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Sample records for abdominal venous thrombosis

  1. Mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Harnik, Ian G; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    First differentiated from arterial causes of acute mesenteric ischemia 75 years ago, acute mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon disorder with non-specific signs and symptoms, the diagnosis of which requires a high index of suspicion. The location, extent, and rapidity of thrombus formation determine whether intestinal infarction ensues. Etiologies, when identified, usually can be separated into local intra-abdominal factors and inherited or acquired hypercoagulable states. The diagnosis is most often made by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, though angiography and exploratory surgery still have important diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. Anticoagulation prevents clot propagation and is associated with decreased recurrence and mortality. Thrombectomy and thrombolysis may preserve questionably viable bowel and should be considered under certain circumstances. Evidence of infarction mandates surgery and resection whenever feasible. Although its mortality rate has fallen over time, acute MVT remains a life-threatening condition requiring rapid diagnosis and aggressive management. Chronic MVT may manifest with complications of portal hypertension or may be diagnosed incidentally by noninvasive imaging. Management of chronic MVT is directed against variceal hemorrhage and includes anticoagulation when appropriate; mortality is largely dependent on the underlying risk factor.

  2. Venous thrombosis after abdominal surgery. A comparison between subcutaneous heparin and antithrombotic stockings, or both

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, A.; Hansen, P.T.; Lindholt, J.

    1988-01-01

    In an open controlled study, 248 consecutive patients (age more than 40 yrs) admitted for major abdominal surgery were randomized to one of three prophylactic antithrombotic treatments. Eighty-five patients received subcutaneous heparin, 74 patients had graduated compression stockings to the knee (TED stockings), and 89 patients had both subcutaneous heparin and stockings. Treatment began on the evening before operation and continued to complete mobilization, or for not less than five days postoperatively. On the fourth or fifth postoperative day, the patients underwent a /sup 99m/Tc-plasmin test of the lower limbs as a test for deep vein thrombosis. There were 29.7%more » positive tests in the stocking group, 29.4% in the group with heparin prophylaxis, and 25.8% in the combined group. Differences between treatments were not statistically significant.« less

  3. Splanchnic venous thrombosis and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Nikhil A; Khanna, Sahil; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with local and systemic manifestations. One such local manifestation is thrombosis in splanchnic venous circulation, predominantly of the splenic vein. The literature on this important complication is very sparse. This review offers an overview of mechanism of thrombosis, its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in the setting of acute as well as chronic pancreatitis.

  4. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-03-03

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene

  5. Hyperthyroidism and cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mouton, S; Nighoghossian, N; Berruyer, M; Derex, L; Philippeau, F; Cakmak, S; Honnorat, J; Hermier, M; Trouillas, P

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of an underlying prothrombotic condition in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may have important practical consequences in terms of prevention. Thyrotoxicosis through a hypercoagulable state may be a predisposing factor for CVT. The authors present the cases of 4 patients who developed CVT and hyperthyroidism. At the acute stage, hyperthyroidism was associated with an increase in factor VIII (FVIII). At follow-up, FVIII level remained increased in 2 patients. Hyperthyroidism may have an impact on FVIII level. Accordingly in patients with hyperthyroidism and neurological symptoms, the diagnosis of CVT should be considered and an exhaustive coagulation screening may be appropriate. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Acute venous sinus thrombosis after chickenpox infection.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Vijay; Mittal, Lal Chand; Meena, S R; Sharma, Deepti; Khandelwal, Girish

    2014-08-01

    Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood diseases. Recently chicken pox has been reported in adults with more severe systemic and neurological complications. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a life threatening disorder if not treated in time. We report a patient with post varicella CVT as a rare complication of primary Varicella zoster virus. Vasculitic arterial infarction is known while venous stroke has rarely been reported with Varicella-zoster virus infection. Here, we report an immunocompetent 30 yr old male who developed chickenpox after contact with his daughter two month back. He presented with acute neurological deficit, one week after onset of skin lesion. MR venography revealed non-visualisation of left transverse sinus and left sigmoid sinus suggestive of venous sinus thrombosis. Varicella infection is rarely associated with venous sinus thrombosis. Possibly hypercoagulable state produced by the infection or direct invasion of virus in venous endothelial wall with subsequent damage to endothelium leading to thrombosis could be the cause.

  7. Venous thrombosis after hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Radl, Roman; Kastner, Norbert; Aigner, Christian; Portugaller, Horst; Schreyer, Herbert; Windhager, Reinhard

    2003-07-01

    Although surgery for the treatment of hallux valgus is frequently performed, the exact rate of deep vein thrombosis following this procedure is unknown. We performed a single-center, prospective, phlebographically controlled study to quantify the rate of venous thrombosis following operative correction of hallux valgus. Consecutive patients undergoing chevron bunionectomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity were enrolled in the study. Patients with clinical or hematological risk factors for venous thrombosis were excluded. One hundred patients with a mean age of 48.9 years were operated on and did not receive medical prophylaxis against thrombosis. All patients were assessed with phlebography at a mean of twenty-nine days postoperatively. Venous thrombosis was found in four patients (4%). The mean age of these patients (and standard deviation) was 61.7 +/- 6.1 years compared with a mean age of 48.4 +/- 13.9 years for the patients in whom thrombosis did not develop (p = 0.034). Patients are at a low risk for venous thrombosis following surgical treatment of hallux valgus. The need for prophylaxis against thrombosis should be calculated individually for each patient according to his or her known level of risk. Routine medical prophylaxis against thrombosis might be justified for patients over the age of sixty years.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN ANIMAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SP, Grover; CE, Evans; AS, Patel; B, Modarai; P, Saha; A, Smith

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro computed tomography and high frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. PMID:26681755

  9. Assessment of Venous Thrombosis in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Grover, Steven P; Evans, Colin E; Patel, Ashish S; Modarai, Bijan; Saha, Prakash; Smith, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here, we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  11. Central venous catheters: incidence and predictive factors of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Mary; Desai, Amishi; Pasupneti, Shravani; Kress, John; Funaki, Brian; Watson, Sydeaka; Herlitz, Jean; Hines, Jane

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheter access in an acute setting can be a challenge given underlying disease and risk for venous thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are commonly placed but limit sites for fistula creation in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD). The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of venous thrombosis from small bore internal jugular (SBIJ) and PICC line placement. This investigation identifies populations of patients who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC and highlights the importance of peripheral vein preservation in patients with renal failure. A venous Doppler ultrasound was performed at the time of SBIJ insertion and removal to evaluate for thrombosis in the internal jugular vein. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention to ascertain if increased vein preservation knowledge amongst the healthcare team led to less use of PICCs. Demographic factors were collected in the SBIJ and PICC groups and risk factor analysis was completed. 1,122 subjects had PICC placement and 23 had SBIJ placement. The incidence of thrombosis in the PICC group was 10%. One patient with an SBIJ had evidence of central vein thrombosis when the catheter was removed. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a history of transplant, and the indication of total parenteral nutrition was associated with thrombosis (p<0.001). The decrease in PICCs placed in patients with CKD 6 months before and after intervention was significant (p<0.05). There are subsets of patients ith high risk for thrombosis who may not be ideal candidates for a PICC.

  12. Imaging Diagnosis of Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S.; Mukund, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a broad term that includes Budd-Chiari syndrome and occlusion of veins that constitute the portal venous system. Due to the common risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of these clinically distinct disorders, concurrent involvement of two different regions is quite common. In acute and subacute SVT, the symptoms may overlap with a variety of other abdominal emergencies while in chronic SVT, the extent of portal hypertension and its attendant complications determine the clinical course. As a result, clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is frequently reliant on imaging. Tremendous improvements in vascular imaging in recent years have ensured that this once rare entity is being increasingly detected. Treatment of acute SVT requires immediate anticoagulation. Transcatheter thrombolysis or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is used in the event of clinical deterioration. In cases with peritonitis, immediate laparotomy and bowel resection may be required for irreversible bowel ischemia. In chronic SVT, the underlying cause should be identified and treated. The imaging manifestations of the clinical syndromes resulting from SVT are comprehensively discussed here along with a brief review of the relevant clinical features and therapeutic approach. PMID:26600801

  13. Deep Venous Thrombosis: An Interventionalist's Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, J. Stephen; Michael, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity has traditionally been anatomically categorized into proximal DVT (thrombosis involving the popliteal vein and above) and distal DVT (isolated calf vein thrombosis). Proximal DVT involving the common femoral and/or iliac veins, referred to as iliofemoral DVT (IFDVT), represents a disease process with a worse prognosis and higher risk for poor clinical outcomes compared to proximal DVT not involving the common femoral or iliac draining veins. Methods This review discusses therapeutic options for treatment of lower extremity IFDVT, including adjuvant anticoagulation and catheter-based invasive therapies; literature supporting current acute interventional techniques; and the recommendations from the recently published American Heart Association guidelines. Results Patients with IFDVT represent an opportune subset of patients for acute interventional management with currently available techniques. This subset of patients with proximal DVT has a worse prognosis, is less well studied, and benefits more from acute intervention compared to patients with proximal DVT or distal DVT. Conclusion Invasive catheter-based therapies that remove thrombus and correct venous outflow obstructions improve outcomes and morbidity in patients with IFDVT. Future trials that address IFDVT specifically will improve our understanding and the proper management of this higher-risk subset of patients with DVT. PMID:25598728

  14. [Association between venous thrombosis and dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    García Raso, Aránzazu; Ene, Gabriela; Miranda, Carolina; Vidal, Rosa; Mata, Raquel; Llamas Sillero, M Pilar

    2014-07-07

    Venous and arterial thrombosis, despite being historically considered as distinct conditions, share certain risk factors. Dyslipidemia is a clinical condition with a relatively high prevalence in the population and has been associated with an increased thrombotic risk. Lipids and lipoproteins modulate the expression and/or function of thrombotic, fibrinolytic and rheological factors. We have developed a descriptive, retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional study including a group of 313 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We collected basic demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors and thrombotic complications. All patients were subjected to a lipid profile study with determination of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (cHDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (cLDL) and triglycerides. The multivariable analysis showed that dyslipidemia was a risk factor for VTE (odds ratio [OR] 3.87, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.72-5.56; P<.0001). Of a total of 313 patients included in the study, 31% (n=97) had a recurrent thrombotic event and 23% (n=72) developed post-thrombotic syndrome. cHDL levels below 35 mg/dl and cLDL levels higher than 180 mg/dl represented risk factors for the development of recurrent thrombosis, OR 3.12 (95% CI 1.35-7.74; P=.008) and OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.24-4.45; P=.008), respectively, and post-thrombotic syndrome, OR 3.44 (95% CI 1.43-8.83; P=.005) and OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.24-4.45; P=.008). Our study confirmed the association between dyslipidemia and VTE and showed a risk of thrombosis nearly 4 times higher in individuals with this disease. In addition, alterations in the lipid profile were also related to a higher prevalence of thrombotic complications, recurrence and post-thrombotic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, G.S.; Cronan, J.J.; Tupper, T.B.

    1987-02-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and /sup 133/Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, amore » significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis.« less

  16. Homocysteine and venous thrombosis: outline of a vitamin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Willems, H P; den Heijer, M; Bos, G M

    2000-01-01

    In the past years several case-control studies established the association of an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration and the risk of venous thromboembolism. It is still unclear if elevated homocysteine concentrations can cause venous thrombosis. The VITRO (VItamins and ThROmbosis) trial is the first multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy by means of 5 mg folic acid, 0.4 mg vitamin B12 and 50 mg vitamin B6. The study is a secondary prevention trial in 600 patients who suffered from a first episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), or both. There will be 300 hyperhomocysteinemic and 300 normohomocysteinemic patients included, all with an objectivated venous thrombosis. The end point is recurrence of venous thrombosis.

  17. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan).

  18. Mesenteric-portal axis thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis in a patient with inferior vena cava agenesis.

    PubMed

    Lluis Pons, Laia; Chahri Vizcarro, Nadia; Llaverias Borrell, Silvia; Miquel Abbad, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Splenoportal axis thrombosis not associated with cirrhosis or neoplasms has a prevalence lower than 5 per 10,000 people. An etiologic factor responsible for portal thrombosis is finally identified in most cases, usually systemic thrombogenic factors or predisposing local factors. However, despite a detailed study of all etiologic factors, up to 30% of cases are eventually considered as idiopathic in origin. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain and lower extremity edema. The patient was diagnosed with portal and mesenteric-portal confluence thrombosis, bilateral deep venous thrombosis and right lumbar vein thrombosis based on an abdominal CT scan. This was associated with a likely congenital inferior vena cava agenesis. This malformation is present in approximately 5% of patients with deep vein thrombosis even though it represents a rare cause of portal thrombosis. The fact that several thromboses developed simultaneously makes this a unique and isolated case in the current literature as no similar cases have been reported thus far.

  19. [Venous thrombosis of atypical location in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Campos Balea, Begoña; Sáenz de Miera Rodríguez, Andrea; Antolín Novoa, Silvia; Quindós Varela, María; Barón Duarte, Francisco; López López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that frequently occurs in patients with neoplastic diseases. Several models have therefore been developed to identify patient subgroups diagnosed with cancer who are at increased risk of developing VTE. The most common forms of thromboembolic episodes are deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, venous thrombosis is also diagnosed in atypical locations. There are few revisions of unusual cases of venous thrombosis. In most cases, VTE occurs in the upper limbs and in the presence of central venous catheters, pacemakers and defibrillators. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy who developed a thrombosis in the upper limbs (brachial and axillary). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Intravascular thrombosis as a result of central venous access.

    PubMed

    Biernacka, Jadwiga; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Wach, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Central venous access represents one of the most basic therapeutic procedures in modern medicine. Unfortunately, numerous advantages that result from maintaining a central venous line are accompanied by some complications among which the venous thrombosis is the most significant clinically. The study was designed to assess frequency and natural history of this complication in the setting at a multi profile clinical hospital. Central venous cannulation was performed by a fully qualified anaesthesiologist in every case. There were 887 cannulations and only 5 patients with clinically significant venous thrombosis. The analysis of the collected data allowed us to state that the frequency of intravascular thrombosis is low, but this complication is often associated with extensive impairment of patency of the central veins. Full recanalization is not always achieved regardless of the treatment applied. Pulmonary embolism in the course of central venous thrombosis was diagnosed in one patient only and appeared as a multiple and fine X-ray infiltrates. It seems that in the presence of permanent or even life threatening complications of central venous thrombosis their risk should be minimized by frequent examination of the cannulation site and early initiation of antithrombotic treatment.

  1. Mechanical thrombectomy: an alternative for treating cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Izura Gómez, Marta; Misis Del Campo, Maite; Puyalto de Pablo, Paloma; Castaño Duque, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    We report the use of mechanical venous thrombectomy in 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in which the usual first-choice treatment with systemic anticoagulants was contraindicated. Our aim is to present this treatment as an alternative to consider when anticoagulants therapy is too risky or is contraindicated in critically ill patients.

  2. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-02-05

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully.

  3. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding

    PubMed Central

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic–clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully. PMID:23389726

  4. Deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome: invasive management.

    PubMed

    Comerota, A J

    2015-03-01

    Invasive management of postthrombotic syndrome encompasses the two ends of the deep vein thrombosis spectrum, patients with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis and those with chronic postthrombotic iliofemoral venous obstruction. Of all patients with acute deep vein thrombosis, those with involvement of the iliofemoral segments have the most severe chronic postthrombotic morbidity. Catheter-based techniques now permit percutaneous treatment to eliminate thrombus, restore patency, potentially maintain valvular function, and improve quality of life. Randomized trial data support an initial treatment strategy of thrombus removal. Failure to eliminate acute thrombus from the iliofemoral system leads to chronic postthrombotic obstruction of venous outflow. Debilitating chronic postthrombotic symptoms of the long-standing obstruction of venous outflow can be reduced by restoring unobstructed venous drainage from the profunda femoris vein to the vena cava. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [Trismus, pseudobulbar syndrome and cerebral deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Alecu, C; De Bray, J M; Penisson-Besnier, I; Pasco-Papon, A; Dubas, F

    2001-03-01

    We report a case of cerebral deep venous thrombosis that manifested clinically by a pseudobulbar syndrome with major trismus, abnormal movements and static cerebellar syndrome. To our knowledge, only three other cases of deep cerebral venous thrombosis associated with cerebellar or pseudobulbar syndrome have been published since 1985. The relatively good prognosis in our patient could be explained by the partially intact internal cerebral veins as well as use of early anticoagulant therapy. There was a spontaneous hyperdensity of the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli on the brain CT scan, an aspect highly contributive to diagnosis. This hyperdensity of the falx cerebri was found in 19 out of 22 cases of deep venous thrombosis detailed in the literature.

  6. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ≥1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ≥2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis. PMID:25664112

  7. Acute Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis: The Data, Where We Are, and How It Is Done.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Raja S; Akinwande, Olaguoke; Giardina, Joseph D; Kavali, Pavan K; Marks, Christina G

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism, including both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is estimated at 300,000-600,000 per year. Although thrombosis may occur anywhere, it is thrombosis of the deep veins of the lower extremities that is of interest as this is where thrombosis occurs most often within the venous system. This article discusses the evaluation and interventions, including endovascular catheter-direct treatments, for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Lack of association between venous hemodynamics, venous morphology and the postthrombotic syndrome after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Czihal, M; Paul, S; Rademacher, A; Bernau, C; Hoffmann, U

    2015-03-01

    To explore the association of the postthrombotic syndrome with venous hemodynamics and morphological abnormalities after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. Thirty-seven patients with a history of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis treated with anticoagulation alone underwent a single study visit (mean time after diagnosis: 44.4 ± 28.1 months). Presence and severity postthrombotic syndrome were classified according to the modified Villalta score. Venous volume and venous emptying were determined by strain-gauge plethysmography. The arm veins were assessed for postthrombotic abnormalities by ultrasonography. The relationship between postthrombotic syndrome and hemodynamic and morphological sequelae was evaluated using univariate significance tests and Spearman's correlation analysis. Fifteen of 37 patients (40.5%) developed postthrombotic syndrome. Venous volume and venous emptying of the arm affected by upper extremity deep venous thrombosis did not correlate with the Villalta score (rho = 0.17 and 0.19; p = 0.31 and 0.25, respectively). Residual morphological abnormalities, as assessed by ultrasonography, did not differ significantly between patients with and without postthrombotic syndrome (77.3% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.68). Postthrombotic syndrome after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis is not associated with venous hemodynamics or residual morphological abnormalities. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. [Prophylaxis of thrombosis induced by chemotherapy or central venous catheters].

    PubMed

    Voog, Eric; Lazard, Eric; Juhel, Laurence

    2007-02-01

    Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are well-recognized complications of cancer, especially in patients with a venous access device or receiving chemotherapy. The pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis in cancer patients involve a complex interaction between the patient's tumor cells and hemostatic system. Chemotherapy and central venous catheters increase the risk of thromboembolism. Prophylactic treatment for these patients remains controversial. We conducted a systematic literature review using the Medline database and abstract books for meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology since 2000. Our search focused on clinical trials of primary prevention of venous catheter-related thrombosis or prevention of chemotherapy-related venous thromboembolism in cancer patients. Ten studies evaluating primary prevention of patients with central catheters were identified, and their results are contradictory. Currently only one study has examined prevention of chemotherapy-related venous thromboembolism, in women with metastatic breast cancer. Its results cannot be extrapolated to other tumors. Systematic prophylaxis cannot yet be recommended. In the near future we must improve our knowledge of the risk factors of these complications. Prophylaxis should be individualized for each patient. New anticoagulant drugs should be tested in cancer patients.

