira, W. C. A.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    Background: Kidney stone is a major universal health problem, affecting 10% of the population worldwide. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a first-line and established procedure for disintegration and removal of renal stones. Its surgical success depends on the precise needle puncture of renal calyces, which remains the most challenging task for surgeons. This work describes and tests a new ultrasound based system to alert the surgeon when undesirable anatomical structures are in between the puncture path defined through a tracked needle. Methods: Two circular ultrasound transducers were built with a single 3.3-MHz piezoelectric ceramic PZT SN8, 25.4 mm of radius and resin-epoxy matching and backing layers. One matching layer was designed with a concave curvature to work as an acoustic lens with long focusing. The A-scan signals were filtered and processed to automatically detect reflected echoes. Results: The transducers were mapped in water tank and tested in a study involving 45 phantoms. Each phantom mimics different needle insertion trajectories with a percutaneous path length between 80 and 150 mm. Results showed that the beam cross-sectional area oscillates around the ceramics radius and it was possible to automatically detect echo signals in phantoms with length higher than 80 mm. Conclusions: This new solution may alert the surgeon about anatomical tissues changes during needle insertion, which may decrease the need of X-Ray radiation exposure and ultrasound image evaluation during percutaneous puncture.

  10. Scanning laser ultrasound and wavenumber spectroscopy for in-process inspection of additively manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskelo, EliseAnne C.; Flynn, Eric B.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new in-process laser ultrasound inspection technique for additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic energy was introduced to the part by attaching an ultrasonic transducer to the printer build-plate and driving it with a single-tone, harmonic excitation. The full-field response of the part was measured using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer after each printer layer. For each scan, we analyzed both the local amplitudes and wavenumbers of the response in order to identify defects. For this study, we focused on the detection of delamination between layers in a fused deposition modeling process. Foreign object damage, localized heating damage, and the resulting delamination between layers were detected in using the technique as indicated by increased amplitude and wavenumber responses within the damaged area.

  11. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M.; Rogers, B; Walsh, N.

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  12. CT Hounsfield Numbers of Soft Tissues on Unenhanced Abdominal CT Scans: Variability Between Two Different Manufacturers’ MDCT Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Ramit; McGahan, John P.; Corwin, Michael T.; Li, Chin-Shang; Tran, Tien; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hounsfield numbers of soft tissues on unenhanced abdominal CT of the same patient vary on repeat scans done on two different manufacturers’ MDCT scanners. MATERIALS AND METHODS A database search was performed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent unenhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed both on a Volume CT (GE Healthcare) and a Definition AS Plus (Siemens Healthcare) 64-MDCT scanner within 12 months of each other. After excluding those patients for whom Hounsfield unit measurements would be affected by mitigating factors, 48 patients (mean age, 58.8 years) were identified. Hounsfield unit measurements were obtained in nine different soft-tissue anatomic locations on each scan, and the location of these sites was kept identical on each scan pair. Data were analyzed to evaluate Hounsfield unit differences between these scanners. RESULTS In general, there was a low consistency in the Hounsfield unit measurements for each of these sites on scans obtained by the two scanners, with the subcutaneous fat in the left posterolateral flank showing the lowest correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.198). There were differences in the Hounsfield unit measurements obtained in all anatomic sites on scans obtained by both scanners. Mean Hounsfield unit measurements obtained on the Definition AS Plus scanner were lower than those obtained on the Volume CT scanner, with the intriguing exception of the anterior midline subcutaneous fat Hounsfield unit measurements, which were higher on the Definition AS Plus scanner. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION Hounsfield unit measurements for unenhanced abdominal soft tissues of the same patient vary between scanners of two common MDCT manufacturers. PMID:25341139

  13. Novel automatic detection of pleura and B-lines (comet-tail artifacts) on in vivo lung ultrasound scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller Sørensen, Hasse; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Ewertsen, Caroline; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel automatic method for detection of B-lines (comet-tail artifacts) in lung ultrasound scans. B-lines are the most commonly used artifacts for analyzing the pulmonary edema. They appear as laser-like vertical beams, which arise from the pleural line and spread down without fading to the edge of the screen. An increase in their number is associated with presence of edema. All the scans used in this study were acquired using a BK3000 ultrasound scanner (BK Ultrasound, Denmark) driving a 192-element 5:5 MHz wide linear transducer (10L2W, BK Ultrasound). The dynamic received focus technique was employed to generate the sequences. Six subjects, among those three patients after major surgery and three normal subjects, were scanned once and Six ultrasound sequences each containing 50 frames were acquired. The proposed algorithm was applied to all 300 in-vivo lung ultrasound images. The pleural line is first segmented on each image and then the B-line artifacts spreading down from the pleural line are detected and overlayed on the image. The resulting 300 images showed that the mean lateral distance between B-lines detected on images acquired from patients decreased by 20% in compare with that of normal subjects. Therefore, the method can be used as the basis of a method of automatically and qualitatively characterizing the distribution of B-lines.

  14. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even <10 mm is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan.

  15. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  16. Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by means of Ultrasound in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality consisting of a mass of pulmonary tissue that presents an abnormal connection with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply coming from an anomalous artery derived from the systemic circulation. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by having pleural coverings that are independent of the normal lungs, with vascular supply usually coming from the aorta or from one of its branches. This diagnosis can be suspected prenatally if an abdominal mass, generally below the diaphragm, is seen. Here, we present a case of a neonate on the second day of life, with ultrasonography showing extralobar pulmonary sequestration located above the left adrenal gland that prenatally simulated a neuroblastoma. PMID:23762717

  17. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24–100%, and 86.7–100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5–90.6%), with

  18. Echinococcus multilocularis Detection in Live Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) Using a Combination of Laparoscopy and Abdominal Ultrasound under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Del Pozo, Jorge; Gottstein, Bruno; Girling, Simon; Cracknell, John; Schwab, Gerhard; Rosell, Frank; Pizzi, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is an important pathogenic zoonotic parasite of health concern, though absent in the United Kingdom. Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) may act as a rare intermediate host, and so unscreened wild caught individuals may pose a potential risk of introducing this parasite to disease-free countries through translocation programs. There is currently no single definitive ante-mortem diagnostic test in intermediate hosts. An effective non-lethal diagnostic, feasible under field condition would be helpful to minimise parasite establishment risk, where indiscriminate culling is to be avoided. This study screened live beavers (captive, n = 18 or wild-trapped in Scotland, n = 12) and beaver cadavers (wild Scotland, n = 4 or Bavaria, n = 11), for the presence of E. multilocularis. Ultrasonography in combination with minimally invasive surgical examination of the abdomen by laparoscopy was viable under field conditions for real-time evaluation in beavers. Laparoscopy alone does not allow the operator to visualize the parenchyma of organs such as the liver, or inside the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, hence the advantage of its combination with abdominal ultrasonography. All live beavers and Scottish cadavers were largely unremarkable in their haematology and serum biochemistry with no values suspicious for liver pathology or potentially indicative of E. multilocularis infection. This correlated well with ultrasound, laparoscopy, and immunoblotting, which were unremarkable in these individuals. Two wild Bavarian individuals were suspected E. multilocularis positive at post-mortem, through the presence of hepatic cysts. Sensitivity and specificity of a combination of laparoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography in the detection of parasitic liver cyst lesions was 100% in the subset of cadavers (95%Confidence Intervals 34.24-100%, and 86.7-100% respectively). For abdominal ultrasonography alone sensitivity was only 50% (95%CI 9.5-90.6%), with

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  1. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  3. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  4. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  5. Management of Respiratory Motion in Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Upper Abdominal Organs: Current Status and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A.; Petrusca, L.; Auboiroux, V.; Valette, P. J.; Salomir, R.; Cotton, F.

    2013-12-15

    Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive therapy considered with increased interest for the ablation of small tumors in deeply located organs while sparing surrounding critical tissues. A multitude of preclinical and clinical studies have showed the feasibility of the method; however, concurrently they showed several obstacles, among which the management of respiratory motion of abdominal organs is at the forefront. The aim of this review is to describe the different methods that have been proposed for managing respiratory motion and to identify their advantages and weaknesses. First, we specify the characteristics of respiratory motion for the liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the problems it causes during HIFU planning, treatment, and monitoring. Second, we make an inventory of the preclinical and clinical approaches used to overcome the problem of organ motion. Third, we analyze their respective benefits and drawbacks to identify the remaining physical, technological, and clinical challenges. We thereby consider the outlook of motion compensation techniques and those that would be the most suitable for clinical use, particularly under magnetic resonance thermometry monitoring.

  6. Prevalence and sonographic changes compatible with fatty liver disease in patients referred for abdominal ultrasound examination in Aracaju, SE*

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josilda Ferreira; Cruz, Mário Augusto Ferreira; Machado Neto, José; de Santana, Demetrius Silva; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sônia Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and evaluate sonographic findings compatible with changes consistent with hepatic steatosis in patients referred for abdominal ultrasonography at four reference centers in Aracaju, SE, Brazil. Materials and Methods Prospective, descriptive survey, with analytical and quantitative approach, comprising abdominal ultrasonography scans performed with a convex, dynamic 3.75 MHz transducer. Liver dimensions and parenchymal echotexture were evaluated, classifying hepatic steatosis into grades (1, 2 or 3). The SPSS® 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis, adopting p < 0.05 as significance level. Results A total of 800 individuals (561 women and 239 men) were evaluated. The prevalence of steatosis was 29.1%, and the male patients were most affected, presenting with more advanced grades of disease (p = 0.021), as follows: 119 grade 1 (51.0%); 94 grade 2 (40.4%); and 20 grade 3 (8.6%). The median age patients' was 46 years. Conclusion In the present study sample, the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was high, particularly in the male patients. Ultrasonography is suggested as a first choice for the diagnosis of this condition, considering its wide availability, low cost and absence of side effects or risks to the patient. PMID:26929453

  7. Empyema of the gallbladder detected by gallium scan and abdominal ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, O.M.; Kovac, A.; Plauche, W.E.

    1981-08-01

    A case history of patient with a abnormal gallium uptake and sonogram in the region of the gallbladder is described. The abnormality was interpreted as empyema of the gallbladder and later proven surgically. A liver-spleen scan was normal except for slight prominence of the hilar structures. Gallium citrate Ga-67 scans done at 24 and 48 hours showed a persistent area of increased tracer localization around the gallbladder with a central clear zone in the latter scan. Ultrasonography revealed poor definition and slight thickening of the gallbladder wall. Because of the lack of specificity of gallium scans, the combination of ultrasonic imaging and gallium uptake scans appears much superior in diagnostic efficiency than either of the two alone. The sequence of performing these two examinations does not seem to be critical though it was prefered that the scintigraphy precede the sonography.

  8. Non-invasive characterization of polyurethane-based tissue constructs in a rat abdominal repair model using high frequency ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. PMID:23347836

  9. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms. PMID:27677245

  10. Resection of Abdominal Solid Organs Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Zderic, Vesna; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Foley, Jessica L.; Vaezy, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for minimizing blood loss during surgery by hemodynamically isolating large portions of solid organs before their resection. A high-power HIFU device (in-situ intensity of 9000 W/cm2, frequency of 3.3 MHz) was used to produce a wall of cautery for sealing of blood vessels along the resection line in surgically-exposed solid organs (liver lobes, spleen and kidneys) of eight adult pigs. Following HIFU application, the distal portion of the organ was excised using a scalpel. If any blood vessels were still bleeding, additional HIFU application was used to stop the bleeding. The resection was achieved in 6.0 ± 1.5 min (liver), 3.6 ± 1.1 min (spleen) and 2.8 ± 0.6 min (kidneys) of HIFU treatment time, with no occurrence of bleeding for up to 4 hours (until sacrifice). The coagulated region at the resection line had average width of 3 cm and extended through the whole thickness of the organ (up to 4 cm). Blood vessels of up to 1 cm in size were occluded. This method holds promise for future clinical applications in resection of solid tumors and hemorrhage control from high-grade organ injuries. PMID:17498864

  11. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  12. High-frequency ultrasound as an option for scanning of prepared teeth: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chuembou Pekam, Fabrice; Marotti, Juliana; Wolfart, Stefan; Tinschert, Joachim; Radermacher, Klaus; Heger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Because of its ability to non-invasively capture hard structures behind soft tissue, high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS)-assisted microscanning could be a patient-friendly and promising alternative for digitization of prepared teeth. However, intra-oral HFUS microscanners for taking digital impressions of prepared teeth are still not available in the clinical setting. Because working range, scanner size, scanning time, surface reconstruction accuracy and costs are major factors in such a system, our overall objective is to minimize hardware efforts and costs while maintaining the accuracy of the surface-reconstructed tooth model in the range 50 μm. In the work described here, we investigated the accuracy of tooth impression taking using a single-element HFUS microscanner with only three translational degrees of freedom under the restriction that only one occlusal scan is performed per tooth. As in favor of time and scanning efforts the data density is expected to be low, the surface reconstruction process is linked to a model-based surface reconstruction approach using a thin spline robust point matching algorithm to fill data gaps. A priori knowledge for the model is generated based on the original HFUS measurement data. Three artificial teeth and one human molar were prepared and scanned using an extra-oral HFUS laboratory microscanner that was built to test and evaluate different scanning setups. A scanner with three translational degrees of freedom was used to scan the teeth from an occlusal direction. After application of the proposed thin-spline robust point matching algorithm-based reconstruction approach, reconstruction accuracy was assessed by comparing the casts with a control group scanned with an extra-oral laser-scanning system. The mean difference between the reconstructed casts and the optical control group was in the range 14-53 μm. The standard deviation was between 21 and 52 μm. This let us assume that the suggested approach can help to decrease

  13. Discrimination between Newly Formed and Aged Thrombi Using Empirical Mode Decomposition of Ultrasound B-Scan Image

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a first-line diagnostic method for screening the thrombus. During thrombus aging, the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs) in the thrombus decreases and therefore the signal intensity of B-scan can be used to detect the thrombus age. To avoid the effect of system gain on the measurements, this study proposed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of ultrasound image as a strategy to classify newly formed and aged thrombi. Porcine blood samples were used for the in vitro induction of fresh and aged thrombi (at hematocrits of 40%). Each thrombus was imaged using an ultrasound scanner at different gains (15, 20, and 30 dB). Then, EMD of ultrasound signals was performed to obtain the first and second intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which were further used to calculate the IMF-based echogenicity ratio (IER). The results showed that the performance of using signal amplitude of B-scan to reflect the thrombus age depends on gain. However, the IER is less affected by the gain in discriminating between fresh and aged thrombi. In the future, ultrasound B-scan combined with the EMD may be used to identify the thrombus age for the establishment of thrombolytic treatment planning. PMID:25695073

  14. The Value of Restaging With Chest and Abdominal CT/MRI Scan After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Chen; Zhang, Xu; Xie, E.; An, Xin; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Zhu, Ying; Tang, Jing-Hua; Kong, Ling-Heng; Lin, Jun-Zhong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little was known with regard to the value of preoperative systemic restaging for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This study was designed to evaluate the role of chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on preoperative restaging in LARC after neoadjuvant CRT and to assess the impact on treatment strategy. Between January 2007 and April 2013, 386 newly diagnosed consecutive patients with LARC who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and received restaging with chest and abdominal CT/MRI scan were included. Imaging results before and after CRT were analyzed. Twelve patients (3.1%) (6 liver lesions, 2 peritoneal lesions, 2 distant lymph node lesions, 1 lung lesions, 1 liver and lung lesions) were diagnosed as suspicious metastases on the restaging scan after radiotherapy. Seven patients (1.8%) were confirmed as metastases by pathology or long-term follow-up. The treatment strategy was changed in 5 of the 12 patients as a result of restaging CT/MRI findings. Another 10 patients (2.6%) who present with normal restaging imaging findings were diagnosed as metastases intra-operatively. The sensitivity, specificity accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive values of restaging CT/MRI was 41.4%, 98.6%, 58.3%, and 97.3%, respectively. The low incidence of metastases and minimal consequences for the treatment plan question the clinical value of routine restaging of chest and abdomen after neoadjuvant CRT. Based on this study, a routine restaging CT/MRI of chest and abdomen in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant CRT is not advocated, carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) -guided CT/MRI restaging might be an alternative. PMID:26632714

  15. Diagnosis of abdominal mural aortic thrombus following discovery of common femoral artery and vein thrombosis by point-of-care ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Nadia Maria; Taha, Farook; Vortsman, Eugene; Desai, Poonam; Kindschuh, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a limb-threatening and life-threatening disease process. Mural aortic thrombosis (MAT) is a rare cause of ALI. While there is limited evidence on the use of bedside ultrasound for the detection of ALI or MAT, duplex ultrasound remains the standard in the diagnosis and ultimate medical decision-making in patients with acute and chronic limb ischemia. Point-of-care ultrasound may be used in the evaluation of patients with signs and symptoms of this disease entity. This is a case of a 79-year-old female with a complicated medical history, who presented with a pulseless right leg and abdominal tenderness. The patient quickly decompensated requiring intubation for airway protection. A post-intubation arterial blood gas (ABG) was unsuccessfully attempted in the right femoral artery, prompting an ultrasound-guided ABG. On B-mode ultrasound evaluation, echogenic material was visualized in the right common femoral artery without evidence of Doppler flow signal. Additionally, a partially obstructing echogenic material was also noted at the femoro-saphenous vein junction with only partial compressibility by compression sonography. A computed tomography angiography of the aorta was performed indicating extensive infrarenal aortic thrombosis. The patient expired despite the relatively prompt diagnosis, highlighting the importance of early identification of acute arterial occlusion.

  16. Thoracic ultrasound for pleural effusion: delays and cost associated with departmental scanning.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K; Downey, D G; Teare, T

    2010-04-01

    Pleural effusion is a common clinical condition on medical wards and the majority of cases undergo pleural aspiration or chest drain insertion as a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. The use of a thoracic ultrasound scan (USS) improves diagnostic yield for pleural fluid aspiration and reduces complications and USS is increasingly recommended prior to all pleural aspirations or drains and 'real time' scanning which, as well as potentially reducing delays, enhances the safety of the procedure. In many U.K hospitals a thoracic USS is still routinely performed in the radiology department. We reviewed radiology records and case notes from hospital in-patients to assess potential delays and associated costs with departmental thoracic USS and to identify cases where physician-led portable USS would potentially have improved the patient's journey. We demonstrated delays resulting in significant financial costs to the hospital of an estimated pound17, 880 per annum. However, the cost to the patient is also significant, both in terms of patient experience (many of whom will have an underlying diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma and with a limited life expectancy) but also patient safety. Respiratory physicians are increasingly recognising the importance of portable thoracic USS to guide pleural procedures and there has been increasing use of physician-led portable thoracic USS. Hospitals should be encouraged to fund both portable thoracic USS equipment but it is also crucial that training in this area is properly supported. PMID:20097552

  17. Automated kidney detection for 3D ultrasound using scan line searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Matthias; Nadolny, Anne; Wesarg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound (U/S) is a fast and non-expensive imaging modality that is used for the examination of various anatomical structures, e.g. the kidneys. One important task for automatic organ tracking or computer-aided diagnosis is the identification of the organ region. During this process the exact information about the transducer location and orientation is usually unavailable. This renders the implementation of such automatic methods exceedingly challenging. In this work we like to introduce a new automatic method for the detection of the kidney in 3D U/S images. This novel technique analyses the U/S image data along virtual scan lines. Here, characteristic texture changes when entering and leaving the symmetric tissue regions of the renal cortex are searched for. A subsequent feature accumulation along a second scan direction produces a 2D heat map of renal cortex candidates, from which the kidney location is extracted in two steps. First, the strongest candidate as well as its counterpart are extracted by heat map intensity ranking and renal cortex size analysis. This process exploits the heat map gap caused by the renal pelvis region. Substituting the renal pelvis detection with this combined cortex tissue feature increases the detection robustness. In contrast to model based methods that generate characteristic pattern matches, our method is simpler and therefore faster. An evaluation performed on 61 3D U/S data sets showed, that in 55 cases showing none or minor shadowing the kidney location could be correctly identified.

  18. 22-gauge core vs 22-gauge aspiration needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of abdominal masses

    PubMed Central

    Sterlacci, William; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Veits, Lothar; Gönüllü, Pervin; Schachschal, Guido; Groth, Stefan; Anders, Mario; Kontos, Christos K; Topalidis, Theodoros; Hinsch, Andrea; Vieth, Michael; Rösch, Thomas; Denzer, Ulrike W

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the aspiration needle (AN) and core biopsy needle (PC) in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of abdominal masses. METHODS Consecutive patients referred for EUS-FNA were included in this prospective single-center trial. Each patient underwent a puncture of the lesion with both standard 22-gauge (G) AN (Echo Tip Ultra; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) and the novel 22G PC (EchoTip ProCore; Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, United States) in a randomized fashion; histology was attempted in the PC group only. The main study endpoint was the overall diagnostic accuracy, including the contribution of histology to the final diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures included material adequacy, number of needle passes, and complications. RESULTS Fifty six consecutive patients (29 men; mean age 68 years) with pancreatic lesions (n = 38), lymphadenopathy (n = 13), submucosal tumors (n = 4), or others lesions (n = 1) underwent EUS-FNA using both of the needles in a randomized order. AN and PC reached similar overall results for diagnostic accuracy (AN: 88.9 vs PC: 96.1, P = 0.25), specimen adequacy (AN: 96.4% vs PC: 91.1%, P = 0.38), mean number of passes (AN: 1.5 vs PC: 1.7, P = 0.14), mean cellularity score (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.1, P = 0.058), and complications (none). A diagnosis on the basis of histology was achieved in the PC group in 36 (64.3%) patients, and in 2 of those as the sole modality. In patients with available histology the mean cellularity score was higher for AN (AN: 1.7 vs PC: 1.0, P = 0.034); no other differences were of statistical significance. CONCLUSION Both needles achieved high overall diagnostic yields and similar performance characteristics for cytological diagnosis; histological analysis was only possible in 2/3 of cases with the new needle.

  19. Comparison of the biometric formulas used for applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry.

    PubMed

    Özcura, Fatih; Aktaş, Serdar; Sağdık, Hacı Murat; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of various biometric formulas for predicting postoperative refraction determined using applanation A-scan ultrasound. This retrospective comparative study included 485 eyes that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Applanation A-scan ultrasound biometry and postoperative manifest refraction were obtained in all eyes. Biometric data were entered into each of the five IOL power calculation formulas: SRK-II, SRK/T, Holladay I, Hoffer Q, and Binkhorst II. All eyes were divided into three groups according to axial length: short (≤22.0 mm), average (22.0-25.0 mm), and long (≥25.0 mm) eyes. The postoperative spherical equivalent was calculated and compared with the predicted refractive error using each biometric formula. The results showed that all formulas had significantly lower mean absolute error (MAE) in comparison with Binkhorst II formula (P < 0.01). The lowest MAE was obtained with the SRK-II for average (0.49 ± 0.40 D) and short (0.67 ± 0.54 D) eyes and the SRK/T for long (0.61 ± 0.50 D) eyes. The highest postoperative hyperopic shift was seen with the SRK-II for average (46.8 %), short (28.1 %), and long (48.4 %) eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift was seen with the Holladay I for average (66.4 %) and long (71.0 %) eyes and the SRK/T for short eyes (80.6 %). In conclusion, the SRK-II formula produced the lowest MAE in average and short eyes and the SRK/T formula produced the lowest MAE in long eyes. The SRK-II has the highest postoperative hyperopic shift in all eyes. The highest postoperative myopic shift is with the Holladay I for average and long eyes and SRK/T for short eyes.

  20. Scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-β and restores memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2015-03-11

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing Aβ and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which Aβ is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove Aβ, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-Aβ antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of Aβ into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest that repeated SUS is useful for removing Aβ in the mouse brain without causing overt damage, and should be explored further as a noninvasive method with therapeutic potential in AD. PMID:25761889

  1. Scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-β and restores memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2015-03-11

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing Aβ and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which Aβ is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove Aβ, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-Aβ antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of Aβ into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest that repeated SUS is useful for removing Aβ in the mouse brain without causing overt damage, and should be explored further as a noninvasive method with therapeutic potential in AD.

  2. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  3. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... one of the following risk categories: (i) Has a family history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. (ii... who manifests other risk factors in a beneficiary category recommended for screening by the United States Preventive Services Task Force regarding abdominal aortic aneurysms, as specified by the...

  4. Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal

    MedlinePlus

    ... PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  5. Thermal therapy for breast tumors by using a cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning: a preliminary numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Cheng-Shiao; Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lin, Win-Li

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a 1 MHz cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning to produce uniform heating for breast tumor thermal therapy. The breast was submerged in water and surrounded by the cylindrical ultrasound phased array. A multifocus pattern was generated and electrically scanned by the phased array to enlarge the treatment lesion in single heating. To prevent overheating normal tissues, a large planning target volume (PTV) would be divided into several planes with several subunits on each plane and sequentially treated with a cooling phase between two successive heatings of the subunit. Heating results for different target temperatures (Ttgt), blood perfusion rates and sizes of the PTV have been studied. Furthermore, a superficial breast tumor with different water temperatures was also studied. Results indicated that a higher target temperature would produce a slightly larger thermal lesion, and a higher blood perfusion rate would not affect the heating lesion size but increase the heating time significantly. The acoustic power deposition and temperature elevations in ribs can be minimized by orienting the acoustic beam from the ultrasound phased array approximately parallel to the ribs. In addition, a large acoustic window on the convex-shaped breast surface for the proposed ultrasound phased array and the cooling effect of water would prevent the skin overheating for the production of a lesion at any desired location. This study demonstrated that the proposed cylindrical ultrasound phased array can provide effective heating for breast tumor thermal therapy without overheating the skin and ribs within a reasonable treatment time.

  6. Usefulness of Routine Head Ultrasound Scans Before Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Danielle R.; Welty, Stephen E.; Gunn, Julia K.; Beca, John; Minard, Charles G.; Goldsworthy, Michelle; Coleman, Lee; Hunter, Jill V.; Andropoulos, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of preoperative head ultrasound scan (HUS) in a cohort of newborns also undergoing preoperative MRI as part of a prospective research study of brain injury in infants having surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: A total of 167 infants diagnosed with CHD were included in this 3-center study. None of the patients had clinical signs or symptoms of preoperative brain injury, and all patients received both HUS and brain MRI before undergoing surgical intervention. HUS and MRI results were reported by experienced neuroradiologists who were blinded to any specific clinical details of the study participants. The findings of the individual imaging modes were compared to evaluate for the presence of brain injury. RESULTS: Preoperative brain injury was present on HUS in 5 infants (3%) and on MRI in 44 infants (26%) (P < .001). Four of the HUS showed intraventricular hemorrhage not seen on MRI, suggesting false-positive results, and the fifth showed periventricular leukomalacia. The predominant MRI abnormality was white matter injury (n = 32). Other findings included infarct (n = 16) and hemorrhage (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative brain injury on MRI was present in 26% of infants with CHD, but only 3% had any evidence of brain injury on HUS. Among positive HUS, 80% were false-positive results. Our findings suggest that routine HUS is not indicated in asymptomatic term or near-term neonates undergoing surgery for CHD, and MRI may be a preferable tool when the assessment of these infants is warranted. PMID:23690521

  7. An investigation of the reproducibility of ultrasound measures of abdominal muscle activation in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Chris G.; Latimer, Jane; Hodges, Paul W.; Shirley, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) measures are used by clinicians and researchers to evaluate improvements in activity of the abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain. Studies evaluating the reproducibility of these US measures provide some information; however, little is known about the reproducibility of these US measures over time in patients with low back pain. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reproducibility of ultrasound measurements of automatic activation of the lateral abdominal wall muscles using a leg force task in patients with chronic low back pain. Thirty-five participants from an existing randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial participated in the study. A reproducibility analysis was undertaken from all patients using data collected at baseline and after treatment. The reproducibility of measurements of thickness, muscle activation (thickness changes) and muscle improvement/deterioration after intervention (differences in thickness changes from single images made before and after treatment) was analysed. The reproducibility of static images (thickness) was excellent (ICC2,1 = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96–0.97, standard error of the measurement (SEM) = 0.04 cm, smallest detectable change (SDC) = 0.11 cm), the reproducibility of thickness changes was moderate (ICC2,1 = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65–0.76, SEM = 15%, SDC 41%), while the reproducibility of differences in thickness changes from single images with statistical adjustment for duplicate measures was poor (ICC2,1 = 0.44, 95% CI 0.33–0.58, SEM = 21%, SDC = 66.5%). Improvements in the testing protocol must be performed in order to enhance reproducibility of US as an outcome measure for abdominal muscle activation. PMID:19415347

  8. Polymerase chain reaction amplifying mycobacterial DNA from aspirates obtained by endoscopic ultrasound allows accurate diagnosis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-positive patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Martin; Lameris, Roeland; Corcoran, Craig; Rossouw, Theresa M; Slavik, Tomas; Du Plessis, Johannie; Omoshoro-Jones, Jones A O; Stivaktas, Paraskevi; Potgieter, Fritz; Van der Merwe, Schalk W

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal lymphadenopathy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a diagnostic challenge. We performed a prospective cohort study by recruiting 31 symptomatic HIV + patients with abdominal lymphadenopathy and assessing the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Mean age was 38 years; 52% were female; and mean CD4 count and viral load were 124 cells/μL and 4 log, respectively. EUS confirmed additional mediastinal nodes in 26%. The porta hepatis was the most common abdominal site. Aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA were subjected to cytology, culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Mycobacterial infections were confirmed in 67.7%, and 31% had reactive lymphadenopathy. Cytology and culture had low sensitivity, whereas PCR identified 90% of mycobacterial infections. By combining the appearance of aspirates obtained by EUS-FNA and cytologic specimens, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to indicate when analysis with PCR would be useful. PCR performed on material obtained by EUS-FNA was highly accurate in confirming mycobacterial disease and determining genotypic drug resistance.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Management of Splenic Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Python, Johanne L; Wakefield, Brian W; Kondo, Kimi L; Bang, Tami J; Stamm, Elizabeth R; Hurt, K Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Splenic ectopic pregnancies are a rare cause of abdominal pain in reproductive-age women. A 21-year-old woman with worsening abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test presented with hemoperitoneum and no intrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal ultrasound. After 2 nondiagnostic laparoscopies, a splenic pregnancy was diagnosed by computed tomography scan and abdominal ultrasound. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of splenic pregnancies involve exploratory surgery and splenectomy. We report the successful treatment of this splenic ectopic pregnancy with combined intramuscular plus ultrasound-guided percutaneous methotrexate injection, with preservation of the patient's spleen. Abdominal implantation must be considered in patients with pregnancy of unknown location, and in carefully selected patients splenic ectopic pregnancy can be successfully managed by minimally invasive methods. PMID:27221066

  10. Abdominal MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... used to look at: Blood flow in the abdomen Blood vessels in the abdomen The cause of ...

  11. Harmonic motion imaging for abdominal tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation monitoring: an in vivo feasibility study in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-09-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiationforce- based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess the resulting oscillatory displacement denoting the underlying tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radio-frequency signals using a 1-D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated at a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring.

  12. Harmonic Motion Imaging for Abdominal Tumor Detection and High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation Monitoring: A Feasibility Study in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y.; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiation force-based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess relative tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radiofrequency signals using a 1D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated with a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring. PMID:26415128

  13. Model based assessment of vestibular jawbone thickness using high frequency 3D ultrasound micro-scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habor, Daniel; Neuhaus, Sarah; Vollborn, Thorsten; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus; Heger, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Endosseous implants are well-established in modern dentistry. However, without appropriate therapeutic intervention, progressive peri-implant bone loss may lead to failing implants. Conventionally, the particularly relevant vestibular jawbone thickness is monitored using radiographic 3D imaging methods. Ionizing radiation, as well as imaging artifacts caused by metallic implants and superstructures are major drawbacks of these imaging modalities. In this study, a high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based approach to assess the vestibular jawbone thickness is being introduced. It should be emphasized that the presented method does not require ultrasound penetration of the jawbone. An in-vitro study using two porcine specimens with inserted endosseous implants has been carried out to assess the accuracy of our approach. The implant of the first specimen was equipped with a gingiva former while a polymer superstructure was mounted onto the implant of the second specimen. Ultrasound data has been acquired using a 4 degree of freedom (DOF) high frequency (<50MHz) laboratory ultrasound scanner. The ultrasound raw data has been converted to polygon meshes including the surfaces of bone, gingiva, gingiva former (first specimen) and superstructure (second specimen). The meshes are matched with a-priori acquired 3D models of the implant, the superstructure and the gingiva former using a best-fit algorithm. Finally, the vestibular peri-implant bone thickness has been assessed in the resulting 3D models. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated by comparing the ultrasound based thickness measurement with a reference measurement acquired with an optical extra-oral 3D scanner prior to covering the specimens with gingiva. As a final result, the bone thicknesses of the two specimens were measured yielding an error of -46+/-89μm (first specimen) and 70+/-93μm (second specimen).