  10. Clinical features of venous insufficiency and the risk of venous thrombosis in older people.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Marissa J; Karasu, Alev; Blom, Jeanet W; Cushman, Mary; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Venous thrombosis is common in older age, with an incidence of 0·5-1% per year in those aged >70 years. Stasis of blood flow is an important contributor to the development of thrombosis and may be due to venous insufficiency in the legs. The risk of thrombosis associated with clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, obtained with a standardized interview was assessed in the Age and Thrombosis Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly (AT-AGE) study. The AT-AGE study is a case-control study in individuals aged 70 years and older (401 cases with a first-time venous thrombosis and 431 control subjects). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex and study centre. Varicose veins and leg ulcer were associated with a 1·6-fold (95% CI 1·2-2·3) and 3·3-fold increased risk of thrombosis (95% CI 1·6-6·7), respectively, while the risk was increased 3·0-fold (95% CI 2·1-4·5) in the presence of leg oedema. The risk of thrombosis was highest when all three risk factors occurred simultaneously (OR: 10·5; 95% CI 1·3-86·1). In conclusion, clinical features of venous insufficiency, i.e., varicose veins, leg ulcers and leg oedema, are risk factors for venous thrombosis in older people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Home Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis According to Comorbid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2016-04-01

    Cautious exploration of the safety of home treatment of deep venous thrombosis has been recommended by many. Our goal was to identify categories of patients with deep venous thrombosis who typically are hospitalized, and categories frequently treated at home. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2007-2012, were used to determine the number of patients seen in emergency departments throughout the US with deep venous thrombosis and no diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, the proportion of such patients hospitalized according to comorbid conditions and age, the proportion discharged early (≤2 days), and charges for hospitalization and emergency department visits. From 2007-2012, home treatment was selected for 905,152 of 2,671,452 (33.9%) patients with deep venous thrombosis. Home treatment was more frequent in those with no comorbid conditions than with comorbid conditions, 58.0% compared with 15.5% (P <.0001). Early discharge (≤2 days) was in 23.9% with no comorbid conditions, compared with 12.8% with comorbid conditions. Among patients aged 18-50 years, home treatment was selected in 62.9% with no comorbid conditions, compared with 24.2% with comorbid conditions (P <.0001). Among hospitalized patients with no comorbid conditions, 40.7% were aged 18-50 years. Their charges for hospitalization in 2012 were $494 million. Patients aged 50 years or younger with deep venous thrombosis and no comorbid conditions appear to be a group that can be targeted for more frequent home treatment, which would save millions of dollars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In-Hospital Mortality with Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Matta, Fadi; Hughes, Mary J

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the in-hospital mortality of deep venous thrombosis in recent years. This investigation was undertaken to determine trends in in-hospital mortality in patients with deep venous thrombosis and mortality according to age. Administrative data were analyzed from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, 2003-2012. We determined in-hospital all-cause mortality according to year and age among patients with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. We analyzed all such patients and we analyzed those who had none of the comorbid conditions listed in the Charlson Comorbidity Index. From 2003-2012, 1,603,690 hospitalized patients had a primary diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. All-cause in-hospital mortality decreased from 1.3% in 2003 to 0.6% in 2012. Mortality increased with age from 0.1% in those aged 18-20 years to 1.5% in those over age 80 years. All-cause in-hospital mortality in those with no comorbid conditions according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (1,094,184 patients) decreased from 1.1% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2012. Presumably, these deaths were from pulmonary embolism. All-cause mortality in those with no comorbid conditions increased with age from 0.1% in those aged 18-20 years to 1.4% in those over aged 80 years. All-cause death and death due to pulmonary embolism in patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis decreased from 2003-2012. The death rate increased with age. The decreased mortality over the period of investigation may have resulted from a shift toward use of low-molecular-weight heparins and newer anticoagulants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Norethisterone enanthate-induced cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)

    PubMed Central

    Bahall, Mandreker; Santlal, Manisha

    2017-01-01

    A 23-year-old East Indian woman with no significant medical history, except a depot-norethisterone enanthate injection taken 3 weeks prior to admission, presented with a gradually worsening headache for the past 5 days. She had no fever, vomiting, neck stiffness, focal weakness or rash, and examination was unremarkable with no focal neurological deficits. Vasculitic, thrombophilia and sepsis screens were normal. A brain CT scan showed a left parietal lobe venous infarct, secondary to a venous dural sinus thrombosis, with MRI and Magnetic Resonance Venogram (MRV) confirming a signal void. She was diagnosed to have multiple cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to norethisterone enanthate. She made a complete recovery following treatment with mannitol, dexamethasone and anticoagulants. A follow-up brain MRI done at 6 months was normal. PMID:29141931

  14. Risk factors for upper extremity venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Marnejon, Thomas; Angelo, Debra; Abu Abdou, Ahmed; Gemmel, David

    2012-01-01

    To identify clinically important risk factors associated with upper extremity venous thrombosis following peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC). A retrospective case control study of 400 consecutive patients with and without upper extremity venous thrombosis post-PICC insertion was performed. Patient data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, site of insertion, size and lumen of catheter, internal length, infusate, and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and renal failure. Additional risk factors analyzed were active cancer, any history of cancer, recent trauma, smoking, a history of prior deep vein thrombosis, and recent surgery, defined as surgery within three months prior to PICC insertion. The prevalence of trauma, renal failure, and infusion with antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was higher among patients exhibiting upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT), when compared to controls. Patients developing UEVT were also more likely to have PICC line placement in a basilic vein and less likely to have brachial vein placement (P<.001). Left-sided PICC line sites also posed a greater risk (P=.026). The rate of standard DVT prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin and the use of warfarin was similar in both groups. Average length of hospital stay was almost double among patients developing UEVT, 19.5 days, when compared to patients undergoing PICC line insertion without thrombosis, 10.8 days (t=6.98, P<.001). In multivariate analysis, trauma, renal failure, left-sided catheters, basilic placement, TPN, and infusion with antibiotics, specifically vancomycin, were significant risk factors for UEVT associated with PICC insertion. Prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin or use of warfarin did not prevent the development of venous thrombosis in patients with PICCs. Length of hospital stay and cost are markedly increased in

  15. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptomatic iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis treated with hybrid operative thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Limael E; Aponte-Rivera, Francisco; Figueroa-Vicente, Ricardo; Bolanos-Avila, Guillermo E; Martínez-Trabal, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    During the past 15 years, strategies that promote immediate and complete thrombus removal have gained popularity for the treatment of acute-onset iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. In this case report, we describe a novel operative approach to venous thrombus removal known as hybrid operative thrombectomy. The technique employs a direct inguinal approach with concomitant retrograde advancement of a balloon catheter by femoral venotomy. Moreover, it provides effective thrombus removal through a single incision, with or without stent placement, and has the advantage of a completion venogram. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of Cavoatrial Deep Venous Thrombosis: Incorporating New Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Mohamed A.; De Silva, Gayan S.; Ramaswamy, Raja S.; Sanchez, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Cavoatrial deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is diagnosed with increasing prevalence. It can be managed medically with anticoagulation or with directed interventions aimed to efficiently reduce the thrombus burden within the target venous segment. The type of management chosen depends greatly on the etiology and chronicity of the thrombosis, existing patient comorbidities, and the patient's tolerance to anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents. In addition to traditional percutaneous catheter-based pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, other catheter-based suction thrombectomy techniques have emerged in recent years. Each therapeutic modality requires operator expertise and a coordinated care paradigm to facilitate successful outcomes. Open surgical thrombectomy is alternatively reserved for specific patient conditions, including intolerance of anticoagulation, failed catheter-based interventions, or acute emergencies. PMID:28265127

  18. Influence of World Thrombosis Day on digital information seeking on venous thrombosis: a Google Trends study.

    PubMed

    Scheres, L J J; Lijfering, W M; Middeldorp, S; Cannegieter, S C

    2016-12-01

    Essentials In 2014, World Thrombosis Day (WTD) was initiated to increase global awareness of thrombosis. Google Trends can be used freely to monitor digital information seeking behavior. We used Google Trends data to assess the impact of WTD on internet searches on venous thrombosis. The WTD period was associated with more searches on thrombosis compared to control periods. Background World Thrombosis Day (WTD) was launched in 2014 and is to be held every year to increase global awareness of venous thrombosis. Measuring the impact of health awareness days is challenging; however, use of internet-based data seems promising. Methods Google Trends data were used to quantify digital searches for 'venous thrombosis' worldwide and 'trombose' in the Netherlands. The relative search volume (RSV), which is the proportion of the term of interest amongst all Google searches for a specific region and timeframe was used. Mean differences for 4 weeks surrounding WTD (period of interest) and the remaining weeks of the year (control period) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). This was done for 2014, 2015 and 2009-2013 (control years). Results and discussion Mean differences in RSV for worldwide searches were 2.9 (95% CI, -8.2, 14.1) in 2014 and 10.5 (95% CI, 0.4, 20.5) in 2015. These figures were 15.3 (95% CI, 4.7, 25.8) and 15.9 (95% CI, 7.8, 24.1) for the Netherlands, respectively. Relatively, this corresponds to an increase in RSV of 3.9% and 13.9% for 2014 and 2015 worldwide and a 21.9% and 23.3% increase for 2014 and 2015 in the Netherlands. There was one control year with an increase in RSV in the WTD period. Conclusion In 2014 and 2015 WTD was associated with an increase in digital information seeking on venous thrombosis worldwide. This association was more pronounced in 2015 than in 2014. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Cerebral venous thrombosis with nonhemorrhagic lesions: clinical correlates and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Canhão, Patrícia; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Stam, Jan; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando; Stolz, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Brain imaging of patients with acute cerebral venous thrombosis often shows parenchymal hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic lesions. The clinical relevance of nonhemorrhagic lesions is poorly known. In the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis cohort, demographic, clinical, risk factor, prognosis and imaging findings were compared between patients with parenchymal nonhemorrhagic lesions and no hemorrhagic lesions (NHL) and (1) patients with parenchymal hemorrhagic lesions (HL) and (2) patients without brain lesions. Predictors of prognosis at the end of follow-up in the NHL group were analyzed by bivariate and Cox regression methods. We identified 147 patients (23.6%) with NHL. When compared to patients without brain lesions (n = 309), those with NHL more often presented mental status disturbances, aphasia, decreased alertness, motor deficits, seizures, occlusions of the straight sinus, deep venous system and cortical veins. Patients with NHL had a better prognosis in the acute phase and at the end of follow-up than those with HL, but a worse one than patients without brain lesions, as more NHL patients were dead or dependent (modified Rankin Scale score = 3-6) at discharge (19.7 vs. 6.5%, p < 0.001) and final follow-up (14.3 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.03). In Cox regression analysis, coma (HR = 13.7; 95% CI = 4.3-43.7) and thrombosis of the deep venous system (HR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.4-8.7) were associated with death or dependency at the end of follow-up. Cerebral venous thrombosis patients with NHL are intermediate between patients without brain lesions and those with HL, both in initial clinical picture and prognosis. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Risk factors associated with PICC-related upper extremity venous thrombosis in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiao-lei; Chen, Jie; Li, Jia; Feng, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jia-An; Shen, E; Hu, Bing

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors for peripherally inserted central venous catheters-related upper extremity venous thrombosis in patients with cancer. With the widespread use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters, peripherally inserted central venous catheters-related upper extremity venous thrombosis in patients with cancer leads to increasing morbidity and mortality. It is very important to further explore the incidence and risk factors for peripherally inserted central venous catheters-related venous thrombosis. Consecutive patients with cancer who were scheduled to receive peripherally inserted central venous catheters, between September 2009 and May 2012, were prospectively studied in our centre. They were investigated for venous thrombosis by Doppler sonography three times a day within 30 days after catheter insertion. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions' analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for peripherally inserted central venous catheters-related thrombosis. A total of 89 patients with cancer were studied in our research. Of these, 81 patients were followed up within one month. The mean interval between catheter insertion and the onset of thrombosis was 12.45 ± 6.17 days. The multivariable analyses showed that chemotherapy history, less activities and diabetes were the key risk factors for thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters-related upper extremity venous thrombosis had high incidence rate, and most cases had no significant symptoms. The history of chemotherapy, less activities and diabetes were found to be the key risk factors. It should be routinely scanned in high-risk patients every 3-5 days after catheter insertion, which would then find blood clots in time and reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism. Risk factors associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters-related upper extremity venous thrombosis are of critical importance in improving the quality

  1. Cerebral venous thrombosis: state of the art diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Dmytriw, Adam A; Song, Jin Soo A; Yu, Eugene; Poon, Colin S

    2018-05-11

    This review article aims to discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and neuroimaging of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Different approaches for diagnosis of CVT, including CT/CTV, MRI/MRV, and US will be discussed and the reader will become acquainted with imaging findings as well as limitations of each modality. Lastly, this exhibit will review the standard of care for CVT treatment and emerging endovascular options. A literature search using PubMed and the MEDLINE subengine was completed using the terms "cerebral venous thrombosis," "stroke," and "imaging." Studies reporting on the workup, imaging characteristics, clinical history, and management of patients with CVT were included. The presentation of CVT is often non-specific and requires a high index of clinical suspicion. Signs of CVT on NECT can be divided into indirect signs (edema, parenchymal hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and rarely subdural hematomas) and less commonly direct signs (visualization of dense thrombus within a vein or within the cerebral venous sinuses). Confirmation is performed with CTV, directly demonstrating the thrombus as a filling defect, or MRI/MRV, which also provides superior characterization of parenchymal abnormalities. General pitfalls and anatomic variants will also be discussed. Lastly, endovascular management options including thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy are discussed. CVT is a relatively uncommon phenomenon and frequently overlooked at initial presentation. Familiarity with imaging features and diagnostic work-up of CVT will help in providing timely diagnosis and therapy which can significantly improve outcome and diminish the risk of acute and long-term complications, optimizing patient care.

  2. To what extent might deep venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency share a common etiology?

    PubMed

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, P S

    2009-08-01

    According to the valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis (VCHH), deep venous thrombosis is caused by sustained non-pulsatile (streamline) venous blood flow. This leads to hypoxemia in the valve pockets; hypoxic injury to the inner (parietalis) endothelium of the cusp leaflets activates the elk-1/egr-1 pathway, leading to leukocyte and platelet swarming at the site of injury and, potentially, blood coagulation. Here, we propose an extension of the VCHH to account for chronic venous insufficiency. First, should the foregoing events not proceed to frank thrombogenesis, the valves may nevertheless be chronically injured and become incompetent. Serial incompetence in lower limb valves may then generate ''passive'' venous hypertension. Second, should ostial valve thrombosis obstruct venous return from muscles via tributaries draining into the femoral vein, as Virchow illustrated, ''active'' venous hypertension may supervene: muscle contraction would force the blood in the vessels behind the blocked ostial valves to re-route. Passive or active venous hypertension opposes return flow, leading to luminal hypoxemia and vein wall distension, which in turn may impair vasa venarum perfusion; the resulting mural endothelial hypoxia would lead to leukocyte invasion of the wall and remodelling of the media. We propose that varicose veins result if gross active hypertension stretches the valve ''rings'', rendering attached valves incompetent caudad to obstructed sites, replacing normal centripetal flow in perforating veins with centrifugal flow and over-distending those vessels. We also discuss how hypoxemia-related venous/capillary wall lesions may lead to accumulation of leukocytes, progressive blockage of capillary blood flow, lipodermosclerosis and skin ulceration.

  3. Anticoagulation therapy dramatically improved severe sigmoiditis with findings resembling inflammatory bowel disease, which was caused by mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yohei; Kanai, Takanori; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Naganuma, Makoto; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Iwao, Yasushi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Mukai, Makio; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-12-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an insidious disease, with a high mortality rate typically attributed to the long delay in diagnosis. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are important. Here, we present a patient with idiopathic inferior mesenteric venous (IMV) thrombosis. A 65-year-old man presented with constant abdominal pain associated with fever and bloody diarrhea. He was diagnosed with severe ulcerative colitis and was treated with mesalazine and prednisolone. The prednisolone was tapered because of liver dysfunction, and he received total parenteral nutrition for a month. His abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea worsened, and he lost 5 kg of weight. He was then transferred to our institute. Computed tomography showed thickening of the left colon. Colonoscopy showed diffuse colitis with multiple ulcers, large edematous folds, congested mucosa, and stenosis of the sigmoid colon, with sparing of the rectum, raising the possibility of IMV thrombosis. Angiography confirmed IMV thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was initiated with intravenous heparin followed by oral warfarin. His abdominal pain and diarrhea resolved, and he was discharged from hospital. Six months later, he remained asymptomatic with normal colonoscopic findings.

  4. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in senile male patients: New risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Fu, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Ping; Li, Shi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC)-related venous thrombosis is a common but serious clinical complication, thus prevention and treatment on this problem should be extensively investigated. In this research, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile patients and give a further discussion on the related risk factors and predictors. A total of 324 hospitalized senile male patients subjected to CVC were selected. Retrospective investigation and analysis were conducted on age, underlying diseases, clinical medications, catheterization position and side, catheter retention time, and incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis complications. Basic laboratory test results during catheterization and thrombogenesis were also collected and analyzed. Among the 324 patients, 20 cases (6.17%) of CVC-related venous thrombosis were diagnoseds. The incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in subclavian vein catheterization was significantly lower than that in femoral vein catheterization (P<0.01) and that in internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between femoral vein catheterization and internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). Previous venous thrombosis history (P<0.01), high lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.01), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P<0.05), and low albumin level (P<0.05) were found as risk factors or predictors of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile male patients. Subclavian vein catheterization was the most appropriate choice among senile patients to decrease the incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis. Previous venous thrombosis history, high lactate dehydrogenase level, low HDL level, and low albumin level were important risk factors in predicting CVC-related venous thrombosis.

  5. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    James, Joe; Shiji, P. V.; Radhakrishnan, Chandni

    2017-01-01

    A common misconception is that immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) causes only bleeding diathesis. From this case vignette of a young male with ITP who had cerebral venous thrombosis, we highlight the importance of considering venous thrombosis in such patients when they present with focal cerebral signs. PMID:29307971

  6. Systemic Venous Inflow to the Liver Allograft to Overcome Diffuse Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Darius, Tom; Goffette, Pierre; Lerut, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse splanchnic venous thrombosis (DSVT), formerly defined as contraindication for liver transplantation (LT), is a serious challenge to the liver transplant surgeon. Portal vein arterialisation, cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis, and finally combined liver and small bowel transplantation are all possible alternatives to deal with this condition. Five patients with preoperatively confirmed extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis were transplanted using cavoportal hemitransposition (4x) and renoportal anastomosis (1x). Median follow-up was 58 months (range: 0,5 to 130 months). Two patients with previous radiation-induced peritoneal injury died, respectively, 18 days and 2 months after transplantation. The three other patients had excellent long-term survival, despite the fact that two of them needed a surgical reintervention for severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Extensive splanchnic venous thrombosis is no longer an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation. Although cavoportal hemitransposition and renoportal anastomosis undoubtedly are life-saving procedures allowing for ensuring adequate allograft portal flow, careful follow-up of these patients remains necessary as both methods are unable to completely eliminate the complications of (segmental) portal hypertension. PMID:26539214

  7. Cerebral venous thrombosis in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, D; Wechsler, B; Resche-Rigon, M; Trad, S; Le Thi Huong, D; Sbai, A; Dormont, D; Amoura, Z; Cacoub, P; Piette, J C

    2009-04-15

    To analyze the clinical findings, treatment, outcome, and prevalence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in a large cohort of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) from a single center. We reported a series of 64 consecutive patients with CVT who fulfilled the international criteria for BD. Multivariate analysis was performed to define factors that affect prognosis. Among a cohort of 820 patients with BD, CVT was present in 64 (7.8%). Compared with BD patients without CVT, those with CVT had lower parenchymal central nervous system involvement (4.7% versus 28.7%; P = 0.0001) and higher extraneurologic vascular lesions (62.5% versus 38.8%; P = 0.03). Up to 90% of patients responded to anticoagulation therapy without severe hemorrhagic complications. Neither steroid nor immunosuppressant use provided better outcome. Severe visual loss due to optic atrophy was the main complication of CVT, being found in 15% of patients. In multivariate analysis, papilledema (odds ratio [OR] 7.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.6-31.9) and concurrent prothrombotic risk factors (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-20.2) were independently associated with the occurrence of sequelae. Factors associated with relapse of thrombosis were concurrent prothrombotic risk factors (hazard ratio [HR] 4.9, 95% CI 1.5-15.4) and a peripheral venous thrombosis (HR 2.8, 95% CI 0.7-10.5). After a mean +/- SD followup of 8.2 +/- 6.9 years, 4 deaths unrelated to CVT were noted. CVT in patients with BD may result in serious neurologic outcomes. Anticoagulation represents a safe and effective therapy. Extensive investigation of prothrombotic disorders should be considered.