  14. [Focused surgical bedside ultrasound: E-FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) - abdominal aortic aneurysm - cholecystolithiasis - acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Studer, Maria; Studer, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound is an easy to learn and highly efficient diagnostic tool to complete the clinical examination and improve bedside decision-making. In the trauma room, surgeons are often required to make a quick decision as to whether or not a patient needs an emergency intervention or whether further diagnostics are required. For this reason, education of surgeons in performing focused emergency ultrasound is pivotal. The goal of ICAN is to improve and expand the education of surgeons in Switzerland. This article provides a short review of the most frequent surgical pathologies encountered in the emergency room.

  15. Early imaging of integration response to polypropylene mesh in abdominal wall by environmental scanning electron microscopy: comparison of two placement techniques and correlation with tensiometric studies.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, J M; Vidal, J; Armengol, M; Huguet, P; Gil, J; Manero, J M; Planell, J A; Segarra, A; Schwartz, S; Arbos, M A

    2001-07-01

    The repair of incisional hernias has taken advantage of the strength provided by prosthetic mesh grafts, but the best position for inserting the materials has not been conclusively established. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) provides imaging of biologic samples with minimal manipulation. We used ESEM for early imaging of the integration response to polypropylene meshes placed in two anatomic positions in the abdominal wall and correlated results with tensiometric studies. Two macroporous polypropylene prostheses were implanted in a rat model--one on the abdominal aponeurotic layer and one on the peritoneal surface--without creating a wall defect. Studies were performed over implantation intervals of 7, 15, and 30 days in strips obtained from the polypropylene fiber-receptor repair tissue interface. Microscopic appearance, tensile strength, percent elongation, and stiffness were evaluated. Meshes implanted on the abdominal aponeurotic layer showed better early tissue incorporation (higher collagen deposition, capillary density, cell accumulation) and increased tensile strength, reflecting tighter anchorage to the abdominal wall. The percent elongation increased from day 7 to day 30 after implantation, mainly in the deep stratum. The ESEM images correlated well with biomechanical results, indicating the potential of this technique as a powerful, effective tool for use in wound-healing studies.

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Detection and Follow-Up of an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Aorto-Caval Fistula and Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Clevert, D.-A. Stickel, M.; Flach, P.; Strautz, T.; Horng, A.; Jauch, K. W.; Reiser, M.

    2007-06-15

    An aorto-caval fistula is a rare complication of a symptomatic or ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm having a frequency of 3-6%. Patients typically present with clinical signs of diffuse abdominal pain associated with increasing venous congestion and tachycardia, rapid cardiopulmonary decompensation with acute dyspnea, and an audible machinerylike bruit. Perioperative mortality is high, ranging from 20% to 60%. We report a case of an endovascular aortic repair in a patient with a symptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and an aorto-caval fistula. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound seems to be a promising new diagnostic option for the diagnosis and preoperative treatment planning for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms with rupture into the inferior vena cava. It is in addition to computed tomography angiography. It might allow a more rapid and noninvasive diagnosis, especially for patients in intensive care because of its bedside availability. Because the examination is dynamic, additional information about blood flow between the aorta and inferior cava vein can be evaluated.

  17. Refractive outcomes comparison between the Lenstar LS 900® optical biometry and immersion A-scan ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Palanyraj; Sundralingam, Siva; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Juana, Azida; Mohamad, Nor Fadhilah; Win, Maung Maung; Loo, Angela; Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2015-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) calculations in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery with IOL implantation using immersion A-scan ultrasound (US) and Lenstar LS 900(®) biometry. In this prospective study, 200 eyes of 200 patients were randomized to undergo either Lenstar LS 900(®) or immersion A-scan US biometry to determine the IOL dioptric power prior to phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Post-operative refractive outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared. The result showed no significant difference between the target spherical equivalent (SE) and the post-operative SE value by the Lenstar LS 900(®) (p value = 0.632) or immersion A-scan US biometry (p value = 0.438) devices. The magnitude of difference between the two biometric devices were not significantly different (p value = 0.868). There was no significant difference in the predicted post-operative refractive outcome between immersion A-scan US biometry and Lenstar LS 900(®). Based on the results, the immersion A-scan US technique is as accurate as Lenstar LS 900(®) in the hands of an experienced operator.

  18. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  19. Experimental investigation of the effect of stiffness, exposure time and scan direction on the dimension of ultrasound histotripsy lesions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A

    2011-11-01

    Histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound to create energetic bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region and has the advantages of higher contrast B-mode monitoring and sharp borders. This study experimentally investigated the effects of stiffness, exposure time and scan direction on the size of histotripsy-induced lesions in agar samples. A targeted region 0.45 cm wide (lateral) and 0.6 cm deep (axial) was scanned with the step sizes of 0.075 cm and 0.3 cm, respectively. The single-element spherically focused source (1.1 MHz, 6.34 cm focal length, f/1) had the peak compressional and rarefactional pressures of approximately 102 and 17 MPa. Pulses consisted of 20-cycle sine wave tone bursts with a burst period of 3 ms and exposure time of 15, 30 or 60 s. Also, both inward and outward scan direction were tested along the beam axis. The liquefied lesions generally had a larger size than the initially targeted region with larger sizes corresponding to softer agar and longer exposure. There was not a statistically significant difference in the lesion size with scan direction.

  20. Early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans and risk of childhood cancer: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jill; Neta, Gila; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Ansell, Pat; Linet, Martha S; Ron, Elaine; Roman, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood cancer risks associated with exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in utero and in early infancy (age 0-100 days). Design Case-control study. Setting England and Wales. Participants 2690 childhood cancer cases and 4858 age, sex, and region matched controls from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS), born 1976-96. Main outcome measures Risk of all childhood cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours, measured by odds ratios. Results Logistic regression models conditioned on matching factors, with adjustment for maternal age and child’s birth weight, showed no evidence of increased risk of childhood cancer with in utero exposure to ultrasound scans. Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant. Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers. Conclusions Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages. PMID:21310791

  1. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  2. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  3. Protocol of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound, and triple phase bone scans in the evaluation of the painful pediatric hip

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.E.; Seibert, J.J.; Aronson, J.; Williamson, S.L.; Glasier, C.M.; Rodgers, A.B.; Corbitt, S.L.

    1988-04-01

    A useful protocol for the evaluation of hip pain in the pediatric patient, using a combination of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound (US), and triple phase radionuclide bone scans is presented. Patients with hip pain were initially evaluated by plain radiographs of the pelvis and hips. If no diagnosis was reached, the hips were studied for effusions by real-time hip ultrasonography. If an effusion was present, the joint was aspirated for diagnosis. If no effusion was present by US or if no diagnosis was reached by aspiration, triple phase radionuclide bone scans were performed. Fifty patients were evaluated by this prospective protocol, and the diagnosis was reached in 48 of the 50 cases (10 by plain radiographs, 16 by US, and aspiration of the joint, and 22 by triple phase bone scans). Hip effusions were found in 20 patients by US, with no false positives or false negatives. Previous studies for detecting effusions by US have emphasized absolute measurements of the capsular width, but we report a typical appearance of the hip capsule when fluid is present (a bulging convex capsule). When no effusion is present, the capsule is concave and parallels the long axis of the femoral neck.

  4. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Normal Variation in Heel Bone Ultrasound Measures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M.; Choh, A.C.; Williams, K.D.; Schroeder, V.; Dyer, T.D.; Blangero, J.; Cole, S.A.; Chumlea, WM.C.; Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, R.J.; Siervogel, R.M.; Towne, B.; Czerwinski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) traits are correlated with bone mineral density (BMD), but predict risk for future fracture independent of BMD. Only a few studies, however, have sought to identify specific genes influencing calcaneal QUS measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing normal variation in QUS traits. QUS measures were collected from a total of 719 individuals (336 males and 383 females) from the Fels Longitudinal Study who have been genotyped and have at least one set of QUS measurements. Participants ranged in age from 18.0 to 96.6 years and were distributed across 110 nuclear and extended families. Using the Sahara ® bone sonometer, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (QUI) were collected from the right heel. Variance components based linkage analysis was performed on the three traits using 400 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers spaced approximately 10 cM apart across the autosomes to identify QTL influencing the QUS traits. Age, sex, and other significant covariates were simultaneously adjusted. Heritability estimates (h2) for the QUS traits ranged from 0.42 to 0.57. Significant evidence for a QTL influencing BUA was found on chromosome 11p15 near marker D11S902 (LOD = 3.11). Our results provide additional evidence for a QTL on chromosome 11p that harbors a potential candidate gene(s) related to BUA and bone metabolism. PMID:22237995

  5. Numerical simulation of ultrasound thermotherapy of brain with a scanned focus transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnia, Sohrab; Ghalichi, Farzan; Jafari, Amin; Bonabi, Ashkan

    2005-04-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most difficult ones to treat. The margin between destruction of the tumor and damage to the surrounding tissue is narrow in the brain. Ultrasound could be an effective treatment because of its ability to propagate deep in tissue and induce temperature rise at the focus while leaving the surrounding tissue intact. This study investigates whether using a fix-focus transducer could destroy brain tumor cells, in a cost effective manner which reduces the treatment time significantly. In this work an appropriate fix-focus transducer was designed considering effective parameters and limitations which are dominant in this case. Then a real 2-D brain model was constructed from a MR image. A piece of the skull bone has been removed to allow ultrasound to propagate into the brain. The resultant pressure field and the temperature rise were calculated by Rayleigh integral and bio-heat equation on the model. The obtained results were promising indicating that toxic temperatures could be obtained in short treatment times. This could be of great advantage especially in treating primary brain tumors.

  6. Non-invasive assessment of bone quantity and quality in human trabeculae using scanning ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yi

    Fractures and associated bone fragility induced by osteoporosis and osteopenia are widespread health threat to current society. Early detection of fracture risk associated with bone quantity and quality is important for both the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and consequent complications. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is an engineering technology for monitoring bone quantity and quality of humans on earth and astronauts subjected to long duration microgravity. Factors currently limiting the acceptance of QUS technology involve precision, accuracy, single index and standardization. The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy and precision of an image-based QUS technique for non-invasive evaluation of trabecular bone quantity and quality by developing new techniques and understanding ultrasound/tissue interaction. Several new techniques have been developed in this dissertation study, including the automatic identification of irregular region of interest (iROI) in bone, surface topology mapping (STM) and mean scattering spacing (MSS) estimation for evaluating trabecular bone structure. In vitro results have shown that (1) the inter- and intra-observer errors in QUS measurement were reduced two to five fold by iROI compared to previous results; (2) the accuracy of QUS parameter, e.g., ultrasound velocity (UV) through bone, was improved 16% by STM; and (3) the averaged trabecular spacing can be estimated by MSS technique (r2=0.72, p<0.01). The measurement errors of BUA and UV introduced by the soft tissue and cortical shells in vivo can be quantified by developed foot model and simplified cortical-trabecular-cortical sandwich model, which were verified by the experimental results. The mechanisms of the errors induced by the cortical and soft tissues were revealed by the model. With developed new techniques and understanding of sound-tissue interaction, in vivo clinical trail and bed rest study were preformed to evaluate the performance of QUS in

  7. SCAN+

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  8. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided abdominal field blocks versus port infiltration in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for post-operative pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ruchi; Joshi, Saurabh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Tiwari, Shashank; Sharma, Nitin; Valecha, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative pain is a major concern for day care surgeries like laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided abdominal field blocks (USAFB) with port site infiltrations for post-operative analgesia in terms of quality of pain relief, opioid consumption and patient satisfaction for day care surgeries Methods: Eighty patients presenting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups either to receive port-site infiltration of local anaesthetic (n = 40, Group A) or USAFB (n = 40, Group B group). Numeric rating scores (NRS) were measured postoperatively to primarily assess the pain severity and opioid requirements. Data were analysed using Chi-Square test/Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Mann–Whitney test/unpaired t-test for quantitative data. Results: The study group (Group B) had significantly reduced NRS and opioid consumption over 24 h. The overall fentanyl consumption in patients receiving port infiltrations was approximately twice (200 ΁ 100 μg) as compared to patients in USAFB group (120 ΁ 74 μg) (P < 0.0001). Maximum fentanyl consumption was 400 μg (Group A) and 262 μg (Group B) over 24 h and the minimum requirement was 50 μg and zero, respectively. Conclusion: Superior post-operative analgesia was observed with USAFB which may help in minimising opioid-related adverse effects and facilitating faster recovery.

  9. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  10. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided abdominal field blocks versus port infiltration in laparoscopic cholecystectomies for post-operative pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ruchi; Joshi, Saurabh; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Tiwari, Shashank; Sharma, Nitin; Valecha, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Post-operative pain is a major concern for day care surgeries like laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ultrasound guided abdominal field blocks (USAFB) with port site infiltrations for post-operative analgesia in terms of quality of pain relief, opioid consumption and patient satisfaction for day care surgeries Methods: Eighty patients presenting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups either to receive port-site infiltration of local anaesthetic (n = 40, Group A) or USAFB (n = 40, Group B group). Numeric rating scores (NRS) were measured postoperatively to primarily assess the pain severity and opioid requirements. Data were analysed using Chi-Square test/Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Mann–Whitney test/unpaired t-test for quantitative data. Results: The study group (Group B) had significantly reduced NRS and opioid consumption over 24 h. The overall fentanyl consumption in patients receiving port infiltrations was approximately twice (200 ΁ 100 μg) as compared to patients in USAFB group (120 ΁ 74 μg) (P < 0.0001). Maximum fentanyl consumption was 400 μg (Group A) and 262 μg (Group B) over 24 h and the minimum requirement was 50 μg and zero, respectively. Conclusion: Superior post-operative analgesia was observed with USAFB which may help in minimising opioid-related adverse effects and facilitating faster recovery. PMID:27601741

  11. Contrast Enhanced Abdominal Ultrasound in the Assessment of Ileal Inflammation in Crohn’s Disease: A Comparison with MR Enterography

    PubMed Central

    Horjus Talabur Horje, C. S.; Roovers, L.; Groenen, M. J. M.; Wahab, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims To prospectively examine the feasibility and accuracy of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the assessment of Crohn’s disease (CD) activity in the terminal ileum in comparison to Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE), using endoscopy as a reference standard. Methods 105 consecutive patients with alleged clinically active CD were assessed by MRE and CEUS. CEUS of the terminal ileum was performed using an intravenous microbubble contrast enhancer. Accuracy values of CEUS and MRE for the presence of active terminal ileitis were evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic method, using endoscopic findings as a reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity values of MRE and CEUS were compared by the McNemar test. Results CEUS was feasible in 98% of patients, MRE in all. Optimal diagnostic accuracy in CEUS was obtained at a peak intensity value of 10%, showing 100% sensitivity, 92% specificity and an accuracy of 99% in demonstrating ileal mucosal inflammation. For MRE, overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were, 87%, 100%, and 88%, respectively. CEUS and MRE were highly correlated in assessing length and wall thickness of the terminal ileum. CEUS identified 11 of 16 MRE-detected strictures, but no fistulae. Conclusion The accuracy of CEUS is comparable to that of MRE in the assessment of active, uncomplicated terminal ileal CD and therefore a valuable bedside alternative to MRE in the follow-up of these patients. PMID:26322970

  12. Hydatidemesis: a bizarre presentation of abdominal hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Mishra, M C; Kriplani, A K; Kapur, B M

    1993-06-01

    A 31 year old male presented with high grade fever and abdominal pain of 20 days duration. At the age of 9 he had been operated on for a solitary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst and had been asymptomatic until the age of 21 when he sustained a blunt injury to the abdomen. An exploratory laparotomy for splenic rupture revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts, which were removed. The patient remained well until the present episode. An ultrasound examination revealed multiple intra-abdominal hydatid cysts. Seven days after admission, the patient developed hydatidemesis (hydatid cysts and membranes in the vomitus) and hydatidenteria (passage of hydatid membranes in the stools), and his pain and fever subsided. A Gastrografin study and a computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed hydatid cysts communicating with the stomach and duodenum. In view of his disseminated recurrent abdominal hydatidosis, he was treated with high dose, long-term albendazole along with regular follow up. This is the first documented case of disseminated abdominal hydatidosis presenting with a cystogastric fistula and hydatidemesis.

  13. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  14. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes. For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Results Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions are found to be in better

  15. Ultrasound-guided versus computed tomography-scan guided biopsy of pleural-based lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rahul; McLean, Anna W; Smith, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) guided biopsies have long been the standard technique to obtain tissue from the thoracic cavity and is traditionally performed by interventional radiologists. Ultrasound (US) guided biopsy of pleural-based lesions, performed by pulmonologists is gaining popularity and has the advantage of multi-planar imaging, real-time technique, and the absence of radiation exposure to patients. In this study, we aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy, the time to diagnosis after the initial consult placement, and the complications rates between the two different modalities. Methods: A retrospective study of electronic medical records was done of patients who underwent CT-guided biopsies and US-guided biopsies for pleural-based lesions between 2005 and 2014 and the data collected were analyzed for comparing the two groups. Results: A total of 158 patients underwent 162 procedures during the study period. 86 patients underwent 89 procedures in the US group, and 72 patients underwent 73 procedures in the CT group. The overall yield in the US group was 82/89 (92.1%) versus 67/73 (91.8%) in the CT group (P = 1.0). Average days to the procedure was 7.2 versus 17.5 (P = 0.00001) in the US and CT group, respectively. Complication rate was higher in CT group 17/73 (23.3%) versus 1/89 (1.1%) in the US group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: For pleural-based lesions the diagnostic accuracy of US guided biopsy is similar to that of CT-guided biopsy, with a lower complication rate and a significantly reduced time to the procedure. PMID:27625440

  16. Ultrasound-guided versus computed tomography-scan guided biopsy of pleural-based lung lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rahul; McLean, Anna W; Smith, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) guided biopsies have long been the standard technique to obtain tissue from the thoracic cavity and is traditionally performed by interventional radiologists. Ultrasound (US) guided biopsy of pleural-based lesions, performed by pulmonologists is gaining popularity and has the advantage of multi-planar imaging, real-time technique, and the absence of radiation exposure to patients. In this study, we aim to determine the diagnostic accuracy, the time to diagnosis after the initial consult placement, and the complications rates between the two different modalities. Methods: A retrospective study of electronic medical records was done of patients who underwent CT-guided biopsies and US-guided biopsies for pleural-based lesions between 2005 and 2014 and the data collected were analyzed for comparing the two groups. Results: A total of 158 patients underwent 162 procedures during the study period. 86 patients underwent 89 procedures in the US group, and 72 patients underwent 73 procedures in the CT group. The overall yield in the US group was 82/89 (92.1%) versus 67/73 (91.8%) in the CT group (P = 1.0). Average days to the procedure was 7.2 versus 17.5 (P = 0.00001) in the US and CT group, respectively. Complication rate was higher in CT group 17/73 (23.3%) versus 1/89 (1.1%) in the US group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: For pleural-based lesions the diagnostic accuracy of US guided biopsy is similar to that of CT-guided biopsy, with a lower complication rate and a significantly reduced time to the procedure.

  17. Association between Abdominal Fat (DXA) and Its Subcomponents (CT Scan) before and after Weight Loss in Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Brochu, Martin; Messier, Virginie; Lavoie, Marie-Ève; Faraj, May; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Subcutaneous fat (ScF) and visceral fat (VF) measurements using CT scan are expensive and may imply significant radiation doses. Cross-sectional studies using CT scan showed that ScF and VF are significantly correlated with abdominal fat measured by DXA (AF-DXA). The association has not been studied after a weight loss. Objective. To determine (1) the associations between AF-DXA and ScF and VF before and after weight loss and (2) the associations between their changes. Methods. 137 overweight/obese postmenopausal women were divided in two groups (1-caloric restriction or 2-caloric restriction + resistance training). AF was assessed using DXA and CT scan. Results. Correlations between AF-DXA and ScF (before: r = 0.87, after; r = 0.87; P < .01) and, AF-DXA and VF (before: r = 0.61, after; r = 0.69; P < .01) are not different before and after the weight loss. Correlations between delta AF-DXA and delta ScF (r = 0.72; P < .01) or delta VF (r = 0.51; P < .01) were found. Conclusion. The use of AF-DXA as a surrogate for VF after weight loss is questionable, but may be interesting for ScF.

  18. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  19. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. Results A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (P<0.01), respectively. A number of genes in the significant core regions, including RB1, BBS7, MAOA, MAOB, EHBP1, LRP2BP, LRP1B, MYO7A, MYO9A and PRPSAP1, were detected. These genes may be important for AF deposition in chickens. Conclusions We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress. PMID:23241142

  20. Fluid mechanics of blood flow in human fetal left ventricles based on patient-specific 4D ultrasound scans.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Jamil, Muhammad; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Biswas, Arijit; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2016-10-01

    The mechanics of intracardiac blood flow and the epigenetic influence it exerts over the heart function have been the subjects of intense research lately. Fetal intracardiac flows are especially useful for gaining insights into the development of congenital heart diseases, but have not received due attention thus far, most likely because of technical difficulties in collecting sufficient intracardiac flow data in a safe manner. Here, we circumvent such obstacles by employing 4D STIC ultrasound scans to quantify the fetal heart motion in three normal 20-week fetuses, subsequently performing 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations on the left ventricles based on these patient-specific heart movements. Analysis of the simulation results shows that there are significant differences between fetal and adult ventricular blood flows which arise because of dissimilar heart morphology, E/A ratio, diastolic-systolic duration ratio, and heart rate. The formations of ventricular vortex rings were observed for both E- and A-wave in the flow simulations. These vortices had sufficient momentum to last until the end of diastole and were responsible for generating significant wall shear stresses on the myocardial endothelium, as well as helicity in systolic outflow. Based on findings from previous studies, we hypothesized that these vortex-induced flow properties play an important role in sustaining the efficiency of diastolic filling, systolic pumping, and cardiovascular flow in normal fetal hearts. PMID:26676944

  1. Fluid mechanics of blood flow in human fetal left ventricles based on patient-specific 4D ultrasound scans.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Jamil, Muhammad; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Biswas, Arijit; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2016-10-01

    The mechanics of intracardiac blood flow and the epigenetic influence it exerts over the heart function have been the subjects of intense research lately. Fetal intracardiac flows are especially useful for gaining insights into the development of congenital heart diseases, but have not received due attention thus far, most likely because of technical difficulties in collecting sufficient intracardiac flow data in a safe manner. Here, we circumvent such obstacles by employing 4D STIC ultrasound scans to quantify the fetal heart motion in three normal 20-week fetuses, subsequently performing 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations on the left ventricles based on these patient-specific heart movements. Analysis of the simulation results shows that there are significant differences between fetal and adult ventricular blood flows which arise because of dissimilar heart morphology, E/A ratio, diastolic-systolic duration ratio, and heart rate. The formations of ventricular vortex rings were observed for both E- and A-wave in the flow simulations. These vortices had sufficient momentum to last until the end of diastole and were responsible for generating significant wall shear stresses on the myocardial endothelium, as well as helicity in systolic outflow. Based on findings from previous studies, we hypothesized that these vortex-induced flow properties play an important role in sustaining the efficiency of diastolic filling, systolic pumping, and cardiovascular flow in normal fetal hearts.

  2. Application of the compound probability density function for characterization of breast masses in ultrasound B scans.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P M; Piccoli, C W; Reid, J M; Forsberg, F; Goldberg, B B

    2005-05-21

    The compound probability density function (pdf) is investigated for the ability of its parameters to classify masses in ultrasonic B scan breast images. Results of 198 images (29 malignant and 70 benign cases and two images per case) are reported and compared to the classification performance reported by us earlier in this journal. A new parameter, the speckle factor, calculated from the parameters of the compound pdf was explored to separate benign and malignant masses. The receiver operating characteristic curve for the parameter resulted in an A(z) value of 0.852. This parameter was combined with one of the parameters from our previous work, namely the ratio of the K distribution parameter at the site and away from the site. This combined parameter resulted in an A(z) value of 0.955. In conclusion, the parameters of the K distribution and the compound pdf may be useful in the classification of breast masses. These parameters can be calculated in an automated fashion. It should be possible to combine the results of the ultrasonic image analysis with those of traditional mammography, thereby increasing the accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis.

  3. Broadband ultrasound field mapping system using a wavelength tuned, optically scanned focused laser beam to address a Fabry Perot polymer film sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2006-07-01

    An optical system for rapidly mapping broad-band ultrasound fields with high spatial resolution has been developed. The transduction mechanism is based upon the detection of acoustically induced changes in the optical thickness of a thin polymer film acting as a Fabry Perot sensing interferometer (FPI). By using a PC-controlled galvanometer mirror to line-scan a focused laser beam over the surface of the FPI, and a wavelength-tuned phase bias control system to optimally set the FPI working point, a notional 1D ultrasound array was synthesized. This system enabled ultrasound fields to be mapped over an aperture of 40 mm, in 50-microm steps with an optically defined element size of 50 microm and an acquisition time of 50 ms per step. The sensor comprised a 38-microm polymer film FPI which was directly vacuum-deposited onto an impedance-matched polycarbonate backing stub. The -3 dB acoustic bandwidth of the sensor was 300 kHz to 28 MHz and the peak noise-equivalent-pressure was 10 kPa over a 20-MHz measurement bandwidth. To demonstrate the system, the outputs of various planar and focused pulsed ultrasound transducers with operating frequencies in the range 3.5 to 20 MHz were mapped. It is considered that this approach offers a practical and inexpensive alternative to piezoelectric-based arrays and scanning systems for rapid transducer field characterization and biomedical and industrial ultrasonic imaging applications. PMID:16889340

  4. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  5. Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopes, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. In addition, it may enhance parental bonding in visually impaired parents and have didactic value in teaching program. Hereby, the first 3D physical model from 3D ultrasound and MRI scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a third trimester fetus affected by Chiari II malformation is reported. PMID:25686895

  6. Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopes, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. In addition, it may enhance parental bonding in visually impaired parents and have didactic value in teaching program. Hereby, the first 3D physical model from 3D ultrasound and MRI scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a third trimester fetus affected by Chiari II malformation is reported.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma;results from a high burden country

    PubMed Central

    Shazlee, Muhammad Kashif; Ali, Muhammad; SaadAhmed, Muhammad; Hussain, Ammad; Hameed, Kamran; Lutfi, Irfan Amjad; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnostic accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma. Methods: A total of 61 patients with 63 ocular injuries were assessed during July 2013 to January 2014. All patients were referred to the department of Radiology from Emergency Room since adequate clinical assessment of the fundus was impossible because of the presence of opaque ocular media. Based on radiological diagnosis, the patients were provided treatment (surgical or medical). Clinical diagnosis was confirmed during surgical procedures or clinical follow-up. Results: A total of 63 ocular injuries were examined in 61 patients. The overall sensitivity was 91.5%, Specificity was 98.87%, Positive predictive value was 87.62 and Negative predictive value was 99%. Conclusion: Ultrasound B-scan is a sensitive, non invasive and rapid way of assessing intraocular damage caused by blunt or penetrating eye injuries. PMID:27182245

  8. Development and definition of a simplified scanning procedure and scoring method for Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with Ultrasound (HEAD-US).

    PubMed

    Martinoli, Carlo; Della Casa Alberighi, Ornella; Di Minno, Giovanni; Graziano, Ermelinda; Molinari, Angelo Claudio; Pasta, Gianluigi; Russo, Giuseppe; Santagostino, Elena; Tagliaferri, Annarita; Tagliafico, Alberto; Morfini, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simplified ultrasound scanning procedure and scoring method, named Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with UltraSound [HEAD-US], to evaluate joints of patients with haemophilic arthropathy. After an initial consensus-based process involving a multidisciplinary panel of experts, three comprehensive and evidence-based US scanning procedures to image the elbow, knee and ankle were established with the aim to increase sensitivity in detection of early signs of joint involvement while keeping the technique easy and quick to perform. Each procedure included systematic evaluation of synovial recesses and selection of a single osteochondral surface for damage analysis. Based on expert consensus, a simplified scoring system based on an additive scale was created to define the joint status and, in perspective, to offer a tool to evaluate disease progression and monitor the result of treatment in follow-up studies.

  9. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer.

  10. Assessment of visual quality and spatial accuracy of fast anisotropic diffusion and scan conversion algorithms for real-time three-dimensional spherical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Laine, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound machines based on matrix phased-array transducers are gaining predominance for real-time dynamic screening in cardiac and obstetric practice. These transducers array acquire three-dimensional data in spherical coordinates along lines tiled in azimuth and elevation angles at incremental depth. This study aims at evaluating fast filtering and scan conversion algorithms applied in the spherical domain prior to visualization into Cartesian coordinates for visual quality and spatial measurement accuracy. Fast 3d scan conversion algorithms were implemented and with different order interpolation kernels. Downsizing and smoothing of sampling artifacts were integrated in the scan conversion process. In addition, a denoising scheme for spherical coordinate data with 3d anisotropic diffusion was implemented and applied prior to scan conversion to improve image quality. Reconstruction results under different parameter settings, such as different interpolation kernels, scaling factor, smoothing options, and denoising, are reported. Image quality was evaluated on several data sets via visual inspections and measurements of cylinder objects dimensions. Error measurements of the cylinder's radius, reported in this paper, show that the proposed fast scan conversion algorithm can correctly reconstruct three-dimensional ultrasound in Cartesian coordinates under tuned parameter settings. Denoising via three-dimensional anisotropic diffusion was able to greatly improve the quality of resampled data without affecting the accuracy of spatial information after the modification of the introduction of a variable gradient threshold parameter.

  11. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  12. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  13. Feasibility of Concurrent Treatment with the Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) and the Helical Tomotherapy System

    PubMed Central

    Peñagarícano, José A.; Moros, Eduardo; Novák, Petr; Yan, Yulong; Corry, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of concurrent treatment with the Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) and helical tomotherapy (HT) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods The SURLAS was placed on a RANDO phantom simulating a patient with superficial or deep recurrent breast cancer. A Megavoltage CT (MVCT) of the phantom with and without the SURLAS was obtained in the HT system. MVCT images with the SURLAS were obtained for two configurations: i) with the SURLAS' long axis parallel and ii) perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the phantom. The MVCT simulation data set was then transferred to a radiation therapy planning station. Organs at risk (OAR) were contoured including the lungs, heart, abdomen and spinal cord. The metallic parts of the SURLAS were contoured as well and constraints were assigned to completely or directionally block radiation through them. The MVCT-simulation data set and regions of interest (ROI) files were subsequently transferred to the HT planning station. Several HT plans were obtained with optimization parameters that are usually used in the clinic. For comparison purposes, planning was also performed without the SURLAS on the phantom. Results All plans with the SURLAS on the phantom showed adequate dose covering 95% of the planning target volume (PTV D95%), average dose and coefficient of variation of the planning target volume (PTV) dose distribution regardless of the SURLAS' orientation with respect to the RANDO phantom. Likewise, all OAR showed clinically acceptable dose values. Spatial dose distributions and dose-volume histogram (DVH) evaluation showed negligible plan degradation due to the presence of the SURLAS. Beam-on time varied depending on the selected optimization parameters. Conclusion From the perspective of the radiation dosage, concurrent treatment with the SURLAS and HT IMRT is feasible as demonstrated by the obtained clinically acceptable treatment plans. In addition, proper

  14. Ultrasound pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; Placenta previa - ultrasound; Multiple ...

  15. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  16. Assessment of trabecular bone quality in human cadaver calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yixian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Rubin, Clinton; Gruber, Barry

    2004-10-01

    Microgravity and aging induced bone loss is a critical skeleton complication, occurring particularly in the weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) provide a unique method for evaluating bone strength and density. Using a newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, QUS assessment for bone quality in the real body region was evaluated. A total of 19 human cadaver calcanei, age 66 to 97 years old, were tested by both SCAD and nonscan mode. The scanning region covered an approximate 40×40 mm2 with 0.5 mm resolution. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz), energy attenuation (ATT, dB), and ultrasound velocity (UV, m/s) were measured. The QUS properties were then correlated to the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA. Correlations between BMD and QUS parameters were significantly improved by using SCAD as compared to nonscan mode, yielding correlations between BMD and SCAD QUS parameters as R=0.82 (BUA), and R=0.86 (est. BMD). It is suggested that SCAD is feasible for in vivo bone quality mapping. It can be potentially used for monitoring instant changes of bone strength and density. [Work supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (TD00207), and New York Center for Biotechnology.