  8. Primary venous insufficiency increases risk of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Shaydakov, Maxim E; Comerota, Anthony J; Lurie, Fedor

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins have been recognized as a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, venous reflux has not carried the same correlation. This study evaluated the association between primary valvular reflux and DVT. We performed a nested case-control study with enrollment of outpatients presenting to the vascular laboratory with signs and symptoms of DVT. All patients had a complete bilateral venous duplex examination evaluating for DVT and superficial and deep venous valvular reflux. Eighty-seven patients with confirmed DVT on venous duplex were selected for the study group. The control group was randomly selected from the same cohort in a 4:1 ratio matched by age and gender (n = 348). Groups were compared for the prevalence of deep and superficial reflux. DVT outpatients were 4.7-times more likely to have primary valvular reflux than symptomatic controls (65.5% vs 29.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-7.7; P < .000001). Deep reflux was 2.1-times more prevalent (36.8% vs 21.6%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.28-3.51; P = .005) and superficial reflux was 4.6-times more prevalent (43.7% vs 14.4%; odds ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 2.75-7.77; P < .0000001) in DVT patients than in controls. DVT patients were also 2.1-times more likely to have combined deep and superficial reflux than non-DVT patients (13.8% vs 6.6%, 95% CI, 1.08-4.75; P = .044). The prevalence of primary valvular reflux in patients with DVT is significantly higher than expected. Reflux may be considered as a novel risk factor for DVT. Two-thirds of patients with DVT have pre-existent primary chronic venous disease, which is likely to contribute to post-thrombotic morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal Volume Quantification of Deep Medullary Veins in Patients with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis : Venous Volume Assessment in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Using SWI.

    PubMed

    Dempfle, A K; Harloff, A; Schuchardt, F; Bäuerle, J; Yang, S; Urbach, H; Egger, K

    2017-06-06

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) visualizes small cerebral veins with high sensitivity and could, thus, enable quantification of hemodynamics of deep medullary veins. We aimed to evaluate volume changes of deep medullary veins in patients with acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) over time in comparison to healthy controls. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments were executed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. Based on SWI and semiautomatic postprocessing (statistical parametric mapping [SPM8] and ANTs), the volume of deep medullary veins was quantified in 14 patients with acute CVST at baseline and the 6‑month follow-up, as well as in 13 healthy controls undergoing repeated MRI examination with an interscan interval of at least 1 month. Deep medullary venous volume change over time was significantly different between healthy controls and patient groups (p < 0.001). Patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) showed a significant decline from baseline to follow-up measurements (9.8 ± 4.9 ml versus 7.5 ± 4.2 ml; p = 0.02), whereas in patients with transverse sinus thrombosis (TST) and healthy controls no significant volume changes were observable. Venous volume quantification was feasible and reproducible both in healthy volunteers and in patients. The decrease of venous volume in patients over time represents improvement of venous drainage, reduction of congestion, and normalization of microcirculation due to treatment. Thus, quantification of venous microcirculation could be valuable for estimation of prognosis and guidance of CVST therapy in the future.

  10. Lessons from French National Guidelines on the treatment of venous thrombosis and central venous catheter thrombosis in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farge, Dominique; Durant, Cecile; Villiers, Stéphane; Long, Anne; Mahr, Alfred; Marty, Michel; Debourdeau, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Increased prevalence of Venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), central venous catheter (CVC) related thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) in cancer patients has become a major therapeutic issue. Considering the epidemiology and each national recommendations on the treatment of VTE in cancer patients, we analysed guidelines implementation in clinical practice. Thrombosis is the second-leading cause of death in cancer patients and cancer is a major risk factor of VTE, due to activation of coagulation, use of long-term CVC, the thrombogenic effects of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs. Three pivotal trials (CANTHANOX, LITE and CLOT) and several meta-analysis led to recommend the long term (3 to 6 months) use of LMWH during for treating VTE in cancer patients with a high level of evidence. The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the French "Institut National du Cancer" (INCa), the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCCP) have published specific guidelines for health care providers regarding the prevention and treatment of cancer-associated VTE. Critical appraisal of these guidelines, difficulties in implementation of prophylaxis regimen, tolerance and cost effectiveness of long term use of LMWH may account for large heterogenity in daily clinical practice. Homogenization of these guidelines in international consensus using an adapted independent methodological approach followed by educational and active implementation strategies at each national level would be very valuable to improve the care of VTE in cancer patients.

  11. Prevalence and clinical importance of mesenteric venous thrombosis in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort.

    PubMed

    Violi, N Vietti; Vietti Violi, Naïk; Schoepfer, Alain M; Fournier, Nicolas; Guiu, Boris; Bize, Pierre; Denys, Alban

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study and to correlate MVT with clinical outcome. Abdominal portal phase CT was used to examine patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two experienced abdominal radiologists retrospectively analyzed the images, focusing on the superior and inferior mesenteric vein branches and looking for signs of acute or chronic thrombosis. The location of abnormalities was registered. The presence of MVT was correlated with IBD-related radiologic signs and complications. The cases of 160 patients with IBD (89 women, 71 men; Crohn disease [CD], 121 patients; ulcerative colitis [UC], 39 patients; median age at diagnosis, 27 years for patients with CD, 32 years for patients with UC) were analyzed. MVT was detected in 43 patients with IBD (26.8%). One of these patients had acute MVT; 38, chronic MVT; and four, both. The prevalence of MVT did not differ between CD (35/121 [28.9%]) and UC (8/39 [20.5%]) (p = 0.303). The location of thrombosis was different between CD and UC (CD, jejunal or ileal veins only [p = 0.005]; UC, rectocolic veins only [p = 0.001]). Almost all (41/43) cases of thrombosis were peripheral. MVT in CD patients was more frequently associated with bowel wall thickening (p = 0.013), mesenteric fat hypertrophy (p = 0.005), ascites (p = 0.002), and mesenteric lymph node enlargement (p = 0.036) and was associated with higher rate of bowel stenosis (p < 0.001) and more intestinal IBD-related surgery (p = 0.016) in the outcome. Statistical analyses for patients with UC were not relevant because of the limited population (n = 8). MVT is frequently found in patients with IBD. Among patients with CD, MVT is associated with bowel stenosis and CD-related intestinal surgery.

  12. Dielectric coagulometry: a new approach to estimate venous thrombosis risk.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji; Kaibara, Makoto; Uchimura, Isao

    2010-12-01

    We present dielectric coagulometry as a new technique to estimate the risk of venous thrombosis by measuring the permittivity change associated with the blood coagulation process. The method was first tested for a simple system of animal erythrocytes suspended in fibrinogen solution, where the coagulation rate was controlled by changing the amount of thrombin added to the suspension. Second, the method was applied to a more realistic system of human whole blood, and the inherent coagulation process was monitored without artificial acceleration by a coagulation initiator. The time dependence of the permittivity at a frequency around 1 MHz showed a distinct peak at a time that corresponds to the clotting time. Our theoretical modeling revealed that the evolution of heterogeneity and the sedimentation in the system cause the peak of the permittivity.

  13. Acute seizures in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: What predicts it?

    PubMed

    Mahale, Rohan; Mehta, Anish; John, Aju Abraham; Buddaraju, Kiran; Shankar, Abhinandan K; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2016-07-01

    Seizures are the presenting feature of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in 12-31.9% of patients. 44.3% of patients have seizures in the early stage of the disease. Acute seizures (AS), refers to seizures which take place before the diagnosis or during the first 2 weeks afterward. To report the predictors of acute seizures in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). 100 patients with CVST were included in the study. The occurrence of acute seizures was noted. The predictors of acute seizure were evaluated by univariate analysis including the demographic (gender, age), clinical (headache, focal neurological deficit, papilloedema, GCS score), type and number of risk factors, MRI findings (Type of lesion: hemorrhagic infarction or hematoma, location of lesion) and MRV findings (superficial or deep sinus, cortical veins). A total of 46 patients had acute seizures. On univariate analysis, altered mental status (p<0.001), paresis (p=0.03), GCS score <8 (p=0.009), hemorrhagic infarct on imaging (p=0.04), involvement of frontal lobe (p=0.02), superior sagittal sinus (p=0.008), and high D-dimer levels (p=0.03) were significantly associated with acute seizure. On multivariate analysis, the hemorrhagic infarct on MRI and high D-dimer was independently predictive for early seizure. The predictive factors for the acute seizures are altered mental status (GCS<8), focal deficits, hemorrhagic infarct, involvement of frontal lobe and superior sagittal sinus with high D-dimer levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Venous thrombosis and stenosis after peripherally inserted central catheter placement in children.

    PubMed

    Shin, H Stella; Towbin, Alexander J; Zhang, Bin; Johnson, Neil D; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2017-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) can lead to development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. The presence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis may preclude children with chronic medical conditions from receiving lifesaving therapies, from hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease to total parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome. Several adult studies have found an association between PICCs and venous thrombosis and/or stenosis, but none has evaluated for this association in children. To determine the incidence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis after PICC placement and identify factors that increase the risk of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis after PICC placement in children. We conducted a retrospective review of children ages 1-18 years with a PICC placed between January 2010 and July 2013 at our center, and included those who had at least one vascular imaging study of the ipsilateral extremity (Doppler ultrasound, venogram or MR angiogram) after PICC placement. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. One thousand, one hundred and ten upper extremity PICCs were placed, with 703 PICCs in the right and 407 PICCs in the left. Eight hundred fifty-one imaging studies (609 Doppler ultrasounds, 193 contrast venograms and 49 MR angiograms) were performed in 376 patients. The incidence of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis in the imaged cohort was 26.3%. PICC laterality, insertion site, duration, patient height to PICC diameter ratio, and number of PICCs per patient were not associated with development of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. Additionally, primary diagnosis and symptoms at the time of imaging did not predict findings of venous thrombosis and/or stenosis. However, patients exposed to non-PICC central venous catheters (CVC) were more likely to develop venous thrombosis and/or stenosis (odds ratio 1.95, 1.10-3.45). More than a quarter of the vascular imaging studies

  15. [Cerebral venous thrombosis after spinal anesthesia: case report].

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Dezena, Roberto Alexandre; Abud, Tania Mara Vilela; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare, but serious complication after spinal anesthesia. It is often related to the presence of predisposing factors, such as pregnancy, puerperium, oral contraceptive use, and malignancies. Headache is the most common symptom. We describe a case of a patient who underwent spinal anesthesia who had postoperative headache complicated with CVT. Male patient, 30 years old, ASA 1, who underwent uneventful arthroscopic knee surgery under spinal anesthesia. Forty-eight hours after the procedure, the patient showed frontal, orthostatic headache that improved when positioned supine. Diagnosis of sinusitis was made in the general emergency room, and he received symptomatic medication. In subsequent days, the headache worsened with holocranial location and with little improvement in the supine position. The patient presented with left hemiplegia followed by tonic-clonic seizures. He underwent magnetic resonance venography; diagnosed with CVT. Analysis of procoagulant factors identified the presence of lupus anticoagulant antibody. The patient received anticonvulsants and anticoagulants and was discharged eight days without sequelae. Any patient presenting with postural headache after spinal anesthesia, which intensifies after a plateau, loses its orthostatic characteristic or become too long, should undergo imaging tests to rule out more serious complications, such as CVT. The loss of cerebrospinal fluid leads to dilation and venous stasis that, coupled with the traction caused by the upright position, can lead to TVC in some patients with prothrombotic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Kesteven, P J; Robinson, B J

    2001-02-01

    Recent reports have linked air travel with venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). Risk factors and associated features of this link are poorly understood. We have accumulated clinical data from a relatively large cohort of patients with traveler's thrombosis. A total of 86 patients who developed venous thromboembolism within 28 d of flying were questioned concerning traveling habits, medical history (including risk factors for VTE) and characteristics of the index flight. Of the patients, 72% had at least one risk factor for VTE (excluding thrombophilia) prior to their flight. Of interest, 87% of VTE cases occurred following either a return trip or after an outward journey involving long trips made up of sequential flights. In only two cases could no identifiable risk factor or earlier journey be found. Duration of flights ranged from 2 to 30 h. Of responders, 38% presented with chest symptoms; 92% with VTE developed symptoms within 96 h of their flight. We conclude that the majority of VTE associated with air travel occur in those with identifiable risk factors prior to their flight, and that sequential flights may increase this risk.

  17. Factor XI Antisense Oligonucleotide for Prevention of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Büller, Harry R.; Bethune, Claudette; Bhanot, Sanjay; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P.; Raskob, Gary E.; Segers, Annelise; Verhamme, Peter; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that specifically reduces factor XI levels. We compared the efficacy and safety of FXI-ASO with those of enoxaparin in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. METHODS In this open-label, parallel-group study, we randomly assigned 300 patients who were undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty to receive one of two doses of FXI-ASO (200 mg or 300 mg) or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory bilateral venography or report of symptomatic events). The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. RESULTS Around the time of surgery, the mean (±SE) factor XI levels were 0.38±0.01 units per milliliter in the 200-mg FXI-ASO group, 0.20±0.01 units per milliliter in the 300-mg FXI-ASO group, and 0.93±0.02 units per milliliter in the enoxaparin group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 36 of 134 patients (27%) who received the 200-mg dose of FXI-ASO and in 3 of 71 patients (4%) who received the 300-mg dose of FXI-ASO, as compared with 21 of 69 patients (30%) who received enoxaparin. The 200-mg regimen was noninferior, and the 300-mg regimen was superior, to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 3%, 3%, and 8% of the patients in the three study groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study showed that factor XI contributes to postoperative venous thromboembolism; reducing factor XI levels in patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was an effective method for its prevention and appeared to be safe with respect to the risk of bleeding. (Funded by Isis Pharmaceuticals; FXI-ASO TKA ClinicalTrials.gov number

  18. Assessment of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis using T2*-weighted gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Fatemeh; Faeghi, Fariborz; Ghorbani, Askar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the advantages of gradient echo (GRE) sequences in the detection and characterization of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis compared to conventional magnetic resonance sequences. Methods: A total of 17 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were evaluated using different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. The MRI sequences included T1-weighted spin echo (SE) imaging, T*2-weighted turbo SE (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T*2-weighted conventional GRE, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). MR venography (MRV) images were obtained as the golden standard. Results: Venous sinus thrombosis was best detectable in T*2-weighted conventional GRE sequences in all patients except in one case. Venous thrombosis was undetectable in DWI. T*2-weighted GRE sequences were superior to T*2-weighted TSE, T1-weighted SE, and FLAIR. Enhanced MRV was successful in displaying the location of thrombosis. Conclusion: T*2-weighted conventional GRE sequences are probably the best method for the assessment of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The mentioned method is non-invasive; therefore, it can be employed in the clinical evaluation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. PMID:27326365

  19. Characterization of central venous catheter-associated deep venous thrombosis in infants.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; Gonzalez, Raquel; Warrier, Kavita S; Stephens, Lauren A; Drongowski, Robert A; Pipe, Steven W; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-06-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent complication in infants with central venous catheters (CVCs). We performed this study to identify risk factors and risk-reduction strategies of CVC-associated DVT in infants. Infants younger than 1 year who had a CVC placed at our center from 2005 to 2009 were reviewed. Patients with ultrasonically diagnosed DVT were compared to those without radiographic evidence. Of 333 patients, 47% (155/333) had femoral, 33% (111/333) had jugular, and 19% (64/333) had subclavian CVCs. Deep venous thromboses occurred in 18% (60/333) of patients. Sixty percent (36/60) of DVTs were in femoral veins. Femoral CVCs were associated with greater DVT rates (27%; 42/155) than jugular (11%; 12/111) or subclavian CVCs (9%; 6/64; P < .01). There was a 16% DVT rate in those with saphenofemoral Broviac CVCs vs 83% (20/24) in those with percutaneous femoral lines (P < .01). Multilumen CVCs had higher DVT rates than did single-lumen CVCs (54% vs 6%, P < .01), and mean catheter days before DVT diagnosis was shorter for percutaneous lines than Broviacs (13 ± 17 days vs 30 ± 37 days, P = .02). Patients with +DVT had longer length of stay (86 ± 88 days vs 48 ± 48 days, P < .01) and higher percentage of intensive care unit admission (82% vs 70%, P = .02). Deep venous thrombosis reduction strategies in infants with CVCs include avoiding percutaneous femoral and multilumen CVCs, screening percutaneous lines, and early catheter removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep cerebral venous thrombosis mimicking influenza-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Nakajima, Sho; Hayashida, Arisa; Kuroki, Takuma; Eguchi, Hiroto; Machida, Yutaka; Hattori, Nobutaka; Miwa, Hideto

    2017-09-26

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is one of the most devastating neurological complications of influenza virus infection. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy preferentially affects the thalamus bilaterally, as does deep cerebral venous thrombosis, which can lead to misdiagnosis. A 52-year-old Japanese woman infected with seasonal influenza B virus presented to the emergency care unit in our hospital with progressive alteration of her level of consciousness. Bilateral thalamic lesions were demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, leading to a tentative diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy. However, she had deep cerebral venous thrombosis, and the presence of diminished signal and enlargement of deep cerebral veins on T2*-weighted imaging contributed to a revised diagnosis of deep cerebral venous thrombosis. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, leading to her gradual recovery, with recanalization of the deep venous system and straight sinus. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first report of deep cerebral venous thrombosis associated with influenza infection. It is clinically important to recognize that deep cerebral venous thrombosis, although rare, might be one of the neurological complications of influenza infection. In the presence of bilateral thalamic lesions in patients with influenza infection, deep cerebral venous thrombosis should be considered in addition to acute necrotizing encephalopathy. Delays in diagnosis and commencement of anticoagulant therapy can lead to unfavorable outcomes.

  1. Are steroids useful to treat cerebral venous thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Canhão, Patrícia; Cortesão, Ana; Cabral, Marta; Ferro, José M; Stam, Jan; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    No randomized controlled trial has evaluated the efficacy of steroids in acute cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). We aimed to analyze the effect of steroids on the outcome of patients in the International Study on Cerebral Veins and Dural Sinus Thrombosis (ISCVT). ISCVT is a prospective observational study that included 624 CVT patients. Death or dependence at 6 months was compared between cases (patients treated with steroids) and controls (patients not treated with steroids), using 3 designs: (1) Matched case-control study (each case matched with a control for prognostic factors); (2) Nonmatched case-control study of the ISCVT cohort; (3) Case-control study in different strata according to the number of poor prognostic variables in each patient. One hundred and fifty (24%) patients were treated with steroids. (1) In the matched case-control study, poor outcome was similar in the two groups of patients (26/146 versus 17/149, OR=1.7; 95% CI 0.9 to 3.3, P=0.119). (2) In the ISCVT cohort, no significant difference in poor outcomes was found whether patients were treated with steroids or not (26/146 versus 60/469, OR=1.5; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.4). Patients without parenchymal lesions treated with steroids had worse prognosis than those treated without steroids (8/45 versus 9/184, OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 11.6, P=0.008). (3) Treatment with steroids was not associated with a better outcome in any strata of patients according to the number of poor prognostic factors. Steroids in the acute phase of CVT were not useful and were detrimental in patients without parenchymal cerebral lesions. These results do not support the use of steroids in CVT (evidence level III).

  2. Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis after port insertion: What are the risk factors?

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, Omidreza; Kasumova, Gyulnara G; Kent, Tara S; Eskander, Mariam F; Fadayomi, Ayotunde B; Ng, Sing Chau; Critchlow, Jonathan F; Tawa, Nicholas E; Tseng, Jennifer F

    2017-08-01

    Totally implantable venous access devices (ports) are widely used, especially for cancer chemotherapy. Although their use has been associated with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis, the risk factors of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in patients with a port are not studied adequately. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Florida State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Database was queried between 2007 and 2011 for patients who underwent outpatient port insertion, identified by Current Procedural Terminology code. Patients were followed in the State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Database, State Inpatient Database, and State Emergency Department Database for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis occurrence. The cohort was divided into a test cohort and a validation cohort based on the year of port placement. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to identify risk factors for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in patients with a port. The model then was tested on the validation cohort. Of the 51,049 patients in the derivation cohort, 926 (1.81%) developed an upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. On multivariate analysis, independently significant predictors of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis included age <65 years (odds ratio = 1.22), Elixhauser score of 1 to 2 compared with zero (odds ratio = 1.17), end-stage renal disease (versus no kidney disease; odds ratio = 2.63), history of any deep venous thrombosis (odds ratio = 1.77), all-cause 30-day revisit (odds ratio = 2.36), African American race (versus white; odds ratio = 1.86), and other nonwhite races (odds ratio = 1.35). Additionally, compared with genitourinary malignancies, patients with gastrointestinal (odds ratio = 1.55), metastatic (odds ratio = 1.76), and lung cancers (odds ratio = 1.68) had greater risks of developing an upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. This study identified major risk factors of upper extremity deep venous

  3. [Takayasu arteritis and cerebral venous thrombosis: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Mingo, E; Riofrío Cabeza, S; Villa Albuger, T; Velasco Blanco, M J

    2014-01-01

    Palpitations, paresthesias and anxiety are very common reasons of consultation in primary care. We report the case of a 40 year-old Caucasian woman who came to the clinic due to these symptoms, and was finally diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis. Later, she had an episode of headache, as the initial manifestation of cerebral venous thrombosis. Takayasu arteritis is a systemic vasculitis affecting medium and large arteries, mainly leacausing stenosis of the aorta and its branches. It most frequently affects Asian women, being much rarer in Europe. The primary care doctor plays a key role in the initial diagnosis and monitoring of patients with rare diseases, such as Takayasu arteritis, and must be a basic support for the patient and family, providing information and advice, and contributing with his work to reduce the vulnerability of this group. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. A case of ulcerative colitis presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghwan; Hwang, Sung Wook; Lee, Jinhee; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Ha Il; Park, Sang Hyoung; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2018-04-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been reported to have an increased risk of thromboembolism. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but serious extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Due to its highly variable manifestation and low incidence, CVT is not usually readily recognized by physicians. Herein, we report a case of a 35-year-old male presenting with CVT associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The patient was admitted with chief complaints of bloody diarrhea that had started 3 days prior. Sigmoidoscopy showed hyperemic and edematous mucosa, friability, and shallow ulcers from the sigmoid colon to the rectum suggestive of IBD. Three days later, the patient started complaining of a headache, and gradually developed a decreased level of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed CVT with hemorrhagic infarctions. An angiogram was obtained to evaluate the extent of CVT, and anticoagulation therapy was initiated with intravenous heparin. During hospitalization, he was diagnosed with UC and treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid. After discharge, the patient was recovered without neurological deficit, and remission of UC was also obtained. The presence of headache or acute worsening of neurological status in a patient with IBD should alert the health professionals about the possibility of CVT.

  5. Thrombosis of the Portal Venous System in Cirrhotic vs. Non-Cirrhotic Patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ramón, Vania; Chinchilla-López, Paulina; Ramírez-Pérez, Oscar; Aguilar-Olivos, Nancy E; Alva-López, Luis F; Fajardo-Ordoñez, Ericka; Acevedo-Silva, Ileana; Northup, Patrick G; Intagliata, Nicolas; Caldwell, Stephen H; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Qi, Xingshun; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2018-04-09

    Thrombosis is a vascular disorder of the liver often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cirrhosis is a predisposing factor for portal venous system thrombosis. The aim of this study is to determine differences between cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics that develop thrombosis in portal venous system and to evaluate if cirrhosis severity is related to the development of portal venous system thrombosis. We studied patients diagnosed with portal venous system thrombosis using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan and doppler ultrasound at Medica Sur Hospital from 2012 to 2017. They were categorized into two groups; cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics. We assessed the hepatic function by Child-Pugh score and model for end-stage liver disease. 67 patients with portal venous system thrombosis (25 with non-cirrhotic liver and 42 with cirrhosis) were included. The mean age (± SD) was 65 ± 9.5 years in cirrhotic group and 57 ± 13.2 years (p = 0.009) in non-cirrhotic group. Comparing non-cirrhotics and cirrhotics, 8 non-cirrhotic patients showed evidence of extra-hepatic inflammatory conditions, while in the cirrhotic group no inflammatory conditions were found (p < 0.001). 27 (64.29%) cirrhotic patients had thrombosis in the portal vein, while only 9 cases (36%) were found in non-cirrhotics (p = 0.02). In cirrhotic patients, hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis were the strongest risk factors to develop portal venous system thrombosis. In contrast, extrahepatic inflammatory conditions were main risk factors associated in non-cirrhotics. Moreover, the portal vein was the most frequent site of thrombosis in both groups.

  6. Extensive forearm deep venous thrombosis following a severe infliximab infusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Barbara M; Romberg, Marielle; Wolters, Frank; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W

    2004-09-01

    Here we describe a patient with Crohn's disease who developed a severe infliximab infusion reaction (IIR), complicated 1 day later by severe swelling of the forearm and hand ipsilateral to the site of infliximab infusion. This proved to be extensive forearm deep venous thrombosis. The site of thrombosis and the chronological relationship with the IIR implicates a hypersensitivity to infliximab in the causation of the venous thrombosis in this case. With an increasing trend towards re-treating patients with known IIRs, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious and previously unreported complication.

  7. A rare cause of headache: cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Pekdemir, Murat; Yilmaz, Serkan; Ersel, Murat; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2008-03-01

    Headache represents up to 4% of all emergency department (ED) visits. Emergency physicians generally are concerned with identifying those patients whose headaches are caused by life-threatening conditions. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be difficult to diagnose clinically because of its various and nonspecific manifestations. The most frequent but least specific symptom of sinus thrombosis is severe headache, which is present in more than 90% of adult patients. In the case report we present, a patient had severe headache and was diagnosed until third ED visit at different hospitals. He had one of the most unusual causes of headache, that is, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to hyperthyroidism.

  8. Risk factors of postthrombotic syndrome before and after deep venous thrombosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Strijkers, Rob Hw; de Wolf, Mark Af; Wittens, Cees Ha

    2017-07-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome is the most common complication after deep venous thrombosis. Postthrombotic syndrome is a debilitating disease and associated with decreased quality of life and high healthcare costs. Postthrombotic syndrome is a chronic disease, and causative treatment options are limited. Prevention of postthrombotic syndrome is therefore very important. Not all patients develop postthrombotic syndrome. Risk factors have been identified to try to predict the risk of developing postthrombotic syndrome. Age, gender, and recurrent deep venous thrombosis are factors that cannot be changed. Deep venous thrombosis location and extent seem to predict severity of postthrombotic syndrome and are potentially suitable as patient selection criteria. Residual thrombosis and reflux are known to increase the incidence of postthrombotic syndrome, but are of limited use. More recently developed treatment options for deep venous thrombosis, such as new oral factor X inhibitors and catheter-directed thrombolysis, are available at the moment. Catheter-directed thrombolysis shows promising results in reducing the incidence of postthrombotic syndrome after deep venous thrombosis. The role of new oral factor X inhibitors in preventing postthrombotic syndrome is still to be determined.

  9. [Clinical features of hospitalized patients with deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, M L; Feng, Y P; Huang, J; Wang, Y

    2017-12-01

    Objective: To increase the consciousness of incident deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study of hospitalized patients with DVT in Beijing Shijitan Hospital from 2007 to 2016. Clinical features of DVT patients who were admitted with no DVT were summarized. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics, involved site of veins, department of patients and risk factors were discussed. Results: A total of 5 063 patients were complicated with DVT from 305 922 inpatients who were without DVT at the admission during past 10 years. Among them, 54.36% (2 752/5 063) were men. The age of the patients was (74.1±15.9) years old (range 1-103 years) with 37.78% of them in 80 to 89 age group. The incidence of DVT in the hospital was 1.65%. It increased yearly during the past decade (from 0.50% to 2.74%), and increased with age in patients from 1 to 99 years old (7.32% in 90-99 age group). Totally, 5 204 veins were involved in the patients. Most thrombosis involved inferior vena cava system (96.54%,5 024/5 204), especially deep veins of lower extremity (83.78%,4 360/5 204), some involved portal veins (8.61%,448/5 204) and a little was found in superior venae cava (3.46%, 180/5 204). More DVT patients were in department of internal medicine than those in department of surgery (2.95% vs 0.97%, P< 0.01). ICU had the highest rate of DVT among the hospital departments (9.75%). No DVT occurred in department of newborn. Risk factors of DVT were inflammatory diseases (71.54%), age over 75 years old (67.25%), and heart diseases (58.98%). Conclusion: Sensitivity of detection on DVT should be emphasized in hospitalized patients with DVT risk, especially at the department with high incident of DVT.

  10. Clinical Outcome of a Portosplenomesenteric Venous Thrombosis in Necrotizing Acute Pancreatitis with Protein C and S Deficiency Treated by Anticoagulation Therapy Alone.

    PubMed

    Ankouane, Firmin; Kowo, Mathurin; Ngo Nonga, Bernadette; Magny, Eric; Hell Medjo, Edith; Ndjitoyap Ndam, Elie Claude

    2015-01-01

    Cases of splanchnic venous thrombosis have not been described in Cameroon. Their prevalence in acute pancreatitis is variable. With the emergence of acute intra-abdominal infections including typhoid fever and peritoneal tuberculosis in situations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, these cases will become frequent. We report the case of a portosplenomesenteric venous thrombosis related to necrotizing acute pancreatitis associated with proteins C and S deficiency, in a 46-year-old Cameroonian man, without particular past medical history. He was admitted for abdominal pain which had been evolving for 3 weeks and accompanied by vomiting. In the absence of hemorrhagic risk factor, the patient received low molecular weight heparin followed by oral warfarin. The abdominal ultrasound check on the 12th day showed a partial recanalization of venous thrombosis. The abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scanner at day 30 on oral anticoagulation therapy showed collateral vessels and small bowel edema. At the same time the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed grade II esophageal varices. We have maintained oral anticoagulation therapy. This case highlights that an early effective anticoagulation heparin therapy is needed for a clear benefit in case of suspected PSMVT. It is certain that the sooner the treatment is given, the better outcome will be.

  11. Venous thrombosis and prothrombotic factors in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Fernando; Soares, João-Bruno; Fernandes, Dália

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may have an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus were searched to identify studies investigating the risk of VTE and the prevalence of acquired and genetic VTE risk factors and prothrombotic abnormalities in IBD. Overall, IBD patients have a two- to fourfold increased risk of VTE compared with healthy controls, with an overall incidence rate of 1%-8%. The majority of studies did not show significant differences in the risk of VTE between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several acquired factors are responsible for the increased risk of VTE in IBD: inflammatory activity, hospitalisation, surgery, pregnancy, disease phenotype (e.g., fistulising disease, colonic involvement and extensive involvement) and drug therapy (mainly steroids). There is also convincing evidence from basic science and from clinical and epidemiological studies that IBD is associated with several prothrombotic abnormalities, including initiation of the coagulation system, downregulation of natural anticoagulant mechanisms, impairment of fibrinolysis, increased platelet count and reactivity and dysfunction of the endothelium. Classical genetic alterations are not generally found more often in IBD patients than in non-IBD patients, suggesting that genetics does not explain the greater risk of VTE in these patients. IBD VTE may have clinical specificities, namely an earlier first episode of VTE in life, high recurrence rate, decreased efficacy of some drugs in preventing further episodes and poor prognosis. Clinicians should be aware of these risks, and adequate prophylactic actions should be taken in patients who have disease activity, are hospitalised, are submitted to surgery or are undergoing treatment. PMID:24803797

  12. Deep venous thrombosis associated with corporate air travel.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, L A; Mundt, K A; Sulsky, S I; Liese, B H

    2001-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is commonly seen among bedridden and postoperative patients. Its association with travel may also make DVT an occupational health risk to otherwise healthy business travelers. We estimated the incidence of and risk factors for DVT among 8,189 World Bank employees and a subset of 4,951 international business travelers. Occurrence of DVT between 1995 and 1998 was determined using 1) medical insurance claims; 2) Workers' Compensation claims; and 3) intra-office E-mail solicitation followed by interview. For each insurance claim case, 10 controls were randomly selected from among World Bank employees insured during the same month and year as the case's claim was filed, and case-control analyses were performed to identify potential predictors or risk factors for DVT. Thirty individuals filed claims for DVT of the legs (annual incidence rate: 0.9 per 1,000 employees); three of these claims were filed within 30 days after a travel mission. Two employees reported DVT as a Workers' Compensation injury, and five staff with verified DVT participated in interviews. After controlling for age and gender, no association with any travel-related covariate was seen. Results of analyses considering all thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism followed the same pattern. The average annual incidence of DVT occurring within 30 days of mission among traveling staff ranged from 0.10 per 1,000 to 0.25 per 1,000 travelers, depending on the case-finding method. No association between DVT and travel was observed after adjustment for gender and age. These results, however, are preliminary, and due to the rarity of DVT, based on small numbers.

  13. [Deep venous thrombosis complications during infections in pediatric patients: analysis of a series of 24 cases].

    PubMed

    Nou, M; Rodière, M; Schved, J-F; Laroche, J-P; Quéré, I; Dauzat, M; Jeziorski, E

    2014-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism disease (VTE) is rare in children (5.3 of 10,000 hospitalized children). However, morbidity and mortality are high, especially when the child is already suffering from severe sepsis. We report an analytical study of 24 cases of deep venous thrombosis occurring in children during infection, recorded at the Montpellier University Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Many parameters were studied in each population (age, sex, familial and personal history of thrombosis, history of thrombophilia, the presence of a venous catheter, a causative organism, time to onset of thrombus, topography of lesions, acquired abnormalities of hemostasis, and thrombosis prophylaxis). The children were aged from 1 day of life to 16 years. Thromboses occurred in two clinical contexts: "contact" thrombosis (which appeared near the infection) and disseminated thrombosis. This is an early complication because in most of the cases, it appeared in the first 10 days of sepsis. Infection and coagulation appear to be closely related and the states of latent or decompensated disseminated intravascular coagulation are common. Nevertheless, it is not possible to predict the occurence of a thrombotic event. The presence of risk factors (venous catheters, acquired thrombophilia, or constitutional thrombophilia) may increase the thrombogenic potential of the infection. VTE should always be suspected and sought in case of an unfavorable clinical course, and routine prophylaxis of thrombosis during sepsis should be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety of Pregnancy After Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Results of the ISCVT (International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis)-2 PREGNANCY Study.

    PubMed

    Aguiar de Sousa, Diana; Canhão, Patrícia; Crassard, Isabelle; Coutinho, Jonathan; Arauz, Antonio; Conforto, Adriana; Béjot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Ferro, José M

    2017-11-01

    Pregnancy is associated with increased risk of venous thrombotic events, including cerebral venous thrombosis. We aimed to study the complications and outcome of subsequent pregnancies in women with previous cerebral venous thrombosis. Follow-up study of women with acute cerebral venous thrombosis at childbearing age included in a previously described cohort (International Study of Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis). Patients were interviewed by local neurologists to assess rate of venous thrombotic events, pregnancy outcomes, and antithrombotic prophylaxis during subsequent pregnancies. A total of 119 women were included, with a median follow-up of 14 years. Eighty-two new pregnancies occurred in 47 women. In 83% (68 of 82), some form of antithrombotic prophylaxis was given during at least 1 trimester of pregnancy or puerperium. Venous thrombotic events occurred in 3 pregnancies, including 1 recurrent cerebral venous thrombosis. Two of the 3 women were on prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin at the time of the event. Outcomes of pregnancies were 51 full-term newborns, 9 preterm births, 2 stillbirths, and 20 abortions (14 spontaneous). In women with prior cerebral venous thrombosis, recurrent venous thrombotic events during subsequent pregnancies are infrequent. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Late venous thrombosis in free flap breast reconstruction: strategies for salvage after this real entity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonas A; Kim, Elizabeth M; Eftekhari, Kian; Eftakhari, Kian; Low, David W; Kovach, Stephen J; Wu, Liza C; Serletti, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Microvascular free-tissue transfer is a reliable pillar of reconstructive surgery, yet pedicle thrombosis remains a challenge. The authors examined the phenomenon of late venous thrombosis (after postoperative day 3) and detail a method of flap salvage that can be utilized following this microvascular insult. A retrospective review was performed of all free flap breast reconstructions performed by the senior author (J.M.S.) from 1991 to 2008, utilizing a prospectively maintained database. All cases of postoperative thromboses were evaluated. Late venous thrombosis was defined as a thrombosis occurring after postoperative day 3. A total of 1277 free flap breast reconstructions were performed over the 17-year period. Nineteen flaps had venous thromboses (1.5 percent), and 10 of these occurred after postoperative day 3 (average, 5.67 days; range, 4 to 12 days). Operative exploration was employed in seven of 10 cases, with the remaining patients presenting too late or too advanced for operative intervention. Sixty percent of flaps were fully salvaged, and two were partially saved, with some subsequent volume loss. Earlier late venous thrombosis presentation led to better outcomes overall. Late venous thrombosis is a rare phenomenon that, although occurring late in the postoperative course, is an acute event. Early recognition and urgent treatment are key to flap salvage, with clinical judgment dictating the treatment choice. In the absence of extenuating circumstances, the authors prefer urgent exploration in the operating room, as flap survival following late venous thrombosis is a race against time but with a high probability of salvage if the proper steps are taken. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is not related to venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Köppel, Herwig; Renner, Wilfried; Gugl, Alexander; Cichocki, Lisa; Gasser, Robert; Wascher, Thomas C; Pilger, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the gene for angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) is associated with ACE plasma levels and activity. Conflicting results have been reported about the relevance of this polymorphism for venous thrombosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of this polymorphism for deep venous thrombosis. The study was designed as a case-control study, including 330 patients with documented deep venous thrombosis and 354 controls. ACE genotype was determined by size-analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. Results showed that, ACE genotype frequencies were similar between patients (II: 24.8%; ID: 43.3%; DD: 31.8%) and controls (II: 22.9%; ID: 50.6%; DD: 26.6%, P = 0.15). The adjusted odds ratio of carriers of the DD geno-type for venous thrombosis was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.80). The polymorphism was furthermore not associated with age at first thromboembolic event or the occurrence of pulmonary embolism. From these results, we can conclude that the ACE I/D polymorphism is not a significant risk factor for deep venous thrombosis.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma lung: Presented with bilateral lower limb deep venous thrombosis with gangrene formation

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Sengupta, Amitabha; Patra, Anupam; Jash, Debraj

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral venous thrombosis due to underlying malignancy is a rare entity. It is worthy to search for malignancy in patients of bilateral venous gangrene. Our patient presented with severe bilateral leg pain as a result of venous gangrene. There was associated left sided massive pleural effusion with scalp nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of scalp nodule revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and fiber optic bronchoscopy guided biopsy from growth at left upper lobe bronchus confirmed the case as squamous cell carcinoma lung. It was rare for squamous cell carcinoma lung to present as bilateral venous gangrene with anticardiolipin antibody negative. PMID:24455526

  18. Investigation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G promoter polymorphism in Indian venous thrombosis patients: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Prabhudesai, Aniket; Shetty, Shrimati; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Kulkarni, Bipin

    2017-09-01

    The role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in venous thrombosis has been contradictory. PAI-1 4G/4G genotype is associated with elevated levels of PAI-1 resulting in a hypofibrinolytic state and a higher thrombotic risk. In this study, the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in Indian patients with different types of venous thrombosis was investigated for its role in development of thrombosis. A total of 87 portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 71 Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), 156 cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT), and 163 deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients were studied alongside 251 healthy controls for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Frequency of 4G/4G genotype was higher in all groups in comparison with controls. 4G/4G was associated with PVT risk (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.29-4.96, P=.0075), BCS risk (OR=5.98, 95% CI=2.68-13.42, P<.0001), and DVT risk (OR=1.75, 95% CI=0.98-3.02, P=.0225). This is the first case-control study from India establishing PAI-1 4G/4G as a strong risk factor for abdominal thrombosis (PVT and BCS). Statistically significant association was not found between 4G/4G genotype and CVT risk. PAI-1 4G/4G is a strong risk factor for venous thrombosis in Indian patients and should be included in laboratory testing panel of thrombophilia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Central venous device-related thrombosis as imaged with MDCT in oncologic patients: prevalence and findings.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Orlando; de Lutio di Castelguidone, Elisabetta; Sandomenico, Claudia; Petrillo, Mario; Aprea, Pasquale; Granata, Vincenza; D'Errico, Adolfo Gallipoli

    2011-03-01

    Venous thrombosis is a common occurrence in cancer patients, developing spontaneously or in combination with indwelling central venous devices (CVD). To analyze the multidetector CT (MDCT) prevalence, appearance, and significance of catheter-related thoracic venous thrombosis in oncologic patients and to determine the percentage of thrombi identified in the original reports. Five hundred consecutive patients were considered. Inclusion criteria were: presence of a CVD; availability of a contrast-enhanced MDCT; and cancer history. Exclusion criteria were: direct tumor compression/infiltration of the veins; poor image quality; device tip not in the scanned volume; and missing clinical data. Seventeen (3.5%) out of the final 481 patients had a diagnosis of venous thrombosis. Factors showing the highest correlation with thrombosis included peripherally-inserted CVD, right brachiocephalic vein tip location, patient performance status 3, metastatic stage disease, ongoing chemotherapy, and longstanding CVD. The highest prevalence was in patients with lymphoma, lung carcinoma, melanoma, and gynecologic malignancies. Eleven out of 17 cases had not been identified in the original report. CVD-related thrombosis is not uncommon in cancer patients and can also be observed in outpatients with a good performance status and a non-metastatic disease. Thrombi can be very tiny. Radiologists should be aware of the possibility to identify (or overlook) small thrombi.