  17. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  18. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  19. Intra-Abdominal Hematoma Following Enoxaparin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient, who was being treated for therapeutic enoxaparin for a couple of days due to suspected deep vein thrombosis, was admitted to hospital following a collapse and severe abdominal pain. She was in hypovolemic shock and was fluid resuscitated. Ultrasound scan and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large pelvic hematoma. Radiologists also suspected a possibility of bleeding from inferior epigastric artery following a CT angiogram. The patient was stabilized and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for further hemodynamic supports and close monitoring. The patient was then transferred back to the general ward when she was stable. She was managed conservatively as there were no more signs of active bleeding. Unfortunately, she died of recurrent bleeding three days after ICU discharge. PMID:27158226

  20. The ScanTrainer obstetrics and gynaecology ultrasound virtual reality training simulator: A cost model to determine the cost viability of replacing clinical training with simulation training

    PubMed Central

    Ray, AF

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce an economic cost model comparing the use of the Medaphor ScanTrainer virtual reality training simulator for obstetrics and gynaecology ultrasound to achieve basic competence, with the traditional training method. A literature search and survey of expert opinion were used to identify resources used in training. An executable model was produced in Excel. The model showed a cost saving for a clinic using the ScanTrainer of £7114 per annum. The uncertainties of the model were explored and it was found to be robust. Threshold values for the key drivers of the model were identified. Using the ScanTrainer is cost saving for clinics with at least two trainees per year to train, if it would take at least six lists to train them using the traditional training method and if a traditional training list has at least two fewer patients than a standard list. PMID:27433245

  1. Comparison of transverse and longitudinal real-time ultrasound scans for prediction of lean cut yields and fat-free lean content in live pigs.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, F; Ellis, M; Miller, K D; Novakofski, J; Wilson, E R; McKeith, F K

    1996-11-01

    Live animal real-time ultrasound scans and carcass measures were taken on 80 pigs comprising two sexes (42 barrows; 38 gilts) and two halothane genotypes (40 carriers and 40 negatives) that were slaughtered between 108 and 148 kg live weight. Transverse scans (TRUS), at right angles to the midline, were taken on right (RS) and left (LS) sides at the last rib. Longitudinal scans (LON) were taken 6.5 cm off the midline immediately anterior (ANT) and posterior (PST) to the last rib on both the RS and LS. Longissimus muscle depth and area and backfat thickness over the longissimus muscle were measured on TRUS. Backfat thickness and longissimus muscle depth were measured at each end of the LON. Backfat thickness and longissimus muscle measurements were taken at the 10th and last rib on the RS of the carcass. Carcasses were fabricated using standard techniques to establish lean cut yields and carcass soft tissue was chemically analyzed to determine fat-free lean contents. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to develop equations to predict the weights and percentages of lean cuts and fat-free lean. Fat and muscle measures taken from ultrasound scans were generally less accurate than last rib carcass measures at predicting composition. There was little difference in R2 for equations based on either TRUS or ANT/LON; however, PST/LON, generally, were less accurate than ANT/LON. Combining measurements from more than one scan gave little improvement in R2 compared with the best single scan. Estimates of sex bias for carcass composition prediction were small. Halothane genotype and carcass lean content biases were detected; equations derived from the pooled data tended to overestimate the lean content of negative pigs and fatter carcasses and underestimate the lean content of carrier animals and leaner carcasses.

  2. Association between abdominal aortic plaque and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Luo, Songyuan; Luo, Jianfang; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Currently, the association between abdominal aortic plaques and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not yet been clarified clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques by ultrasound imaging and to explore its association with CAD in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Between October 2014 and June 2015, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Cardiology at Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. Ultrasound scanning of the abdominal aortas was performed in 1,667 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. Results Of the 1,667 study patients (male, 68.9%; mean age, 63±11 years) undergoing coronary angiography, 1,268 had CAD. Compared with 399 patients without CAD, 1,268 patients with CAD had higher prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques (37.3% vs 17%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the presence of CAD (odds ratio =2.08; 95% confidence interval =1.50–2.90; P<0.001). Of the 1,268 patients with CAD, the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was 27.0% (98/363) in patients with one-vessel disease, 35.0% (107/306) in patients with two-vessel disease, and 44.7% (268/599) in patients with three-vessel disease. Stepwise increases in the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaque was found depending on the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001; P-value for trend <0.001). In an ordinal logistic regression model, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the severity of CAD according to the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was higher in patients with CAD than in those without CAD. Abdominal aortic plaque was an independent factor associated with the presence and severity of CAD. PMID:27279740

  3. A 1 kHz A-scan rate pump-probe laser-ultrasound system for robust inspection of composites.

    PubMed

    Pelivanov, Ivan; Shtokolov, Alex; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We recently built a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft composites and demonstrated its greatly improved sensitivity and stability compared with current noncontact systems. It is also very attractive in terms of cost, stability to environmental noise and surface roughness, simplicity in adjustment, footprint, and flexibility. A new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is a key component of this all-optical LU pump-probe system. Very high A-scan rates can be achieved because no reference arm or stabilization feedback are needed. Here, we demonstrate LU system performance at 1000 A-scans/s combined with a fast 2-D translator operating at a scanning speed of 100 mm/s with a peak acceleration of 10 m/s(2) in both lateral directions to produce parallel B-scans at high rates. The fast scanning strategy is described in detail. The sensitivity of this system, in terms of noise equivalent pressure, was further improved to be only 8.3 dB above the Nyquist thermal noise limit. To our knowledge, this is the best reported sensitivity for a noncontact ultrasonic detector of this dimension used to inspect aircraft composites. PMID:26415130

  4. A 1 kHz A-scan rate pump-probe laser-ultrasound system for robust inspection of composites.

    PubMed

    Pelivanov, Ivan; Shtokolov, Alex; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We recently built a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft composites and demonstrated its greatly improved sensitivity and stability compared with current noncontact systems. It is also very attractive in terms of cost, stability to environmental noise and surface roughness, simplicity in adjustment, footprint, and flexibility. A new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is a key component of this all-optical LU pump-probe system. Very high A-scan rates can be achieved because no reference arm or stabilization feedback are needed. Here, we demonstrate LU system performance at 1000 A-scans/s combined with a fast 2-D translator operating at a scanning speed of 100 mm/s with a peak acceleration of 10 m/s(2) in both lateral directions to produce parallel B-scans at high rates. The fast scanning strategy is described in detail. The sensitivity of this system, in terms of noise equivalent pressure, was further improved to be only 8.3 dB above the Nyquist thermal noise limit. To our knowledge, this is the best reported sensitivity for a noncontact ultrasonic detector of this dimension used to inspect aircraft composites.

  5. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Słapa, Rafał Z; Jakubowski, Wiesław S; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna A

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society.

  6. Ultrasound diagnosis of bilateral cataracts in a fetus with possible cerebro-ocular congential muscular dystrophy during the routine second trimester anomaly scan.

    PubMed

    Drought, Alexandra; Wimalasundera, Ruwan; Holder, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The finding of bilateral congenital cataracts in the fetus is rare. We report bilateral congenital cataracts detected during the routine second trimester anomaly scan, which subsequently were found to be associated with other congenital anomalies and the parents opted for a termination of pregnancy. At post-mortem, Muscle-Eye Brain disease or Walker-Warburg Syndrome was considered likely, which are autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy disorders associated with cerebral, cerebellar, muscle and eye anomalies. On ultrasound, bilateral cataracts appear as echogenic, solid areas within the fetal orbits. The examination of the fetal face and orbits plays an important role in confirming fetal well-being antenatally. We propose that it should become a routine part of the structural survey of fetal anatomy during the obstetric anomaly scan. This is especially important in pregnancies previously affected by fetal cataracts or pregnancies at risk of rare genetic syndromes. PMID:27433255

  7. Ultrasound diagnosis of bilateral cataracts in a fetus with possible cerebro-ocular congential muscular dystrophy during the routine second trimester anomaly scan.

    PubMed

    Drought, Alexandra; Wimalasundera, Ruwan; Holder, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The finding of bilateral congenital cataracts in the fetus is rare. We report bilateral congenital cataracts detected during the routine second trimester anomaly scan, which subsequently were found to be associated with other congenital anomalies and the parents opted for a termination of pregnancy. At post-mortem, Muscle-Eye Brain disease or Walker-Warburg Syndrome was considered likely, which are autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy disorders associated with cerebral, cerebellar, muscle and eye anomalies. On ultrasound, bilateral cataracts appear as echogenic, solid areas within the fetal orbits. The examination of the fetal face and orbits plays an important role in confirming fetal well-being antenatally. We propose that it should become a routine part of the structural survey of fetal anatomy during the obstetric anomaly scan. This is especially important in pregnancies previously affected by fetal cataracts or pregnancies at risk of rare genetic syndromes.

  8. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an uncommon presentation].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Pereira, Laurinda; Amona, Eurides; Pinto, Erique Guedes; Rodrigues, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic, being accidentally found on physical examination or in routinely performed imaging studies. They only require surveillance (which is variable according to the aneurism size) and medical therapy in order to achieve risk factor reduction. However, in certain situations, according to the risk of aneurism rupture, elective surgery or endovascular procedure may be necessary. About 80% of the cases of aneurism rupture occur into the retroperitoneal space, with a high mortality rate. There are uncommon presentations of aneurism rupture as the aorto-caval fistula, which also require fast diagnosis and intervention. The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man, with the previous diagnosis of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction 2 months earlier (undergone primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and tabagism, who was admitted at the emergency department with intense 24-hour-evolution epigastric pain. On physical examination, the Blood Pressure values measured at the lower limbs were about half the ones measured at the upper limbs and there was an abdominal pulsatile mass, with a high-intensity murmur. As the authors suspected aortic dissection, aneurysm, coarctation or thrombosis, it was done a Computed Tomography scanning with intravenous contrast, which revealed a ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm with a mural thrombus. The doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a high debit aorto-caval fistula. The patient was immediately transferred to the Vascular Surgery. However he died 2 hours later, during surgery. PMID:22525642

  9. Role of B-scan ocular ultrasound as an adjuvant for the clinical assessment of eyeball diseases: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Dessì, Gerardo; Lahuerta, Eduardo Ferrer; Puce, Fabrizio Giorgio; Mendoza, Luis Humberto Ros; Stefanini, Teseo; Rosenberg, Ilan; Del Prato, Alberto; Perinetti, Michela; Villa, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    We report our experience in B-mode ocular ultrasonography, focusing on its contribution when the clinical examination proves to be difficult, mainly due to the existence of intraocular opacities of the ocular fundus or diagnostic doubts. We revise the ocular ultrasound technique, its indications and contraindications, comparing to the other imaging techniques. In our experience ultrasonography revealed pathological findings which confirmed the clinical suspicion in most of cases or provide additional information. With understanding of the indications for ultrasonography and proper examination technique, one can gather a vast amount of information not possible with clinical examination alone.

  10. Additive and epistatic genome-wide association for growth and ultrasound scan measures of carcass-related traits in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Khatkar, M S; Kadarmideen, H N; Thomson, P C

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies are routinely used to identify genomic regions associated with traits of interest. However, this ignores an important class of genomic associations, that of epistatic interactions. A genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using highly dense markers can detect epistatic interactions, but is a difficult task due to multiple testing and computational demand. However, It is important for revealing complex trait heredity. This study considers analytical methods that detect statistical interactions between pairs of loci. We investigated a three-stage modelling procedure: (i) a model without the SNP to estimate the variance components; (ii) a model with the SNP using variance component estimates from (i), thus avoiding iteration; and (iii) using the significant SNPs from (ii) for genome-wide epistasis analysis. We fitted these three-stage models to field data for growth and ultrasound measures for subcutaneous fat thickness in Brahman cattle. The study demonstrated the usefulness of modelling epistasis in the analysis of complex traits as it revealed extra sources of genetic variation and identified potential candidate genes affecting the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 and ultrasound scan measure of fat depth traits. Information about epistasis can add to our understanding of the complex genetic networks that form the fundamental basis of biological systems. PMID:25754883

  11. Scanning Ultrasound (SUS) Causes No Changes to Neuronal Excitability and Prevents Age-Related Reductions in Hippocampal CA1 Dendritic Structure in Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Robert John; Leinenga, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Scanning ultrasound (SUS) is a noninvasive approach that has recently been shown to ameliorate histopathological changes and restore memory functions in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although no overt neuronal damage was reported, the short- and long-term effects of SUS on neuronal excitability and dendritic tree morphology had not been investigated. To address this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice 2 and 24 hours after a single SUS treatment, and one week and 3 months after six weekly SUS treatments, including sham treatments as controls. In both treatment regimes, no changes in CA1 neuronal excitability were observed in SUS-treated neurons when compared to sham-treated neurons at any time-point. For the multiple treatment groups, we also determined the dendritic morphology and spine densities of the neurons from which we had recorded. The apical trees of sham-treated neurons were reduced at the 3 month time-point when compared to one week; however, surprisingly, no longitudinal change was detected in the apical dendritic trees of SUS-treated neurons. In contrast, the length and complexity of the basal dendritic trees were not affected by SUS treatment at either time-point. The apical dendritic spine densities were reduced, independent of the treatment group, at 3 months compared to one week. Collectively, these data suggest that ultrasound can be employed to prevent an age-associated loss of dendritic structure without impairing neuronal excitability. PMID:27727310

  12. Additive and epistatic genome-wide association for growth and ultrasound scan measures of carcass-related traits in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Khatkar, M S; Kadarmideen, H N; Thomson, P C

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies are routinely used to identify genomic regions associated with traits of interest. However, this ignores an important class of genomic associations, that of epistatic interactions. A genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using highly dense markers can detect epistatic interactions, but is a difficult task due to multiple testing and computational demand. However, It is important for revealing complex trait heredity. This study considers analytical methods that detect statistical interactions between pairs of loci. We investigated a three-stage modelling procedure: (i) a model without the SNP to estimate the variance components; (ii) a model with the SNP using variance component estimates from (i), thus avoiding iteration; and (iii) using the significant SNPs from (ii) for genome-wide epistasis analysis. We fitted these three-stage models to field data for growth and ultrasound measures for subcutaneous fat thickness in Brahman cattle. The study demonstrated the usefulness of modelling epistasis in the analysis of complex traits as it revealed extra sources of genetic variation and identified potential candidate genes affecting the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 and ultrasound scan measure of fat depth traits. Information about epistasis can add to our understanding of the complex genetic networks that form the fundamental basis of biological systems.

  13. [An application of low-invasive access in ultrasound-guided surgery of liquid formation of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space].

    PubMed

    Demin, D B; Laĭkov, A V; Funygin, M S; Chegodaeva, A A; Solodov, Iu Iu; Butina, K V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a low-invasive method in the intraoperative ultrasound-guided surgery. The method had several steps: an access (2-3 cm) was made to a liquid formation with the following aspiration of contents, a necrotic detritus was removed through the wound tract using simultaneous ultrasound examination of efficacy of emptying the cavity with drainage. This means allowed the performance of single-stage sanitization and drainage of cavity formations, which contained the liquid and dense necrotic tissues in the lumen. The method was effective, technically workable in any surgical hospital. At the same time, it was economically reasonable, because there wasn't need to buy an additional equipment. The application of the means considerably shortened a hospital stay and the lethality was reduced.

  14. [Ultrasound duplex scanning in the assessment of the effectiveness of gravitation therapy and conservative treatment of patients with atherosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Galkin, R A; Makarov, I V; Preobrazhenskaia, N M

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound duplex scanning was used to compare the results of the treatment of 162 patients suffering from atherosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremities. It is to be noted that 50 patients were administered only gravitation therapy, 72 patients underwent a complex of treatment measures including, in addition to gravitation therapy, physiotherapy and drug treatment, and 40 patients received conservative treatment alone. The assessment criteria were the maximal systolic velocity of blood flow (V(max)), end diastolic mean, velocity (V(min)), mean maximal velocity (V(mean)), volume velocity of blood flow (V(vol)), ankle/brachial index (ABI), and index of regional perfusion (IRP), proposed by us and representing the percent ratio of the volume velocity of blood flow to the minute heart volume (MHV). It has been revealed in the course of the treatment that the best clinical outcome was recorded in patients who received a complex of treatment measures. The use of gravitation therapy alone provided better treatment results as compared to those obtained in patients administered standard conservative therapy. Of all the indicators used, only V(mean), V(vol), ABI and IRP are of the clinical significance. However, the most significant information on the segmental blood flow was obtained on the assessment of the IRP whose values did not depend on the changes in central hemodynamics. In contrast to the ABI, the advantage of the IRP lies in the possibility of blood flow assessment in different segments and arteries of the extremities. So, the use of the quantitative indicators of ultrasound duplex scanning and, first of all, of the IRP, allows an objective evaluation of the segmental blood flow and may serve one of the significant criteria of the treatment effectiveness.

  15. Two-dimensional blood flow velocity estimation using ultrasound speckle pattern dependence on scan direction and A-line acquisition velocity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiantian; Bashford, Gregory

    2013-05-01

    We have previously investigated the change of apparent lateral speckle size caused by the direction and spatial rate of scanner A-line acquisition (scan velocity). An algorithm which measures the lateral component of blood flow velocity was developed based on the increase in speckle size resulting from relative motion between moving scatterers and the scan velocity. In this paper, the change of the apparent dominant angle of the speckle pattern in a straight vessel was investigated and a new method of two-dimensional blood flow velocity estimation is introduced. Different scan velocities were used for data acquisition from blood flow traveling at an angle relative to the ultrasound beam. The apparent angle of the speckle pattern changes with different scan velocities because of misregistration between the ultrasound beam and scatterers. The apparent angle of the speckle pattern was resolved by line-to-line cross-correlation in the fast-time (axial) direction on a region-of-interest (ROI) in each blood flow image and used to spatially align the ROI. The resulting lateral speckle size within the aligned ROI was calculated. The lateral component of the blood flow is shown to be closest to the scan velocity which gives the maximum speckle size and the apparent angle of speckle pattern collected by this scan velocity is the best estimate for the actual angle of blood flow. These two components produce two-dimensional blood flow velocity estimations. This method was studied through both computer simulation and experiments with a blood flow phantom. Nine scan velocities were used to collect blood flow data with velocities ranging from 33 to 98 cm/s and four beam-to-flow angles. In simulated plug blood flow, the mean bias of angle estimation is below 2% with an average standard deviation of 3.6%. In simulated parabolic blood flow, the angle of blood flow is overestimated because of speckle decorrelation caused by flow gradients and the estimation bias increases with

  16. [ENDOVASCULAR ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Maĭstrenko, D N; Generalov, M I; Tarazov, P G; Zherebtsov, F K; Osovskikh, V V; Ivanov, A S; Oleshchuk, A N; Granov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the single-center experience of treatment of 72 patients with abdominal aortic aneurisms and severe accompanied pathology. The aneurisms were repaired by stent-grafts. All the patients had abdominal aortic aneurisms with the diameters from 41 to 84 mm against the background of severe somatic pathology. It was a contraindication to planned open surgery. An installation of stent-graft was successful in all 72 follow-ups. It wasn't necessary to use a conversion to open surgery. The follow-up period consisted of 44,6?2,1 months. Control ultrasound and computer tomography studies hadn't revealed an increase of aneurism sack sizes or "eakages". A reduction of abdominal aortic aneurism sizes was noted in 37 patients on 4-5% during first year after operation. The stent-graft implantation extends the possibilities of abdominal aortic aneurism treatment for patients from a high surgical risk group. PMID:26234059

  17. Calibration of non-contact ultrasound as an online sensor for wood characterization: Effects of temperature, moisture, and scanning direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vun, R. Y.; Hoover, K.; Janowiak, J.; Bhardwaj, M.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous handheld moisture meters are available for measuring moisture levels of wood and building materials for a vast range of quality control and moisture diagnosis applications. However, many methods currently available require physical contact of a probe with the test material to operate. The contact requirement of such devices has limited applications for these purposes. There is a tremendous demand for dynamic online quality assessment of in-process materials for moisture content (MC) measurements. In this paper, a non-destructive non-contact ultrasound technology was used to evaluate the effects of increasing temperature in two MC levels and of increasing MC in lumber. The results show that the ultrasonic absolute transmittance and velocity parameters are directly correlated very well (R2≥0.87) with temperature for the two moisture levels in wood. At constant temperature, however, the velocity is inversely correlated with MC. It was also found that the distribution of MC along the length is marginally insignificant to both ultrasonic measurements. The transmittance measurement along the orthogonal thickness direction is insignificant above the fiber saturation MC; similarly, the velocity measurement is marginally insignificant. The study concludes a positive correlation and a good fit for this technology to advance into the development of an automated device for determining wood moisture levels, which will in turn be used to control the dynamics of wood drying/sterilization processes. Further calibration research is recommended to ascertain the constraints and limitations of the technology to specific wood species and dimension.

  18. Ultrasound images of groin pain in the athlete: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ozçakar, Levent; Utku, Burkay

    2014-08-01

    Chronic groin pain in the athlete is a common condition, with, at times, protracted recovery that leads to prolonged disability. There are soft-tissue and bony contributors to pain, with the mechanism of injury usually an acute or chronic overload of the hip adductor tendons, abdominal aponeurosis, hip joint, or symphysis pubis. The complexity of the regional anatomy often necessitates imaging modalities for precise diagnosis and prompt management. Imaging options include magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear bone scan, radiography, and ultrasound. In this report, we present a series of images that represent the value of musculoskeletal ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of groin pain in the athlete.

  19. Reducing Postoperative Opioid Consumption by Adding an Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block to Multimodal Analgesia for Abdominal Cancer Surgery With Midline Incision

    PubMed Central

    Bashandy, Ghada Mohammad Nabih; Elkholy, Abeer Hassan Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many multimodal analgesia techniques have been tried to provide adequate analgesia for midline incisions extending above and below the umbilicus aiming at limiting the perioperative use of morphine thus limiting side effects. Ultrasound (US) guidance made the anesthesiologist reconsider old techniques for wider clinical use. The rectus sheath block (RSB) is a useful technique under-utilized in the adult population. Objectives: Our study examined the efficacy of a preemptive single-injection rectus sheath block in providing better early postoperative pain scores compared to general anesthesia alone. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients were recruited in this randomized controlled trial. These patients were divided into two groups: RSB group had an RSB after induction of anesthesia and before surgical incision, and GA (general anesthesia) group had general anesthesia alone. Both groups were compared for verbal analogue scale (VAS) score, opioid consumption and hemodynamic variables in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Analgesic requirements in surgical wards were recorded in postoperative days (POD) 0, 1 and 2. Results: The median VAS score was significantly lower in RSB group compared with GA group in all 5 time points in the PACU (P ˂ 0.05). Also PACU morphine consumption was lower in RSB group than GA group patients (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference in means between groups, −4.59 to −2.23 mg). Morphine consumption was also less in the first 2 postoperative days (POD0 and POD1). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block is an easy technique to learn. This technique, when it is used with general anesthesia, will be more effective in reducing pain scores and opioid consumption compared with general anesthesia alone. PMID:25289373

  20. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  1. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  2. "Holy scan" or "picture of the baby?" Biomedicalization and stratification in the use of obstetric ultrasound in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Chazan, Lilian Krakowski; Faro, Livi F T

    2016-01-01

    Based on ethnographic studies conducted at public and private healthcare facilities in Rio de Janeiro, we argue that the dissemination of (bio)medicalization varies in accordance with the social stratum of the expectant mothers, thereby producing thoroughly distinct fetal and pregnant bodies, as well as different gestational processes. Starting from the basic premise that biomedicalization represents a transformation in the process of medicalization, characterized by the growing incorporation of technoscience into biomedicine, the observed universes displayed different stages in this transformation, consonant with the social stratification of the women who underwent the scans. PMID:27008074

  3. Radiological management of abdominal abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Mac Erlean, D P; Gibney, R G

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses were drained percutaneously under ultrasound guidance. A success rate of 85.7% was achieved. Subsequent surgery was required in only 5 patients. Postoperative and spontaneous abscesses did equally well. Most intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses are amenable to this form of percutaneous drainage. The procedure requires only local anaesthesia and is well tolerated. Surgical management should probably now be reserved for those cases which are considered unsuitable for percutaneous drainage or which fail to resolve following this procedure. PMID:6842496

  4. [Ultrasound in East Africa].

    PubMed

    Gysel, W

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound is poorly established in East Africa because of missing finances and medical staff. The Foundation for medical know how transfer SmW installed in the last 3 years an ultrasound department in all District Hospitals in the South Province Mombasa in Kenya and was teaching the medical staff 2-3 times an year according the guidelines of SGUM and EFSUMB. The project is based on the idea that knowledge transfer is more efficient than money transfer. The project is supervised by public health studies. The first results show that non physicians are able to perform good quality ultrasound examinations. 75% of the obstetrical and 50% of the abdominal ultrasound examinations show therapy-relevant findings. Ultrasound is going to rise to the position of the most important imagine system in developing countries.

  5. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  6. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  7. Axial ultrasound B-scans of the entire eye with a 20-MHz linear array: correction of crystalline lens phase aberration by applying Fermat's principle.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Tony; Chang, Alexandre; Mofid, Yassine; Pisella, Pierre-Jean; Ossant, Frederic

    2014-11-01

    In ophthalmic ultrasonography the crystalline lens is known to be the main source of phase aberration, causing a significant decrease in resolution and distortion effects on axial B-scans. This paper proposes a computationally efficient method to correct the phase aberration arising from the crystalline lens, including refraction effects using a bending ray tracing approach based on Fermat's principle. This method is used as a basis to perform eye-adapted beamforming (BF), with appropriate focusing delays for a 128-element 20-MHz linear array in both emission and reception. Implementation was achieved on an in-house developed experimental ultrasound scanning device, the ECODERM. The proposed BF was tested in vitro by imaging a wire phantom through an eye phantom consisting of a synthetic gelatin lens anatomically set up in an appropriate liquid (turpentine) to approach the in vivo velocity ratio. Both extremes of accommodation shapes of the human crystalline lens were investigated. The performance of the developed BF was evaluated in relation to that in homogeneous medium and compared to a conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) BF and a second adapted BF which was simplified to ignore the lens refraction. Global expectations provided by our method with the transducer array are reviewed by an analysis quantifying both image quality and spatial fidelity, as well as the detrimental effects of a crystalline lens in conventional reconstruction. Compared to conventional array imaging, the results indicated a two-fold improvement in the lateral resolution, greater sensitivity and a considerable reduction of spatial distortions that were sufficient to envisage reliable biometry directly in B-mode, especially phakometry. PMID:24988589

  8. Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournane, S.; Cannon, L.; Browne, J. E.; Fagan, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    The accuracy of a transient elastography liver-scanning ultrasound system was assessed using a novel application of PVA-cryogel as a tissue-mimicking material with acoustic and shear elasticity properties optimized to best represent those of liver tissue. Although the liver-scanning system has been shown to offer a safer alternative for diagnosing liver cirrhosis through stiffness measurement, as compared to the liver needle biopsy exam, the scanner's accuracy has not been fully established. Young's elastic modulus values of 5-6 wt% PVA-cryogel phantoms, also containing glycerol and 0.3 µm Al2O3 and 3 µm Al2O3, were measured using a 'gold standard' mechanical testing technique and transient elastography. The mechanically measured values and acoustic velocities of the phantoms ranged between 1.6 and 16.1 kPa and 1540 and 1570 m s-1, respectively, mimicking those observed in liver tissue. The values reported by the transient elastography system overestimated Young's elastic modulus values representative of the progressive stages of liver fibrosis by up to 32%. These results were attributed to the relative rather than absolute nature of the measurement arising from the single-point acoustic velocity calibration of the system, rendering the measurements critically dependent on the speed of sound of the sample under investigation. Given the wide range of acoustic velocities which exist in the liver, spanning healthy tissue to cirrhotic pathology, coupled with the system's assumption that the liver is approximately elastic when it is rather highly viscoelastic, care should be exercised when interpreting the results from this system in patient groups.

  9. Use of A-scan for penetration control during dual-frequency ultrasound thermal therapy of superficial tissues overlaying bone and lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moros, Eduardo G.; Straube, William L.; Fan, Xiaobing

    1999-05-01

    An ultrasonic system capable of Lateral Power Conformability, Penetration Depth Control (PDC), and the ability to deliver hyperthermia concomitantly with external beam radiation is being developed. PDC is achieved by simultaneously insonating with beams of low (1 MHz) and high (5 MHz) frequency. This paper presents a sono-thermal numerical evaluation of the impact of PDC on thermal dose in the treatment of chest wall volumes. The main goal is to assess the potential advantages of impedance-mismatched interface depth-mapping, using therapy transducers in A-scan mode, to select optimal relative output intensities of the beams as a function of bone and lung depths. Simulation results for a representative chest wall anatomy showed that there exists a strong relationship between optimal relative output intensities and bone/lung depth for maximum thermal dose and minimum muscle-bone interface temperature. Consequently, interface depth-mapping prior to a dual- frequency ultrasound hyperthermia treatment would provide patient-specific data useful for selecting PDC parameters that maximize thermal dose and minimize bone heating.

  10. [Laparoscopic ultrasound in biliary diseases].

    PubMed

    Cociorvei, A; Calu, V

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic ultrasound is an intraoperative exploration of the abdominal viscera using ultrasounds. The aim of this work is to obviate this new method of exploration and to underline its advantages and limits. In this study were enroled 65 pacients with gallbladder stones, admitted in The Surgical Clinic, "Elias" Emergency Hospital, from October 2005 until December 2006. The measured parameters were CBD size and the presence of stones or sludge within CBD, and various methods were compared: abdominal ultrasound, laparoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopic cholangiography. The results allowed us to consider that laparoscopic ultrasound is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocolithiasis. When compared to laparoscopic cholangiography, our study revealed the same specificity and positive predictive value, and a sensitivity of 0.93.

  11. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  12. Studies on the application of a low-voltage peak to the postsurgical follow-up CT scan in abdominal cancer patients in order to reduce the exposure of patients to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, H. J.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the radiation dose, computed tomography (CT) number, contrast and image quality of patients requiring periodic follow-up abdominal CT examinations at various tube voltages. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group consisted of patients who underwent a clinical analysis and the other group was a phantom one. Somatom Sensation 16 (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) was used. Twenty patients who underwent a periodic follow-up examination by CT were selected randomly. The tube current was fixed to 150 mA, and the tube voltage was adjusted according to the appropriate value of each examination. The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values were measured. The CT number of each organ was measured by setting up a 1 cm diameter return on investment (ROI) in the abdominal organs at the same height of the first lumbar vertebra using images of the arterial phase. Two radiologists in consensus graded the quality of the abdominal images into three groups. An abdomen-shaped acrylic phantom was used in the phantom study. An ion chamber was inserted into the holes located at the center and periphery of the phantom, where the radiation dose was automatically displayed on the reader. Tube voltages of 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp were applied to the phantom (diluted contrast medium with water at 1:10 ratio) and the phantom was scanned. The CT number was measured from a 1 cm diameter ROI at the center of the image. The CTDI value decreased by 36% at 100 kVp (7.50 mGy) compared with that at 120 kVp (11.70 mGy). According to the radiologists' evaluation, there were 17 equivalent, 3 acceptable and 0 unacceptable levels in the group of 20 subjects. The radiation dose in the phantom study decreased with increasing tube voltages from 80 to 140 kVp. The peripheral and central doses decreased by 38% and 41%, respectively. The CT numbers at 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp were 1365.9±4.4, 1046.1±3.7, 862.8±3.2 and 737.5±3.0 HU, respectively. In conclusion, in a follow

  13. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  14. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  15. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary. PMID:27313923

  16. Determining Directions of Ultrasound in Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasound shadows cast by grooves. Improved method for determining direction of ultrasound in materials is shadow method using Scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Direction of ultrasound calculated from dimensions of groove and portion of surface groove shields from ultrasound. Method has variety of applications in nontraditional quality-control applications.

  17. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  18. Ultrasound, normal fetus - abdomen measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement. It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, ...

  19. [How should anesthesiologists perform ultrasound examinations? Diagnostic use of ultrasound in emergency and intensive care and medicine].

    PubMed

    Maecken, T; Zinke, H; Zenz, M; Grau, T

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging has attained great significance as a tool for diagnostics in emergency and intensive care medicine. The major advantages of this technique are its instantaneous bedside availability and the possibility to perform repeatable examinations. These advantages are based on recent developments, such as portable ultrasound devices offering excellent imaging quality as well as a quick-start-function. Ultrasound imaging in critically ill patients is frequently performed under pressure of time depending on the current acute physical state. All standard examinations in echocardiography, vascular, abdominal and thoracic ultrasound scanning can be applied in these patients. Based on the clinical scenario the duration of examinations may vary from seconds during cardiopulmonary resuscitations to time-consuming repeated scanning. The transition from basic to subject-specific detailed examinations is flowing and has to be adjusted to local conditions. In the field of emergency and intensive care medicine the technique used is whole-body sonography. The goal is to classify the patient's present physical state and to define a targeted therapeutic approach. The characteristics of whole-body sonography are similar to the field of anesthesiology which is an interdisciplinary one. Currently, these characteristics deserve more attention in training in sonography.

  20. Electromagnetically navigated laparoscopic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wilheim, Dirk; Feussner, Hubertus; Schneider, Armin; Harms, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) representation of laparoscopic ultrasound examinations could be helpful in diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy, but has not yet been realised with flexible laparoscopic ultrasound probes. Therefore, an electromagnetic navigation system was integrated into the tip of a conventional laparoscopic ultrasound probe. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound was compared with the imaging data of 3D navigated transcutaneous ultrasound and 3D computed tomography (CT) scan. The 3D CT scan served as the "gold standard". Clinical applicability in standardized operating room (OR) settings, imaging quality, diagnostic potential, and accuracy in volumetric assessment of various well-defined hepatic lesions were analyzed. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound facilitates exact definition of tumor location and margins. As compared with the "gold standard" of the 3D CT scans, 3D laparoscopic ultrasound has a tendency to underestimate the volume of the region of interest (ROI) (Delta3.1%). A comparison of 3D laparoscopy and transcutaneous 3D ultrasonography demonstrated clearly that the former is more accurate for volumetric assessment of the ROI and facilitates a more detailed display of the lesions. 3D laparoscopic ultrasound imaging with a navigated probe is technically feasible. The technique facilitates detailed ultrasound evaluation of laparoscopic procedures that involve visual, in-depth, and volumetric perception of complex liver pathologies. Navigated 3D laparoscopic ultrasound may have the potential to promote the practical role of laparoscopic ultrasonography, and become a valuable tool for local ablative therapy. In this article, our clinical experiences with a certified prototype of a 3D laparoscopic ultrasound probe, as well as its in vitro and in vivo evaluation, is reported.

  1. A fibromatosis case mimicking abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.

  2. Perineal scanning.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; d'Alton, M; Romero, R; Hobbins, J C

    1986-10-01

    Although various techniques have been described to aid in the ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa and incompetent cervix, these maneuvers depend on the precise identification of the internal cervical os, a feat which is notoriously difficult to accomplish consistently. In an attempt to get a closer view of the cervix we tried another approach. This simple technique of perineal scanning has the potential to help considerably with these problems. PMID:3530265

  3. Familial abdominal aortic aneurysm: prevalence and implications for screening.

    PubMed

    Adams, D C; Tulloh, B R; Galloway, S W; Shaw, E; Tulloh, A J; Poskitt, K R

    1993-11-01

    The high prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men over the age of 65 has led to the establishment of ultrasound screening programmes for this group. The apparent familial tendency towards AAA formation suggests that relatives of aneurysm patients may form another subpopulation in whom screening is appropriate. The first degree relatives of 100 consecutive aneurysm patients were identified. Of 110 relatives over 50 years of age, two were known to have had AAA and ultrasound scans were performed on 74, providing information on aortic size for 76 relatives (69%). No further aortic aneurysms (antero-posterior diameter > or = 4.0 cm) were found on scanning. However, nine relatives were demonstrated to have aortic dilatation (2.5-3.9 cm). Aortic dilatation was observed in 21% of male first degree relatives over 50 years of age, affecting 27% of sons and 17% of brothers. Only 4% of the sisters and none of the daughters were found to have aortic dilatation. The prevalence of aortic enlargement seems to be sufficiently high amongst male first degree relatives of AAA patients over 50 years of age to justify aortic screening.

  4. Mycotic Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in an Infant after Cardiac Catheterization: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Rice, Henry E; Shortell, Cynthia K; Cox, Mitchell W

    2015-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a rare entity in the pediatric population. Children with mycotic (infectious) AAA in particular are at risk of life-threatening rupture due to their rapid expansion coupled with aortic wall thinning and deterioration. Here, we present the case of a 10-month-old infant with prior 2-staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was incidentally discovered to have a mycotic AAA on abdominal ultrasound (US) for evaluation of renovascular hypertension. Before the time of evaluation with US, the infant had developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia 3 days after cardiac catheterization with percutaneous thoracic aortic balloon angioplasty. She had normal aortic contours on contrasted computed tomography scan of the abdomen approximately 2 weeks before the aforementioned US evaluation. This infant subsequently underwent open aneurysmorrhaphy with cryopreserved vein patch angioplasty with resolution of her aneurysmal segment.

  5. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  6. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula draining from an abdominal scar from previous surgical drainage.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Paraskevas, George; Kotronis, Anastasios; Chatzopoulos, Stavros; Konstantara, Athina; Papadimitriou, Nikolaos; Makrantonakis, Apostolos; Kakoutis, Emmanouil

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of cholecystocutaneous fistula draining from an old surgical scar in the right upper abdominal quadrant following chronic calculous cholecystitis. A 71 year old male presented to the emergency department with a persistent bilious drainage from an old surgical scare, from surgical drainage, of the right upper abdominal quadrant for about a week. Cultures from the draining fluid grew Staphylococcus hominis, Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumoniae and tigecycline 50 mg twice a day was administrated intravenously to the patient according to sensitivity results. An abdominal US revealed the presence the gallbladder with calculi in a superficial position and the fistulogram revealed a cholecystocytaneous fistula arising from the fundus of the gallbladder. At laparotomy a fistula track was found connecting the gallbladder fundus to the skin, which was dissected and a cholecystectomy was performed. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula is rarely observed today, mostly as a complication of chronic calculous cholecystitis. Most often it arises from the gallbladder fundus and the clinical presentation is that of a painless draining sinus tract in the right upper quadrant. Diagnosis is aided by abdominal CT scan and ultrasound and treatment is with elective cholecystectomy and excision of the fistula. PMID:22352221

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  8. Intravascular ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube. This tube is called a catheter. The catheter ...

  9. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... Deane CR, Goss DE. Peripheral arteries and veins. In: Allan PL, Baxter GM, Weston MJ, eds. Allan & Baxter: Clinical Ultrasound . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  11. Current Trends in the Management of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Harris, K.A.; Ameli, F. Michael; Louis, E.L. St.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm has undergone dramatic changes over the last three decades. More sophisticated diagnostic techniques have allowed early elective repair to be carried out. Improvement has resulted in both morbidity and mortality rates. Investigations such as ultrasound, computerized tomographic scanning and arteriography allow easy confirmation of the diagnosis of aortic aneurysms and permit a better assessment of the extent prior to surgical intervention. Improvement in the pre-operative management, particularly in relation to cardiac, renal, and pulmonary disease, has led to greatly improved results. The most important change in surgical technique has been repair of the aneurysm rather than resection. Combined with better post-operative intensive care units, this development has contributed to the improved morbidity and mortality rates. Although the complication rate of elective repair is low, the major cause of death remains myocardial infarction. As a result of all these improvements, indication for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has been extended to patients over the age of 80. Following surgical repair, most patients can be expected to return to normal lifestyles and lifespans. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21263973

  12. Ultrasound screening for neoplasms in children up to 6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzejewski, Grzegorz; Wozniak, Magdalena M.; Pawelec, Agata; Matera, Albert; Kunach, Magdalena; Madej, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Andrzej P.; Nowakowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the ultrasound (US) screening program was to detect neoplastic lesions in children, together with other pathologies of the developmental age in the area of the neck, abdomen, female pelvis, and scrotum in boys. US screening scans, including cervical, abdominal, pelvical, and scrotal US, were performed in the population of asymptomatic children aged from 9 months to 6 years. The children were scanned in Mobile Pediatric US Unit, consisting of 2 independent consulting rooms. The scans of 14,324 children were analyzed, 7247 boys and 7077 girls. Totally 42,538 US examinations were performed, including 14,187 cervical scans, 14,259 abdominal scans, 6942 female pelvical scans, and 7150 scrotal scans. Totally 5426 abnormalities were detected, which represent 12.7% of all examinations and 30% of patients. Three tumors were recognized, which are renal malignant tumor diagnosed as Wilms tumor, neurogenic tumor of the rib, and teratoma of the testis. US screening in pediatric population can be used to reveal lesions inaccessible to clinical examination, like tumors or other pathologies of developmental age before the onset of clinical symptoms. Due to the large number of detected abnormalities it should be recommended to the whole population of certain age. PMID:27759641

  13. Left hepatic lobe herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Herniation of the liver through an anterior abdominal wall hernia defect is rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases have been described in the literature. Case presentation A 70-year-old Mexican woman presented with a one-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice to our Department of General Surgery. Her medical history included an open cholecystectomy from 20 years earlier and excessive weight. She presented with jaundice, abdominal distension with a midline surgical scar, right upper quadrant tenderness, and a large midline abdominal wall defect with dullness upon percussion and protrusion of a large, tender, and firm mass. The results of laboratory tests were suggestive of cholestasis. Ultrasound revealed choledocholithiasis. A computed tomography scan showed a protrusion of the left hepatic lobe through the anterior abdominal wall defect and a well-defined, soft tissue density lesion in the right adrenal topography. An endoscopic common bile duct stone extraction was unsuccessful. During surgery, the right adrenal tumor was resected first. The hernia was approached through a median supraumbilical incision; the totality of the left lobe was protruding through the abdominal wall defect, and once the lobe was reduced to its normal position, a common bile duct surgical exploration with multiple stone extraction was performed. Finally, the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Histopathology revealed an adrenal myelolipoma. Six months after the operation, our patient remains in good health. Conclusions The case of liver herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia in this report represents, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth such case reported in the literature. The rarity of this medical entity makes it almost impossible to specifically describe predisposing risk factors for liver herniation. Obesity, the right adrenal myelolipoma mass effect, and the previous abdominal surgery

  14. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  15. [Gynecological ultrasound examination at the general health care emergency department].

    PubMed

    Forsbom, Otto; Väyrynen, Tapio; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal ultrasound examination is a possible addition for the general health care emergency department. It gives additional information of gynecological illnesses and pregnancy. Ultrasound can guide treatment and make consulting the right specialty easier when treating women with acute abdominal pain. Correctly used ultrasound can also reduce the need for consultation and speed up treatment, especially in early pregnancy. The physician performing the ultrasound should know the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and compare findings to the clinical status and history. Ultrasound can't replace clinical history and status in any situation. A pregnancy test, hemoglobin or CRP are often required to achieve diagnosis.

  16. Advanced abdominal ectopic pregnancy: lessons from three cases from Zimbabwe and a literature appraisal of diagnostic and management challenges.

    PubMed

    Gidiri, Muchabayiwa F; Kanyenze, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    We report three cases illustrating difficulties in diagnosis and challenges with management of the placenta in a low-resource country where ultrasound scanning, methotrexate, interventional radiology or blood products are often not accessible for the majority of patients. Even in situations where an ultrasound scan is available prenatally as in our three cases, the diagnosis is often missed. All the cases presented with vague abdominal symptoms, which are common in pregnancy anyway. Only one case was correctly diagnosed before surgery by ultrasound scan. For the two cases in the second trimester as expected the fetuses did not survive. The one advanced pregnancy had a good perinatal outcome. Maternal morbidity and mortality usually results from perioperative hemorrhage from the placental attachment site. The most important aspect of management is the management of the placenta. In the two cases with second trimester pregnancies, it was possible to remove the placentas, even though blood loss was significant, hemostasis was achieved at surgery. All three mothers recovered well and survived. PMID:26102467

  17. [Adrenal injury in blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Abakumov, M M; Smoliar, A N; Barmina, T G; Boĭko, A V; Shalimova, I G

    2009-01-01

    10 patients with adrenal damage were observed during 2.5 years. It amounted 0.93% of all patients with closed abdominal injuries. The right adrenal gland was traumatized in all cases evidently due to it's compression between right lobe of liver and vertebral column. Adrenal damage is observed quite often in combination with injuries of right liver lobe, right kidney and retroperitoneal hematoma formation. 5 patients underwent laparotomy on account of intra-abdominal bleeding, but adrenal damage was never revealed. Ultrasound and tomographic semiotics of adrenal damage was worked out, which allowed ascertaining diagnosis in 80% on application of ultrasound study and in 100% at computer tomography. Injury of one adrenal gland was not accompanied by adrenal failure and did not require hormonal replacement therapy.

  18. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Janet A.; Scott, Katherine D.; Edwards, John F.

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis. PMID:26740703

  19. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  20. Mirizzi Syndrome in a Cirrhotic Patient After TIPS Resolved by Technetium99m Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scan

    PubMed Central

    Fierro-Fine, Amelia; Brown, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Cholestatic pattern on the hepatic panel is common and can be caused by a broad array of etiologies. Although rare, with a prevalence as low as 0.06%, it is imperative to keep Mirizzi syndrome in the differential diagnosis when evaluating cholestasis. Due to the nonspecific presentation and inconsistent radiologic features, a high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose Mirizzi Syndrome. We present an unusual case of a 51-year-old man with worsening cholestatic laboratory tests and a normal ultrasound and abdominal computerized tomography. A technetium99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary acid scan suggested the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome that was later confirmed during an open cholecystectomy.

  1. Ultrasound and the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist researchers in writing their research protocols and subject consent forms so that both the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and subjects are assured of the minimal risk associated with diagnostic B-scan ultrasound as it is used in speech research. There have been numerous epidemiological studies on fetal…

  2. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Omar, Asha; Freeman, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in the spleen are less common than in most other abdominal organs. However, they will be regularly encountered by ultrasound practitioners, who carefully evaluate the spleen in their abdominal ultrasound studies. Conventional grey scale and Doppler ultrasound are frequently unable to characterise focal splenic abnormalities; even when clinical and laboratory information is added to the ultrasound findings, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is easy to perform, inexpensive, safe and will usually provide valuable additional information about splenic abnormalities, allowing a definitive or short differential diagnosis to be made. It also identifies those lesions that may require further imaging or biopsy, from those that can be safely dismissed or followed with interval ultrasound imaging. CEUS is also indicated in confirming the nature of suspected accessory splenic tissue and in selected patients with abdominal trauma. This article describes the CEUS examination technique, summarises the indications for CEUS and provides guidance on interpretation of the CEUS findings in splenic ultrasound.

  3. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Józsa, Gergő; Mohay, Gabriella; Pintér, András; Vástyán, Attila

    2015-09-13

    19 children were diagnosed with abdominal cysts of different origin in the Surgical Unit of the Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary between 2010 and 2013. The authors discuss the details of representative cases of a parovarial cyst, an intestinal duplication, and an omental cyst with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, diagnostic tools, and surgical interventions. The authors conclude that abdominal cysts often cause mild symptoms only, and they are discovered accidentally by ultrasound imaging performed for other reasons. In some cases, the cyst can cause severe complaints or even acute abdomen requiring emergency surgery. Laporoscopy may be a valuable method both in diagnosis and surgical therapy. Abdominal CT or MRI are not required in the majority of the patients.

  4. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P

    2016-10-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall.

  5. Two sibs with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome: possibilities of prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Castiñeyra, G; Panal, M; Lopez Presas, H; Goldschmidt, E; Sánchez, J M

    1992-01-01

    A girl with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome was born to a non-consanguineous couple. During the pregnancy, growth retardation particularly in the biparietal and abdominal diameters but not the femoral length was detected through serial ultrasound scans. When the woman became pregnant again, in spite of having been assessed as having a 25% risk of recurrence, the prenatal findings seen in her previous pregnancy led us to suggest sequential echography and a similar pattern of growth retardation was shown. After termination, the male fetus was found to be affected by Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. This case shows that ultrasound examination can be a useful tool in the prenatal diagnosis of this rare, autosomal recessive syndrome. Images PMID:1619643

  6. Prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical markers in dogs with ultrasound-diagnosed biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Secchi, P; Pöppl, A G; Ilha, A; Kunert Filho, H C; Lima, F E S; García, A B; González, F H D

    2012-12-01

    Regarded as an incidental finding, biliary sludge is often diagnosed in dogs on abdominal ultrasound. The aims of the present study were to assess the risk factors, biochemical markers and ultrasonographic findings and to estimate the prevalence and influence of different breeds, sexes, and ages on biliary sludge in dogs. Results demonstrate that the prevalence of biliary sludge is high, especially in senior dogs. The biochemical markers did not have a significant correlation with biliary sludge, and the type of diet was not considered to be the major risk factor. Hepatomegaly was frequently observed on the ultrasound scan of affected animals and of dogs on different systemic drugs and with cardiopathies, which have been referred to as risk groups for the development of inspissated bile.

  7. Iliopsoas Bursa-Hip Capsule Connection Leading to Intra-abdominal Fluid Extravasation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Daniel R; Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-11-01

    Intra-abdominal fluid extravasation is a rare complication of hip arthroscopy, with a reported incidence of 0.16%. Associated risk factors include recent acetabular fracture, extra-articular procedures, iliopsoas tenotomy, and high fluid pump pressure. These previously reported risk factors were not present in the 48-year-old woman reported in this article. The patient elected to undergo hip arthroscopy for mechanical hip pain that persisted for 18 months. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a "normal variant communication [between] the iliopsoas bursa" and the hip capsule. Postoperative examination showed a tense, distended abdomen. After extubation, the patient had severe abdominal and pleuritic chest pain. Postoperative imaging showed significant retro- and intraperitoneal fluid extravasation. Ultrasound-guided paracentesis was used to drain the intraperitoneal fluid collection, with a significant decrease in pain. The patient returned home less than 24 hours later, with no further complications. The authors believe that the preexisting connection between the hip capsule and the iliopsoas bursa allowed the arthroscopy fluid to easily track proximally within the tendon sheath, despite relatively low fluid pump pressure. Surgeons should be aware of this possible "normal variant communication," which may be considered a relative contraindication to hip arthroscopy, especially in patients with arthritic changes on preoperative imaging. This must be addressed with the patient preoperatively, with proper counseling and patient selection. If arthroscopy is pursued, the surgical and anesthesia teams must be vigilant for signs of intra-abdominal fluid extravasation and must be prepared to treat this potentially serious complication.

  8. Extra scrotal spermatocele causing lower abdominal pain: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Dollard, Denis J; Fobia, John B

    2011-03-01

    Lower quadrant abdominal pain is a common complaint evaluated in emergency departments (EDs). The number of differential diagnoses is lowered when the pain in a male patient is associated with a palpable tender mass. These diagnoses include inguinal hernia, inflamed inguinal lymph node, rectus sheath hematoma, cryptorchidism, mass derived from the spermatic cord, and polyorchidism. We report a case of extra scrotal spermatocele causing lower quadrant abdominal pain that was misdiagnosed as an inguinal hernia on several ED visits. Lower quadrant mass and pain caused by a spermatocele are unusual conditions. Upon the patient's third (ED) visit, the painful mass remained located in his right lower quadrant. The lower quadrant mass was movable on palpation and with pressure could be delivered into the superior aspect of the scrotum. The patient had an abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scan and lower quadrant ultrasound. The imaging studies revealed the mass to be a cystic structure. Surgical excision confirmed that the mass was a spermatocele. Differential diagnoses, diagnostic approaches, and treatment are discussed. PMID:20674226

  9. A genomewide association mapping study using ultrasound-scanned information identifies potential genomic regions and candidate genes affecting carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Ventura, R V; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Alexandre, P A; Oliveira Junior, G A; Gomes, R C; Bonin, M N; Coutinho, L L; Garcia, J F; Silva, S L; Fukumasu, H; Leme, P R; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify candidate genes and genomic regions associated with ultrasound-derived measurements of the rib-eye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT) and rumpfat thickness (RFT) in Nellore cattle. Data from 640 Nellore steers and young bulls with genotypes for 290 863 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for genomewide association mapping. Significant SNP associations were explored to find possible candidate genes related to physiological processes. Several of the significant markers detected were mapped onto functional candidate genes including ARFGAP3, CLSTN2 and DPYD for REA; OSBPL3 and SUDS3 for BFT; and RARRES1 and VEPH1 for RFT. The physiological pathway related to lipid metabolism (CLSTN2, OSBPL3, RARRES1 and VEPH1) was identified. The significant markers within previously reported QTLs reinforce the importance of the genomic regions, and the other loci offer candidate genes that have not been related to carcass traits in previous investigations.

  10. Infrared thermography and ultrasound C-scan for non-destructive evaluation of 3D carbon fiber materials: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai; Genest, Marc; Robitaille, Francois; Maldague, Xavier; West, Lucas; Joncas, Simon; Leduc, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    3D Carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (3D CF PMCs) are increasingly used for aircraft construction due to their exceptional stiffness and strength-to-mass ratios. However, defects are common in the 3D combining areas and are challenging to inspect. In this paper, Stitching is used to decrease these defects, but causes some new types of defects. Infrared NDT (non-destructive testing) and ultrasound NDT are used. In particular, a micro-laser line thermography technique (micro-LLT) and a micro-laser spot thermography (micro-LST) with locked-in technique are used to detect the micro-defects. In addition, a comparative study is conducted by using pulsed thermography (PT), vibrothermography (VT). In order to confirm the types of the defects, microscopic inspection is carried out before NDT work, after sectioning and polishing a small part of the sample..

  11. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  12. [Therapies by focused ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Grenier, N; Trillaud, H; Palussière, J; Mougenot, C; Quesson, B; Denis De Senneville, B; Moonen, C

    2007-11-01

    Many techniques of thermotherapy have emerged over the last several years in the field of oncology using different types of physical agents, including ultrasound. Only ultrasound can target deep seated lesions non-invasively without need for percutaneous probe insertion. Depending on their utilization, it is possible to select either thermal effects, in a continuous mode, at low temperature (allowing thermo-induced biological effects) or at high temperature (allowing thermoablation), or mechanical effects, in a pulsed mode, at low energy level (allowing biological effects) or at high energy levels (histotripsy). Thermoablation by focused ultrasound is now developing fast for applications in many organs. It gained a well defined role for the treatment of prostatic cancer and uterine leiomyoma but needs to be better evaluated in other organs such as the breast. Treatment of abdominal tumors must still be considered as experimental as long as problems related to acoustic interfaces (produced by ribs and gas) and movement correction are not resolved. Biological applications of focused ultrasound are currently being explored and have a great long term potential.

  13. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2016-01-01

    The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. PMID:27757007

  14. [Bowel ultrasound in Crohn's disease. Surgical importance].

    PubMed

    Maconi, G; Greco, S; Parente, F; Ardizzone, S; Sampietro, G M; Sartani, A; Danelli, P; Bianchi Porro, G

    2003-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in Crohns disease has a recent history. This method is useful in various situations like: the diagnosis of the disease, the diagnosis of intra-abdominal complications and the follow-up of the operated patient. Moreover, thanks to its practicality of use, ripetibility and accuracy, ultrasounds can represent a first line diagnostic instrument for Crohns disease both in elective and emergency conditions. The authors, in this paper, consider its usefulness and various aspects in these conditions. PMID:15206806

  15. Ultrasound for neuraxial blockade.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Karthikeyan Kallidaikurichi; Lee, Peter John; Iohom, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Neuraxial blockade is still largely performed as a blind procedure. Despite of developments in the type of needles used and drugs administered, the process of locating the epidural or intra-thecal space is still limited to identification of landmarks by palpation and reliance on tactile feedback of the operator. Ultrasound has provided the long needed "eye" to the procedure and has already shown promise of improving the safety and efficacy or neuraxial blocks. This review focuses on understanding the sonoanatomy of the neuraxial space, performing a systematic pre-procedural ultrasound scan, and reviewing the available evidence. PMID:25463890

  16. Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Abdominal Aortic Diameter Development

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Background Configuration of the abdominal aorta is related to healthy aging and a variety of disorders. Objectives We aimed to assess heritable and environmental effects on the abdominal aortic diameter. Methods 114 adult (69 monozygotic, 45 same-sex dizygotic) twin pairs (mean age 43.6 ± 16.3 years) underwent abdominal ultrasound with Esaote MyLab 70X ultrasound machine to visualize the abdominal aorta below the level of the origin of the renal arteries and 1-3 cm above the bifurcation. Results Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of the abdominal aortic diameter below the level of the origin of the renal arteries was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14 to 67%] and 55% above the aortic bifurcation (95% CI, 45 to 70%). None of the aortic diameters showed common environmental effects, but unshared environmental effects were responsible for 60% and 45% of the traits, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis documents the moderate heritability and its segment-specific difference of the abdominal aortic diameter. The moderate part of variance was explained by unshared environmental components, emphasizing the importance of lifestyle factors in primary prevention. Further studies in this field may guide future gene-mapping efforts and investigate specific lifestyle factors to prevent abdominal aortic dilatation and its complications. PMID:26559855

  17. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  18. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Roy, David; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  19. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  20. Recurrent cholangitis associated with biliary sludge and Phrygian cap anomaly diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography despite normal ultrasound and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Basaranoglu, Metin; Balci, Numan Cem

    2005-06-01

    A 31-year-old woman presented with a one and half years' history of intermittent right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain, high fever and severely painful, warm and reddish swollen skin lesions on the fingers. Acute attack resolution occurred within 2 weeks after treatment with non-specific antibiotics. Low-grade fever (around 37.5 degrees C) and less painful swellings continued for 6 months after each attack. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans did not show any abnormality during the attacks. Biopsy of the skin lesions after the second attack revealed lymphocytic vasculitis. All laboratory studies including rheumatologic serology panel were normal. One month after the complete resolution of the second attack, the patient was observed to have high fever, the same skin lesions on the fingers as at the initial stage, nausea and marked abdominal pain in the RUQ. Routine laboratory studies including complete blood count, liver function tests and serum amylase and lipase levels were normal. An abdominal CT scan revealed a slight thickening of the gallbladder wall (3.9 mm). Two weeks later, abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) were performed because of persistent abdominal pain. They revealed both biliary tract and pancreatic gland alterations consistent with past cholangitis and pancreatitis with coexisting Phrygian cap anomaly and biliary sludge on the neck of the gallbladder.

  1. A Giant Intra Abdominal Mass Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Presentation of Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Kaisar, I; Islam, M F; Salam, M A

    2016-07-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumor commonly found in kidney than extra renal sites. Most of the small renal angiomyolipomas are diagnosed incidentally on ultrasound and other imaging studies. Some renal AMLs present clinically when become very big, giant renal angiomyolipoma. Although almost all cases are benign, a relatively rare variant of epitheloid angiomyolipoma has got malignant potential and can even metastasize. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI scan are usually used for diagnosis of angiomyolipoma with high level of accuracy; even though some lesions may be confused as renal cell carcinoma on imaging studies. Here, a 48 year old man presented with a large intra-abdominal mass preoperatively diagnosed as a case of right renal cell carcinoma and radical nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology revealed epitheloid angiomyolipoma (EAML). PMID:27612907

  2. SU-D-210-06: Feasibility for Monitoring the Head of the Pancreas Motion Through a Surrogate Using Ultrasound During Radiation Therapy Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Omari, E; Noid, G; Ehlers, C; Erickson, B; Quiroz, F; Li, X; Cooper, D; Lachaine, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Substantial target motion during the delivery of radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor on RT effectiveness. The aim of this work is to monitor intra-fractional motion of the pancreas using ultrasound during RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal Ultrasound B-mode images were collected from 5 volunteers using a research version of the Clarity Autoscan System (Elekta). The autoscan transducer with center frequency of 5 MHz was utilized for the scans. Imaging parameters were adjusted to acquire images at the desired depth with good contrast and a wide sweep angle. Since well-defined boundaries of the pancreas can be difficult to find on ultrasound B-mode images, the portal vein was selected as a surrogate for motion estimation of the head of the pancreas. The selection was due to its anatomical location posterior to the neck of the pancreas and close proximity to the pancreas head. The portal vein was contoured on the ultrasound images acquired during simulation using the Clarity Research AFC Workstation software. Volunteers were set up in a similar manner to the simulation for their monitoring session and the ultrasound transducer was mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. A video segment of the portal vein motion was captured. Results: The portal vein was visualized and segmented. Successful monitoring sessions of the portal vein were observed. In addition, our results showed that the ultrasound transducer itself reduces breathing related motion. This is analogous to the use of a compression plate to suppress respiration motion during thorax or abdominal irradiation. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of tracking the pancreas through the localization of the portal vein using abdominal ultrasound. This will allow for real-time tracking of the intra-fractional motion to justify PTV-margin and to account for unusual motions, thus, improving normal tissue sparing. This research was funding in part by

  3. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  4. Ultrasound physics.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images.

  5. Integration of medical imaging including ultrasound into a new clinical anatomy curriculum.

    PubMed

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the program as a part of anatomy practical sessions, in addition to dedicated lectures and tutorials given by imaging specialists. Surveys were conducted between 2009 and 2012 to evaluate the student acceptance of the integration. Students were asked to rate individual activities as well as provide open-ended comments. The number of students who responded to the surveys varied from 40% to 98%. Over 90% of the respondents were satisfied with the overall quality of teaching in the anatomy units. In summary, 48% to 63% of the responding students thought that the specialist imaging lectures helped them learn effectively; 72% to 77% of students thought that the cross-sectional practical sessions helped them to better understand the imaging modalities of CT, MRI, and ultrasound; 76% to 80% of students considered hands-on ultrasound session to be useful in understanding the application of ultrasound in abdominal imaging. The results also revealed key similarities and differences in student perceptions of the new integrated curriculum for students with both a high and low prior exposure to anatomy. Further evaluation will aid in refining the integrated medical imaging program and providing its future direction.

  6. Modeling the Growth of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Baxter, Paul D.; Jiang, Tao; Charnell, Aimee M.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Anne B.; Bridge, Katherine I.; Sohrabi, Soroush; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth is a complex process that is incompletely understood. Significant heterogeneity in growth trajectories between patients has led to difficulties in accurately modeling aneurysm growth across cohorts of patients. We set out to compare four models of aneurysm growth commonly used in the literature and confirm which best fits the patient data of our AAA cohort. Methods: Patients with AAA were included in the study if they had two or more abdominal ultrasound scans greater than 3 months apart. Patients were censored from analysis once their AAA exceeded 5.5 cm. Four models were applied using the R environment for statistical computing. Growth estimates and goodness of fit (using the Akaike Information Criterion, AIC) were compared, with p-values based on likelihood ratio testing. Results: Of 510 enrolled patients, 264 met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 1861 imaging studies during 932 cumulative years of surveillance. Overall, growth rates were: (1) 0.35 (0.31,0.39) cm/yr in the growth/time calculation, (2) 0.056 (0.042,0.068) cm/yr in the linear regression model, (3) 0.19 (0.17,0.21) cm/yr in the linear multilevel model, and (4) 0.21 (0.18,0.24) cm/yr in the quadratic multilevel model at time 0, slowing to 0.15 (0.12,0.17) cm/yr at 10 years. AIC was lowest in the quadratic multilevel model (1508) compared to other models (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: AAA growth was heterogeneous between patients; the nested nature of the data is most appropriately modeled by multilevel modeling techniques. PMID:26798704

  7. Nuclear medicine and ultrasound; correlation in diagnosis of disease of liver and biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, A; Kline, P; Halpern, S; Leopold, G

    1975-10-01

    Even though the radiocolloid scan is nonspecific it will be approximately 70%-80% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of liver disease and somewhat less accurate than that in making statements as to the specific type of disease. This compares well with other modalities. The ability of nuclear medicine techniques to provide a correct diagnosis is improved when additional isotopic techniques such as hepatic blood flow studies and 131I-rose bengal and 67Ga scanning are performed. Ultrasound scanning is also non specific. To date, the major application of ultrasound in the study of the liver has been in deciphering puzzling contour abnormalities seen on nuclear medicine scans and in demonstrating fluid-filled abnormalities. Its usefulness in diffuse and solid focal lesions has been less dramatic. More recently, however, the development of gray scale has necessitated a reevaluation of the technique. Gray scale demonstrates a large number of intrahepatic interfaces that were previously invisible, and it has already been shown to demonstrate focal disorders such as metastasis more easily than the nongray-scale method. It can also demonstrate dilated biliary radicals, the gallbladder, and gallstones. In addition, while routinely studying the liver one can evaluate diaphragmatic motion and various retroperitoneal structures such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and abdominal vascular structures.

  8. Monitoring the Foetal Phase of Gestation in the Queen With a 12.5-MHz Ultrasound Probe and Prediction of the Parturition by Combining the Measurements of Head and Abdominal Diameters.