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis in a gentleman presenting with fever, convulsion and frontotemporal haemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Chan, K H; Cheung, R T F; Liu, W M; Mak, W; Ho, S L

    2005-02-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon but serious type of stroke. Thrombosis may involve the cortical or deep veins or the venous sinuses. The presenting clinical features are non-specific. We report a 48-year-old man with CVT who presented with fever, bitemporal throbbing headache, and generalised convulsion. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed acute haemorrhages over right anterior frontal and posterior temporal regions with surrounding oedema and right anterior temporal subcortical oedema. The initial diagnosis was herpes simplex encephalitis. Absence of venous flow over the right transverse and sigmoid sinuses during the venous phase of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed CVT. He was anti-coagulated for 6 months. An underlying cause of CVT was not detected. A high index of suspicion is required when risk factors of CVT are present. CT brain may be normal or showing non-specific findings. Magnetic resonance imaging plus venography, CT venography, or DSA is diagnostic.

  1. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghe; Wang, Xuehu; Huang, Wen; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Mao; Zhao, Yu

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the prevalence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs and to evaluate the associated risk factors. A total of 322 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis confirmed by CT venography or Doppler ultrasonography were studied. The diagnosis of silent pulmonary embolism was established by computed tomography pulmonary arteriography (CTPA). The association between covariates and the prevalence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs were assessed using chi-square test and multivariable regression. The incidence of silent pulmonary embolism was 33.5% (108 in 322 patients) in all patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. Chi-square test showed male gender, the right lower limb, proximal location of the thrombus, unprovoked venous thrombosis and coexisting heart diseases were related to a higher incidence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. The multivariate regression analysis confirmed that the risk factors associated with silent pulmonary embolism in deep venous thrombosis patients included the right side and proximal location of the thrombus (odds ratio: 2.023, 95% CI: 1.215-3.368; odds ratio: 3.610, 95% CI: 1.772-7.354), unprovoked venous thrombosis (odds ratio: 2.037, 95% CI: 1.188-3.493), coexisting heart diseases (odds ratio: 4.507, 95% CI: 2.667-7.618). Silent pulmonary embolism occurred frequently in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. The right side, the proximal location of the thrombus, unprovoked venous thrombosis and coexisting heart diseases increased the risk for the occurrence of silent pulmonary embolism. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. The effect of flight-related behaviour on the risk of venous thrombosis after air travel.

    PubMed

    Schreijer, Anja J M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Doggen, Carine J M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2009-02-01

    In a case-control study including 11,033 participants (The Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis study) on risk factors of venous thrombosis, we studied the effect of flight-related behaviour on the risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Patients and control subjects received a questionnaire on risk factors for venous thrombosis, including recent travel history and details of their last flight. From this population, 80 patients and 108 control subjects were selected who had recently (<8 weeks) travelled for more than 4 h by aeroplane. Window seating compared to aisle seating increased the risk twofold [odds ratio (OR) 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-4.4], particularly in those who were obese (OR 6.1; 95% CI: 0.5-76.2). Anxiety (OR 2.5; 95% CI: 0.9-7.0) and sleeping (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 0.7-3.1) may increase the risk slightly. The risk was not affected by alcohol consumption (OR 1.1; 95% CI: 0.5-2.4). Flying business class may lower the risk (OR 0.7; 95% CI: 0.2-1.8). We did not find a protective effect for several measures currently part of standard advice from airlines and clinicians, i.e. drinking non-alcoholic beverages, exercising or wearing stockings. The effect of behavioural factors during flying on the risk of venous thrombosis after air travel is limited. Current advice on prevention of travel-related thrombosis may have to be reconsidered.

  3. Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: Role of Endovascular Interventions for Graft Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Stockland, Andrew H.; Willingham, Darrin L.; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo

    2009-03-15

    Venous thrombosis of pancreas transplant allografts often leads to graft loss. We evaluated the efficacy of emergent endovascular techniques to salvage thrombosed pancreatic allografts in a series of six patients. Of the 76 pancreas transplants performed between 2002 and 2006, six patients were diagnosed with venous thrombosis on MRI between 2 and 28 days posttransplant (mean, 9 days). Five patients were systemic-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient iliac vein) and one patient was portal-enteric (donor portal vein anastomosis to recipient superior mesenteric vein). Conventional venography confirmed the diagnosis of venous thrombosis in all patients. One patient was treated withmore » catheter-directed venous thrombolysis and balloon thrombectomy. Another patient was treated with rheolytic thrombectomy alone. The remaining four patients were treated with a combination of these mechanical and thrombolytic techniques. Completion venography revealed >50% clot reduction and resumption of venous drainage in all patients. One patient required additional intervention 16 days later for recurrent thrombosis. Two patients required metal stent placement for anastomotic stenoses or kinks. One patient required pancreatectomy 36 h after attempted salvage secondary to a major hemorrhage and graft necrosis. Two patients recovered pancreatic function initially but lost graft function at 8 and 14 months, respectively, from severe chronic rejection. Patient survival was 100%, long-term graft survival was 50%, rethrombosis rate was 16.6%, and graft loss from rejection was 33%. In conclusion, early recognition and treatment of venous thrombosis after pancreas transplantation has acceptable morbidity and no mortality using short-term endovascular pharmacomechanical therapy.« less

  4. Duplex imaging of residual venous obstruction to guide duration of therapy for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Elliot J P; Liem, Timothy K

    2015-07-01

    Clinical trials have shown that the presence of ultrasound-identified residual venous obstruction (RVO) on follow-up scanning may be associated with an elevated risk for recurrence, thus providing a potential tool to help determine the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the clinical utility of post-treatment duplex imaging in predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and in adjusting duration of anticoagulation. The Ovid MEDLINE Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were queried for the terms residual thrombus or obstruction, duration of therapy, deep vein thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis, DVT, venous thromboembolism, VTE, antithrombotic therapy, and anticoagulation, and 228 studies were selected for review. Six studies determined the rate of VTE recurrence on the basis of the presence or absence of RVO. Findings on venous ultrasound scans frequently remained abnormal in 38% to 80% of patients, despite at least 3 months of therapeutic anticoagulation. In evaluating for VTE recurrence, the definition of RVO varied widely in the literature. Some studies have shown an association between RVO and VTE recurrence, whereas other studies have not. Overall, the presence of RVO is a mild risk factor for recurrence (odds ratio, 1.3-2.0), but only when surveillance imaging is performed soon after the index deep venous thrombosis (3 months). RVO is a mild risk factor for VTE recurrence. The presence or absence of ultrasound-identified RVO has a limited role in guiding the duration of therapeutic anticoagulation. Further research is needed to evaluate its utility relative to other known risk factors for VTE recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DKA, CVL and DVT. Increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in children with diabetic ketoacidosis and femoral central venous lines.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Surendran, T; Thompson, S; Corkey, C

    2007-01-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is continuing to rise in children. The presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children with newly diagnosed diabetes is significantly higher in those less than 5 years old. Critically ill patients admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU), would have a central venous line (CVL) inserted as part of their ongoing management. There are associations linking with the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in DKA/CVL patients. An 18-month-old boy presented with a short history of polydypsia, polyuria and weight loss. The initial blood sugar was 27.0 mmol/L and a venous blood gas showed severe metabolic acidosis. He was diagnosed and treated for DKA. He was transferred to the regional PICU for further management. There, a central venous line (CVL) was inserted in his left femoral vein. This was removed on Day 4. Subsequently, he developed a swelling on his left leg, with significant discrepancy in leg circumference. Doppler ultrasound confirmed a deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion Diabetes has a propensity for hypercoagulability and DKA promotes a prothrombotic state. Retrospective studies have shown younger patients with DKA and a femoral CVL are at higher risk of developing DVT. A central femoral line should avoided in such patients. DVT prophylaxis and Doppler follow up should also be considered.

  6. Measurement of Venous Blood Flow in the Lower Limbs: Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis during Prolonged Sitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Abstract. The venous blood flow during stretching and deep breathing in the sitting posture was examined in the present study. First, an...increase in the venous return. Therefore, we suggest that stretching and deep breathing can be used sometimes as preventive measures for deep vein...thrombosis during prolonged sitting. Keywords. Venous blood flow, Near infrared spectroscopy, Deep vein thrombosis. 1. Introduction It has been

  7. Cerebral venous thrombosis and secondary polycythemia in a case of nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Shankar Prasad; Bairy, Manohar; Attur, Ravindra Prabhu; Sambhaji, Charudutt Jayant

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and polycythemia are considered as rare and life threatening complications of nephrotic syndrome. We report an unusual combination of both these complications in a case of nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease that was treated successfully. There was prompt and complete remission of nephrotic syndrome with steroid therapy, concurrent with complete resolution of polycythemia and CVT.

  8. Role of Color Flow Ultrasound in Detection of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Shelan Hakeem; AL-Najjar, Salwa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs is one of the most causes for the majority of death caused by pulmonary embolism. Many medical and surgical disorders are complicated by DVT. Most venous thrombi are clinically silent. B-mode and color Doppler imaging is needed for early diagnosis of DVT to prevent complications and squeal of…

  9. A Unique Case of Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Imam, Syed F; Lodhi, Omair Ul Haq; Fatima, Zainab; Nasim, Saneeya; Malik, Waseem T; Saleem, Muhammad Sabih

    2017-09-16

    Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. We present a case of a 39-year-old male who developed extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following primary VZV infection. Venous thrombosis in VZV has been suggested to be caused by autoantibodies against protein S, pre-existing hypercoagulability, or endothelial damage. The patient was acutely managed using intravenous acyclovir and heparin. Long-term anticoagulation therapy with warfarin was continued after discharge. We concluded that clinicians should be aware of the rare complications of this common pathology so that a timely diagnosis can be made, followed by prompt management. Further studies need to be done to better understand acute cerebral venous sinus thrombosis secondary to VZV.

  10. Treatment and follow-up of venous thrombosis in the neonatal intensive care unit: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnhoff, James C.; DiSilvio, Stefanie A.; Aneja, Rajesh K.; Shenk, Jennifer R.; Domnina, Yuliya A.; Brozanski, Beverly S.; Good, Misty

    2016-01-01

    Objective The critically ill, premature patients of neonatal intensive care units are susceptible to venous thrombosis, an adverse event associated with short- and long-term morbidity. Venous thrombosis is frequently treated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) such as enoxaparin, but optimal dosing of LMWH must balance the morbidity of venous thrombosis with the potential adverse affects of anticoagulation. The optimal dosing of enoxaparin for premature infants is unclear. The objective of this study was to describe enoxaparin therapy and follow-up in critically ill neonates diagnosed with venous thrombosis. Study Design Retrospective medical record review in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a single tertiary care institution. Infants with venous thrombosis diagnosed in the NICU were identified using pre-existing quality improvement lists and medical records. Results Twenty-six infants with 30 venous thromboses were identified with a median gestational age of 31 weeks at birth. Eighteen (69%) infants received enoxaparin for venous thrombosis during their hospitalization, beginning with a median dose of 1.5 mg/kg every 12h. This dose was increased to a median 2.1 mg/kg every 12h to achieve target anti-factor Xa levels. The target dose was significantly higher in patients with a postmenstrual age less than 37 weeks. Enoxaparin treatment was documented after discharge in 12 patients, continuing for a median of 99 days. Four patients died during hospitalization and their deaths were not attributable to venous thrombosis or anticoagulation complication. Follow-up documentation between 6 and 24 months after venous thrombosis diagnosis revealed no major morbidity of venous thrombosis or enoxaparin therapy. Conclusions Our data reinforces the relative safety and necessity of enoxaparin doses above 1.5 mg/kg per 12 hours in most neonates. This was particularly true for infants at lower postmenstrual age. PMID:27906197

  11. Androgen-induced cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a young body builder: case report

    PubMed Central

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Mottamedi, Mahmood; Azimi, Amir Reza; Moghimi, Babak

    2004-01-01

    Background Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an infrequent disease with a variety of causes. Pregnancy, puerperium, contraceptive pills and intracranial infections are the most common causes. The patient may present with headache, focal neurological deficits and seizures. The clinical outcome is highly variable and treatment with heparin is advised. Case presentation The patient is a 22 year old male who presented with headache, repeated vomiting and papilledema. He was a bodybuilder doing exercise since 5 years ago, who had used nandrolone decaonoate 25 milligrams intramuscularly during the previous 5 months. Brain MRI and MRV showed superior sagital and transverse sinus thrombosis and extensive investigations did not reveal any known cause. Conclusions We suggested that androgen was the predisposing factor in our patient. Androgens may increase coagulation factors or platelet activity and cause arterial or venous thrombosis. As athletes may hide using androgens it should be considered as a predisposing factor for thrombotic events in such patients. PMID:15579201

  12. [Risk factors for infection in total knee artrhoplasty, including previously unreported intraoperative fracture and deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    de Dios, M; Cordero-Ampuero, J

    2015-01-01

    To carry out a statistical analysis on the significant risk factors for deep late infection (prosthetic joint infection, PJI) in patients with a knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective observational case-control study was conducted on a case series of 32 consecutive knee infections, using an analysis of all the risk factors reported in the literature. A control series of 100 randomly selected patients operated in the same Department of a University General Hospital during the same period of time, with no sign of deep infection in their knee arthroplasty during follow-up. Statistical comparisons were made using Pearson for qualitative and ANOVA for quantitative variables. The significant (p>0.05) factors found in the series were: Preoperative previous knee surgery, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, inflammatory arthritis. prolonged surgical time, inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis, intraoperative fractures. Postoperative secretion of the wound longer than 10 days, deep palpable haematoma, need for a new surgery, and deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. Distant infections cutaneous, generalized sepsis, urinary tract, pneumonia, abdominal. This is the first report of intraoperative fractures and deep venous thrombosis as significantly more frequent factors in infected TKAs. Other previously described risk factors for TKA PJI are also confirmed. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel approach for assessing the progression of deep venous thrombosis by area of venous thrombus in ultrasonic elastography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yuhui; Chen, Ming

    2014-04-01

    Exact age determination of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is important for an appropriate treatment. The purpose of this present study is to assess the age of acute DVT with the area of venous thrombi in elasticity imaging during the thrombosis procession. The thrombus area is obtained from a specially designed program. It was applied to clot specimens induced in human great saphenous (n = 15) at selected time points following the initiation of thrombosis. The relative mean proportion of blood clots was 50.01% ± 12.44% at day 1; 69.94% ± 8.19% at day 3; 81.93% ± 6.15% at day 6; and 92.37% ± 4.06% at day 9. The results indicated that the thrombus area increased significantly over time, while the normalized strain values inside the thrombus changed only a little. The pathological analyses also showed the same results. Therefore, we conclude that the area of venous thrombi in elasticity imaging may be a novel function for acute DVT staging.

  14. Effects of abdominal pressure on venous return: abdominal vascular zone conditions.

    PubMed

    Takata, M; Wise, R A; Robotham, J L

    1990-12-01

    The effects of changes in abdominal pressure (Pab) on inferior vena cava (IVC) venous return were analyzed using a model of the IVC circulation based on a concept of abdominal vascular zone conditions analogous to pulmonary vascular zone conditions. We hypothesized that an increase in Pab would increase IVC venous return when the IVC pressure at the level of the diaphragm (Pivc) exceeds the sum of Pab and the critical closing transmural pressure (Pc), i.e., zone 3 conditions, but reduce IVC venous return when Pivc is below the sum of Pab and Pc, i.e., zone 2 conditions. The validity of the model was tested in 12 canine experiments with an open-chest IVC bypass. An increase in Pab produced by phrenic stimulation increased the IVC venous return when Pivc-Pab was positive but decreased the IVC venous return when Pivc - Pab was negative. The value of Pivc - Pab that separated net increases from decreases in venous return was 1.00 +/- 0.72 (SE) mmHg (n = 6). An increase in Pivc did not influence the femoral venous pressure when Pivc was lower than the sum of Pab and a constant, 0.96 +/- 0.70 mmHg (n = 6), consistent with presence of a waterfall. These results agreed closely with the predictions of the model and its computer simulation. The abdominal venous compartment appears to function with changes in Pab either as a capacitor in zone 3 conditions or as a collapsible Starling resistor with little wall tone in zone 2 conditions.

  15. [Risk factors associated with the severity of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Changming; Hu, Lu; Feng, Yaping; Liang, Gangzhu; Niu, Luyuan; Zhang, Huan; Cheng, Long; Qi, Haoshan

    2015-08-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with the severity of pulmonary embolism among patients with deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities. This prospective study enrolled 208 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis to screen for pulmonary embolism between July 2010 and July 2012 in Beijing Shijitan Hospital. There were 101 male and 107 female patients, with a mean age of (59 ± 16) years. Gender, age, extension, side of lower extremities of deep venous thrombosis was analyzed by χ² test. Ordinal Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with severity of pulmonary embolism. There were 83 patients with iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, 102 patients with femoropopliteal and 23 patients with calf deep venous thrombosis. Pulmonary embolism was detected in 70 patients with the incidence of 33.7%. Pulmonary embolism was significantly correlated with extension (χ² = 17.286, P = 0.004) and sides (χ² = 15.602, P = 0.008) of deep venous thrombosis, not with age (χ² = 7.099, P = 0.260), gender (χ² = 7.014, P = 0.067), thrombotic risk factors (χ² = 3.335, P = 0.345) in univariate analysis. Results of multivariate ordinal logistic regression showed that iliofemoral vein thrombosis (OR = 6.172, 95% CI: 1.590 to 23.975, P = 0.009) and bilateral venous thrombosis (OR = 7.140, 95% CI: 2.406 to 24.730, P = 0.001) are associated with more serious pulmonary embolism. Incidence of pulmonary embolism is still high in patients with deep venous thrombosis. Extensive iliofemoral and bilateral vein thrombosis may increase risk of severity of pulmonary embolism. Clinicians should pay more attention to these high-risk patients.