    PubMed

    Topie, E; Bencharif, D; Briand, L; Tainturier, D

    2015-08-01

    Ten gestations in six domestic shorthair cats (Europeans) were monitored daily during the foetal phase of gestation, from the 28th day after the first mating until parturition, using ultrasound with a 12.5-MHz probe. The development of the various organs over this period was recorded. The diameters of the head (HD) and abdomen (AD) were measured. Skeletal calcification visible on ultrasound occurred in a defined order between the 34th and 40th day of gestation. During the last 30 days of gestation, there was a significant correlation between HD and days before parturition (DBP) (r(2)  = 0.99) and between AD and DBP (r(2)  = 0.98). The following equations were obtained: DBP = -2.10*HD (mm) + 50.74; DBP = -1.01*AD (mm) + 42.19. The confidence intervals were stable over the last 30 days of gestation. For the HD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 53% of cases and ±2 days in 85% of cases. For the AD, the confidence interval was ±1 day in 45% of cases and ±2 days in 77% of cases. A table obtained by combining the HD and AD measurements made it possible to estimate the date of parturition within 2 days with a reliability of over 85%.

  9. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as bilateral hydroureteronephrosis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Galosi, Andrea Benedetto; Grilli Cicilioni, Carlo; Sbrollini, Giulia; Angelini, Andrea; Maselli, Guevar; Carbonari, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (IAAA) producing bilateral hydro-ureteronephrosis. A 74-year-old patient presented to urologist office for bilateral hydronephrosis detected by kidney and bladder ultrasound (US). Patient reported lower urinary tract symptoms and inconstant and slight low back pain irradiated to inguinal region dating 3 weeks. Renal function, urine analysis and abdominal examination were normal. However the repeated ultrasound in the urologist office revealed abdominal aortic aneurism extended to iliac vessels. The patient was sent directly to vascular surgery unit where contrast computerized tomography (CT) and successful surgical repair were done. Final diagnosis was IAAA. The post-operative course was uneventful. Renal function was regular and the hydronephrosis reduced spontaneously under monitoring by CT and US. We review diagnosis and management of hydronephrosis that is sometimes linked to IAAA rather than standard AAA. Abdominal ultrasound is mandatory in any bilateral hydronephrosis and it could save lives. PMID:25641477

  10. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training.

  11. Prevalence of defined ultrasound findings of unknown significance at the second trimester fetal anomaly scan and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Welsh study of mothers and babies population‐based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Lisa; Wright, Melissa; Dunstan, Frank; Thomas, Susan; Brook, Fiona; Morris, Susan; Tucker, David; Wills, Marilyn Ann; Davies, Colin; John, Gareth; Fone, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article was to estimate the population prevalence of seven defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance (‘markers’) in the second trimester and the associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method A prospective record‐linked cohort study of 30 078 pregnant women who had second trimester anomaly scans between July 2008 and March 2011 in Wales was conducted. Results The prevalence of markers ranged from 43.7 per 1000 singleton pregnancies for cardiac echogenic foci [95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8, 51.1] to 0.6 for mild‐to‐moderate ventriculomegaly (95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Isolated echogenic bowel was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies [risk ratio (RR) 4.54, 95% CI: 2.12, 9.73] and preterm birth (RR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.90). Isolated pelvicalyceal dilatation was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.16, 6.77). Multiple markers were associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 5.00, 95% CI: 1.35, 18.40) and preterm birth (RR 3.38, 95% CI 1.20, 9.53). Conclusions These data are useful for counselling families and developing clinical guidance and care pathways following the detection of markers in clinical practice, particularly the need for follow‐up scans to monitor placental function and growth in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel, and further investigation for multiple markers. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26475362

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings in a case of primary chest chondrosarcoma mimicking a porta hepatis mass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Liang, Jin-Yu; Lu, Ming-De; Wang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with upper abdominal pain. The physical examination revealed a palpable hard mass with a well-demarcated lower margin. Laboratory tests indicated hepatitis B viral infection. Computed tomography scan with intravenous contrast depicted a huge well-demarcated heterogeneous mass at the porta hepatis with irregular peripheral rim enhancement. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed peripheral irregular hyper-enhancement in the artery phase and hypo-enhancement in the portal and late phases. The postoperative histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma. This is the first report of contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings of chondrosarcoma. There is some differential diagnosis to be discussed.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  14. Ultrasound imaging in the general practitioner's office – a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ryk, Małgorzata; Suwała, Magdalena; Żurakowska, Tatiana; Kosiak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound, which is a safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality that uses more and more advanced imaging techniques, has become the first-choice examination in various diseases. It is more and more often used in the general practitioner's office to supplement physical examination and interview. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the Polish medical literature pertaining to the usage of ultrasound imaging in general practice as well as to present advantages, disadvantages and utility associated with conducting ultrasound examinations by general practitioners based on selected publications. Material and methods The analysis involved 15 articles found in Polish medical literature published in 1994–2013 in 9 medical journals. These publications were obtained using various data bases, such as Polish Medical Bibliography, Google Scholar as well as websites of “Lekarz Rodzinny” and “Ultrasonografia.” Results Of 15 available publications, 5 papers present the usage of ultrasound imaging by a primary care physician for general purposes, 4 discuss the usage of abdominal scans, 3 – imaging of the neck and lymph nodes, 1 – lungs, and 2 discuss its usage for specific disease entities. In over 70% of the papers, the financial aspect associated with the usage of this modality in general practice is mentioned. More than a half of the publications draw attention to the possibility of using point-of-care ultrasound examinations. Advantages of ultrasonography most often mentioned by the authors include: good effects of screening, safety, short duration and low cost. The authors of eight publications also indicate disadvantages associated with ultrasound imaging used by a general practitioner. Conclusions In the Polish literature, there are relatively few papers on the role of ultrasonography in the office of a primary care physician. This modality is more and more often becoming a tool that helps primary care physicians to establish diagnoses, accelerates the

  15. Low-dose Computed Tomography in a Pregnant Woman with a Ruptured Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Ramac, Jelena Popić; Vidjak, Vinko; Skegro, Dinko; Duić, Zeljko; Blasković, Darko; Erdelez, Lidija; Skopljanac-Macina, Andrija; Suknaić, Slaven; Slavica, Marko; Leder, Nikola Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Imaging the pregnant patient presents a unique challenge to radiologist due to the risk of radiation to the conceptus (embryo/fetus). A rare case of a successfully recognized and treated pseudoaneurysm (PA) of the abdominal aorta is to be presented. The pseudoaneurysm occurred in the third trimester and had a favorable outcome for the mother and the baby. Emergent abdominal ultrasound (US) is the first modality in diagnostic algorithm for the rupture of aortic aneurysm in a pregnant woman. It provides the most rapid diagnostic information, although intestinal gas and abdominal tenderness may limit its accuracy. To confirm the findings, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA) can be used. In our case, the diagnosis was established using a color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdomen and was later confirmed by a low dose CT scan of the abdominal aorta. MRA in such cases have some disadvantages. At many health centers, the monitoring of patients with acute ruptures is more difficult in the MR suite than at the CT scanner. MRA angiographic images are also subject to degradation by multiple artifacts and the visualization of the distal vasculature is suboptimal and inferior to the one done by CTA. Due to fetal movements, a small quantity of fresh blood can be overlooked by MR. MRA is often not available on a 24-hours basis, and the time required for making a diagnosis can preclude the use of MRA in an unstable patient. For this reason, we used a low dose CTA protocol to confirm the diagnosis. Low dose scanning protocols in CT can obtain sufficient diagnostic information while reducing the risk of radiation. A particular focus is put on the outline of new concepts for dose management and optimization. We used new approaches based on tube current modulation. The birth was induced by an urgent Caesarean section followed by a resection of a pseudoaneurysm and a reconstruction of the aorta with an end-to-end vascular prosthesis. PMID:26898082

  16. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  17. Laparoscopic management of an abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Aarthi; Millican, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the leading causes of significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Abdominal surgeries increase the risk of postoperative adhesions. We here present a case of omental ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a prior history of cesarean section. Case. A 20-year-old female presented with a two-day history of crampy lower abdominal pain. Patient was hemodynamically stable with a beta HCG of 1057 mI/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound did not show an intrauterine pregnancy but revealed an ill-defined mass in the midline pelvis extending to the right of the midline. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed large clots in the pelvis with normal uterus and adnexa. Intra-abdominal survey revealed an omental adhesion close to the right adnexa with a hematoma. Partial omentectomy was completed and the portion of the omentum with the hematoma was sent to pathology for confirmation. Final pathology confirmed the presence of chorionic villi consistent with products of conception. Conclusion. Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare diagnosis and often missed. We recommend careful intra-abdominal survey for an ectopic pregnancy in the presence of hemoperitoneum with normal uterus and adnexa. This can be safely achieved using laparoscopy in early gestational ages when the patient is hemodynamically stable. PMID:25478262

  18. Diagnosis of perforated gastric ulcers by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wallstabe, L; Veitt, R; Körner, T

    2002-10-01

    Patients with a perforation of the gastrointestinal tract need fast confirmation of diagnosis and early treatment to improve outcome. Plain abdominal x-ray does not always prove the perforation particularly at early stage. We report about a 62 year-old woman complaining of consistent abdominal pain with sudden onset. Ultrasound was taken as first diagnostic measure, revealing a perforation. The leakage was located in the stomach. Radiography confirmed the pneumoperitoneum without indicating the perforated location. During operation the perforated gastric ulcer was found and sutured. This case report points out the reliability of ultrasound in diagnosing a pneumoperitoneum. Additionally it provides a summary of ultrasound signs seen in perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers and a review of literature.

  19. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jason A; Noble, Vicki E

    2008-05-01

    Bedside emergency ultrasound has been used by emergency physicians for >20 years for a variety of conditions. In adult centers, emergency ultrasound is routinely used in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and biliary disease, and in women with first-trimester pregnancy complications. Although its use has grown dramatically in the last decade in adult emergency departments, only recently has this tool been embraced by pediatric emergency physicians. As the modality advances and becomes more available, it will be important for primary care pediatricians to understand its uses and limitations and to ensure that pediatric emergency physicians have access to the proper training, equipment, and experience. This article is meant to review the current literature relating to emergency ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine, as well as to describe potential pediatric applications.

  20. [Semeiotics of abdominal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, G K; Ramazanova, A M; Guseĭnov, A G

    1984-01-01

    Examination of 119 patients with abdominal tuberculosis permitted the description of the characteristic semiotics of the illness. Today the patients with abdominal tuberculosis are mainly women of child-bearing age with a long-term tuberculosis catamnesis and intoxication, with a history of tuberculosis of different sites, those suffering from tuberculosis or its sequels at present (64%), those with pains (94%), discomfort or swelling of the abdomen (79%), malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (65%), weight loss (86%), malnutrition (72%), anemia (63%), not infrequently with inflammatory induration (43%) or ascites in the abdominal cavity (39%). In addition to this characteristic semiotics, the patients with abdominal tuberculosis may demonstrate the most different and unexpected symptoms up to acute abdomen (23%). To make differential diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, one has often to resort to diagnostic laparotomy, laparoscopy, Koch's test and to trial therapy.

  1. Postoperative fistula of the abdominal wall after laparascopic cholecystectomy due to lost gallstones.

    PubMed

    Weiler, H; Grandel, A

    2002-06-01

    Abdominal fistula caused by cholesterol gallstones, which remained in the abdominal wall after laparascopic cholecystectomy: a laparascopic cholecystectomy was performed in a 60-years-old man who was diagnosed as acute necrosing cholecystitis due to cholecystolithiasis. After removal of the gallbladder using an Endocath some gallstones remained in the excision channel of the abdominal wall. Therefore, a fistula developed in the excision channel postoperatively. As the wound healing was disturbed an investigation of the abdominal wall was performed by ultrasound. In the former excision channel several small, oval, formations with high echogenicity and faint ultrasound shadows were detected, corresponding to additional gallstones. After excision of granulation tissue and removal of the cholesterol stones, complete healing of the fistula in the abdominal wall was achieved. PMID:12044854

  2. Remote television viewing: an ultrasound teaching device.

    PubMed

    Raskin, M M; Vining, P E

    1979-07-01

    Remote viewing of ultrasound scans facilitates assessment of a student's technique while minimizing anxiety for both him and the patient. This method may also be effective for the busy physician who must monitor several procedures at the same time.

  3. Congenital Extrahepatic Abdominal Arteriovenous Fistula and Apparent Patent Ductus Venosus in a Dog.

    PubMed

    White, Robert N; Murphy, Kate; Renfrew, Helen; Shales, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male German shepherd dog presented with a 2 wk history of diarrhea with possible melena followed by inappetence and progressive abdominal distension. Clinical findings, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominal ultrasound were highly suggestive of an extrahepatic abdominal arteriovenous fistula and concurrent patent ductus venosus, which were confirmed during an abdominal exploratory surgery. Renal biopsies taken at the time of surgery confirmed a chronic glomerulopathy. The dog made a good initial recovery from the procedure but was euthanatized 6 wk postoperatively for medically unresponsive renal disease.

  4. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Gao, Kai; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is an emerging imaging modality to reconstruct the sound speed, density, and ultrasound attenuation of the breast in addition to ultrasound reflection/beamforming images for breast cancer detection and characterization. We recently designed and manufactured a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography prototype with two parallel transducer arrays consisting of a total of 768 transducer elements. The transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the breast in a warm water tank from the chest wall/axillary region to the nipple region to acquire ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound tomography imaging. The distance of these two ultrasound transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. We use our breast ultrasound tomography prototype to acquire phantom and in vivo patient ultrasound data to study its feasibility for breast imaging. We apply our recently developed ultrasound imaging and tomography algorithms to ultrasound data acquired using our breast ultrasound tomography system. Our in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that our breast ultrasound tomography can detect breast lesions shown on clinical ultrasound and mammographic images.

  5. Accuracy of Ultrasound-Based Image Guidance for Daily Positioning of the Upper Abdomen: An Online Comparison With Cone Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit Mennemeyer, Philipp; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Riesenacker, Nadja; Kuepper, Beate; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy can improve protection of organs at risk when large abdominal target volumes are irradiated. We estimated the daily positioning accuracy of ultrasound-based image guidance for abdominal target volumes by a direct comparison of daily imaging obtained with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Daily positioning (n = 83 positionings) of 15 patients was completed by using ultrasound guidance after an initial CBCT was obtained. Residual error after ultrasound was estimated by comparison with a second CBCT. Ultrasound image quality was visually rated using a scale of 1 to 4. Results: Of 15 patients, 7 patients had good sonographic imaging quality, 5 patients had satisfactory sonographic quality, and 3 patients were excluded because of unsatisfactory sonographic quality. When image quality was good, residual errors after ultrasound were -0.1 {+-} 3.11 mm in the x direction (left-right; group systematic error M = -0.09 mm; standard deviation [SD] of systematic error, {sigma} = 1.37 mm; SD of the random error, {sigma} = 2.99 mm), 0.93 {+-} 4.31 mm in the y direction (superior-inferior, M = 1.12 mm; {sigma} = 2.96 mm; {sigma} = 3.39 mm), and 0.71 {+-} 3.15 mm in the z direction (anteroposterior; M = 1.01 mm; {sigma} = 2.46 mm; {sigma} = 2.24 mm). For patients with satisfactory image quality, residual error after ultrasound was -0.6 {+-} 5.26 mm in the x (M = 0.07 mm; {sigma} = 5.67 mm; {sigma} = 4.86 mm), 1.76 {+-} 4.92 mm in the y (M = 3.54 mm; {sigma} = 4.1 mm; {sigma} = 5.29 mm), and 1.19 {+-} 4.75 mm in the z (M = 0.82 mm; {sigma} = 2.86 mm; {sigma} = 3.05 mm) directions. Conclusions: In patients from whom good sonographic image quality could be obtained, ultrasound improved daily positioning accuracy. In the case of satisfactory image quality, ultrasound guidance improved accuracy compared to that of skin marks only minimally. If sonographic image quality was unsatisfactory, daily CBCT

  6. Basic Principles of Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Teresa M.

    Ultrasound has been used in medicine for at least 50 years. Its current importance can be judged by the fact that, of all the various kinds of diagnostic images produced in the world, 1 in 4 is an ultrasound scan. Ultrasound energy is exactly like sound energy, it is a variation in the pressure within a medium. The only difference is that the rate of variation of pressure, the frequency of the wave, is too rapid for humans to hear. Medical ultrasound lies within a frequency range of 30 kHz to 500 MHz. Generally, the lower frequencies (30 kHz to 3 MHz) are for therapeutic purposes, the higher ones (2 to 40 MHz) are for diagnosis (imaging and Doppler), the very highest (50 to 500 MHz) are for microscopic images. For diagnostic purposes two main techniques are employed; the pulse-echo method is used to create images of tissue distribution; the Doppler effect is used to assess tissue movement and blood flow.

  7. Ulcerative colitis and a bleeding polyp detected on Tc-99m-pertechnetate abdominal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.

    1981-10-01

    Two children with rectal bleeding were diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis and a bleeding colonic polyp respectively using abdominal scanning with Tc-99m pertechnetate. Early flow studies are recommended with careful attention paid to the amount of time abnormal areas of activity are seen on the abdominal scan.

  8. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  9. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed Ultrasound is a painless method that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the ... neck to help with the transmission of the sound waves. Next, the technician moves a wand, called a ...

  10. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  11. [Interventional ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Blázquez Sánchez, N; Fernández Canedo, I; Valdés Vilches, L; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency ultrasound has become increasingly used in dermatology. This technique is accessible, non-invasive, and rapid and provides information in real time. Consequently, it has become of great diagnostic value in dermatology. However, high-frequency ultrasound also has a promising future as a complementary technique in interventional diagnostic procedures, even though its application in this field has been little studied by dermatologists. PMID:26895944

  12. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    PubMed Central

    de Korte, Chris L.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the geometry of vessel walls and plaques. The high temporal as well as spatial resolution allows quantification of luminal area and plaque size and volume. While carotid arteries can be imaged non-invasively, scanning of coronary arteries requires invasive intravascular catheters. Both techniques have already demonstrated their clinical applicability. Using linear array technology, detection of disease as well as monitoring of pharmaceutical treatment in carotid arteries are feasible. Data acquired with intravascular ultrasound catheters have proved to be especially beneficial in understanding the development of atherosclerotic disease in coronary arteries. With the introduction of vascular elastography not only the geometry of plaques but also the risk for rupture of plaques might be identified. These so-called vulnerable plaques are frequently not flow-limiting and rupture of these plaques is responsible for the majority of cerebral and cardiac ischaemic events. Intravascular ultrasound elastography studies have demonstrated a high correlation between high strain and vulnerable plaque features, both ex vivo and in vivo. Additionally, pharmaceutical intervention could be monitored using this technique. Non-invasive vascular elastography has recently been developed for carotid applications by using compound scanning. Validation and initial clinical evaluation is currently being performed. Since abundance of vasa vasorum (VV) is correlated with vulnerable plaque development, quantification of VV might be a unique tool to even prevent this from happening. Using ultrasound contrast agents, it has been demonstrated that VV can be identified and quantified. Although far from routine

  13. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S

    2016-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  14. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology.

  15. A Curious Case of Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Grock, Andrew; Chan, Wendy; deSouza, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 36-year-old man presented with sudden-onset right upper quadrant abdominal pain and vomiting. A bedside ultrasound, performed to evaluate hepatobiliary pathology, revealed a normal gallbladder but free intraperitoneal fluid. After an expedited CT and emergent explorative laparotomy, the patient was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction with ischemia secondary to midgut volvulus. Though midgut volvulus is rare in adults, delays in definitive diagnosis and management can result in bowel necrosis. Importantly, an emergency physician must be able to recognize bedside ultrasound findings associated with acutely dangerous intrabdominal pathology. PMID:27625732

  16. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  17. Role of Ultrasound in Body Stalk Anomaly and Amniotic Band Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thakkallapelli, Sreedevi; Mohan, Prashanthi; Ahmed, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Body stalk anomaly (BSA) and amniotic band syndrome (ABS) are rare similar fetal sporadic polymalformative syndromes of unknown etiology, though there are certain differences between them. BSA is a combination of developmental abnormalities involving neural tube, body wall, and the limbs with persistent extra embryonic coelomic cavity. ABS is characterized by the presence of thin membrane-like strands attached to fetal body parts and causing constrictions and amputations. This is a cohort study involving 32,100 patients who were referred for routine antenatal ultrasound scan. The data was entered prospectively into a computer database. The duration of study was 3 years. In our study, ultrasound examination in 86 patients demonstrated ventral wall defects, craniofacial defects, and spinal and limb deformities as isolated or combined abnormalities. In those, 10 patients were suspected/diagnosed as BSA/ABS including a twin of a dichorionic diamniotic gestation. The typical features of body stalk anomaly can be detected by ultrasound by the end of the first trimester, which is important for the patient counselling and management. We are presenting these rare conditions and highlighting the importance of early sonographic imaging in diagnosing and differentiating them from other anterior abdominal wall defects.

  18. Role of Ultrasound in Body Stalk Anomaly and Amniotic Band Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thakkallapelli, Sreedevi; Mohan, Prashanthi; Ahmed, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Body stalk anomaly (BSA) and amniotic band syndrome (ABS) are rare similar fetal sporadic polymalformative syndromes of unknown etiology, though there are certain differences between them. BSA is a combination of developmental abnormalities involving neural tube, body wall, and the limbs with persistent extra embryonic coelomic cavity. ABS is characterized by the presence of thin membrane-like strands attached to fetal body parts and causing constrictions and amputations. This is a cohort study involving 32,100 patients who were referred for routine antenatal ultrasound scan. The data was entered prospectively into a computer database. The duration of study was 3 years. In our study, ultrasound examination in 86 patients demonstrated ventral wall defects, craniofacial defects, and spinal and limb deformities as isolated or combined abnormalities. In those, 10 patients were suspected/diagnosed as BSA/ABS including a twin of a dichorionic diamniotic gestation. The typical features of body stalk anomaly can be detected by ultrasound by the end of the first trimester, which is important for the patient counselling and management. We are presenting these rare conditions and highlighting the importance of early sonographic imaging in diagnosing and differentiating them from other anterior abdominal wall defects. PMID:27699204

  19. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  20. Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Intra-abdominal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Richard H.; Halber, Michael D.; Morgan, Carlisle L.; Trought, William S.; Thompson, William M.; Rice, Reed P.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess by radiographic means often relies on combining the results of several different imaging modalities. Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a safe, accurate and rapid diagnostic method of diagnosing these abscesses. Five patients with a variety of intra-abdominal abscesses are presented in whom the CT scan alone provided the correct diagnosis. The various imaging modalities available for the radiologic diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess are described and are compared to CT diagnosis regarding their pitfalls. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig.5.C. PMID:758860

  1. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors.

  2. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  3. CSF shunt complications: what the abdominal imager needs to know.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Eric K; Williams, Todd R; Myers, Daniel T

    2015-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting has been a mainstay in the treatment of hydrocephalus for many decades. With a reported 33,000 shunt placement procedures performed in the US annually, and a lifetime revision rate approaching 50%, abdominal radiologists must be familiar with the typical imaging appearance of an array of shunt complications. Complications related to the peritoneal portion of the shunt have been reported in up to 25% of patients. We present a comprehensive pictorial essay including computed tomography, conventional radiography, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine examples illustrating abdominal complications related to CSF shunting and a review of the current literature. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to provide multimodality imaging examples of CSF shunt complications and familiarize the abdominal imager with the spectrum of findings.

  4. Intra-abdominal fluid aspirate from a dog.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Valentina; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Avallone, Giancarlo; Caniatti, Mario

    2016-02-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered female, Siberian husky, was presented with a 6-months history of progressive abdominal distension, anorexia, and weight loss. The dog appeared normal on physical examination except for marked abdominal distension. A fluid wave was balloted strongly suggesting an abdominal effusion. Ultrasound examination confirmed this clinical finding. Results of the CBC included mild nonregenerative anemia, with an RBC count of 4.9 × 10(6)/µL (reference interval 5.5-8.5 × 10(6)/µL), hemoglobin concentration of 12 g/dL (reference interval 12-18 g/dL), HCT of 36% (reference interval 37-55%), and reticulocytes <60,000/µL. No abnormalities in serum chemistry were detected.

  5. Surveillance of patients after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with endovascular grafting or conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Raithel, D

    1998-12-01

    At Nuremberg Southern Hospital we have been using endovascular therapy for aortic aneurysms for the past 3 years. Between August 1994 and August 1997, 193 patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms were treated with endovascular stent grafts. Besides using commercially available modular systems of the Stentor type (MinTec/Vanguard*, Boston Scientific) we also participated in a multicenter study implanting EGS devices (EVT in 65 patients). Follow-up examinations must strive to detect thrombotic complications as well as endoleaks with high sensitivity and specificity. To avoid aneurysm rupture significant increase in aneurysm diameter must be detected in a timely fashion to select patients for additional corrective endovascular procedures or conversion to open surgical therapy. A close follow-up regimen therefore is absolutely mandatory for all patients undergoing endovascular aortic grafting, particularly when new prosthetic devices are being introduced. Prosthetic devices that have been adequately tested using controlled study designs and are commercially available may be followed-up using a standardized follow up scheme as delineated. Particularly during the first postoperative year color duplex with use of an intravenous ultrasound enhancing agent has been used successfully to detect even minor endoleaks originating from retrograde perfusion via aortic side branches (lumbar or inferior mesenteric artery). Only patients with documented endoleaks or suspected outflow obstruction requiring further intervention need to undergo diagnostic arteriography. After conventional aneurysm repair yearly duplex scans are usually sufficient to follow the normal patient. Patients who have undergone endovascular therapy, however need to be followed much closer using duplex as well as abdominal CT scans. This will logically result in significantly higher follow up costs. Periinterventional costs of endovascular aortic reconstruction currently exceed those of conventional aortic

  6. Transport and use of point-of-care ultrasound by a disaster medical assistance team.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Stefan M; Rippey, James

    2009-01-01

    The role of ultrasound in disaster medicine has not been not well established. This report describes the transport and use of point-of-care ultrasound by a Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) responding to a mass-casualty incident due to a cyclone. Ultrasound-competent physicians on the team were able to use portable ultrasound on cyclone casualties to exclude intra-abdominal hemorrhage, pericardial fluid, pneumothoraces, and hemothoraces. Information obtained using ultrasound made initial patient management, and subsequent decisions regarding triage for transport safer and based on more detailed clinical information.

  7. Ultrasound guided fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoqiang; Lesage, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a hybrid-model imaging system combining fluorescence and ultrasound (US) was investigated with the motivation of providing structural priors towards improvement of fluorescence reconstruction. A single element transducer was scanned over the sample for anatomy. In the fluorescence part, a laser source was scanned over the sample with the emission received by an EMCCD camera. Synchronization was achieved by a pair of motorized linear stages. Structural information was derived from the US images and a profilometry and used to constrain reconstruction. In the reconstruction, we employed a GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for forward modeling and a pattern-based method to take advantage of the huge dataset for the inverse problem. Performance of this system was validated with two phantoms with fluorophore inclusions. The results indicated that the fluorophore distribution could be accurately reconstructed. And the system has a potential for the future in-vivo study.

  8. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  9. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  10. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  11. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise, stop smoking (if you smoke), and reduce stress. If you have high blood pressure or diabetes, take your medicines as your doctor has told you. People over age 65 who have ever smoked should have a screening ultrasound done once.

  13. Mesh Sutured Repairs of Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; Jordan, Sumanas W.; Miller, Kyle R.; Ali, Nada A.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A new closure technique is introduced, which uses strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh as a suture for closure of abdominal wall defects due to failures of standard sutures and difficulties with planar meshes. Methods: Strips of macroporous polypropylene mesh of 2 cm width were passed through the abdominal wall and tied as simple interrupted sutures. The surgical technique and surgical outcomes are presented. Results: One hundred and seven patients underwent a mesh sutured abdominal wall closure. Seventy-six patients had preoperative hernias, and the mean hernia width by CT scan for those with scans was 9.1 cm. Forty-nine surgical fields were clean-contaminated, contaminated, or dirty. Five patients had infections within the first 30 days. Only one knot was removed as an office procedure. Mean follow-up at 234 days revealed 4 recurrent hernias. Conclusions: Mesh sutured repairs reliably appose tissue under tension using concepts of force distribution and resistance to suture pull-through. The technique reduces the amount of foreign material required in comparison to sheet meshes, and avoids the shortcomings of monofilament sutures. Mesh sutured closures seem to be tolerant of bacterial contamination with low hernia recurrence rates and have replaced our routine use of mesh sheets and bioprosthetic grafts. PMID:27757361

  14. A giant subserosal uterine leiomyoma mimicking an abdominal mass: multimodal imaging data.

    PubMed

    Kalayci, Tugce Ozlem; Akatlı, Ayşe Nur; Sönmezgöz, Fitnet; Türkmen Şamdancı, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Giant uterine leiomyomas are extremely rare neoplasms and are challenging both diagnostically and therapeutically. A 49-year-old premenopausal female presented at our Department complaining of abdominal pain and distention for several years. Ultrasound (US), color Doppler US, abdominal computed tomography imaging after administration of contrast material, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma. In this case report, we present abdominopelvic multimodal radiologic imaging findings of our patient with a giant subserosal uterine leiomyoma, in conjunction with histopathological findings.

  15. Ultrasound tomography of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle; Babkin, Alex; Duncan, Robert; Kalinin, Arkady; Pevzner, Roman; Tokarev, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The Karmanos Cancer Institute is developing an ultrasound device for measuring and imaging acoustic parameters of human tissue. This paper discusses the experimental results relating to tomographic reconstructions of phantoms and tissue. The specimens were scanned by the prototype scanner at a frequency of 1.5 MHz using 2 microsecond pulses. The receivers and transmitters were positioned along a ring trajectory having a diameter of 20 cm. The ring plane is translated in the vertical direction allowing for 3-D reconstructions from stacked 2-D planes of data. All ultrasound scans were performed at 10 millimeter slice thickness to generate multiple tomographic images. In a previous SPIE paper we presented preliminary results of ultrasound tomographic reconstruction of formalin-fixed breast tissue. We now present new results from data acquired with the scanner. Images were constructed using both reflection-based and transmission based algorithms. The resulting images demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and to measure acoustic properties such as sound speed. Comparison with conventional ultrasound indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of tissue.

  16. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Will; Ryan, Andy; Jacobs, Ian J; Menon, Usha; Bessant, Conrad; Jones, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system. PMID:18570637

  17. Use of computerized tomography of the abdominal wall in the diagnosis of partial post-operative wound dehiscence.

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Behn, J.; Arnold, M.; Might, J.

    1986-01-01

    A patient had occult post-operative partial wound dehiscence which was accurately diagnosed by performing a CT scan of the abdomen. It is suggested that CT scan of the abdominal wall is useful for early diagnosis of occult abdominal wound dehiscence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2946035

  18. Quality assurance tools for therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schätzle, U; Reuner, T; Jenne, J; Heilingbrunner, A

    1998-02-01

    Compared to diagnostic ultrasound, special phantoms and measurement techniques for therapeutic ultrasound are still far from standardization. In the following article, the development of quality assurance (QA) tools for two therapy methods are described: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HiFU). The three consequent parts are QA tools in research and development, QA in clinical environment and standardization. For part one the computerized scanning with hydrophones, the use of Schlieren optics and sound force balances are state of the art. For clinical use the test procedures have to be simple so that routine checking of the equipment becomes convenient.

  19. [Hematoma of the abdominal wall as differential diagnosis of cystic pelvic tumor].

    PubMed

    Marroquin-Nisch, J; Grüneberger, A; Hewel, T

    1995-02-01

    In a woman patient aged 80 years under anticoagulation with dicumarol (Marcumar), abdominal pain suddenly occurred which was located on the right side as well as signs of acute bleeding. Preoperative sonography and computer scan showed a large, cystic tumour, most likely originating from the right ovary with infiltration of the abdominal wall. Intraoperative diagnosis was a large haematoma of the abdominal wall and the retroperitoneum penetrating into the free abdomen.