  16. Association study of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation with cerebral venous thrombosis in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaznavi, Habib; Soheili, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Soltanpour, Mohammad S

    2015-12-01

    There are limited data on the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia as risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis in Iranian population. We examined a possible association between fasting plasma homocysteine levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, and cerebral venous thrombosis in 50 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (20-63 years old) and 75 healthy controls (18-65 years old). Genotyping of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and homocysteine levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in cerebral venous thrombosis patients than in controls (P = 0.015). Moreover, plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes in both cerebral venous thrombosis patients (P = 0.01) and controls (P = 0.03). Neither 677CT heterozygote genotype [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-2.84, P = 0.556] nor 677TT homozygote genotype (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.32-9.21, P = 0.833) was significantly associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Additionally, no significant differences in the frequency of 677T allele between cerebral venous thrombosis patients and controls were identified (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.69-2.50, P = 0.512). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are significant risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis. Also, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype is not linked with cerebral venous thrombosis, but is a determinant of elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

  17. Complement Activation in Arterial and Venous Thrombosis is Mediated by Plasmin

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jonathan H.; Walton, Bethany L.; Aleman, Maria M.; O'Byrne, Alice M.; Lei, Victor; Harrasser, Micaela; Foley, Kimberley A.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Conway, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus formation leading to vaso-occlusive events is a major cause of death, and involves complex interactions between coagulation, fibrinolytic and innate immune systems. Leukocyte recruitment is a key step, mediated partly by chemotactic complement activation factors C3a and C5a. However, mechanisms mediating C3a/C5a generation during thrombosis have not been studied. In a murine venous thrombosis model, levels of thrombin–antithrombin complexes poorly correlated with C3a and C5a, excluding a central role for thrombin in C3a/C5a production. However, clot weight strongly correlated with C5a, suggesting processes triggered during thrombosis promote C5a generation. Since thrombosis elicits fibrinolysis, we hypothesized that plasmin activates C5 during thrombosis. In vitro, the catalytic efficiency of plasmin-mediated C5a generation greatly exceeded that of thrombin or factor Xa, but was similar to the recognized complement C5 convertases. Plasmin-activated C5 yielded a functional membrane attack complex (MAC). In an arterial thrombosis model, plasminogen activator administration increased C5a levels. Overall, these findings suggest plasmin bridges thrombosis and the immune response by liberating C5a and inducing MAC assembly. These new insights may lead to the development of strategies to limit thrombus formation and/or enhance resolution. PMID:27077125

  18. Mid-term outcome of endovascular treatment for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kun; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Sang, Hong-Fei; Qian, Ai-Min; Rong, Jian-Jie; Li, Cheng-Long

    2017-04-01

    Purposes of the study To evaluate the benefit of stenting the iliac vein in patients with residual iliac vein stenosis treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. Procedures In this randomized prospective study, patients with a first-time acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis that had persisted <14 days were treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis. After catheter-directed thrombolysis, patients with >50% residual iliac vein stenosis were randomly divided into two groups: catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group and catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. Patients received urokinase thrombolysis and low-molecular-weight heparin/oral warfarin during the hospitalization period and were administrated oral warfarin after discharge. Cumulative deep vein patency, the Clinical Etiology Anatomic Pathophysiologic classification system, the Venous Clinical Severity Score and the Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire score were evaluated. Findings The cumulative deep vein patency rate was 74.07% in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group and 46.59% in the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. The mean postoperative Clinical Etiology Anatomic Pathophysiologic classification and Venous Clinical Severity Score was significantly lower in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group than in the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. The mean postoperative Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire score was significantly higher in the catheter-directed thrombolysis + Stent Group than the catheter-directed thrombolysis Alone Group. Conclusions Placement of an iliac vein stent in patients with residual iliac vein stenosis after catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis increases iliac vein patency and improves clinical symptoms and health-related quality of life at mid-term follow-up compared to patients treated with catheter

  19. [Catheter occlusion and venous thrombosis prevention and incidence in adult home parenteral nutrition (HPN) programme patients].

    PubMed

    Puiggròs, C; Cuerda, C; Virgili, N; Chicharro, M L; Martínez, C; Garde, C; de Luis, D

    2012-01-01

    In adult home parenteral nutrition (HPN) programme patients up to now no evidence-based recommendations exist on the central venous catheter maintenance nor venous thrombosis prevention. The use of heparin flushes could be linked with long term complications, besides, anticoagulants use is controversial. To be aware of the usual maintenance practice for HPN central venous catheters, catheter occlusion and related venous thrombosis incidence in our country. Retrospective study of active HPN patients older than 18 years registered by the NADYA- SENPE working group until November 2008. 49 patients were registered (16 males and 33 females), with an average age of 52.1 ± 13.9 years, belonging to 6 hospitals. HPN length was 57.4 ± 73.3 months with 5.8 ± 1.8 PN days a week. The most frequent pathologies were actinic enteritis, intestinal motility disorders and mesenteric ischemia (20.4% each), and neoplasm (16.3%). The reason for HPN provision was short bowel syndrome (49.0%), and intestinal obstruction (28.6%). Neoplasm (16.3%), thrombotic diathesis, thromboembolic syndrome and bed rest (6.1% each) were the main venous thrombosis adjuvant factors. Tunnelled catheters were used in 77.6% of patients, with implanted port-catheters in the remainder. Maintenance of the line was done with saline solution flushes (28.6%) and different concentrations of heparin solutions (69.4%). When heparin was used, it was removed before PN infusion in 63.3% of patients. Catheter occlusion and venous thrombotic events rates were 0.061/10³ and 0.115/10³ HPN days respectively. Eleven patients (22.4%) were treated with anticoagulant drugs due to previous episodes of venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. [corrected] The incidence of catheter related thrombotic complications incidence is low in this group of patients on HPN. There is a great variety of practices focused on the prevention of both: line occlusion and catheter related venous thrombosis. In conclusion, it would be necessary to

  20. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. A range of normal values was defined in 19 subjects for per cent change in venous capacitance and venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPGmore » alone and in combination with RV in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. RPG proved to be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition. When RPG is used as the criterion for the detection of ileofemoral vein thrombosis and RV is used as the criterion for the detection of calf vein thrombosis, the combined techniques show improved sensitivity (92%) and specificity (93%) for the detection of all deep venous thromboses.« less

  1. Postoperative complications after lower extremity arterial bypass increase the risk of new deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Lehman, Erik; Blebea, John; Lurie, Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Background Deep venous thrombosis after any surgical operations is considered a preventable complication. Lower extremity bypass surgery is a commonly performed operation to improve blood flow to lower extremities in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. Despite advances in endovascular surgery, lower extremity arterial bypass remains the gold standard treatment for severe, symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical risk factors associated with development of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity bypass surgery. Methods The American College of Surgeons' NSQIP database was utilized and all lower extremity bypass procedures performed in 2013 were examined. Patient and procedural characteristics were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for the development of postoperative deep venous thrombosis. Results A total of 2646 patients (65% males and 35% females) underwent lower extremity open revascularization during the year 2013. The following factors were found to be significantly associated with postoperative deep venous thrombosis: transfusion >4 units of packed red blood cells (odds ratio (OR) = 5.21, confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-22.81, p = 0.03), postoperative urinary tract infection (OR = 12.59, CI = 4.12-38.48, p < 0.01), length of hospital stay >28 days (OR = 9.30, CI = 2.79-30.92, p < 0.01), bleeding (OR = 2.93, CI = 1.27-6.73, p = 0.01), deep wound infection (OR = 3.21, CI = 1.37-7.56, p < 0.01), and unplanned reoperation (OR = 4.57, CI = 2.03-10.26, p < 0.01). Of these, multivariable analysis identified the factors independently associated with development of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity bypass surgery to be unplanned reoperation (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.54-8.30, p < 0.01), reintubation (OR = 8.93, CI = 2

  2. Radiological findings in cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: a series of 22 cases.

    PubMed

    Boukobza, Monique; Crassard, Isabelle; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Chabriat, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study are to assess the incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) presenting as isolated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to determine the occurrence of cortical venous thrombosis (CoVT). Among 332 patients with CVT, investigated with the same CT and MR standardized protocol, 33 (10 %) presented with SAH, associated in 11 cases with hemorrhagic infarct or intracerebral hemorrhage. This study is based on 22 cases of CVT presenting as SAH in the absence of hemorrhagic brain lesion. Diagnosis of sinus thrombosis was established on T2* and magnetic resonance venography and that of CoVT on T2* sequence. Diagnostic of SAH was based on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. CVT involved lateral sinus in 18 patients, superior sagittal sinus in 16, and straight sinus in 1. Cortical veins were involved in all patients, in continuity with dural sinus thrombosis when present. SAH was circumscribed to few sulci in all cases and mainly localized at the convexity (21 cases). CoVT implied different areas on the same side in four patients and was bilateral in seven. There was no perimesencephalic or basal cisterns hemorrhage. Cortical swelling was present in 12 cases, associated with localized edema. All patients except one had a favorable outcome. This report shows that the incidence of CVT presenting as isolated SAH is evaluated to 6.4 % and that SAH is, in all cases, in the vicinity of CoVT and when dural thrombosis is present in continuity with it.

  3. Increased rate of venous thrombosis may be associated with inpatient dihydroergotamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Tso, Amy R; Patniyot, Irene R; Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J

    2017-07-18

    To review whether the incidence of catheter-associated venous thromboses was higher in patients receiving IV dihydroergotamine compared to lidocaine. We retrospectively reviewed all admissions at the University of California, San Francisco Headache Center from February 25, 2008, through October 31, 2014, for age, sex, diagnosis, aura, treatment dose, type of IV line used, days with line, superficial (SVT) or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) or midline catheter was placed in 315 of 589 (53%) admissions. Mean age was 38 years with a range of 6 to 79 years; 121 patients (21%) were ≤18 years old. Seventy-four percent (433 of 589) of patients were female. Of 263 dihydroergotamine admissions using a PICC or midline catheter, 19 (7.2%) had either an SVT or DVT or a PE; 2 patients were diagnosed with both DVT and PE. Of 52 lidocaine admissions using a PICC or midline catheter, none had a thrombotic event ( p = 0.05, Fisher exact test). Age, sex, aura, total dihydroergotamine dose, and number of days with line were not significant predictors of venous thrombosis. IV dihydroergotamine treatment may be associated with an increased risk of catheter-associated venous thrombosis. A low threshold for diagnostic ultrasound investigation is appropriate because anticoagulation therapy was frequently required. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Internal jugular vein thrombosis associated with venous hypoplasia and protein S deficiency revealed by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Gun; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Lee, Mi Kyoung

    2011-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman, who had no thrombotic risk factors and past history except congenital scoliosis, underwent central venous catheterization (CVC) before correction of the scoliosis. When internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization using the anatomical landmark technique failed, CVC under ultrasound guidance was tried. As a consequence, thrombosis and hypoplasia of the right IJV were incidentally detected by ultrasonography. Central venous catheters were then successfully placed in other veins under ultrasound guidance. Also, after examinations to rule out the possibility of pulmonary embolism and to clarify the causes of the IJV thrombosis, the patient was found to have protein S deficiency. CVC under ultrasound guidance should be recommended to prevent the failure of cannulation and complications such as thromboembolism in patients who could possibly have anomalies of vessels as a result of anatomical deformities caused by severe scoliosis, even if patients do not have thrombotic risk factors such as a history of central catheter insertion or intravenous drug abuse, cancer, advanced age, cerebral infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction. Also, if venous thrombosis is found in patients without predisposing risk factors, one should ascertain the cause of the hypercoagulable state, for example protein S deficiency, and perform appropriate treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

  5. Congenital factor XI and factor VII deficiencies assure an apparent opposite protection against arterial or venous thrombosis: An intriguing observation.

    PubMed

    Girolami, A; Peroni, E; Girolami, B; Ferrari, S; Lombardi, A M

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and type of thrombotic events reported in patients with congenital factor XI (FXI) or factor VII (FVII) deficiency. Data on all patients with congenital FXI or FVII deficiency and a thrombotic event were gathered by means of a time unlimited PubMed search carried out in June 2014 and in February 2015. Appropriate keywords including the medical subject headings were used in both instances. Side tables were also consulted and cross-checking of the references was carried out to avoid omissions. The thrombosis event had to be proven by objective methods. Forty-three patients with FXI deficiency had arterial thrombosis and only eight had venous thrombosis. On the contrary, only five patients with FVII deficiency had arterial thrombosis whereas 31 patients had venous thrombosis. The arterial/venous ratios were 5.37 and 0.17 for FXI or FVII, respectively. Arterial thrombosis is frequent in FXI deficiency whereas venous thrombosis is rare. The reverse is true for FVII deficiency. The significance of these findings is discussed especially in view of the recent use of synthetic anti-FXI compounds in the prophylaxis of post-orthopedic surgery of venous thrombosis complications.

  6. Nutcracker syndrome and deep venous thrombosis in a patient with duplicated inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ricardo de Alvarenga; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; Costa, Renato Fanchiotti; Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Sobreira, Marcone Lima; Jaldin, Rodrigo Gibin

    2016-04-01

    Duplicated inferior vena cava is a rare anomaly, and thrombosis in one or both segments is even less frequent. We present a case of deep venous thrombosis of the left lower limb involving the popliteal, femoral, and iliac veins as well as the left segment of the duplicated vena cava and nutcracker syndrome. After catheter-directed thrombolysis complemented by mechanical thrombolysis, the compromised veins had complete revascularization; the nutcracker syndrome was treated with stent placement, followed by the use of anticoagulants. There was technical success and complete recovery of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in a Patient with Undiagnosed Factor VII Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Hira; Rashid, Anila; Adil, Salman Naseem

    2017-09-01

    Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is one of the rare inherited bleeding disorders. Thrombosis has been occasionally described in inherited FVII deficiency. Here, we report a young female with undiagnosed FVII deficiency who presented with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Oral contraceptive pill was found to be prothrombotic risk factor. The CVSToccurred in spite of the congenital FVII deficiency indicating that no definitive antithrombotic protection is assured by this defect. Low molecular weight heparin and anti-Xa assay were found to be safe choice of anticoagulation and monitoring, respectively, in this patient.

  8. Risk factors and outcome of splanchnic venous thrombosis in patients with necrotizing acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT) is considered a rare but important complication in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and literatures regarding this topic were sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors of SVT in necrotizing acute pancreatitis (NAP) and assess the prognosis of these patients. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied using 15 indices including age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (APACHE II), CRP (C - reactive protein) levels, etc to explore potential risk factors for the development of SVT in NAP patients. Moreover, clinical outcome measures such as mortality, organ failure and length of hospital and ICU stay were also compared between NAP patients with or without SVT. According to the statistical results, only intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was proved to be an independent risk factor for SVT (OR, 1.283; 95% CI, 1.091-1.509,P=0.003). In addition, Balthazar's CT score and occurrence of IPN (infected pancreatic necrosis) also reached statistical significance (P=0.040 and 0.047, respectively), but the 95% confidence interval shown in the multivariate logistic regression suggested that the observed ORs are not significant (1.326;95% CI 0.984-1.787 and 2.61;95 CI 0.972-7.352, respectively), which indicates weaker association between the two parameters and SVT. Regarding the clinical outcomes, patients with SVT showed higher mortality, longer hospital and intensive care unit duration, higher rates of a variety of complications and more utilization of invasive interventions. IAP is an independent risk factor for the development of SVT in patients with NAP, while Balthazar's CT score and occurrence of IPN are also associated with SVT, although not as strong as IAP. Moreover, occurrence of SVT relates with extremely poor prognosis in NAP patients, evidenced by increased mortality, morbidity and need for invasive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  9. Deep venous thrombosis: The valve cusp hypoxia thesis and its incompatibility with modern orthodoxy.

    PubMed

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The valve cusp hypoxia thesis (VCHT) of the aetiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was adumbrated in this journal in 1977 and fully articulated in 2008, the original hypothesis having been strongly corroborated by experiments published in 1981 and 1984. It presents a unitary account of the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and embolism that is rooted in the pathophysiological tradition of Hunter, Virchow, Lister, Welch and Aschoff, a tradition traceable back to Harvey. In this paper we summarise the thesis in its mature form, consider its compatibility with recent advances in the DVT field, and ask why it has not yet been assimilated into the mainstream literature, which during the past half century has been dominated by a haematology-orientated 'consensus model'. We identify and discuss seven ways in which the VCHT is incompatible with these mainstream beliefs about the aetiology of venous thrombosis, drawing attention to: (1) the spurious nature of 'Virchow's triad'; (2) the crucial differences between 'venous thrombus' and 'clot'; the facts that (3) venous thrombi form in the valve pockets (VVPs), (4) DVT is not a primarily haematological condition, (5) the so-called 'thrombophilias' are not thrombogenic per se; (6) the conflict between the single unitary aetiology of DVT and the tacit assumption that the condition is 'multicausal'; (7) the inability of anticoagulants to prevent the initiation of venous thrombogenesis, though they do prevent the growth of thrombi to clinically significant size. In discussing point (7), we show that the VCHT indicates new approaches to mechanical prophylaxis against DVT. These approaches are then formulated as experimentally testable hypotheses, and we suggest methods for testing them preclinically using animal trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Central line-associated venous late effects in children without prior history of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Ellen; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Hopp, Einar; Wesenberg, Finn

    2006-09-01

    The frequency of asymptomatic central line-associated thromboses is high and well recognized among children with cancer, while the long-term consequences are mainly unknown. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated clinical and radiological venous outcome in children with previous long-standing intravascular catheters. The study enrolled 71 children previously treated for malignant or haematological diseases, 4-180 (median 37) mo after removal of their central lines. Inclusion criteria were a prior central line in a jugular vein for a minimum of 6 mo and no previous history of thrombosis. The children had clinical examination for post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and Doppler ultrasonography of the central neck veins. Twelve children had additional venous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). But no kind of venography was performed in the remaining. We observed mild PTS with increased superficial collaterals in four children (6%), but no cases of more severe PTS. None complained of symptoms related to venous late effects. By ultrasonography, post-thrombotic venous alterations were detected in 17 children (24%), and five of these had complete occlusion of the veins. The sensitivity for pathologically increased collaterals to identify occlusive thrombosis was 0.6, while the specificity was 0.98. Occlusive venous thromboembolism was associated with the total number of central venous lines (CVLs; p=0.002), previous severe CVL-associated infections (p=0.001) and duration of central line in place (p=0.042). In spite of no prior history of thrombosis, children with previous long-term jugular lines frequently had local thrombotic sequelae, while clinical symptoms of PTS were rare.