  20. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  1. Abdominal SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

  2. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  3. Motion tracking in the liver: Validation of a method based on 4D ultrasound using a nonrigid registration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, Sinara; Klein, Stefan; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Lindseth, Frank; Ystgaard, Brynjulf

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Treatments like radiotherapy and focused ultrasound in the abdomen require accurate motion tracking, in order to optimize dosage delivery to the target and minimize damage to critical structures and healthy tissues around the target. 4D ultrasound is a promising modality for motion tracking during such treatments. In this study, the authors evaluate the accuracy of motion tracking in the liver based on deformable registration of 4D ultrasound images. Methods: The offline analysis was performed using a nonrigid registration algorithm that was specifically designed for motion estimation from dynamic imaging data. The method registers the entire 4D image data sequence in a groupwise optimization fashion, thus avoiding a bias toward a specifically chosen reference time point. Three healthy volunteers were scanned over several breathing cycles (12 s) from three different positions and angles on the abdomen; a total of nine 4D scans for the three volunteers. Well-defined anatomic landmarks were manually annotated in all 96 time frames for assessment of the automatic algorithm. The error of the automatic motion estimation method was compared with interobserver variability. The authors also performed experiments to investigate the influence of parameters defining the deformation field flexibility and evaluated how well the method performed with a lower temporal resolution in order to establish the minimum frame rate required for accurate motion estimation. Results: The registration method estimated liver motion with an error of 1 mm (75% percentile over all datasets), which was lower than the interobserver variability of 1.4 mm. The results were only slightly dependent on the degrees of freedom of the deformation model. The registration error increased to 2.8 mm with an eight times lower temporal resolution. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the methodology was able to accurately track the motion of the liver in the 4D ultrasound data. The authors believe

  4. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of multiplane transesophageal rotational scanning echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Aijun; Wang, Tianfu; Zheng, Changqiong; Li, Deyu; Yin, Lixue; Zheng, Yi

    2001-09-01

    The present paper studies the method of 3D reconstruction of multiplane transesophageal rotational scanning echocardiography. According to the characteristic of rotational scanning echocardiography, a direct matching interpolation method is exploited to reconstruct regular volume data from distributed ultrasound scanning points. The whole system is developed and clinical ultrasound data is tested for this method. The volume rendering results show that the proposed method is valid and effective. At last, the possibility of functional reconstruction based on tissue Doppler imaging is explored.

  6. Effects of different types of contraction in abdominal bracing on the asymmetry of left and right abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI<30). [Methods] Bracing contraction was performed by the subjects in the hook-lying position at maximum and minimum pressure levels, five times each, using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU), and the mean measurement value was calculated. The maximum pressure level was set at 100% and the half maximum pressure level was set at 50%. Each subject's left and right abdominal muscle thicknesses were then measured by ultrasound imaging in each state: at rest, 100% contraction, and 50% contraction. [Results] No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of the transversus abdominis (TrA) at rest, 50%, or 100% contraction. The external oblique abdominis (EO) and internal oblique abdominis (IO) showed no significant difference at rest or at the 50% contraction. However, a significant difference was noted at 100% contraction for the EO and IO. [Conclusion] Application of abdominal contraction using bracing can achieve symmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at less than the maximum contractile strength. The occurrence of asymmetry in the left and right abdominal muscles at the maximum contractile strength suggests that the most suitable contractile strength in this exercise is less than the maximum contractile strength. PMID:25540478

  7. US and MRI features in venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrino, F.; Maira, A.; Tarantino, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are classified as vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Venous vascular malformations are the most common type of vascular malformation. They may be isolated or multiple and they rarely affect the trunk. The authors report a rare case of isolated venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall with an emphasis on the related MRI and ultrasound (US) features. PMID:23450707

  8. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  9. Toward image analysis and decision support for ultrasound technology.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Gillian; Padman, Rema; Maharaja, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a low cost and efficient method of detecting diseases and abnormalities in the body. Yet there is a lack of precision and reliability associated with the technology, partly due to the operator dependent nature of ultrasound scanning. When scanning is performed to an agreed protocol, ultrasound has been shown to be highly reliable. This research aims to minimize these limitations that arise during ultrasound training, scanning and reporting by developing and evaluating an image analysis and decision support system that can aid the decision making process. We hypothesize that this intervention will likely increase the role of ultrasound in diagnosis when compared with other imaging technologies, particularly in low resource settings. PMID:23920862

  10. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  11. A Guide to Analysing Tongue Motion from Ultrasound Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    This paper is meant to be an introduction to and general reference for ultrasound imaging for new and moderately experienced users of the instrument. The paper consists of eight sections. The first explains how ultrasound works, including beam properties, scan types and machine features. The second section discusses image quality, including the…

  12. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  13. Ultrasound introscopic image quantitative characteristics for medical diagnostics and refinements of physical noise rise reasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselets, Mikhail K.; Radchenko, Sergiy P.; Tsubin, Vitaliy A.; Gridko, Alexander N.

    1994-05-01

    Ultrasound images obtained with a simple sector scan show a granular appearance, called `speckle'. The speckle is the useless property of the ultrasound introskopic images as it mask all small differences of the images. The possibility of the speckle noise reduction by special created filter is analyzed. The computer processing results of ultrasound introskopic thyroid gland images by such filter are presented.

  14. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  15. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  16. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  17. Leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sing, T M; Young, N; O'Rourke, I C; Tomlinson, P

    1994-11-01

    A case of leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported, with a brief review of the literature. A 58 year old female presented with shoulder and abdominal pain associated with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever with leucocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed pooling of contrast in the retroperitoneum anterior to a non-dilated abdominal aorta. There was considerable retroperitoneal blood accumulating in a mass-like lesion in the right lower abdomen and pelvis obstructing the right renal collecting system. Laparotomy revealed a 4 cm diameter saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, with a 1 cm diameter neck. Culture of the thrombus grew Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:7993259

  18. Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gottsegen, David

    2011-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

  19. Impact of ultrasound video transfer on the practice of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Grant, Edward G.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh

    1996-05-01

    Sonography can be highly dependent on real-time imaging and as such is highly physician intensive. Such situations arise mostly during complicated ultrasound radiology studies or echocardiology examinations. Under those circumstances it would be of benefit to transmit real-time images beyond the immediate area of the ultrasound laboratory when a physician is not on location. We undertook this study to determine if both static and dynamic image transfer to remote locations might be accomplished using an ultrafast ATM network and PACS. Image management of the local image files was performed by a commercial PACS from AGFA corporation. The local network was Ethernet based, and the global network was based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM, rates up to 100 Mbits/sec). Real-time image transfer involved two teaching hospitals, one of which had 2 separate ultrasound facilities. Radiologists consulted with technologists via telephone while the examinations were being performed. The applications of ATM network providing real time video for ultrasound imaging in a clinical environment and its potential impact on health delivery and clinical teaching. This technology increased technologist and physician productivity due to the elimination of commute time for physicians and waiting time for technologists and patients. Physician confidence in diagnosis increased compared to reviewing static images alone. This system provided instant access for radiologists to real-time scans from remote sites. Image quality and frame rate were equivalent to the original. The system increased productivity by allowing physicians to monitor studies at multiple sites simultaneously.

  20. Update on bedside ultrasound (US) diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (AC).

    PubMed

    Zenobii, Maria Francesca; Accogli, Esterita; Domanico, Andrea; Arienti, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) represents a principal cause of morbidity worldwide and is one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization due to gastroenteric tract diseases. AC should be suspected in presence of clinical signs and of gallstones on an imaging study. Upper abdominal US represents the first diagnostic imaging step in the case of suspected AC. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast (IV) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast and technetium hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (Tc-HIDA) can be employed to exclude complications. US examination should be performed with right subcostal oblique, with longitudinal and intercostal scans. Normal gallbladder US findings and AC major and minor US signs are described. Polyps, sludge and gallbladder wall thickening represent the more frequent pitfalls and they must be differentiated from stones, duodenal artifacts and many other non-inflammatory conditions that cause wall thickening, respectively. By means of bedside ultrasound, the finding of gallstones in combination with acute pain, when the clinician presses the gallbladder with the US probe (the sonographic Murphy's sign), has a 92.2 % positive predictive value for AC. In our preliminary experience, bedside US-performed by echoscopy (ES) and/or point-of-care US (POCUS) demonstrated good reliability in detecting signs of AC, and was always integrated with physical examination and performed by a skilled operator.

  1. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Jędrzejowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules) found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions) and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid. PMID:26676167

  2. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and Pelvis Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen ... and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  4. A practical guide to ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology

    SciTech Connect

    Sauerbrei, E.E.; Nguyen, K.T.; Nolan, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book reviews the indications for ultrasound during pregnancy and establishes guidelines for conducting obstetrical ultrasound examinations. A selection of scans follows. These scans depict normal female pelvic anatomy; the nongravid uterus; the ovaries and adnexae; early pregnancy (the embryonic period); the placenta; the membranes, amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord; the uterus and adnexae in pregnancy; and the fetus. The book contains information on making accurate fetal measurements and calculations.

  5. [Abdominal approaches and drainages of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Hagel, C; Schilling, M

    2006-04-01

    Appropriate access to the abdominal cavity is the first and crucial step for successful abdominal surgical intervention. In planning the incision, several variables have to be considered, such as anatomy of the abdominal wall, localization of the target organ, and individual conditions (previous incisions, minimal access surgery, etc). Medial laparotomy is the preferred incision for emergency cases and ill-defined pathologies, allowing access and hence exploration to all quadrants. Transverse laparotomies give superior access to the dorsal and right aspects of the liver and cause less pain in patients unfit for regional anesthetic procedures. Draining of the abdominal cavity is used after various resective and reconstructive procedures, but there is little evidence for its use in a number of operations such as gastric, hepatic, and colorectal resections. Advantages and disadvantages of different abdominal wall incisions and drainages are discussed.

  6. A Markov random field approach to group-wise registration/mosaicing with application to ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kutarnia, Jason; Pedersen, Peder

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present a group-wise non-rigid registration/mosaicing algorithm based on block-matching, which is developed within a probabilistic framework. The discrete form of its energy functional is linked to a Markov Random Field (MRF) containing double and triple cliques, which can be effectively optimized using modern MRF optimization algorithms popular in computer vision. Also, the registration problem is simplified by introducing a mosaicing function which partitions the composite volume into regions filled with data from unique, partially overlapping source volumes. Ultrasound confidence maps are incorporated into the registration framework in order to give accurate results in the presence of image artifacts. The algorithm is initially tested on simulated images where shadows have been generated. Also, validation results for the group-wise registration algorithm using real ultrasound data from an abdominal phantom are presented. Finally, composite obstetrics image volumes are constructed using clinical scans of pregnant subjects, where fetal movement makes registration/mosaicing especially difficult. In addition, results are presented suggesting that a fusion approach to MRF registration can produce accurate displacement fields much faster than standard approaches.

  7. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  8. Abdominal wall fat index in neonates: correlation with birth size.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Silva, E; Didier, R; Bandeira, M; Bandeira, F

    2010-06-01

    Low birth weight is associated with obesity in later life and a more central fat distribution has a positive correlation with cardiovascular disease. However, the correlation between visceral adiposity in newborns and birth size is unknown. We measured the visceral adiposity in 118 newborns using the abdominal wall fat index (AFI), ratio between the maximum thickness of preperitoneal and the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat evaluated by ultrasound. There was a weak negative correlation between AFI and birth weight (r = -0.197; P = 0.033) but not with birth length (r = -0.118; P = 0.201), body mass index (r = -0.138; P = 0.176) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.063; P = 0.497). In conclusion, we suggest that AFI is a useful parameter for evaluating the fat distribution in newborns and that visceral adiposity has a weak negative correlation with birth weight.

  9. Intestinal obstruction due to migration of a thermometer from bladder to abdominal cavity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Duan, Yan-Chao; Hu, Yue-Hua; Gao, Xin-Ying; Gong, Jian; Cheng, Ming; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-03-01

    Intraperitoneal foreign bodies such as retained surgical instruments can cause intestinal obstruction. However, intestinal obstruction due to transmural migration of foreign bodies has rarely been reported. Here, we report a case of intestinal obstruction due to a clinical thermometer which migrated from the bladder into the abdominal cavity. A 45-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a one-year history of recurrent lower abdominal cramps. Two days before admission, the abdominal cramps aggravated. Intestinal obstruction was confirmed with upright abdominal radiography and computerized tomography scan which showed dilation of the small intestines and a thermometer in the abdominal cavity. Then laparotomy was performed. A scar was observed at the fundus of the bladder and a thermometer was adhering to the small bowels and mesentery which resulted in intestinal obstruction. Abdominal cramps were eliminated and defecation and flatus recovered soon after removal of the thermometer.

  10. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  11. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; SHINOZAKI, FUMINOBU; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; FUGO, KAZUNORI; SHIRAI, YOSHINORI; MOTOYOSHI, YASUFUMI; SUGIYAMA, TAKAO; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; KISHIMOTO, TAKASHI; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0 years) were analyzed. Stratification was analyzed with abdominal US. The threshold value of wall thickness to diagnose CRC was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The average wall thickness was 2.8±0.4 mm in the surrounding normal tissue and 12.7±5.2 mm in CRC (one-way analysis of variance, P<0.0001). The wall was significantly thicker in CRC compared with the normal colonic wall. The calculated threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC. Stratification was preserved in W, while it was lost in M (Chi-squared test, P=0.0196). The hemoglobin concentration was lower, while the C-reactive protein, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were elevated above normal values. The threshold value was 4.3 mm for the diagnosis of CRC with abdominal US. PMID:27330768

  12. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast.

  13. Abdominal mass lesions in the newborn: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartman, G E; Shochat, S J

    1989-03-01

    Most neonatal abdominal masses will be due to benign retroperitoneal lesions such as hydronephrosis and multicystic dysplastic kidney. Although history and physical examination, plain radiographs and ultrasonography will confirm most diagnoses, severe unilateral hydronephrosis, hemorrhagic neuroblastoma, and intraperitoneal cysts may provide diagnostic difficulties. Masses identified by prenatal ultrasound need careful evaluation as they may represent normal structures, nonsignificant variants, or physiologically significant anomalies. Many lesions will require operative intervention, which can be safely performed in small infants by trained personnel at facilities with appropriate support services. Genuine controversy exists in the management of some of these lesions including MDK, renal vein thrombosis, and acalculous cholecystitis.

  14. An Acute Abdominal Catastrophe in a HIV Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaduputi, Vinaya; Patel, Harish; Vootla, Vamshidhar; Khan, Usman; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    We report this case of a 45-year-old man with HIV-AIDS on HAART therapy who presented with acute abdominal pain and renal failure. He was found to have pneumatosis intestinalis on computerized axial tomography scan of the abdomen. He underwent emergent explorative laparotomy, which revealed a necrotic large bowel segment for which a right-sided hemicolectomy and ileostomy were performed. The patient subsequently developed septic shock and hypoxic respiratory failure. He expired a week after the surgical procedure. Acute abdominal events due to vascular catastrophes secondary to hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis have been reported in HIV positive patients.

  15. Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis Treated with Albendazole. A Pediatric Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Samanta; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Bournissen, Facundo García; González, Nicolás; Ballering, Griselda; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; Altcheh, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Argentina. The standard pharmacological treatment for the disease is albendazole, but surgery is a common alternative. Even though primary infection occurs mainly in the pediatric population, the optimal therapeutic option in pediatrics is not clearly defined and few pediatric cohorts with cystic echinococcosis treated with albendazole have been described to date. Objective To describe therapeutic response to albendazole in a cohort of pediatric patients with abdominal cystic echinococcosis. Population and Methods Patients (0–18 years old) with abdominal cystic echinococcosis who were treated with albendazole between January 1998 and August 2013. Diagnosis of abdominal cystic echinococcosis was made by ultrasound. All patients received albendazole, 10–15 mg/kg/day. Epidemiological data, symptoms, number, location and outcome of the cysts, serology and treatment received were analyzed. The parameter used to assess treatment response was cyst changes evaluated by ultrasound follow up using the WHO-IWGE classification. Results A total of 28 patients (with 46 abdominal cysts) were included in the cohort. Mean age at enrolment was 9.4 years and mean duration of follow-up, 23.8 months. All patients resided in rural areas and had had contact with dogs. The asymptomatic form of the disease was the most common presentation. All patients received albendazole (mean duration: 142.5 days), with low incidence of adverse events. Albendazole had a positive effect on most of the cysts. Surgery was performed in 13 patients. Conclusion Treatment with albendazole for uncomplicated cystic echinococcosis cysts is safe and effective, and can potentially reduce the need for surgical intervention. PMID:27589236

  16. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alessandro Quattrini; Freschi, Giancarlo; Russo, Giulia Lo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In aesthetic medicine, the most promising techniques for noninvasive body sculpturing purposes are based on ultrasound-induced fat cavitation. Liporeductive ultrasound devices afford clinically relevant subcutaneous fat pad reduction without significant adverse reactions. This study aims at evaluating the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by ultrasound cavitation on the different cell components of human skin. Methods: Control and ultrasound-treated ex vivo abdominal full-thickness skin samples and skin biopsies from patients pretreated with or without ultrasound cavitation were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally to evaluate possible changes in adipocyte size and morphology. Adipocyte apoptosis and triglyceride release were also assayed. Clinical evaluation of the effects of 4 weekly ultrasound vs sham treatments was performed by plicometry. Results: Compared with the sham-treated control samples, ultrasound cavitation induced a statistically significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes (P < 0.001), the appearance of micropores and triglyceride leakage and release in the conditioned medium (P < 0.05 at 15 min), or adipose tissue interstitium, without appreciable changes in microvascular, stromal, and epidermal components and in the number of apoptotic adipocytes. Clinically, the ultrasound treatment caused a significant reduction of abdominal fat. Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes. PMID:25289235

  17. CT and orbital ultrasound findings in a case of Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Jacob W; Harrie, Roger P; Patel, Bhupendra C; Davis, Don K; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a 2-month history of left periorbital swelling was found to have a large solid intraconal mass on CT scan. Orbital ultrasound showed that the lesion had a cavernous pattern of internal reflectivity. Histopathology revealed hyaline-vascular type Castleman disease (CD). This article represents the first reported orbital ultrasound findings in CD. The findings of CT scan and ultrasound may be useful in the preoperative evaluation of orbital hyaline-vascular type CD.

  18. Added value of lung window in detecting drug mules on non-contrast abdominal computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman; Vakilian, Fatemeh; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Pourghorban, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the added value of lung window in non-contrast computed tomography (CT) of suspected body packers or stuffers. Forty suspected drug mules who were referred to our tertiary toxicology center were included. The final diagnosis of drug mule was based on the detection of packs in stool examination or surgery. Non-contrast CT scans were retrospectively interpreted by two blinded radiologists in consensus before and after reviewing the lung window images. The diagnostic performance of abdominal window scans alone and scans in both abdominal and lung windows were subsequently compared. Seven body packers and 21 body stuffers were identified. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of scans in detection of drug mules (either drug packers or stuffers) raised from 60.7, 52.1, and 72.5 to 64.2, 54.5, and 75.0 %, respectively, with a more number of packs being detected (114 vs. 105 packs). In the body packers group, the diagnostic performance of both abdominal windows scans and combined abdominal and lung windows scans were 100 %. In the body stuffers group, the sensitivity, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of scans increased from 47.6, 52.1, and 55.0 to 52.3, 54.5, and 57.5 %, respectively, after the addition of lung windows. Reviewing the lung window on non-contrast abdominal CT can be helpful in detection of drug mules.

  19. Lung ultrasound: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Saraogi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    The scope of lung ultrasound (LUS) in emergency and critical care settings has been studied extensively. LUS is easily available at bedside, free of radiation hazard and real time. All these features make it useful in reducing need of bedside X-rays and CT scan of chest. LUS has been proven to be superior to the bedside chest X-ray and equal to chest CT in diagnosing many pleural and lung pathologies. The first International Consensus Conference on Lung Ultrasound (ICC-LUS) has given recommendations for unified approach and language in major six areas of LUS. The LUS diagnosis is to be given after integration of findings of both lungs. The BLUE protocol is first LUS-based systematic approach in diagnosing pleural and lung pathologies. The protocol suggested in this article includes history and conventional clinical assessment along with LUS features. PMID:25983411

  20. Intermediate follow-up after endovascular aneurysm repair: can we forgo CT scanning in certain patients?

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Jared; McNamara, Joanne; Matloubieh, Jubin; Hart, Joseph; Singh, Michael J; Davies, Mark G; Rhodes, Jeffrey M; Illig, Karl A

    2007-11-01

    Current recommendations for follow-up after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) include yearly computed tomographic (CT) scans after the first year. We hypothesize that this is unnecessary for patients who have aneurysm sacs that are stable or shrinking at 1 year and no evidence of endoleak. To explore this hypothesis, we reviewed the records of all patients undergoing EVAR at our institution who were implanted with grafts that are currently commercially available and had a minimum of 18 months' follow-up. Of 415 patients who underwent EVAR over an 8-year period, 93 met the entry criteria. At a mean follow-up of approximately 3 years, secondary interventions were required in 13%, 39%, and 25% of patients undergoing EVAR with Zenith, AneuRx, and Excluder devices, respectively, and secondary interventions after the first year were required in 3%, 22%, and 8% of such grafts, respectively. Seventy-one patients (76%) had aneurysm sacs that were stable or shrinking at 1 year and no endoleak. Only two of these patients subsequently required reintervention. Both patients had AneuRx grafts, and both problems could have easily been identified without CT scanning. Our data support the hypothesis that patients who meet these criteria at 1 year are unlikely to have problems that cannot be identified by ultrasound and/or clinical evaluation alone and, thus, that CT scans are not necessary after this point, especially in patients with Zenith or reengineered Excluder devices. PMID:17980790

  1. Update on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Evaluation of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Parakkal; Kolbe, Amy B; Fidler, Jeff L; Fletcher, Joel G; Knudsen, John M; Bruining, David H

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and abdominal ultrasound are integral parts of multimodality assessments for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Applications include assessing Crohn's disease (CD) extent and severity, differentiating CD from ulcerative colitis, detecting CD complications, evaluating response to therapy, and demonstrating postoperative recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols are being developed that may reduce or eliminate the need for intravenous contrast agents and better differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. MRE scoring systems have been created to objectively quantify disease activity and response to therapy. By utilizing advanced sonographic imaging techniques, including ultrasound contrast and Doppler assessments, the role of abdominal ultrasonography in the evaluation and management of CD continues to expand. Abdominal ultrasound may function as a low-cost, point-of care assessment tool, especially in CD restricted to the terminal ileum and ileocolic anastomosis. PMID:27231453

  2. Update on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Evaluation of Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Parakkal; Kolbe, Amy B.; Fidler, Jeff L.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Knudsen, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and abdominal ultrasound are integral parts of multimodality assessments for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Applications include assessing Crohn’s disease (CD) extent and severity, differentiating CD from ulcerative colitis, detecting CD complications, evaluating response to therapy, and demonstrating postoperative recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols are being developed that may reduce or eliminate the need for intravenous contrast agents and better differentiate inflammatory from fibrotic strictures. MRE scoring systems have been created to objectively quantify disease activity and response to therapy. By utilizing advanced sonographic imaging techniques, including ultrasound contrast and Doppler assessments, the role of abdominal ultrasonography in the evaluation and management of CD continues to expand. Abdominal ultrasound may function as a low-cost, point-of care assessment tool, especially in CD restricted to the terminal ileum and ileocolic anastomosis. PMID:27231453

  3. Choledochal Cyst Mimicking Gallbladder with Stones in a Six-Year-Old with Right-sided Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Subramony, Rachna; Kittisarapong, Nat; Barata, Isabel; Nelson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare but serious bile duct abnormalities are found in young children, usually during the first year of life.1 They require urgent surgical intervention due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma.2 Clinicians should consider this diagnosis and perform a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) when a child presents to the emergency department (ED) with findings of jaundice, abdominal pain, and the presence of an abdominal mass. We present the case of a six-year-old child presenting only with abdominal pain upon arrival to our ED and was ultimately diagnosed by POCUS to have a choledochal cyst. PMID:26265970

  4. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to mesenteric panniculitis treated successfully with endoscopic ultrasonography-guided celiac plexus block: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzani, Waleed; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Greenwald, Eric; Radhi, Jasim; Tse, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a chronic illness that is characterized by fibrosing inflammation of the mesenteries that can lead to intractable abdominal pain. Pain control is a crucial component of the management plan. Most patients will improve with oral corticosteroids treatment, however, some patients will require a trial of other immunosuppressive agents, and a minority of patients will continue to have refractory disease. Endoscopic ultrasound guided celiac plexus block is used frequently to control abdominal pain in patients with pancreatic pathology. To our knowledge there are no case reports describing its use in mesenteric panniculitis patients with refractory abdominal pain. PMID:25992196

  5. Comparison of ultrasound imaging in transverse median and parasagittal oblique planes for thoracic epidurals: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khemka, Rakhi; Rastogi, Sonal; Desai, Neha; Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Sinha, Subir

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The use of ultrasound (US) scanning to assess the depth of epidural space to prevent neurological complications is established in current practice. In this study, we hypothesised that pre-puncture US scanning for estimating the depth of epidural space for thoracic epidurals is comparable between transverse median (TM) and paramedian sagittal oblique (PSO) planes. Methods: We performed pre-puncture US scanning in 32 patients, posted for open abdominal surgeries. The imaging was done to detect the depth of epidural space from skin (ultrasound depth [UD]) and needle insertion point, in parasagittal oblique plane in PSO group and transverse median plane in TM group. Subsequently, epidural space was localised through the predetermined insertion point by ‘loss of resistance’ technique and needle depth (ND) to the epidural space was marked. Correlation between the UD and actual ND was calculated and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was used to determine the degree of agreement between UD and ND in both the planes. Results: The primary outcome, i.e., the comparison between UD and ND, done using Pearson correlation coefficient, was 0.99 in both PSO and TM groups, and the CCC was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.81–0.97) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.74–0.96) in PSO and TM groups respectively, which shows a strong positive association between UD and ND in both groups. Conclusion: The use of pre-puncture US scanning in both PSO and TM planes for estimating the depth of epidural space at the level of mid- and lower-thoracic spine is comparable. PMID:27330197

  6. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  7. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caine, Timothy; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical. The Virtual Ultrasound Guidance system is a combination of hardware and software. The hardware portion includes, but is not limited to, video glasses that allow hands-free, full-screen viewing. The glasses also allow the operator a substantial field of view below the glasses to view and operate the ultrasound system. The software is a comprehensive video program designed to guide an inexperienced operator through a detailed ultrasound or echocardiographic study without extensive training or guidance from the ground. The program contains a detailed description using video and audio to demonstrate equipment controls, ergonomics of scanning, study protocol, and scanning guidance, including recovery from sub-optimal images. The components used in the initial validation of the system include an Apple iPod Classic third-generation as the video source, and Myvue video glasses. Initially, the program prompts the operator to power-up the ultrasound and position the patient. The operator would put on the video glasses and attach them to the video source. After turning on both devices and the ultrasound system, the audio-video guidance would then instruct on patient positioning and scanning techniques. A detailed scanning protocol follows with descriptions and reference video of each view along with

  8. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  9. Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas in children: presurgical evaluation with imaging.

    PubMed

    Chateil, J-F; Brun, M; Vergnes, P; Andrieu de Lewis, P; Pérel, Y; Diard, F

    2002-02-01

    Cystic lymphangiomas are benign vascular tumors which are most often seen in young children. They are considered to be congenital malformations stemming from sequestration of lymphatic tissue. The authors report 15 cases of abdominal location and detail the findings of imaging in the etiologic and topographic diagnosis of these lesions. The initial incidents were essentially the discovery of a palpable abdominal mass, and more rarely, an acute gastrointestinal complication. There was also one case of prenatal diagnosis. Plain films provide only indirect signs related to the displacement of neighboring organs. Ultrasonography permits the etiologic diagnosis by showing an often voluminous, septated cyst. The intra- or retroperitoneal location of the lesion is sometimes difficult to determine by sonography, in which case CT scanning is usually adequate. For abdominal locations, percutaneous sclerosis is not available, and surgical removal is the only treatment for this disorder. The topography of the lesion and the involvement of retroperitoneal structures is important to determine.

  10. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  11. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  12. Respiration correction by clustering in ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaizhi; Chen, Xi; Ding, Mingyue; Sang, Nong

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory motion is a challenging factor for image acquisition, image-guided procedures and perfusion quantification using contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the abdominal and thoracic region. In order to reduce the influence of respiratory motion, respiratory correction methods were investigated. In this paper we propose a novel, cluster-based respiratory correction method. In the proposed method, we assign the image frames of the corresponding respiratory phase using spectral clustering firstly. And then, we achieve the images correction automatically by finding a cluster in which points are close to each other. Unlike the traditional gating method, we don't need to estimate the breathing cycle accurate. It is because images are similar at the corresponding respiratory phase, and they are close in high-dimensional space. The proposed method is tested on simulation image sequence and real ultrasound image sequence. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in quantitative and qualitative.

  13. Combination of CT and ultrasound in the retroperitoneum and pelvis examination.

    PubMed

    Raskin, M M

    1980-01-01

    The retroperitoneum and the pelvis are difficult areas to examine by conventional radiographic means. Pelvic ultrasound can distinguish cystic from solid masses, but is poor in defining tissue planes. Computed tomography (CT) easily detects calcifications, is rarely affected by overlying bowel gas, and usually demonstrates the mass with good definition of tissue planes. Although less accurate than ultrasound in distinguishing cystic from solid masses, CT is superior for demonstrating contiguous anatomical structures such as the rectum, bony pelvis, vertebral bodies, abdominal aorta, and inferior vena cava. Overlying bowel gas often precludes obtaining a diagnostic ultrasound examination of the retroperitoneum. In addition, ultrasound is unable to reproducibly demonstrate soft tissue relationships in the retroperitoneum as does CT. Both CT and ultrasound are capable of providing diagnostic information. Ultrasound can more easily distinguish cystic from solid masses, but CT may be better for determining the extent of disease. CT should become the procedure of choice for evaluation of the retroperitoneum.

  14. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  15. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte scan ... will be taken from one of your veins. White blood cells are separated from the rest of the blood ... 111. These cells are considered tagged. The tagged white blood cells are injected back into your body through a ...

  16. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... At low doses, these medicines can be excellent pain relievers for some children. A fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological treatments that help children cope with functional abdominal pain ...

  17. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth; Epstein, Katherine; Sandoval, Daniel; Williamson, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography has great potential to provide quantitative estimations of physical properties of breast tumors for accurate characterization of breast cancer. We design and manufacture a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays. The distance of these two transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. The ultrasound transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the entire breast slice by slice and acquires ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound imaging and tomographic reconstructions. We use the system to acquire patient data at the University of New Mexico Hospital for clinical studies. We present some preliminary imaging results of in vivo patient ultrasound data. Our preliminary clinical imaging results show promising of our breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays for breast cancer imaging and characterization.