  11. Thrombophilia in Klinefelter Syndrome With Deep Venous Thrombosis, Pulmonary Embolism, and Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis on Testosterone Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Jetty, Vybhav; Goldenberg, Naila; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    We compared thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis in 6 men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), without previously known familial thrombophilia, who had sustained deep venous thrombosis (DVT)-pulmonary emboli (PE) or mesenteric artery thrombosis on testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). After the diagnosis of KS, TRT had been started in the 6 men at ages 11, 12, 13, 13, 19, and 48 years. After starting TRT, DVT-PE or mesenteric artery thrombosis was developed in 6 months, 1, 11, 11, 12, and 49 years. Of the 6 men, 4 had high (>150%) factor VIII (177%, 192%, 263%, and 293%), 3 had high (>150%) factor XI (165%, 181%, and 193%), 1 was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation, and 1 was heterozygous for the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation. None of the 6 men had a precipitating event before their DVT-PE. We speculate that the previously known increased rate of DVT-PE and other thrombi in KS reflects an interaction between prothrombotic, long-term TRT with previously undiagnosed familial thrombophilia. Thrombophilia screening in men with KS before starting TRT would identify a cohort at increased risk for subsequent DVT-PE, providing an optimally informed estimate of the risk/benefit ratio of TRT.

  12. Primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome causing recurrent venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia in a patient with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Elebrashy, Ibrahim; Yousief, Elham; Saif, Aasem

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Addison's disease presenting with recurrent deep venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia and proved to have primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. The case report highlights the shared autoimmune nature of both diseases.

  13. [Identifying clinical risk factors in recurrent idiopathic deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Del Río Solá, M Lourdes; González Fajardo, José Antonio; Vaquero Puerta, Carlos

    2016-03-18

    Oral anticoagulant therapy for more than 6 months in patients with an episode of idiopathic thromboembolic disease is controversial. The objective was to determine predictive clinical signs that identify patients at increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A prospective study which included 306 consecutive patients with a first episode of idiopathic DVT from June 2012 to June 2014. Predictor variables of recurrent thromboembolic disease and episodes of recurrence during follow-up of the patients (28.42 months) were collected. We performed a multivariate analysis to analyze possible predictors (P<.20) and an analysis of Kaplan-Meier to establish mean recurrence-free survival. We identified 91 episodes of residual vein thrombosis on follow-up of the patients (37.5% men and 20.3% women) (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.25-2.71). In the Cox regression analysis stratified by gender, variables showed significant presence of hyperechoic thrombus (P=.001) in males, and persistence of residual thrombus in women (P=.046). The mean recurrence-free survival was shorter in both groups. The presence of echogenic thrombus in men and the existence of residual DVT in women were 2 clinical signs associated with increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic DVT in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [2 cases of recurrent deep venous thrombosis with protein C deficiency].

    PubMed

    Reinharez, D

    1985-01-01

    Because of their gravity and the complications involved, repeated deep venous thromboses require everything to be done to produce an aetiological diagnosis, for only this will make a preventive treatment possible. Amongst causes of phlebitis, haemostatic disorders and coagulation factor anomaly should be systematically looked for, as these can sometimes be corrected. Following the discovery of the Antithrombin III deficiency, the protein C deficiency shows clear progress along these lines. The author here describes two cases of the protein C deficiency in patients who have suffered repeated deep and superficial venous thrombosis, with thromboembolic family antecedents.

  15. Massive multicystic dilatation of the uterine wall with myometrial venous thrombosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Uotila, J; Dastidar, P; Martikainen, P; Kirkinen, P

    2004-09-01

    We present a pregnancy complicated by multicystic dilatation of the uterine wall during the second trimester, leading to massive uterine distension, anemia and preterm Cesarean section. The cystic changes detected by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging involved the whole uterine wall surrounding the entire amniotic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed the benign nature of the cystic changes, which represented dilated and thrombosed venous lacunae. Disturbed venous drainage, combined with local thrombosis, was likely to have led to the collection of a large volume of blood in the uterine wall and the subsequent multicystic change of the myometrium. Copyright 2004 ISUOG

  16. Deep venous thrombosis among diabetic patients in King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Hanan Khalid; Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah Mohamed; MenwerAlanazi, Aseel; Alanazi, Omar Ayed; Alanazi, Abdullah Barghash; Alhowaish, Mohammed Ali; Alzahrani, Hussam Saeed Busays; Alshammari, Mashael Abdullah; ALrashidi, Rawan Fulayyih; Alblowi, Thikra Mohammed; Alqahtani, Sarah Jemal; Almaashi, Fatin Salem

    2017-09-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide and, simultaneously, the most preventable. Studies revealed several risk factors of deep venous thrombosis in hospitalized patients. to identify frequency and factors associated with occurrence of deep venous thrombosis among diabetic patients referred to King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from June to December, 2016. All diabetic patients referred to the hospital departments and who were suspected to have deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and subjected to Doppler examination were included in the study. A questionnaire was designed to obtain data about deep venous thrombosis frequency among participants and factors associated with the development of deep venous thrombosis among them. Data was collected through face to face interviews with patients included in the study. We used SPSS version 16 for data analysis through descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. DVT was detected in 14.7 % of the examined patients. There were significant and positive associations between age and DVT (X 2 =10.13, p=0.03) and between ischemic heart disease and DVT (X 2 =1.628, p=0.043) with the development of deep venous thrombosis among the studied patients. On the other hand, gender, other comorbidities, history of previous DVT, being bed ridden and using orthopedic casting were not significantly associated with the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis among the participants. DVT development rate among the participants was 14.7 %. Aging was significantly associated with DVT occurrence. Most of the studied factors and comorbidities had no significant role in DVT development among participants and only ischemic heart disease was significantly associated with DVT development.

  17. Short-term exposure to particulate matter induces arterial but not venous thrombosis in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Emmerechts, J; Alfaro-Moreno, E; Vanaudenaerde, B M; Nemery, B; Hoylaerts, M F

    2010-12-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest an association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) and venous thrombo-embolism.   To investigate arterial vs. venous thrombosis, inflammation and coagulation in mice, (sub)acutely exposed to two types of PM. Various doses (25, 100 and 200 μg per animal) of urban particulate matter (UPM) or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled in C57Bl6/n mice and several endpoints measured at 4, 10 and 24 h. Mice were also repeatedly exposed to 100 μg per animal on three consecutive days with endpoints measured 24 h after the last instillation. Exposure to 200 μg per mouse UPM enhanced arterial thrombosis, but neither UPM nor DEP significantly enhanced venous thrombosis. Both types of PM induced dose-dependent increases in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total cell numbers (mainly neutrophils) and cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α), with peaks at 4 h and overall higher values for UPM than for DEP. Systemic inflammation was limited to increased serum IL-6 levels, 4 h after UPM. Both types of PM induced similar and dose-dependent but modest increases in factor (F)VII, FVIII and fibrinogen. Three repeated instillations did not or only modestly enhance the proinflammatory and procoagulant status. Compared with DEP, UPM induced more pronounced pulmonary inflammation, but both particle types triggered similar and mild short-term systemic effects. Hence, acute exposure to PM triggers activation of primary hemostasis in the mouse, but no substantial secondary hemostasis activation, resulting in arterial but not venous thrombogenicity. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. [Cerebral venous thrombosis: study of fifteen cases and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Christo, Paulo Pereira; Carvalho, Gustavo Martins de; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira

    2010-01-01

    To analyze a series of 15 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) who had follow-ups at the neurology service of Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte Hospital from April, 2007 to December, 2008. These results were compared with data in literature. Cases were evaluated by retrospective study of the epidemiologic characteristics, signs and symptoms, risk factors and prognosis of 15 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. Diagnoses were reached through magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 14 cases and through an angiography in one. The main risk factors identified were use of birth control pills (40%) and history of family member with deep venous thrombosis. Thrombophilia was found in two patients (13%). The veins more affected were the transverse sinus (73%) followed by the upper sagital sinus (53%). Four patients had strokes and five had only headaches as isolated symptoms. Twelve patients were treated with heparin and oral anticoagulant. Treatment with heparin in the acute phase followed by an oral anticoagulant was shown as safe and efficient to prevent worsening of the disease, recurrence and for quick improvement of neurological symptoms of all treated patients. CVT is one of the possible diagnoses of secondary headache even in patients with no signs and symptoms.

  19. Fibrin d-dimer concentration, deep vein thrombosis symptom duration, and venous thrombus volume.

    PubMed

    Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kalsi, Henna; Wysokinski, Waldemar E; Mauck, Karen F; Bhagra, Anjali; Havyer, Rachel D; Thompson, Carrie A; Hayes, Sharonne N; McBane, Robert D

    2011-04-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrin D-dimer levels, symptom duration, and thrombus volume, consecutive patients with incident deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated. In a cross-sectional study design, patient symptom onset was determined by careful patient questioning. Venous thrombosis was confirmed by compression duplex ultrasonography. Thrombus volume was estimated based on patient's femur length using a forensic anthropology method. Fibrin D-dimer was measured by latex immunoassay. 72 consecutive patients with confirmed leg DVT agreed to participate. The median symptom duration at the time of diagnosis was 10 days. The median D-dimer concentration was 1050 ng/dL. The median thrombus volume was 12.92 cm(3). D-Dimer levels correlated with estimated thrombus volume (P < .0006 CI 0.12-0.41; R(2) (adjusted) = .15) but not symptom duration, patient's age, or gender. Despite varying symptom duration prior to diagnosis, fibrin D-dimer remains a sensitive measure of venous thrombosis and correlates with thrombus volume.

  20. Gas6 Promotes Inflammatory (CCR2hiCX3CR1lo) Monocyte Recruitment in Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Laurance, Sandrine; Bertin, François-René; Ebrahimian, Talin; Kassim, Yusra; Rys, Ryan N; Lehoux, Stéphanie; Lemarié, Catherine A; Blostein, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are inter-related. Gas6 (growth arrest-specific 6) promotes venous thrombosis and participates to inflammation through endothelial-innate immune cell interactions. Innate immune cells can provide the initiating stimulus for venous thrombus development. We hypothesize that Gas6 promotes monocyte recruitment during venous thrombosis. Deep venous thrombosis was induced in wild-type and Gas6-deficient (-/-) mice using 5% FeCl 3 and flow reduction in the inferior vena cava. Total monocyte depletion was achieved by injection of clodronate before deep venous thrombosis. Inflammatory monocytes were depleted using an anti-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antibody. Similarly, injection of an anti-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody induced CCL2 depletion. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to characterize the monocytes recruited to the thrombus. In vivo, absence of Gas6 was associated with a reduction of monocyte recruitment in both deep venous thrombosis models. Global monocyte depletion by clodronate leads to smaller thrombi in wild-type mice. Compared with wild type, the thrombi from Gas6 -/- mice contain less inflammatory (CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo ) monocytes, consistent with a Gas6-dependent recruitment of this monocyte subset. Correspondingly, selective depletion of CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes reduced the formation of venous thrombi in wild-type mice demonstrating a predominant role of the inflammatory monocytes in thrombosis. In vitro, the expression of both CCR2 and CCL2 were Gas6 dependent in monocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, impacting monocyte migration. Moreover, Gas6-dependent CCL2 expression and monocyte migration were mediated via JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). This study demonstrates that Gas6 specifically promotes the recruitment of inflammatory CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes through the regulation of both CCR2 and CCL2 during deep venous thrombosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Intervention radiology for venous thrombosis: early thrombus removal using invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Casanegra, Ana I; McBane, Robert D; Bjarnason, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    The post thrombotic syndrome is one of the most dreaded complications of proximal deep vein thrombosis. This syndrome leads to pain and suffering with leg swelling, recalcitrant ulceration and venous claudication which greatly impairs mobility and quality of life. The prevalence can be high in patients with iliofemoral venous involvement particularly in the setting of a proximal venous stenosis, such as occurs in May Thurner syndrome. Anticoagulation alone does not reduce the likelihood of this outcome. Compression therapy may be effective but garment discomfort limits its implementation. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, which combines catheter-directed thrombolysis with mechanical thrombus dissolution, provides an attractive treatment strategy for such patients. The rationale and delivery of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, including patient selection and adjunctive antithrombotic therapy, will be reviewed in addition to tips and tricks for managing difficult patient scenarios. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Sequelae of unilateral deep venous thrombosis in plethysmography of the calf].

    PubMed

    Zicot, M; Depairon, M

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four patients suffering from unilateral venous disturbances revealed by Doppler and secondary to a deep venous thrombosis were examined. The calf venous haemodynamics was analyzed by use of a strain-jauge plethysmograph. We determined the increase in venous volume due to the inflation of a thigh pneumatic cuff (pressure at 20, 40 and 60 mm Hg; delta V20, delta V40, delta V60). The maximal venous output (Vout) was measured after a quick release of the 60 mm Hg pressure. The maximal venous drainage (VMM) was assessed during a rhythmic exercise (tiptoeing) while standing; delta V20, delta V40 and delta V60 were nearly constantly reduced on the abnormal side (t of Student respectively 3.49; 6.09 and 5.07). Vout dropped proportionaly to delta V60. Some abnormalities due to valvular insufficiency were frequently present in the beginning of the inflation curve at the level of the abnormal limbs. VMM was nearly always largely decreased on the affected side (t = 5.43). The unilateral flow disturbances displayed by the Doppler were regularly going with abnormalities of the capacitive system, well demonstrated by comparison with the non-affected limbs.

  3. Isolated Deep Venous Thrombosis: Implications for 2-Point Compression Ultrasonography of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wes; Thom, Christopher; Fields, J Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Two-point compression ultrasonography focuses on the evaluation of common femoral and popliteal veins for complete compressibility. The presence of isolated thrombi in proximal veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins should prompt modification of 2-point compression technique. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of deep venous thrombi isolated to lower-extremity veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins in emergency department (ED) patients with clinically suspected deep venous thrombosis. This was a retrospective study of all adult ED patients who received a lower-extremity venous duplex ultrasonographic examination for evaluation of deep venous thrombosis during a 6-year period. The ultrasonographic protocol included B-mode, color-flow, and spectral Doppler scanning of the common femoral, femoral, deep femoral, popliteal, and calf veins. Deep venous thrombosis was detected in 362 of 2,451 patients (14.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.3% to 16.1%). Thrombus confined to the common femoral vein alone was found in 5 of 362 cases (1.4%; 95% CI 0.2% to 2.6%). Isolated femoral vein thrombus was identified in 20 of 362 patients (5.5%; 95% CI 3.2% to 7.9%). Isolated deep femoral vein thrombus was found in 3 of 362 cases (0.8%; 95% CI -0.1% to 1.8%). Thrombus in the popliteal vein alone was identified in 53 of 362 cases (14.6%; 95% CI 11% to 18.2%). In our study, 6.3% of ED patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis had isolated thrombi in proximal veins other than common femoral and popliteal veins. Our study results support the addition of femoral and deep femoral vein evaluation to standard compression ultrasonography of the common femoral and popliteal vein, assuming that this does not have a deleterious effect on specificity. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for Extending the Duration of Chemoprophylaxis following Free Flap Harvest from the Lower Extremity: Prospective Screening for Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rau, Aline S; Harry, Brian L; Leem, Ted H; Song, John I; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing harvest of a free flap from the lower extremity who were receiving standard chemoprophylaxis while hospitalized. A retrospective review of 65 consecutive patients undergoing surgery between 2011 and 2013 was performed to determine the incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis. These patients were screened for deep venous thrombosis based on development of symptoms. Prospective evaluation of a similar consecutive population of 37 patients between 2014 and 2015 was then performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis. These patients underwent routine duplex ultrasonography of both legs at postoperative weeks 1 and 4. Symptomatic deep venous thrombosis occurred in 2.9 percent of all patients. In the prospective cohort, 8.1 percent of the patients were found to have an acute deep venous thrombosis by postoperative week 1. At postoperative week 4, 16.7 percent of the patients developed a new, acute deep venous thrombosis. The estimated costs of screening and treating deep venous thrombosis in the retrospective group and the prospective group were $222 and $2259, respectively. The cost of routine chemoprophylaxis without duplex screening for an additional 14 days after discharge was $125 per patient. The rate of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis may be much higher than previously appreciated in this population of very high-risk patients, especially during the 2 weeks after discharge. Extending the duration of chemoprophylaxis to 4 weeks after surgery may be warranted. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation.

  6. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Results Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Conclusion Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. PMID:25548650

  7. Unilateral Postoperative Deep Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Complete Recovery: A Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Benifla, Mony; Laughlin, Suzzanne; Tovar-Spinoza, Zulma S; Rutka, James T; Dirks, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    Postsurgical deep brain venous thrombosis has not been well described in children before. When approaching thalamic or intraventricular lesions, extra care should be taken to prevent injury to the internal cerebral veins (ICVs) and the vein of Galen. However, even when they are well preserved during surgery, postoperative hemodynamic changes, mainly in the first 24 h, or surgical manipulation can cause thrombosis of these veins. We report 2 children with unilateral postoperative ICV thrombosis; in 1 of the patients the vein of Galen was also thrombosed. Although both patients had altered sensorium initially, no anticoagulation therapy was given, and they both recovered well. When approaching thalamic or intraventricular lesions, extra care should be taken to prevent injury to the ICV and the vein of Galen. The surgeon should respect the deep brain venous system when approaching midline structures. Both the neurosurgeon and the neuroradiologist should be aware of this possible complication in order to make a prompt diagnosis and to offer proper treatment if needed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Evaluation of risk factors for thrombophilia in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Yokuş, Osman; Şahin Balçık, Özlem; Albayrak, Murat; Ceran, Funda; Dağdaş, Simten; Yılmaz, Mesude; Özet, Gülsüm

    2010-09-05

    The increased risk for thrombosis is known as hypercoagulability or thrombophilia. In our study, we aimed to compare the frequency of the identified defects for thrombophilia in patients with central venous thrombosis and under the age of 50 years, with the findings in the current literature. Forty-three patients (16-50 years old) were retrospectively evaluated. Thrombophilia investigation included determinations of protein C, protein S, antithrombin, and activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin 20210A (PT 20210) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations, antiphospholipid antibodies (APA), factor VIII levels, and homocysteine levels. We detected a single thrombophilic defect in 67.4%, two defects in 27.9% and three defects in 4.7% of our patients. The most common thrombophilic defect was mutation in the MTHFR gene (41.8%), and this was followed by the FVL mutation (34.9%). Since the prevalence of individual thrombophilic defects varies in each population, ethnic group and geographical location, screening for thrombophilic defects in patients presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis should primarily investigate the most frequent thrombophilia risk factors.