  18. Transabdominal ultrasound for detection of pregnancy, fetal and placental landmarks, and fetal age before Day 45 of gestation in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda K; Gately, Rachael E; McFadden, Katelyn K; Zinn, Steven A; Govoni, Kristen E; Reed, Sarah A

    2016-03-15

    Detection of pregnancy during early gestation is advantageous for flock breeding management. Transabdominal ultrasound is a practical and efficient approach for monitoring pregnancy and fetal growth in small ruminants. However, there is limited information using the transabdominal technique before Day 45 of gestation in sheep. Therefore, our objective was to determine how accurately transabdominal ultrasound could be used to detect pregnancy, to identify pregnancy landmarks, and to quantify fetal length before Day 45 in ewes. Multiparous Western White-faced ewes (n = 99) were estrus synchronized and exposed to one of four Dorset rams. The day a ewe was marked by a ram was considered Day 0 of gestation. Ewes not remarked by Day 20 were separated for ultrasonography. To detect pregnancy and landmarks, ewes were scanned three times per week between Day 26.0 ± 0.3 (mean ± standard error) and Day 40.0 ± 0.2. A single technician performed all scans in the right nonhaired abdominal pit using a real-time portable Eazi-Scan machine and a 5-MHz linear rectal transducer. All data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS (with repeated measures where appropriate). Because of rebreeding activity, 113 ultrasound periods were initiated. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100% during the entire study. The accuracy, sensitivity, and negative predictive value of ultrasound scanning were greater than 90% beginning at Day 33 ± 1. On average, pregnancy (n = 85) was detected at Day 28.7 ± 0.4 and nonpregnancy (n = 28) at Day 25.5 ± 0.6. Three early fetal losses were identified at Day 39.7 ± 0.7. In pregnant ewes (n = 82), the overall accuracy of fetal counting was 78%. The first observance of an enlarged uterus (P = 0.05) and pregnancy (P = 0.03) was detected earlier when multiple fetuses were developing compared with singletons. Placentome evagination was first observed earlier in triplets compared with twins and singletons (P = 0.02). Fetal length

  19. Transabdominal ultrasound for detection of pregnancy, fetal and placental landmarks, and fetal age before Day 45 of gestation in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda K; Gately, Rachael E; McFadden, Katelyn K; Zinn, Steven A; Govoni, Kristen E; Reed, Sarah A

    2016-03-15

    Detection of pregnancy during early gestation is advantageous for flock breeding management. Transabdominal ultrasound is a practical and efficient approach for monitoring pregnancy and fetal growth in small ruminants. However, there is limited information using the transabdominal technique before Day 45 of gestation in sheep. Therefore, our objective was to determine how accurately transabdominal ultrasound could be used to detect pregnancy, to identify pregnancy landmarks, and to quantify fetal length before Day 45 in ewes. Multiparous Western White-faced ewes (n = 99) were estrus synchronized and exposed to one of four Dorset rams. The day a ewe was marked by a ram was considered Day 0 of gestation. Ewes not remarked by Day 20 were separated for ultrasonography. To detect pregnancy and landmarks, ewes were scanned three times per week between Day 26.0 ± 0.3 (mean ± standard error) and Day 40.0 ± 0.2. A single technician performed all scans in the right nonhaired abdominal pit using a real-time portable Eazi-Scan machine and a 5-MHz linear rectal transducer. All data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS (with repeated measures where appropriate). Because of rebreeding activity, 113 ultrasound periods were initiated. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100% during the entire study. The accuracy, sensitivity, and negative predictive value of ultrasound scanning were greater than 90% beginning at Day 33 ± 1. On average, pregnancy (n = 85) was detected at Day 28.7 ± 0.4 and nonpregnancy (n = 28) at Day 25.5 ± 0.6. Three early fetal losses were identified at Day 39.7 ± 0.7. In pregnant ewes (n = 82), the overall accuracy of fetal counting was 78%. The first observance of an enlarged uterus (P = 0.05) and pregnancy (P = 0.03) was detected earlier when multiple fetuses were developing compared with singletons. Placentome evagination was first observed earlier in triplets compared with twins and singletons (P = 0.02). Fetal length

  20. [Aorto-caval fistula as a results of abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture imitating acute renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Zaniewski, Maciej; Ludyga, Tomasz; Kazibudzki, Marek; Kowalewska-Twardela, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Aorto-caval fistula (ACF) is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm. It occurs in 1-6% of cases. The classic diagnostic signs of an ACF (pulsatile abdominal mass with bruit and right ventricular failure) are present only in a half of the patients. The most common diagnostic imaging procedures like ultrasound and computed tomography often are not sufficient enough. This leads to the delay in diagnosis, which has a great impact on the results of operation. We report a case of a patient, who was treated before admission to the Clinic because of azotemia and oliguria suggesting renal failure.

  1. Indium-111 labeled leukocytes in the evaluation of suspected abdominal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R E; Black, R E; Welch, D M; Maxwell, J G

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-eight indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging studies were performed in 53 patients with suspected abdominal abscesses. Twenty-nine studies gave abnoramal results. Nine wound infections were demonstrated, and 14 abscesses were correctly identified. Four studied demonstrated colonic accumulation, one of which remains unexplained, and two accessory spleens were identified. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a sensitive and specific study in evaluating patients with suspected abdominal abscess. Differentiation of abscess from other causes of inflammation has not been a problem. The exact role of leukocyte imaging compared with gallium-67 citrate imaging, ultrasound and computerized tomography remains to be determined.

  2. Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy.

  3. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  4. Diagnostic Imaging of Fetal and Neonatal Abdominal and Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Usha D; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and staging of prenatal and neonatal tumors, and is essential in treatment planning. Though obstetrical ultrasound is the first choice prenatally, fetal MRI continues to play an increasing role as experience with this imaging modality increases. In the neonate, in addition to ultrasound and MRI, CT and nuclear medicine studies can also play an important role. We describe the prenatal and neonatal imaging findings of some of the most common congenital abdominal and soft tissue neoplasms including neuroblastoma, renal, liver and soft tissue tumors. PMID:26168940

  5. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate. PMID:27114817

  6. Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, D S; Merendino, K A

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with aortic abdominal aneurysms in association with horseshoe kidney are presented, making a total of 34 cases recorded in the literature. In 29 patients, the aneurysm was resected and five patients were non-resectable. Because of the abnormalities in vascular supply to the abnormal kidney, it is important to diagnose the combination of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney preoperatively. An error in diagnosis should be unusual if an intravenous pyelogram is routinely obtained on all patients. This study may reveal abnormalities which will allow the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney to be made or suspected. If the intravenous pyelogram is abnormal, it should be followed by an aortogram. This may substantiate the diagnosis of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney and provide the necessary detailed information regarding the pattern of blood supply and its relationship to functioning tissue. The amount and disposition of functioning renal parenchyma may be further amplified by renal scan. If this sequence is followed, the unanticipated combination of abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney should be rare. PMID:1130850

  7. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kasatkin, A. A. Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L.

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  8. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  9. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  10. [Radiofrequency ablation of an unresectable abdominal tumor].

    PubMed

    Sézeur, Alain; Fritsch, Sylvie; Louvet, Christophe; Kujas, Albert; Mosnier, Henri; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Grimberg, Sylvie

    2003-02-01

    Remnant malignant tissue is left behind after conventional surgery for an unresectable intraperitoneal malignant tumor. Standard radiotherapy or chemotherapy rarely enables good tumor control. We report the case of a 74-year-old man who developed a local recurrence of a sigmoid tumor located 5 to 6 cm from the anus. The tumor was fixed to the pelvic wall and could not be totally eradicated with conventional surgery. Preoperative peroperative assessment confirmed the absence of metastatic spread. Radiotherapy could not be performed due to risk of bowel injury. Peroperative radiofrequency ablation was followed by surgical colorectal resection without restoration of intestinal continuity, leaving only tumor tissue destroyed by radiofrequency. No adjuvant treatment was proposed because of intolerance to chemotherapy. Clinical assessment and thoracic and abdominal CT scan confirmed the absence of recurrence 26 months after radiofrequency ablation. Serum markers remained normal.

  11. Conservative management of abdominal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Okuş, Ahmet; Sevinç, Barış; Ay, Serden; Arslan, Kemal; Karahan, Ömer; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-operative management of abdominal injuries has recently become more common. Especially non-operative treatment of blunt abdominal trauma is gaining wide acceptance. In this study, the efficacy of non-operative treatment in abdominal trauma (blunt penetrating) is discussed. Material and Methods: All patients who received treatment due to abdominal trauma from November 2008 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, injured organ, type of treatment (operative vs. nonoperative) and mortality data were evaluated. Results: The study includes 115 patients treated for abdominal trauma in our department. The mechanism of trauma was stab wounds in 60%, blunt abdominal trauma in 23.5% and gunshot wounds in 16.5%. Forty-two patients (36.5%) were operated for hemodynamic instability and/or peritonitis on admission. The remaining 63.5% of patients (n=73) were treated nonoperatively, 10 of whom required laparotomy during follow-up. The remaining 63 patients were treated with non-operative management. The success rate for non-operative treatment was 86.3% and there was no difference in terms of the types of injuries. The mortality rate was 4.3% (n= 5) in the whole series, but there were no deaths among the patients who had received non-operative treatment. In the whole patient group 54.2% (n=63) were treated nonoperatively. Conclusion: Nonoperative treatment in abdominal trauma is safe and effective. Patients with clinical stability and normal physical examination findings can be treated nonoperatively with close monitoring. PMID:25931868

  12. [Assessment of velocity of deformation of abdominal aorta wall with the help of the multivox working station].

    PubMed

    Sandrikov, V A; Fisenko, E P; Gavrilov, A V; Lozhkevich, A A; Platova, E N; Arkhipov, I V

    2013-01-01

    Most frequent cause of abnormalities of elastic properties of walls of abdominal aorta is development of atherosclerosis resulting in replacement of elastin by simpler fibrillar proteins and collagen. This subsequently leads to dilation of the aorta and formation of aneurism. Increase of collagen content in the aortic wall correlates with growth of aneurism dimensions. Main method of treatment of aneurisms is implantation of abdominal aortic prosthesis. Detailed preoperative assessment of functional state of the aortic wall is necessary in preoperative period but none of modern imaging instrumental methods including ultrasound study allows to realize this assessment. In this article we present first experience of assessment of aortic wall deformation velocity analyzing results of ultrasound study with the help of the Multivox working station in 36 patients 16 of whom were operated because of aneurism of abdominal aorta. PMID:24654437

  13. Detection of breast microcalcifications using synthetic-aperture ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Lin, Youzuo; Zhang, Zhigang; Pohl, Jennifer; Sandoval, Daniel; Williamson, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasound could be an attractive imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications, but it requires significant improvement in image resolution and quality. Recently, we have used tissue-equivalent phantoms to demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound has the potential to detect small targets. In this paper, we study the in vivo imaging capability of a real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system for detecting breast microcalcifications. This LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory's) custom built synthetic-aperture ultrasound system has a maximum frame rate of 25 Hz, and is one of the very first medical devices capable of acquiring synthetic-aperture ultrasound data and forming ultrasound images in real time, making the synthetic-aperture ultrasound feasible for clinical applications. We recruit patients whose screening mammograms show breast microcalcifications, and use LANL's synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to scan the regions with microcalcifications. Our preliminary in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound is a promising imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications.

  14. Combined transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass with right gastroepiploic artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Gürer, Onur; Haberal, Ismail; Ozsoy, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery. Case Report: A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery. Conclusions: We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost. PMID:23997852

  15. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Intranodal Lymphangiography With Ethiodized Oil to Treat Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Wataru; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with abdominal distention and pain. A diagnosis of chylous ascites (CA) was made by abdominal paracentesis. Conservative treatment had failed to control CA; therefore, ultrasound-guided intranodal lymphangiography (UIL) with Lipiodol was performed. No obvious Lipiodol leakage was observed in the follow-up computed tomography; however, the persistent abdominal pain was significantly reduced within a day, and CA was resolved within 3 days. We present successful treatment of CA using UIL with Lipiodol. The combination of the technique of UIL and therapeutic lymphangiography with Lipiodol is a promising minimally invasive treatment option for CA.

  17. Abdominal aortic grafting for spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroto; Shibuya, Takashi; Shintani, Takashi; Uenaka, Hisazumi; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    This case report concerns a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous infrarenal abdominal aortic dissection, which developed into claudication and rest pain in the lower extremity. Multi-row detector computed tomography showed the entry site of the abdominal aortic dissection at the second lumbar artery, while the reentry site was found intraoperatively at the median sacral artery, indicating that the false lumen had progressed and compressed the true lumen. A direct approach involving grafting appears to be an effective procedure for resolving mesenteric and lower extremity hypoperfusion due to aortic dissection with a dilated false channel, even during the acute period. PMID:19879731

  18. A giant gas-filled abdominal mass in an elderly female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hoi Man Deon; Lee, Fung Yee Janet; Lo, Anthony; Li, Chak Man Jimmy

    2011-08-21

    We report an extremely rare case of gas-filled abdominal mass caused by an ovarian teratoma fistulating to the sigmoid colon. The patient was an 85-year-old female, who presented with severe abdominal distension. Urgent computed tomography scan showed a huge abdominal mass with air fluid level and fecal matter inside. Communication between the mass and the sigmoid colon was suspected. She underwent emergency laparotomy. The mass was resected with the involved segment of colon. Pathology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.

  19. Endovascular Repair of an Anastomotic Leak Following Open Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Mofidi, R. Flett, M.; Milne, A.; Chakraverty, S.

    2007-09-15

    This report describes the case of an early postoperative anastomotic leak following elective open repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm which was successfully treated by endovascular stent-grafting. A 71-year-old man underwent open tube graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Twelve days later he presented with a contained leak from the distal anastomosis, which was confirmed on CT scan. This was successfully treated with a bifurcated aortic stent-graft. This case illustrates the usefulness of the endovascular approach for resolving this rare surgical complication of open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and the challenges associated with the deployment of such a device within an aortic tube graft.

  20. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with abdominal aortic stent-graft acute thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Canaud, Ludovic; Hireche, Kheira; Marty-Ané, Charles; Alric, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient on low molecular weight heparin bridge therapy who developed acute abdominal aortic stent-graft thrombosis 1 week after uncomplicated endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The diagnosis was confirmed by a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen. The patient was successfully treated by conversion to open repair. The postoperative course was marked by subacute left limb ischemia related to an in vivo cross-reactivity of danaparoid with the heparin immune complex. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with acute abdominal aortic stent-graft thrombosis. PMID:23711968

  1. Renal artery stenosis and hypertension after abdominal irradiation for Hodgkin disease. Successful treatment with nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Salvi, S.; Green, D.M.; Brecher, M.L.; Magoos, I.; Gamboa, L.N.; Fisher, J.E.; Baliah, T.; Afshani, E.

    1983-06-01

    Hypertension secondary to stenosis of the left renal artery developed in a thirteen-year-old male six years after completion of inverted Y irradiation (3,600 rad) for abdominal Hodgkin disease. Surgical treatment with nephrectomy resulted in control of the hypertension without the use of antihypertensive agents. We review the literature for this unusual complication of abdominal irradiation, and recommend that a 99mTc-DMSA renal scan, selective renal vein sampling for renin determinations, and renal arteriography be performed on any patient in whom hypertension develops following abdominal irradiation in childhood.

  2. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  3. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  4. The relationships between intra-abdominal echogenicity, cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance in obese children.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Nam-Gi; Kim, Hee-Jung; Cho, Hyo-Min; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    While the abdominal adipose tissue has been identified as an important pathomarker for the cardiometabolic syndrome in adults, the relationships between the cardiometabolic risk factors and abdominal adipose morphology or physical performance levels have not been examined in children with obesity. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between risk factors (BMI and physical activity levels and abdominal fat layers including subcutaneous, intra-abdominal preperitoneal and mesenteric fat thickness in children with obesity. 30 children with obesity (mean ± SD = 10.0 ± 4.5 yrs; 9 girls; BMI > 20) underwent physical performance (curl-ups, sit and reach, push-ups, and a 400-m run), ultrasound measurement of thickness of fat composition of the abdomen, blood pressure, oxygen consumption. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations, ranging from -0.523- 0.898 between the intra-abdominal adipose tissue thickness, cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, heart rate), and the curl-up physical performance test. In conclusion, the present study provides a compelling evidence that the intra-abdominal adipose tissue morphological characteristics were associated with BMI, physical performance, and most importantly cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and heart rate), which eventually contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood.

  5. Diagnostic imaging in head and neck disease: current applications of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Scheible, F W; Leopold, G R

    1978-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become firmly established as a key imaging modality in obstetrics and gynecology. Its role in abdominal and retroperitoneal disease is also well known and continues to expand. Although usage of ultrasound in the head and neck had its beginnings many years ago, the advent of newer high-resolution transducers has allowed for further investigation of diseases in this area. Of particular interest are the thyroid gland and the extracranial carotid arteries. This review summarizes the current utility of gray-scale and real-time ultrasound in evaluating head and neck disease, and discusses potential future applications of the modality.

  6. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  7. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  8. [A Case of Abdominal Wall Hernia Rupture during Bevacizumab Treatment].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Yasuaki; Hirose, Sou; Michiura, Toshiya; Fujita, Shigeo; Yamabe, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Satoru; Nagaoka, Makio

    2015-11-01

    A 78 -year-old man with rectal cancer underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. In the postoperative period, the patient experienced wound infection, leading to an abdominal wall hernia. Two years following surgery, a rise in the serum CEA level was seen. A metastatic tumor was detected in the right lung on chest CT. VATS right lung inferior lobe segmental resection was performed. After lobectomy, the serum CEA level continued to increase. Another metastatic tumor was detected in the right lung on chest CT. Chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab was commenced. The erosive part of the abdominal wall scar hernia extended during the nine weeks of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy was then discontinued. In the follow-up CT scan, a right pleural recurrence, local recurrence in the pelvis, and a liver metastasis were detected. Chemotherapy was re-introduced 3 years after surgery. The erosive part of the abdominal wall hernia again began to spread with chemotherapy recommencement. Four months after restarting chemotherapy, the hernia ruptured, with a loop of the small intestine protruding out of it. The patient covered this with a sheet of vinyl and was taken by the ambulance to our hospital. The erosive part of the abdominal wall hernia had split by 10 cm, and a loop of the small intestine was protruding. As ischemia of the small intestine was not observed, we replaced it into the abdominal cavity, and performed a temporary suture repair of the hernia sac. Following this, bevacizumab was discontinued, and the erosive part reduced. We performed a radical operation for abdominal wall scar hernia repair 11 weeks after the discontinuation of bevacizumab. PMID:26805294

  9. Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Vidili, Gianpaolo; Venturelli, Enrica; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Pilo, Giovannantonio; Nicolussi, Paola; Ligios, Ciriaco; Bedognetti, Davide; Sgarrella, Francesco; Manetti, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasonography is a fundamental diagnostic imaging tool in everyday clinical practice. Here, we are unique in describing the use of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as hyperechogenic material, suggesting their potential application as ultrasound contrast agents. Initially, we carried out a thorough investigation to assess the echogenic property of the nanotubes in vitro. We demonstrated their long-lasting ultrasound contrast properties. We also showed that ultrasound signal of functionalized MWCNTs is higher than graphene oxide, pristine MWCNTs, and functionalized single-walled CNTs. Qualitatively, the ultrasound signal of CNTs was equal to that of sulfur hexafluoride (SonoVue), a commercially available contrast agent. Then, we found that MWCNTs were highly echogenic in liver and heart through ex vivo experiments using pig as an animal model. In contrast to the majority of ultrasound contrast agents, we observed in a phantom bladder that the tubes can be visualized within a wide variety of frequencies (i.e., 5.5-10 MHz) and 12.5 MHz using tissue harmonic imaging modality. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo in the pig bladder that MWCNTs can be observed at low frequencies, which are appropriate for abdominal organs. Importantly, we did not report any toxicity of CNTs after 7 d from the injection by animal autopsy, organ histology and immunostaining, blood count, and chemical profile. Our results reveal the enormous potential of CNTs as ultrasound contrast agents, giving support for their future applications as theranostic nanoparticles, combining diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  10. Ultrasound Dopplerography of abdomen pathology using statistical computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Wapota, Alberto R. W.

    1998-04-01

    The modern ultrasound dopplerography give us the big possibilities in investigation of gemodynamical changes in all stages of abdomen pathology. Many of researches devoted to using of noninvasive methods in practical medicine. Now ultrasound Dopplerography is one of the basic one. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages, including 149 men and 101 women. The basic diagnosis of all patients was the Ischaemic Pancreatitis. The Second diagnoses of pathology were the Ischaemic Disease of Heart, Gypertension, Atherosclerosis, Diabet, Vascular Disease of Extremities. We researched the abdominal aorta and her branches: Arteria Mesenterica Superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC), arteria lienalis (AL). For investigation we use the following equipment: ACUSON 128 XP/10c, BIOMEDIC, GENERAL ELECTRIC (USA, Japan). We analyzed the following componetns of gemodynamical changes of abdominal vessels: index of pulsation, index of resistance, ratio of systol-dystol, speed of blood circulation. Statistical program included the following one: 'basic statistic's,' 'analytic program.' In conclusion we determined that the all gemodynamical components of abdominal vessels had considerable changes in abdominal ischaemia than in normal situation. Using the computer's program for definition degree of gemodynamical changes, we can recommend the individual plan of diagnostical and treatment program.

  11. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (< 3 minutes), also including a vascular (venous) analysis allowing differential diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in

  12. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (< 3 minutes), also including a vascular (venous) analysis allowing differential diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  14. Recurrent abdominal pain during childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint among children. A thorough history and physical examination and limited laboratory investigation should enable a physician to make a positive diagnosis of "functional" recurrent abdominal pain in 90% to 95% of cases; an organic cause is identified in only 5% to 10%. The care and thoroughness of the history and physical examination establish the physician's credibility; explaining the clinical basis for the diagnosis and educating the child and parents on what is known about the condition reassures the parents. PMID:8199511

  15. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  16. Laparoscopic excision of intra-abdominal paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Chang-Moo; Choi, Gi-Hong; Yang, Woo-Ick; Sim, Seo-Bo; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byong-Ro

    2007-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani of Paragonimus species usually are accompanied by a persistent cough, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Extrapulmonary paragonimiasis caused by ectopic parasites in aberrant locations such as the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, and brain has been reported and the most commonly involved extrapulmonary organ is the brain. We present a case of 56-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal paragonimiasis who underwent laparoscopic excision of abdominal granuloma caused by parasite infection. An intra-abdominal mass associated with eosinophilia might be related to parasite infection. A laparoscopic approach is the most appropriate treatment modality in such benign abdominal pathology.

  17. The Effects of Practicing with a Virtual Ultrasound Trainer on FAST Window Identification, Acquisition, and Diagnosis. CRESST Report 787

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Gyllenhammer, Ruth G.; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of simulator-based virtual ultrasound scanning practice to classroom-based hands-on ultrasound scanning practice on participants' knowledge of FAST window quadrants and interpretation, and on participants' performance on live patient FAST exams. Twenty-five novice participants were randomly assigned to the…

  18. [Ultrasound in pediatric dermatology].

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, F J; Muñoz-Garza, F Z; Hernández-Martín, A

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous ultrasound is particularly useful in pediatric dermatology to diagnose numerous diseases without the need to use invasive tests. The present articles reviews some frequent dermatological entities in children whose study can be simplified through cutaneous ultrasound. This article also provides practical recommendations reported in the literature that may facilitate ultrasound examination, with special mention of benign tumoural disease, both congenital and acquired, and vascular anomalies.

  19. Ultrasound for wool dyeing and finishing.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S J; McCall, R A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound at 35-39 kHz on several wool dyeing and finishing processes have been investigated as a way of reducing environmental impact. Ultrasound improved the effectiveness of cleaning scoured wool in water and to a lesser extent in water-nonionic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy did not indicate any surface damage. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased levels of sulphydryl groups on the wool surface suggesting ultrasound caused the removal of thioester-bound lipids. Ultrasound pre-treatment increased the effectiveness of subsequent oxidative-reductive bleaching, but had no effect on the uptake of acid levelling and acid milling dyes. The pre-treatment retarded the uptake of reactive dye, possibly by increasing the crystallinity of the fibre or removing surface bound lipids. Ultrasound did not improve dyeing under conditions that are currently used in industry, but did show potential to reduce the chemical and energy requirements of dyeing wool with reactive and acid milling dyes, but not acid levelling dyes. PMID:20675174

  20. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  1. Mechanical impedance measurement and damage detection using noncontact laser ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Lim, Hyeong Uk; Hong, Jung-Wuk; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-06-01

    This Letter proposes a mechanical impedance (MI) measurement technique using noncontact laser ultrasound. The ultrasound is generated by shooting a pulse laser beam onto a target structure, and its response is measured using a laser vibrometer. Once ultrasound propagation converges to structural vibration, MI is formed over the entire structure. Because noncontact lasers are utilized, this technique is applicable in harsh environments, free of electromagnetic interference, and able to perform wide-range scanning. The formation of MI and its feasibility for damage detection are verified through thermo-mechanical finite element analysis and lab-scale experiments.

  2. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  3. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  4. Pulmonary Embolism with Abdominal Pain and ST Elevation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Mohammad Javad; Masoompour, Seyed Masoom; Mirzaee, Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism is considered as a great masquerader due to its frequent nonspecific signs and symptoms. Typically pulmonary embolism is under-diagnosed or over-diagnosed. In this study a patient with pulmonary embolism is reported in which the patient exhibited two unusual manifestations namely; right upper quadrant abdominal pain and ST-T elevation in anterior precordial leads. Due to the fact that the patient did not display typical pulmonary embolism symptoms and its major risk factors, extensive workup to discern the cause was carried out. The examination included abdominal sonography, kidney ureter and bladder Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan) and coronary angiography. Eventually after a six-day delay, pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by spiral chest CT scan. This case and several other similar reports underlines the fact that while various other common causes may exist for right upper abdominal pain, one should always consider pulmonary embolism as a possible cause especially when backed up with ECG finding.

  5. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. Results A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). Conclusion General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE. PMID:24252303

  6. Ultrasound features of lacrimal gland in Sjogren's syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Seceleanu, Andreea; Pop, Sorin; Preda, Dan; Szabo, Ioan; Rogojan, Liliana; Seceleanu, Radu

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of bilateral lacrimal gland hypertrophy with secondary glaucoma due to the increased episcleralvenous pressure. Diagnostic work-up included clinical methods associated with ultrasound (A- and B-scan, Doppler ultrasound) and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Clinical data revealed proptosis, episcleral congestion, and elevated intraocular pressure. Abnormal Schirmer's test and xerophthalmia were also present. Ultrasound examination identified enlarged masses of a cystic structure in lacrimal fossae bilaterally, superotemporally to the globe, more pronounced on the left side. Doppler ultrasound revealed vascularization and magnetic resonance imaging completed the findings offered by ultrasound methods. Based on the clinical aspect and the possible visual impairment due to secondary glaucoma, the mass lesion on the left side was removed by neurosurgical approach. Histopathology confirmed destruction of the lacrimal gland and immunohistochemistry indicated Sjogren's syndrome lesions. Sonography is able to provide noninvasively much of the information needed by the clinician. The A-scan and B-scan ultrasound techniques and color Doppler allow tracking and discrimination of orbital diseases, such as lacrimal gland lesions. Associated with clinical features, these methods provide the basis of correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy for lacrimal gland pathology.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of quercetin-loaded nanodroplets with ultrasound activation and their use for bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Hung, Shuo-Hui; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Bubble formulations have both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, research on nanobubbles/nanodroplets remains in the initial stages. In this study, a nanodroplet formulation was prepared and loaded with a novel class of chemotherapeutic drug, ie, quercetin, to observe its pharmacokinetic properties and ultrasonic bioimaging of specific sites, namely the abdominal vein and bladder. Four parallel groups were designed to investigate the effects of ultrasound and nanodroplets on the pharmacokinetics of quercetin. These groups were quercetin alone, quercetin triggered with ultrasound, quercetin-encapsulated in nanodroplets, and quercetin encapsulated in nanodroplets triggered with ultrasound. Spherical vesicles with a mean diameter of 280 nm were formed, and quercetin was completely encapsulated within. In vivo ultrasonic imaging confirmed that the nanodroplets could be treated by ultrasound. The results indicate that the initial 5-minute serum concentration, area under the concentration–time curve, elimination half-life, and clearance of quercetin were significantly enhanced by nanodroplets with or without ultrasound. PMID:25945049

  8. Screening for detection of intra-uterine growth retardation by means of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Selbing, A; Wichman, K; Rydén, G

    1984-01-01

    In a two-stage ultrasound screening program the gestational age was assessed by measurement of the fetal crown-rump length in early pregnancy. At an adjusted gestational age between 32 and 35 completed weeks the biparietal diameter, the abdominal circumference, the abdominal area and the ratio between fetal head area and abdominal area were estimated by means of ultrasound measurement. 'Acute' fetal weight was estimated by calculations from biparietal diameter and abdominal diameters. Percentile curves were constructed for these parameters and cut-off limits were tested for the predictability of intra-uterine growth retardation of the fetus. The abdominal circumference and area estimations were equally good for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation. The biparietal diameter alone is of limited value for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation but the combination with abdominal diameters in 'acute' fetal weight estimation can well be used. The ratio between the skull and abdominal areas seems to be of little use for the detection of intra-uterine growth retardation of two reasons: difficulty in measurement and low sensitivity. We consider that the assessment of gestational age in early pregnancy is a necessity both for the identification of suspected IUGR by means of ultrasound and the diagnosis of IUGR by measurement of fetal weight at birth. It is concluded that if the gestational age has been assessed by crown-rump length measurement in early pregnancy, a single estimation of the fetal abdominal circumference between 32 and 35 completed gestational weeks and a cut-off limit at the 15th percentile offers a detection rate of about 90% of the growth retarded infants. PMID:6391070

  9. Methodology for three-dimensional reconstruction of the tongue surface from ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Sonies, Barbara C.

    1995-05-01

    A three-dimensional ultrasound imaging system was developed for studying tongue configurations during speech and swallowing. A sequence of two-dimensional ultrasound B- mode images was acquired by moving the ultrasound transducer under the subject's chin. A six-degree-of-freedom electromagnetic position sensor was used in order to determine the spatial position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer during the scanning. Registration of image slices was achieved by using a time code generator to synchronize ultrasound images with the spatial information. Techniques were developed for 3D reconstruction of the tongue surface from multi-planar ultrasound scans using both commercial software and NIH- developed programs for PC and Macintosh computers. The system demonstrated its potential to quickly acquire and reconstruct 3D tongue images, and to assist speech pathologists and radiologists in speech and swallowing disorder diagnosis.

  10. Source Book of Educational Materials for Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound. Radiological Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp; And Others

    This report is a compilation of educational materials that are available in the field of diagnostic medical ultrasound. Materials, which include publications, audiovisual aids, and teaching aids, are listed under the following categories: abdominal imaging; anatomy and physiology; anatomy and embryology; bioeffects; cardiology and vasculature;…

  11. An introduction to the use of diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sweet, E M; Arneil, G C

    1975-10-01

    This article is meant to serve as a simple introduction to diagnostic ultrasound, explaining the nature of sonar and the basic equipment for its production and use. A scans, B scans, time-position scans, and Doppler-shift techniques are described, with some examples of the clinical applications of each. Some recent innovations such as scan conversion to improve gray scaling and electrocardiographically triggered cardiac sector scans are mentioned. The limitations of the technique are indicated, with measures that can be adopted to reduce them. The safety of the procedure is emphasized, with its freedom from the known biological effects of ionizing radiation.

  12. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  13. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  14. Children, CT Scan and Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bajoghli, Morteza; Bajoghli, Farshad; Tayari, Nazila; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. Computerized tomography (CT) consists of 25 % of all medical imaging. It was estimated that more than 2% of all carcinomas in the USA are due to CT scans. There is an ongoing focus on the reduction of CT scan radiation dose. Awareness about risk-benefits of CT has increased. Reduction of radiological exam is an important issue because the accumulation effects of radiation can be hazardous. In addition, proper protocol should be followed for diagnostic procedures of ionization radiation and computerized tomography. Effective radiation dose should range from 0.8 to 10.5 millisievert. The same protocol should be followed in different hospitals as well. Basic principles of radiation protection should be monitored. As much as possible, both technician and radiologist must be present during computerized tomography for children, and MRI and ultrasound should be replaced if possible. PMID:21566776

  15. Ultrasound imaging during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1984-01-01

    Review by a panel of experts convened by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) resulted in a recommendation for diagnostic ultrasound imaging in about 1/3 of pregnancies only when medically indicated but not routinely. Ultrasound technology, 1st developed for use in submarine warfare sonar devices, is widely used by physicians because of its clinical significance and because it allows seeing intrauterine structures without exposing the fetus to dangerous radiation. Its most important uses include estimating the gestational age for patients with uncertain clinical dates, evaluating fetal growth, determining the cause of vaginal bleeding, determining fetal presentation, identifying multiple gestation, supplementing amniocentesis or other special procedures, diagnosing, confirming fetal death and locating intrauterine devices. Recently, many physicians have been advocating routine ultrasound screening of all pregnancies but this is an issue of concern among leading physicians and the NIH. The panel stressed the urgent need for additional research on the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Many studies that found adverse reactions associated with ultrasound use in humans suffer from sever methodological flaws. The panel recommended ultrasound not to be used for routine screening. Some studies indicate that no clear benefit from routine screening results. The panel's recommendations were criticized for unnecessarily restricting ultrasound use and for inappropriately sanctioning widespread use of the technology. Human Life International, an anti-abortion organization, opposed using ultrasound to detect fetal abnormalities, contending that this would promote abortion. Some abortion opponents, however, believe ultrasound would cause bonding between the mother and the fetus and discourage abortion. The panel underscored the importance of the skill and training of ultrasound examiners. In regard to informed consent, the

  16. Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

  17. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  18. [Lung ultrasound in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Yousef, N

    2016-03-01

    Lung ultrasound (LU) is becoming a bedside point-of-care technique in critical care and emergency medicine as it is performed and immediately interpreted by the clinician. LU is quick, easy, relatively inexpensive, and provides accurate diagnostic information when compared with conventional lung imaging methods, such as CT scans and chest radiographs, with the additional advantage of being non-irradiating, adapted to bedside use, and easily repeatable with no side effects for the patient. LU is easy to learn, does not require sophisticated ultrasound machines or settings, and shows low intra- and interobserver variability when a standardized approach is used. A comprehensive and standardized ultrasound semiology has been described and validated in both adults and children. In summary, LU allows for quick easy recognition of a normally aerated lung in contrast to an interstitial or alveolar pattern. Recognition of these patterns may be even easier in neonates due to their small size and the absence of obesity and heavy musculature. Specific LU findings have been described for some types of neonatal lung injury, such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the neonate, meconium aspiration syndrome, and neonatal pneumonia. In the newborn, LU has proved its usefulness in predicting the need for hospital admission and/or intubation based on simple LU patterns. A recently proposed LU score, adapted for the neonate, correlates well with oxygenation status, independently of gestational age and underlying respiratory condition. The score reliably predicts the need for surfactant treatment in preterm babies less than 34 weeks gestation treated with nasal CPAP from birth. LU is a promising tool with numerous potential applications that warrant future studies. However, like every technique, LU has its limitations and should not completely replace standard radiography. LU can nevertheless largely reduce exposure to ionizing radiation by limiting the

  19. ENDOCOM : abdominal aortic aneurysm test bench for in vitro simulation.

    PubMed

    Mazeyrat, Johan; Romain, Olivier; Garda, Patrick; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Destrade, Michel; Karouia, Mourad; Leprince, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, whose rupture is a life threatening complication. Recent treatment procedures of AAA consists in endovascular treatment with covered stent grafts. Despite improving design of these devices, this treatment is still associated with close to 25% of failure, due to persisting pressure into the excluded aneurysmal sac. The follow-up becomes thus crucial and demands frequent examinations (CT-scan, IRM) which are not so liable given the complications. In order to evaluate the post-operative period of an AAA treatment, we designed a communicative stent, comprising of an integrated pressure sensor. This paper presents the conception of a communicative sensor, the elaboration of a numerical model, and the development of an experimental testbench reproducing the aortic flux across an AAA and allowing the optimization and validation of the measurement principle. PMID:18002457

  20. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  1. Internal abdominal hernia: Intestinal obstruction due to trans-mesenteric hernia containing transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Orendo-Velásquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus. The X-ray and abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT scan) showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy performed revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia containing part of the transverse colon. The intestine was viable and resection was not necessary. Only the hernia was repaired. DISCUSSION Internal trans-mesenteric hernia constitutes a rare type of internal abdominal hernia, corresponding from 0.2 to 0.9% of bowel obstructions. This type carries a high risk of strangulation and even small hernias can be fatal. This complication is specially related to trans-mesenteric hernias as it tends to volvulize. Unfortunately, the clinical diagnosis is rather difficult. CONCLUSION Trans-mesenteric internal abdominal hernia may be asymptomatic for many years because of its nonspecific symptoms. The role of imaging test is relevant but still does not avoid the necessity of exploratory surgery when clinical features are uncertain. PMID:24880799

  2. Primary aortoenteric fistula to the sigmoid colon in association with intra-abdominal abscess.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonho; Jung, Chul Min; Cho, Eun-Hee; Ryu, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Daehee; Kim, Jaihwan

    2014-04-01

    Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) is a rare but catastrophic cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis of PAEF is difficult to make and is frequently delayed without strong clinical suspicion. Timely surgical intervention is essential for patient's survival. We report on a case of an 86-year-old woman with no history of abdominal surgery, who presented with abdominal pain. Initially, computed tomography scan showed an intra-abdominal abscess, located anterior to the aortic bifurcation. However, she was discharged without treatment because of spontaneous improvement on a follow-up computed tomography scan, which showed a newly developed right common iliac artery aneurysm. One week later, she was readmitted due to recurrent abdominal pain. On the second day of admission, sudden onset of gastrointestinal bleeding occurred for the first time. After several endoscopic examinations, an aortoenteric fistula bleeding site was found in the sigmoid colon, and aortography showed progression of a right common iliac artery aneurysm. We finally concluded that intra-abdominal abscess induced an infected aortic aneurysm and enteric fistula to the sigmoid colon. This case demonstrated an extremely rare type of PAEF to the sigmoid colon caused by an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm, which has rarely been reported. PMID:24755749

  3. Abdominal Distension and Vascular Collapse.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Gina; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 43-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal distension, confusion and vascular collapse. The emergent radiologic imaging obtained showed massive bilateral adrenal enlargement, but despite the initial clinical suspicion of possible overwhelming sepsis and/or massive abdominal/intralesional hemorrhage, lab tests based obtained rapidly confirmed the diagnosis of acute Addisonian crisis which responded dramatically to adrenocorticoid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The patient's established history of metastatic lung cancer confirmed this as a case of metastatic massive bilateral adrenal metastases with an initial presentation of acute adrenal insufficiency which is uncommon in the setting of metastatic carcinomatosis but more typically associated with lymphomas. Recognition of this clinical possibility is vital to enable rapid diagnosis and consequent life saving therapy. PMID:27328473

  4. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated.

  5. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  6. [Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation.

  7. Automatic segmentation of abdominal vessels for improved pancreas localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Amal; Liu, Jiamin; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal organs from CT images is important for quantitative and qualitative organ tissue analysis as well as computer-aided diagnosis. The large variability of organ locations, the spatial interaction between organs that appear similar in medical scans and orientation and size variations are among the major challenges making the task very difficult. The pancreas poses these challenges in addition to its flexibility which allows for the shape of the tissue to vastly change. Due to the close proximity of the pancreas to numerous surrounding organs within the abdominal cavity the organ shifts according to the conditions of the organs within the abdomen, as such the pancreas is constantly changing. Combining these challenges with typically found patient-to-patient variations and scanning conditions the pancreas becomes harder to localize. In this paper we focus on three abdominal vessels that almost always abut the pancreas tissue and as such useful landmarks to identify the relative location of the pancreas. The splenic and portal veins extend from the hila of the spleen and liver, respectively, travel through the abdominal cavity and join at a position close to the head of the pancreas known as the portal confluence. A third vein, the superior mesenteric vein, anastomoses with the other two veins at the portal confluence. An automatic segmentation framework for obtaining the splenic vein, portal confluence and superior mesenteric vein is proposed using 17 contrast enhanced computed-tomography datasets. The proposed method uses outputs from the multi-organ multi-atlas label fusion and Frangi vesselness filter to obtain automatic seed points for vessel tracking and generation of statistical models of the desired vessels. The approach shows ability to identify the vessels and improve localization of the pancreas within the abdomen.

  8. The association between abdominal body composition and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Criqui, Michael H; Wright, C Michael; Wassel, Christina L; Alcaraz, John E; Allison, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in the abdomen. Accordingly, we examined whether subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral adipose tissue, as well as abdominal lean muscle, were associated with the presence and extent of vascular calcification in multiple vascular beds. Three hundred and ninety four patients (58.1% men) underwent electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans as part of routine health maintenance screening. The coronary and carotid calcium scores were analyzed at the time of the scan, whereas the other calcium scores, as well as the body composition analyses, were analyzed retrospectively. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.1 years and BMI was 26.9 ± 4.2. The prevalence of any calcification in the carotids, coronaries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliacs was 30.1, 60.1, 39.8, 55.7, and 56.8%, respectively. Compared to those with calcification in different vascular beds, those without vascular calcification generally had significantly more lean muscle and less adipose tissue. In separate multivariable logistic models, a 1 s.d. increment in the ratio of abdominal and visceral fat to total area of each corresponding compartments was significantly associated with an increased odds for the presence of thoracic aortic calcium (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01 for both). Conversely, increases in abdominal lean muscle were associated with significantly decreased odds of thoracic aortic calcification (OR = 0.34; P ≤ 0.01). A similar pattern of associations existed among the other vascular beds. Also, the association between lean muscle and vascular calcification was independent of visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, adipose tissue was positively and lean body mass inversely associated with prevalent aortic calcification. PMID:21475146

  9. Management of voluminous abdominal incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, J-L; Poghosyan, T; Pogoshian, T; Corigliano, N; Canard, G; Veyrie, N

    2012-10-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the classic complications after abdominal surgery. The chronic, gradual increase in size of some of these hernias is such that the hernia ring widens to a point where there is a loss of substance in the abdominal wall, herniated organs can become incarcerated or strangulated while poor abdominal motility can alter respiratory function. The surgical treatment of small (<5 cm) incisional hernias is safe and straightforward, by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. For large hernias, surgical repair is often difficult. After reintegration of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity, the abdominal wall defect must be closed anatomically in order to restore the function to the abdominal wall. Prosthetic reinforcement of the abdominal wall is mandatory for long-term successful repair. There are multiple techniques for prosthetic hernia repair, but placement of Dacron mesh in the retromuscular plane is our preference. PMID:23137643

  10. Abdominal Symptoms and Incident Gallstones in a Population Unaware of Gallstone Status

    PubMed Central

    Tue Sørensen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Symptoms associated with newly formed gallstones have never been studied in a population unaware of their gallstones. The objective of this population-based cohort study was to determine which debut of abdominal symptoms was associated with newly formed gallstones. Materials and Methods. A cohort study was performed of a random sample from general population of Copenhagen. Participants had ultrasound examinations and answered questionnaires about abdominal symptoms at baseline and two reexaminations over 12 years. Participants were not informed of gallstone status. Inclusion criteria were no gallstones or cholecystectomy at baseline and attending a reexamination. Results. Of 3,785 participants, 2,845 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Changes in overall abdominal pain were not significantly different between incident gallstones or gallstone-free participants. Multiple adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that incident gallstones were significantly associated with debut of abdominal pain with projection, localized in the whole upper abdomen, and of longer duration. No significant associations for functional symptoms were identified. Conclusions. A new onset of abdominal pain with projection, localized in the whole upper abdomen, and of longer duration is associated with newly formed gallstones in participants unaware of gallstone status. Functional symptoms should not be the indication for surgical treatment. PMID:27504440

  11. Experiments in the application of ultrasound diffraction tomography for nondestructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Fitch, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    We have designed computer programs to simulate ultrasound projection scans and to reconstruct the tomographic planar image. We have also used the reconstruction algorithm on actual test data and have obtained a crude but promising image. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  13. Blunt Abdominal Wall Disruption by Seatbelt Injury; A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Maarten Philip; van Buijtenen, Jesse; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Bloemers, Frank; Geeraedts Jr., Leo

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of the use of seatbelts in cars, mortality following motor vehicle crashes has decreased significantly. However, two patterns of injuries, the ‘seatbelt sign’ and ‘seatbelt syndrome’ have emerged. Injuries may consist of traumatic abdominal wall disruption. We present two cases of severe abdominal wall disruption caused by a seatbelt injury and treated with primary repair. A review of the literature is provided. Two patients were brought in after a high velocity Motor Vehicle Collision. Both presented with an acute abdomen and a seatbelt sign upon which the decision was made to perform emergency laparotomies. Both patients had an abdominal wall disruption along the seatbelt sign. These disruptions were primarily closed and during six months of follow-up no complications occurred. A disruption of the abdominal wall is a rare complication. However, it is a diagnosis that may not be missed as patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. CT-scanning is an accurate method to detect disruptions. Closure of blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption can be done primarily with sutures or addition of a mesh. In both cases of the severe abdominal wall disruption, primary repair without mesh in the acute phase was successful. When a laparotomy is not indicated, the abdominal wall must be assessed for disruption. If there is a disruption primary repair is a good option. PMID:27331068

  14. Systematic review of blunt abdominal trauma as a cause of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Zaher; Chan, Anthony; Hadfield, Matthew B; Hulton, Neil R

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis commonly presents as an acute abdomen. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by blunt abdominal trauma are rare. We present a systematic review of appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim of this review was to collate and report the clinical presentations and experience of such cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase and Medline and the keywords ‘appendicitis’, ‘abdominal’ and ‘trauma’. RESULTS The initial search returned 381 papers, of which 17 articles were included. We found 28 cases of acute appendicitis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma reported in the literature between 1991 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury included road-traffic accidents, falls, assaults and accidents. Presenting symptoms invariably included abdominal pain, but also nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Only 12 patients had computed tomography scans and 10 patients had ultrasonography. All reported treatment was surgical and positive for appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS Although rare, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis must be considered following direct abdominal trauma especially if the patient complains of abdominal right lower quadrant pain, nausea and anorexia. Haemodynamically stable patients who present shortly after blunt abdominal trauma with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness should undergo urgent imaging with a plan to proceed to appendicectomy if the imaging suggested an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa. PMID:20513274

  15. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Therapy System and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fucheng; He, Ye; Li, Rui

    2007-05-01

    At the end of last century, a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) tumor therapy system was successfully developed and manufactured in China, which has been already applied to clinical therapy. This article aims to discuss the HIFU therapy system and its application. Detailed research includes the following: power amplifiers for high-power ultrasound, ultrasound transducers with large apertures, accurate 3-D mechanical drives, a software control system (both high-voltage control and low-voltage control), and the B-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment used for treatment monitoring. Research on the dosage of ultrasound required for tumour therapy in multiple human cases has made it possible to relate a dosage formula, presented in this paper, to other significant parameters such as the volume of thermal tumor solidification, the acoustic intensity (I), and the ultrasound emission time (tn). Moreover, the HIFU therapy system can be applied to the clinical treatment of both benign and malignant tumors in the pelvic and abdominal cavity, such as uterine fibroids, liver cancer and pancreatic carcinoma.

  16. Outcome of Blunt Abdominal Traumas with Stable Hemodynamic and Positive FAST Findings

    PubMed Central

    Behboodi, Firooz; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Masjedi, Navid; Shojaie, Reza; Sadri, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a highly effective first screening tool for initial classification of abdominal trauma patients. The present study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and positive FAST findings. Methods: The present prospective cross-sectional study was done on patients over 7 years old with normal abdominal examination, positive FAST findings, and available abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan findings. The frequency of need for laparotomy as well as its probable risk factors were calculated. Results: 180 patients were enrolled (mean age: 28.0 ± 11.5 years; 76.7% male). FAST findings were confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan in only 124 (68.9%) cases. Finally, 12 (6.6%) patients needed laparotomy. Mean age of those in need of laparotomy was significantly higher than others (36.75 ± 11.37 versus 27.34 ± 11.37, p = 0.006). Higher grading of spleen (p = 0.001) and hepatic (p = 0.038) ruptures increased the probability of need for laparotomy. Conclusion: 68.9% of the positive FAST findings in patients with blunt abdominal trauma and stable hemodynamics was confirmed by abdominopelvic CT scan and only 6.6% needed laparotomy. Simultaneous presence of free fluid and air in the abdominal area, old age, and higher grading o solid organ injuries were factors that had a significant correlation with need for laparotomy. PMID:27299142

  17. A comparison of AIUM/NEMA thermal indices with calculated temperature rises for a simple third-trimester pregnancy tissue model. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine/National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Jago, J R; Henderson, J; Whittingham, T A; Mitchell, G

    1999-05-01

    Temperature rises due to diagnostic ultrasound exposures have been calculated for a simple third-trimester pregnancy tissue model. This consisted of a layer of soft tissue representing the abdominal/uterine wall, a layer of liquid and a layer of fetal bone. The ultrasound field parameter used in the calculations was the temporal average of the square of the acoustic pressure (p2TA), measured in water but corrected for attenuation in the tissue model. The three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of p2TA was measured for five probes operating in B-mode, and four probes operating in pulsed Doppler and color flow imaging modes. The calculated temperature rises were compared to the AIUM/NEMA-defined thermal indices appropriate to third-trimester scanning. In B-mode, the ratio of calculated temperature rise to thermal index varied between 0.62 and 1.25, with calculated temperature rises as high as 1.4 degrees C. In color-flow imaging mode, this ratio varied between 1.26 and 2.45 and, in pulsed Doppler mode, between 1.46 and 2.92, with calculated temperature rises as high as 1.8 degrees C and 5.8 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that, for scanning situations where bone is insonated through an overlying low attenuation liquid layer, the thermal index may substantially underestimate the maximum temperature rise that could occur.

  18. Rare complication after a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a giant retroperitoneal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Francesco; Mirone, Vincenzo; Fedelini, Maurizio; Meccariello, Clemente; Pucci, Luigi; Carrino, Maurizio; Fedelini, Paolo

    2016-05-24

    Common complications related to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostatic needle biopsy are hematuria, hematospermia, and hematochezia. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case of a very large hematoma extending from the pelvis into the retroperitoneal space in literature.A 66-year-old man with a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.4 ng/ml was admitted to our department for a TRUS-guided prostatic needle biopsy. Laboratory values on the day before biopsy, including coagulation studies, were all normal. The patients did not take any anticoagulant drugs. No immediate complications were encountered. Nevertheless, 7 hours after the biopsy, the patient reached our emergency department with severe diffuse abdominal pain, hypotension, tachycardia, and confusional state. He underwent an ultrasonography and then a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed "a blood collection in the pelvis that extending to the lower pole of left kidney associated with a focus of active contrast extravasation, indicating active ongoing prostate bleeding." Consequently, he underwent a diagnostic angiography that showed no more contrast extravasation, without the need of embolization. Management of hematoma has been conservative and hematoma was completely reabsorbed 4 months later.

  19. Case Report of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Features of Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhuang, Bo-wen; Wang, Zhu; Liao, Bing; Hong, Ling-yao; Xu, Ming; Lin, Xiao-na; Xie, Xiao-yan; Lu, Ming-de; Chen, Li-da; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are very rare and their clinical features and treatment outcomes are not well understood. It is difficult to reach a proper diagnosis before biopsy or resection. The aim of this study was to analyze the imaging features of PHNETs on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The clinical characteristics, CEUS findings, pathological features, treatment and prognosis of 6 patients with PHNET treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Most PHNETs occurred in middle-aged patients, and the most common clinical manifestation was right upper quadrant palpable mass and abdominal pain. Multiple small anechoic intralesional cavities occurred frequently in PHNET. Multilocular cystic with internal septation or monolocular with wall nodule could also be detected. On contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), heterogeneous hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and wash-out hypoenhancement were observed in most patients, while computed tomography scanning yielded similar results. Diagnosis of PHNET was confirmed by immunohistochemical result and follow-up with the absence of extrahepatic primary sites. Five patients received surgical resection and 2 cases exhibited recurrence. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed in 1 patient with recurrence. Only 1 patient received conservative care. The median overall survival in 5 patients who underwent surgical treatment was 27 months (18–36 months). PHNET is a rare tumor, and its diagnosis is difficult. The CEUS features reported in this series may enrich the knowledge base for characterization of PHNET. PMID:27227910

  20. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs. PMID:23757592

  1. High intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    ter Haar, G

    2001-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a technique that was first investigated in the 1940s as a method of destroying selective regions within the brain in neuro-surgical An ultrasound beam can be brought to a tight focus at a distance from its source, and if sufficient energy is concentrated within the focus, the cells lying within this focal volume are killed, whereas those lying elsewhere are spared. This is a noninvasive method of producing selective and trackless tissue destruction in deep seated targets in the body, without damage to overlying tissues. This field, known both as HIFU and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), is reviewed in this article.

  2. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

  3. Ultrasound assessment of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Botelho, M C; Holtfreter, M C; Akpata, R; El Scheich, T; Neumayr, A; Brunetti, E; Hatz, C; Dong, Y; Dietrich, C F

    2016-07-01

    In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued an ultrasound field protocol for assessing the morbidity due to Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni. The experience with this classification has recently been reviewed systematically. The WHO protocol was well accepted worldwide. Here we review the use of ultrasound to assess the morbidity due to schistosomiasis with emphasis on easy, quick, and reproducible ways that can be used in the field. Findings obtained with high-end ultrasound scanners in the hospital setting that might eventually have applications in the field are also described. PMID:27429103

  4. Bedside ocular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Roque, Pedro J; Hatch, Nicholas; Barr, Laurel; Wu, Teresa S

    2014-04-01

    Many ocular emergencies are difficult to diagnose in the emergency setting with conventional physical examination tools. Additionally, persistent efforts to re-examine the eye may be deleterious to a patient's overall condition. Ultrasound is an important tool because it affords physicians a rapid, portable, accurate, and dynamic tool for evaluation of a variety of ocular and orbital diseases. The importance of understanding orbital anatomy, with attention to the firm attachment points of the various layers of the eye, cannot be understated. This article describes the relevant eye anatomy, delves into the ultrasound technique, and illustrates a variety of orbital pathologies detectable by bedside ultrasound.

  5. Virtual Guidance Ultrasound: A Tool to Obtain Diagnostic Ultrasound for Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caine,Timothy L.; Martin David S.; Matz, Timothy; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts currently acquire ultrasound images on the International Space Station with the assistance of real-time remote guidance from an ultrasound expert in Mission Control. Remote guidance will not be feasible when significant communication delays exist during exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For example, there may be as much as a 20- minute delay in communications between the Earth and Mars. Virtual-guidance, a pre-recorded audio-visual tutorial viewed in real-time, is a viable modality for minimally trained scanners to obtain diagnostically-adequate images of clinically relevant anatomical structures in an autonomous manner. METHODS: Inexperienced ultrasound operators were recruited to perform carotid artery (n = 10) and ophthalmic (n = 9) ultrasound examinations using virtual guidance as their only instructional tool. In the carotid group, each each untrained operator acquired two-dimensional, pulsed, and color Doppler of the carotid artery. In the ophthalmic group, operators acquired representative images of the anterior chamber of the eye, retina, optic nerve, and nerve sheath. Ultrasound image quality was evaluated by independent imaging experts. RESULTS: Eight of the 10 carotid studies were judged to be diagnostically adequate. With one exception the quality of all the ophthalmic images were adequate to excellent. CONCLUSION: Diagnostically-adequate carotid and ophthalmic ultrasound examinations can be obtained by untrained operators with instruction only from an audio/video tutorial viewed in real time while scanning. This form of quick-response-guidance, can be developed for other ultrasound examinations, represents an opportunity to acquire important medical and scientific information for NASA flight surgeons and researchers when trained medical personnel are not present. Further, virtual guidance will allow untrained personnel to autonomously obtain important medical information in remote locations on Earth where communication is

  6. Advantage of indium-111 leukocytes over ultrasound in imaging an infected renal cyst

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, A.; Taylor, A. Jr.; Alazraki, N.; Datz, F.L.

    1986-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scanning is a highly sensitive and specific method of detecting abscesses. This report describes a patient with polycystic kidneys and a single infected cyst. Ultrasound could not determine which cyst was infected, but the infected cyst could be localized by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging in conjunction with a (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA renal scan. The two radionuclide studies were used to identify an infected renal cyst and direct ultrasound guided aspiration.

  7. Clinical experience with real-time ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Wolfman, Neil T.; Covitz, Wesley

    1995-05-01

    After testing the extended multimedia interface (EMMI) product which is an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) user to network interface (UNI) of AT&T at the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology conference in Winston-Salem, the Department of Radiology together with AT&T are implementing a tele-ultrasound system to combine real- time ultrasound with the static imaging features of more traditional digital ultrasound systems. Our current ultrasound system archives digital images to an optical disk system. Static images are sent using our digital radiology systems. This could be transferring images from one digital imaging and communications (DICOM)-compliant machine to another, or the current image transfer methodologies. The prototype of a live ultrasound system using the EMMI demonstrated the feasibility of doing live ultrasound. We now are developing the scenarios using a mix of the two methodologies. Utilizing EMMI technology, radiologists at the BGSM review at a workstation both static images and real-time scanning done by a technologist on patients at a remote site in order to render on-line primary diagnosis. Our goal is to test the feasibility of operating an ultrasound laboratory at a remote site utilizing a trained technologist without the necessity of having a full-time radiologist at that site. Initial plans are for a radiologist to review an initial set of static images on a patient taken by the technologist. If further scanning is required, the EMMI is used to transmit real-time imaging and audio using the audio input of a standard microphone system and the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) output of the ultrasound equipment from the remote site to the radiologist in the department review station. The EMMI digitally encodes this data and places it in an ATM format. This ATM data stream goes to the GCNS2000 and then to the other EMMI where the ATM data stream is decoded into the live studies and voice communication which are then

  8. Stereoscopic augmented reality using ultrasound volume rendering for laparoscopic surgery in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jihun; Kang, Xin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Peters, Craig A.; Kane, Timothy D.; Shekhar, Raj

    2014-03-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, live video provides visualization of the exposed organ surfaces in the surgical field, but is unable to show internal structures beneath those surfaces. The laparoscopic ultrasound is often used to visualize the internal structures, but its use is limited to intermittent confirmation because of the need for an extra hand to maneuver the ultrasound probe. Other limitations of using ultrasound are the difficulty of interpretation and the need for an extra port. The size of the ultrasound transducer may also be too large for its usage in small children. In this paper, we report on an augmented reality (AR) visualization system that features continuous hands-free volumetric ultrasound scanning of the surgical anatomy and video imaging from a stereoscopic laparoscope. The acquisition of volumetric ultrasound image is realized by precisely controlling a back-and-forth movement of an ultrasound transducer mounted on a linear slider. Furthermore, the ultrasound volume is refreshed several times per minute. This scanner will sit outside of the body in the envisioned use scenario and could be even integrated into the operating table. An overlay of the maximum intensity projection (MIP) of ultrasound volume on the laparoscopic stereo video through geometric transformations features an AR visualization system particularly suitable for children, because ultrasound is radiation-free and provides higher-quality images in small patients. The proposed AR representation promises to be better than the AR representation using ultrasound slice data.

  9. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Ultrasound examination in anesthesiology and intensive care.

    PubMed

    Andruszkiewicz, Paweł

    2014-12-01

    This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated based on the latest findings and reports. Various applications of ultrasonography are used in anesthesiology and intensive therapy both for diagnosis and as a supportive tool during invasive procedures (such as vascular cannulation or regional anesthesia). Ultrasound examinations performed by anesthesiologists in intensive care units are not detailed scans, but they are focused on immediate identification of pathologies that lead to life-threatening conditions. Performing repeated US exams in time intervals enables a physician to monitor the effectiveness of the instituted treatment. Many simplified protocols are used in clinical practice which help to systemize the examination. Focused US examination should be verified by a physician competent in this imaging method as soon as possible. Due to the specificity of anesthesiologists' practice and spatial limitations of operating rooms and intensive care units, portable robust ultrasound equipment with short power-on to scanning time is preferable. A growing number of indications show that ultrasound machine should be equipped with three basic transducers (linear, convex and sector), and in higher-reference centers with a transesophageal probe. The specificity of certain procedures guided by ultrasonography requires adherence to safety measures, e.g. full sterility condition during vein cannulation. PMID:26674460

  10. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  11. Ultrasound specific similarity measures for three-dimensional mosaicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachinger, Christian; Navab, Nassir

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of 2D array ultrasound transducers enables the instantaneous acquisition of ultrasound volumes in the clinical practice. The next step coming along is the combination of several scans to create compounded volumes that provide an extended field-of-view, so called mosaics. The correct alignment of multiple images, which is a complex task, forms the basis of mosaicing. Especially the simultaneous intensity-based registration has many properties making it a good choice for ultrasound mosaicing in comparison to the pairwise one. Fundamental for each registration approach is a suitable similarity measure. So far, only standard measures like SSD, NNC, CR, and MI were used for mosaicing, which implicitly assume an additive Gaussian distributed noise. For ultrasound images, which are degraded by speckle patterns, alternative noise models based on multiplicative Rayleigh distributed noise were proposed in the field of motion estimation. Setting these models into the maximum likelihood estimation framework, which enables the mathematical modeling of the registration process, led us to ultrasound specific bivariate similarity measures. Subsequently, we used an extension of the maximum likelihood estimation framework, which we developed in a previous work, to also derive multivariate measures. They allow us to perform ultrasound specific simultaneous registration for mosaicing. These measures have a higher potential than afore mentioned standard measures since they are specifically designed to cope with problems arising from the inherent contamination of ultrasound images by speckle patterns. The results of the experiments that we conducted on a typical mosaicing scenario with only partly overlapping images confirm this assumption.

  12. Constructing the meaning of ultrasound viewing in abortion care.

    PubMed

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A

    2015-07-01

    As ultrasound scanning becomes increasingly routine in abortion care, scholars and activists have forwarded claims about how viewing the ultrasound image will affect pregnant women seeking abortion, speculating that it will dissuade them from abortion. These accounts, however, fail to appreciate how viewing is a social process. Little research has investigated how ultrasound workers navigate viewing in abortion care. We draw on interviews with twenty-six ultrasound workers in abortion care for their impressions and practices around ultrasound viewing. Respondents reported few experiences of viewing dissuading women from abortion, but did report that it had an emotional effect on patients that they believed was associated with gestational age. These impressions informed their practices, leading many to manage patient viewing based on the patient's gestational age. Other aspects of their accounts, however, undercut the assertion that the meaning of ultrasound images is associated with gestation and show the pervasiveness of cultural ideas associating developing foetal personhood with increasing gestational age. Findings demonstrate the social construction of ultrasound viewing, with implications in the ongoing contestation over abortion rights in the US. PMID:25688650

  13. Feasibility of Laser Doppler Vibrometry as potential diagnostic tool for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, T; Rixen, D J; Swenne, C A; Hinnen, J-W

    2013-04-01

    The application of laser measurements in medical applications makes it possible to measure even very small vibrations without contacting the skin surface. In the present work we investigate the use of a scanning vibrometer to measure the mechanical wave of the abdominal wall caused by the heart beat and blood pressure pulse. A Laser Doppler Vibrometer, triggered by cardiac signals, is used to scan points on a grid positioned on the abdomen of human subjects. The proposed procedure is intended for detecting anomalies in the abdominal cavity such as aortic aneurysms. Here, we outline the technical setup used in our preliminary in vivo experiments and present some preliminary results. This feasibility study shows that the proposed measurement procedure allows for measuring the skin motion, that the skin motion measured is related to the heart activity, and that there are indication that the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm significantly modifies the relation between blood pressure pulsations and skin motion on the abdomen.

  14. Defect visualization in carbon fiber composite using laser ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, R.J.; He, Ruhua; Shan, Qing . Dept. of Instrumentation and Analytical Science)

    1993-08-01

    A non-contacting laser ultrasound system has been developed to visualize laminar defects in carbon fiber composite materials. Laser-generated ultrasound (LGU) was produced from a Nd:YAG Q-switched laser. Ultrasound was detected with the use of an actively stabilized Fabry-Perot interferometer using a 400 mW argon-ion laser source. It detected ultrasound in a typical frequency range of 1 to 10 MHz. Through-transmission C-scan measurements were made in carbon fiber composite materials of thickness 1 to 20 mm. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of the first longitudinal ultrasonic pulse were measured, with attenuation used as the basis of defect examination. Digital filtering was adopted to enhance defect visibility. Results showed that images with size resolution better than 1 mm can be achieved. Such measurements take into account any variation of surface reflectivity which can arise in industrial materials.

  15. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    PubMed

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient. PMID:27635158

  16. A non-occlusive bezoar of caecum in a 7-year-old child: ultrasound detection and multimodality imaging management.

    PubMed

    Marilina, D'Amora; Gaetana, Cremone; Eugenio, Rossi; Massimo, Zeccolini

    2016-09-01

    Bezoars represent the most frequent foreign bodies of gastro-intestinal system, involving first of all the stomach and small intestine; instead the cecum tract is a very uncommon site for bezoars associated with a poor abdominal symptomatology. We report a case of a very rare localization of bezoar in the caecum tract of the ascending colon in a child affected by undefined abdominal pain. In this case, the abdominal Ultrasound examination showed characteristic imaging findings of bezoar completely comparable to that of Computed Tomography, allowing an early diagnosis of bezoar and the possibility of a conservative treatment for the young patient.

  17. Automated 3D whole-breast ultrasound imaging: results of a clinical pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; van Beek, Michiel; de Vries, Ute; Wasser, Martin; Bakker, Leon; Cuisenaire, Olivier; van der Mark, Martin; Entrekin, Rob

    2010-03-01

    We present the first clinical results of a novel fully automated 3D breast ultrasound system. This system was designed to match a Philips diffuse optical mammography system to enable straightforward coregistration of optical and ultrasound images. During a measurement, three 3D transducers scan the breast at 4 different views. The resulting 12 datasets are registered together into a single volume using spatial compounding. In a pilot study, benign and malignant masses could be identified in the 3D images, however lesion visibility is less compared to conventional breast ultrasound. Clear breast shape visualization suggests that ultrasound could support the reconstruction and interpretation of diffuse optical tomography images.

  18. Ultrasound Use for Body Composition and Carcass Quality Assessment in Cattle and Lambs.

    PubMed

    Tait, Richard Gregory

    2016-03-01

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part because of introduction of new technology, such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound-measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are acquired before final selections of seed stock candidate animals are made, and have seen high adoption rates by beef seed stock producers. The Ultrasound Guidelines Council certifies technicians who collect and interpret ultrasound data for beef producers. Multiple traits important to beef quality and quantity are evaluated at the same time with one scan session.

  19. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...