  9. Rivaroxaban attenuates thrombosis by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of deep venous thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junhao; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhenwei; Luo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of patients with deep venous thrombus. Evidence has shown that rivaroxaban is a potential oral anticoagulant drug for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, the rivaroxaban-mediated molecular mechanism involved in the progression of deep venous thrombosis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of rivaroxaban and the underlying signaling pathways in the prevention and treatment of rats with deep venous thrombosis. A rat model with deep vein thrombus formation was established and received treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS as control. The thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. The progression of thrombosis and stroke was evaluated after treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus was assessed. The therapeutic effects of rivaroxaban were evaluated as determined by changes in deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. Our results showed that rivaroxaban markedly inhibited TAFI and PAI-1 expression levels, neutrophils, tissue factor, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), myeloperoxidase and macrophages in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus. Expression levels of ADP, PAIs, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thromboxane were downregulated in vein endothelial cells and in serum from the experimental rats. Importantly, the incidences of inferior vena cava filter thrombus were protected by rivaroxaban during heparin-induced thrombolysis deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. We observed that activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway was inhibited by rivaroxaban in vein endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, immunohistology indicated that rivaroxaban attenuated deep venous thrombosis and the

  10. Rivaroxaban attenuates thrombosis by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of deep venous thrombus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junhao; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhenwei; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of patients with deep venous thrombus. Evidence has shown that rivaroxaban is a potential oral anticoagulant drug for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, the rivaroxaban-mediated molecular mechanism involved in the progression of deep venous thrombosis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of rivaroxaban and the underlying signaling pathways in the prevention and treatment of rats with deep venous thrombosis. A rat model with deep vein thrombus formation was established and received treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS as control. The thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. The progression of thrombosis and stroke was evaluated after treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus was assessed. The therapeutic effects of rivaroxaban were evaluated as determined by changes in deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. Our results showed that rivaroxaban markedly inhibited TAFI and PAI-1 expression levels, neutrophils, tissue factor, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), myeloperoxidase and macrophages in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus. Expression levels of ADP, PAIs, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thromboxane were downregulated in vein endothelial cells and in serum from the experimental rats. Importantly, the incidences of inferior vena cava filter thrombus were protected by rivaroxaban during heparin-induced thrombolysis deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. We observed that activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway was inhibited by rivaroxaban in vein endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, immunohistology indicated that rivaroxaban attenuated deep venous thrombosis and the

  11. Intrasinus thrombolysis in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: single-center experience in 19 patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Rajshekher, Garikapati; Reddy, Chenna Rajesh; Venkateswarlu, J; Prabhakar, Subhashini

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from small case series suggests that the intrasinus thrombolysis (IST) is relatively safe and effective in rapid recanalization of thrombosed sinuses and reversal of neurological deficits in patients with cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) However, in the absence of randomized controlled trials, the exact role of IST in the management of CVST is unclear, To study the safety and efficacy of IST in patients with CVST. Adult patients with CVST who received IST during a two-year period (January 2003-December 2004) were included. Data regarding demographic, clinical and radiological features were collected. Follow-up data were obtained at 3-6 months. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) was repeated to assess the recanalisation of venous sinuses. Nineteen patients (11 women) with a mean age of 32 years (range 17-46 years) received IST during the study period. Common clinical features at presentation included headache, altered consciousness and seizures. Indications for thrombolysis included clinical deterioration despite adequate anticoagulation and rapid worsening of consciousness or neurological deficits. Thirteen patients (68%) had dural sinus thrombosis alone and six others had coexisting deep venous system involvement. Venous infarcts were present in 13 patients. At discharge, 15 patients (79%) had good outcome and were either asymptomatic or had only mild deficits and were independent for activities of daily living. Three patients died and one survived with severe neurological deficits. Angiographic improvement (as per digital subtraction angiography) was noted in 12 patients (complete in five and partial in seven) and seven patients had poor or no recanalization of the involved venous sinuses. At a median follow-up of 6.3 months, 14 (74%) patients had no or mild neurological deficits. IST is safe and effective in patients with CVST who fail to respond to conventional medical treatment. However, the subgroup of patients who are likely to benefit

  12. [Thrombosis and obstruction associated with central venous lines. Incidence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Vivanco Allende, A; Rey Galán, C; Rodríguez de la Rúa, M V; Alvarez García, F; Medina Villanueva, A; Concha Torre, A; Mayordomo Colunga, J; Martínez Camblor, P

    2013-09-01

    To analyse the incidence of thrombosis and obstruction associated with central venous lines (CVL) inserted in critically ill children, and to determine their risk factors. Prospective observational study in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a University Hospital. An analysis was made of 825 CVL placed in 546 patients. Age, gender, weight, type of catheter (lines, size, and brand), final location of the catheter, mechanical ventilation, type of sedation and analgesia used, initial failure by the doctor to perform CVL catheterization, number of attempts, CVL indication, admission diagnosis, emergency or scheduled procedure, and delayed mechanical complications (DMC). Risk factors for these complications were determined by a multiple regression analysis. A total of 52 cases of DMC, 42 cases of obstruction, and 10 of thrombosis were registered. Obstruction and thrombosis rates were 4.96 and 1.18 per 100 CVL, respectively. The only risk factor independently linked to obstruction was the duration of the CVL (OR 1.05; 95% CI; 1.00-1.10). The number of lines with thrombosis (OR 4.88; 95% CI; 1.26-18.0), as well as parenteral nutrition (OR 4.17; 95% CI; 1.06-16.31) was statistically significant according to bivariate analysis. However, no risk factors for thrombosis were found in the multivariate analysis. Obstruction and thrombosis of CVL inserted in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit are relatively common complications. CVL duration is an independent risk factor for any line obstruction. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Catheter-directed Thrombolysis in Management of Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, James X; Sudheendra, Deepak; Stavropoulos, S William; Nadolski, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The treatment for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is challenging, as the use of anticoagulation alone can be insufficient for restoring venous patency and thus lead to prolongation of acute symptoms and an increased risk of chronic complications, including venous insufficiency and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). In these cases, earlier and more complete thrombus removal can ameliorate acute symptoms and reduce long-term sequelae. Endovascular therapies involving the use of pharmacologic, mechanical, and combined pharmacomechanical modalities have been developed to achieve these goals. The most frequently used of these techniques, catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), involves the infusion of a thrombolytic agent through a multiple-side-hole catheter placed within the thrombosed vein to achieve high local doses and thereby break down the clot while minimizing systemic thrombolytic agent exposure. Randomized controlled trial results have indicated decreased PTS rates and improved venous patency rates in patients treated with CDT compared with these rates in patients treated with anticoagulation. The use of newer pharmacomechanical techniques, as compared with conventional CDT, reduces procedural times and thrombolytic agent doses and is the subject of ongoing investigations. Endovascular thrombus removal techniques offer a means to improve venous valvular function and decrease the risk of debilitating long-term complications such as PTS and are a promising option for treating patients with iliofemoral DVT. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. Incidence of upper limb venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC).

    PubMed

    Abdullah, B J J; Mohammad, N; Sangkar, J V; Abd Aziz, Y F; Gan, G G; Goh, K Y; Benedict, I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) in the upper limbs in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We prospectively investigated the incidence of VT in the upper limbs of 26 patients who had PICC inserted. The inclusion criteria were all patients who had a PICC inserted, whilst the exclusion criterion was the inability to perform a venogram (allergies, previous contrast medium reaction and inability of gaining venous access). Both valved and non-valved catheters were evaluated. Prior to removal of the PICC, an upper limb venogram was performed. The number of segments involved with VT were determined. The duration of central venous catheterization was classified as; less than 6 days, between 6 days and 14 days and more than 14 days. VT was confirmed in 38.5% (10/26) of the patients. The majority 85.7% (12/14) were complete occlusive thrombi and the majority of VT only involved one segment. There was no statistical correlation between the site of insertion of the PICC and the location of VT. Neither was there any observed correlation between the occurrence of VT with the patient's history of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac insufficiency, smoking or cancer. There was also no statistical correlation with the size of the catheter. In conclusion, PICCs are associated with a significant risk of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEVT).

  15. Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus meningitis complicated by venous sinus thrombosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Martin; Mu, Andre; Tong, Steven Y C

    2018-06-01

    A case of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus meningitis, unusually occurring in a splenectomized patient and complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis, is described. Following presentation with meningism and diagnosis and management of S. gallolyticus meningitis, the patient presented again with a further 4days of fevers and subsequently developed left-sided paresthesias. Cerebral imaging revealed a venous thrombus in the right frontal cortical veins and left sigmoid sinus. The patient recovered following 4 weeks of intravenous ceftriaxone and anticoagulation with enoxaparin and then warfarin. Apart from the splenectomy, no underlying cause was found. The patient was commenced on life-long prophylactic amoxicillin, given appropriate vaccinations, and anticoagulated with warfarin. After initial difficulties, identification of the causative organism to the subspecies level was confirmed by analysis of short-read whole genome sequencing data. This case demonstrates two features that have not previously been reported for S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infections: splenectomy as a potential risk factor and that infection may be complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis. The resolution provided by whole genome sequencing was valuable in accurately identifying the bacterial subspecies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination wth RV in the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was lessmore » sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition.« less

  17. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Vanessa; Stockhausen, Sven; Busse, Johanna; Antonelli, Antonella; Miller, Meike; Schubert, Irene; Hoseinpour, Parandis; Chandraratne, Sue; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Gaertner, Florian; Lorenz, Michael; Agresti, Alessandra; Coletti, Raffaele; Antoine, Daniel J.; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Reese, Sven; Laitinen, Iina; Schwaiger, Markus; Walch, Axel; Sperandio, Markus; Nawroth, Peter P.; Reinhardt, Christoph; Jäckel, Sven; Bianchi, Marco E.; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Although sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior, we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation, to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation. Transfer of platelets into Hmgb1−/− chimeras showed that this cell type is the major source of HMGB1, exposing reduced HMGB1 on their surface upon activation thereby enhancing the recruitment of monocytes. Activated leukocytes in turn support oxidation of HMGB1 unleashing its prothrombotic activity and promoting platelet aggregation. This potentiates the amount of HMGB1 and further nurtures the accumulation and activation of monocytes through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to local delivery of monocyte-derived tissue factor and cytokines. Moreover, disulfide HMGB1 facilitates formation of prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediated by RAGE, exposing additional HMGB1 on their extracellular DNA strands. Eventually, a vicious circle of coagulation and inflammation is set in motion leading to obstructive DVT formation. Therefore, platelet-derived disulfide HMGB1 is a central mediator of the sterile inflammatory process in venous thrombosis and could be an attractive target for an anti-inflammatory approach for DVT prophylaxis. PMID:27574188

  18. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis via Small Saphenous Veins for Treating Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Peng; Yu, Ji-Xiang; Li, Yu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Meng, Ran-Ran

    2016-08-23

    BACKGROUND There is little data comparing catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) via small saphenous veins vs. systematic thrombolysis on complications and efficacy in acute deep venous thrombosis patients. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of CDT via the small saphenous veins with systematic thrombolysis for patients with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-six patients with acute DVT admitted from June 2012 to December 2013 were divided into 2 groups: 27 patients received systemic thrombolysis (ST group) and 39 patients received CDT via the small saphenous veins (CDT group). The thrombolysis efficiency, limb circumference differences, and complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in the 2 groups were recorded. RESULTS The angiograms demonstrated that all or part of the fresh thrombus was dissolved. There was a significant difference regarding thrombolysis efficiency between the CDT group and ST group (71.26% vs. 48.26%, P=0.001). In both groups the postoperative limb circumference changes were higher compared to the preoperative values. The differences between postoperative limb circumferences on postoperative days 7 and 14 were significantly higher in the CDT group than in the ST group (all P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative PTS in the CDT group (17.9%) was significantly lower in comparison to the ST group (51.85%) during the follow-up (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS Catheter-directed thrombolysis via the small saphenous veins is an effective, safe, and feasible approach for treating acute deep venous thrombosis.

  19. Arterial complications, venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Rob Paulus Augustinus; Reijman, Max; Janssen, Daan Martijn; van Mourik, Jan Bernardus Antonius

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize the current knowledge on vascular complications and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, PubMed publisher, and Google scholar medical literature databases were searched up to November 10, 2015. Any arthroscopic surgical method of primary or revision intra-articular ACL reconstruction of all graft types in humans was included. A risk of bias assessment was determined. RESULTS Fourty-seven studies were included in the review. Pseudaneurysms were the most frequently reported arterial complication after ACL reconstruction, irrespective of graft type or method of graft fixation with an incidence of 0.3%. The time to diagnosis of arterial complications after ACL reconstruction varied from days to mostly weeks but even years. After ACL reconstruction without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 9.7%, of which 2.1% was symptomatic. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 0.1%. Tourniquet time > 2 h was related to venous thromboembolism. Thromboprophylaxis is indicated in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism. CONCLUSION After ACL reconstruction, the incidence of arterial complications, symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism was 0.3%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. Arterial complications may occur with all types of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, methods of graft fixation as well as any type of graft. Patients considered to be at moderate or high risk of venous thromboembolism should routinely receive thromboprophylaxis after ACL reconstruction. PMID:27672574

  20. Bacterial signatures in thrombus aspirates of patients with lower limb arterial and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Vakhitov, Damir; Tuomisto, Sari; Martiskainen, Mika; Korhonen, Janne; Pessi, Tanja; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Suominen, Velipekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Karhunen, Pekka J; Oksala, Niku

    2018-06-01

    Increasing data supports the role of bacterial inflammation in adverse events of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In our previous research, DNA of bacterial species found in coronary artery thrombus aspirates and ruptured cerebral aneurysms were mostly of endodontic and periodontal origin, where Streptococcus mitis group DNA was the most common. We hypothesized that the genomes of S mitis group could be identified in thrombus aspirates of patients with lower limb arterial and deep venous thrombosis. Thrombus aspirates and control blood samples taken from 42 patients with acute or acute-on-chronic lower limb ischemia (Rutherford I-IIb) owing to arterial or graft thrombosis (n = 31) or lower limb deep venous thrombosis (n = 11) were examined using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect all possible bacterial DNA and DNA of S mitis group in particular. The samples were considered positive, if the amount of bacterial DNA in the thrombus aspirates was 2-fold or greater in comparison with control blood samples. In the positive samples the mean difference for the total bacterial DNA was 12.1-fold (median, 7.1), whereas the differences for S mitis group DNA were a mean of 29.1 and a median of 5.2-fold. Of the arterial thrombus aspirates, 57.9% were positive for bacterial DNA, whereas bacterial genomes were found in 75% of bypass graft thrombosis with 77.8% of the prosthetic grafts being positive. Of the deep vein thrombus aspirates, 45.5% contained bacterial genomes. Most (80%) of bacterial DNA-positive cases contained DNA from the S mitis group. Previous arterial interventions were significantly associated with the occurrence of S mitis group DNA (P = .049, Fisher's exact test). This is the first study to report the presence of bacterial DNA, predominantly of S mitis group origin, in the thrombus aspirates of surgical patients with lower limb arterial and deep venous thrombosis, suggesting their possible role in the pathogenesis of

  1. Identification of intraluminal thrombus by ultrasonography in emergency department patients with acute deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ninfa; Schecter, Joshua; Stone, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Traditionally, the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) using duplex ultrasonography (DU) has relied on the absence of venous compressibility. Visualization of an intraluminal thrombus is considered an uncommon finding. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of intraluminal thrombus in emergency department (ED) patients diagnosed with acute DVT. Retrospective chart review of adult ED patients with DU examinations demonstrating acute DVT. Patients with chronic DVT or patients in whom DU did not demonstrate DVT were excluded from data analysis. Study reports and ultrasound images were reviewed and analyzed for the presence of intraluminal thrombus. There were 189 patients who met inclusion criteria, of which 160 (85%) were found to have intraluminal thrombus. Intraluminal thrombi are present in the majority of patients in our ED in whom acute DVT is identified by DU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A vascular laboratory protocol for improving and managing after-hours suspected acute deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Angela H; Eckert, George; Lemmon, Gary W; Sawchuk, Alan; Dalsing, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    This study reviews the clinical and workforce impact of a suggested protocol designed for the management of suspected acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients seen after standard vascular laboratory business hours. The protocol included the use of Wells score, D-dimer and a single dose of therapeutic anticoagulant to defer venous duplex ultrasound (VDU) testing until routine business hours unless contraindicated. Information was collected on medical history, physical exam and the timing of any diagnostic studies and treatment provided. Over 15% of studies done after-hours were deemed unnecessary by our protocol and in every individual the results were negative for an acute DVT. There were no adverse events from a one-time dose of anticoagulant. Limiting emergency VDU coverage to evaluate for acute DVT based on a management protocol can eliminate unnecessary after-hours VDU testing without having a negative impact on patient care.

  3. Incidence and Risk Factors for Sigmoid Venous Thrombosis Following CPA Tumor Resection.

    PubMed

    Shew, Matthew; Kavookjian, Hannah; Dahlstrom, Kelly; Muelleman, Thomas; Lin, James; Camarata, Paul; Ledbetter, Luke N; Staecker, Hinrich

    2018-06-01

    Our primary aim was to determine the incidence of sigmoid venous thrombosis (SVT) and determine risks factors and sequelae of SVT following cerebellopontine angle tumor resection. Retrospective cohort study. Academic tertiary care hospital. Patients over 18 years of age who underwent resection of cerebellopontine angle meningioma or vestibular schwannoma from January 2005 to April 2016 who had postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnostic. Incidence of postoperative sigmoid venous thrombosis (SVT) from official radiology reports was compared with retrospective imaging review by our institutional neuroradiologists. Data collected included age, length of stay, body mass index, surgical approach, and postoperative complications. A total of 127 patients were identified. Official radiology reads significantly underreported the incidence of postoperative SVT compared with retrospective review by our institutional neuroradiologist for patients who underwent routine postoperative imaging (n = 4 [3.1%] versus n = 22 [17.3%]; p < 0.001). There was a statistical trend toward increased risk for thrombosis in patients undergoing translabyrinthine and staged resection that did not reach significance (p = 0.068). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak incidence in patients with thrombosis was significantly increased (n = 9 [37.5%] versus n = 13 [12.6%]; p = 0.007). When controlling for approach, the presence of thrombus was associated with a more then three-fold increase in odds of CSF leak (OR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.12-9.48, p = 0.030). There was no correlation between SVT and age (p = 0.788), body mass index (p = 0.686), length of stay (p = 0.733), preoperative tumor size (p = 0.555), or increased postoperative ICP (p = 0.645). Only one patient was symptomatic from sigmoid thrombosis compared with 21 who were not. Incidence of SVT is significantly underreported and may predispose patients to increase risk for CSF leak. Staged

  4. Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity with portable vascular ultrasonography can accurately detect deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jonathan G; Lovato, Luis M; Jang, Timothy B

    2010-12-01

    Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity is an established method of detecting proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis when performed by a certified operator in a vascular laboratory. Our objective is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of bedside 2-point compression ultrasonography performed in the emergency department (ED) with portable vascular ultrasonography for the detection of proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. We did this by directly comparing emergency physician-performed ultrasonography to lower extremity duplex ultrasonography performed by the Department of Radiology. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study and diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of ED patients with a suspected lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, conducted at a single-center, urban, academic ED. All physicians had a 10-minute training session before enrolling patients. ED compression ultrasonography occurred before Department of Radiology ultrasonography and involved identification of 2 specific points: the common femoral and popliteal vessels, with subsequent compression of the common femoral and popliteal veins. The study result was considered positive for proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis if either vein was incompressible or a thrombus was visualized. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with the final radiologist interpretation of the Department of Radiology ultrasonography as the criterion standard. A total of 47 physicians performed 199 2-point compression ultrasonographic examinations in the ED. Median number of examinations per physician was 2 (range 1 to 29 examinations; interquartile range 1 to 5 examinations). There were 45 proximal lower extremity deep venous thromboses observed on Department of Radiology evaluation, all correctly identified by ED 2-point compression ultrasonography. The 153 patients without proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis all had a negative ED compression

  5. Residual vein thrombosis and serial D-dimer for the long-term management of patients with deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Vedovetto, Valentina; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Bucherini, Eugenio; Corradini, Sara; Enea, Iolanda; Cosmi, Benilde; Mumoli, Nicola; Visonà, Adriana; Barillari, Giovanni; Bova, Carlo; Quintavalla, Roberto; Zanatta, Nello; Pedrini, Simona; Villalta, Sabina; Camporese, Giuseppe; Testa, Sofie; Parisi, Roberto; Becattini, Cecilia; Cuppini, Stefano; Pengo, Vittorio; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2017-06-01

    The optimal long-term strategy for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is uncertain. In 620 consecutive outpatients with a first proximal DVT who had completed at least three months of anticoagulation (unprovoked in 483, associated with minor risk factors in 137), the ultrasound presence of residual vein thrombosis (RVT) was assessed and defined as an incompressibility of at least 4mm. In 517 patients without RVT and with negative D-dimer, anticoagulation was stopped and D-dimer was repeated after one and three months. Anticoagulation was resumed in 63 of the 72 patients in whom D-dimer reverted to positivity. During a mean follow-up of three years, recurrent VTE developed in 40 (7.7%) of the 517 patients, leading to an annual rate of 3.6% (95% CI, 2.6 to 4.9): 4.1% (95% CI, 2.9 to 5.7) in individuals with unprovoked DVT, and 2.2% (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.5) in those with DVT associated with minor risk factors. Of the 233 males with unprovoked DVT, 17 (7.3%) developed events in the first year of follow-up. Major bleeding complications occurred in 8 patients while on anticoagulation, leading to an annual rate of 1.2% (95% CI, 0.6 to 2.4). Discontinuing anticoagulation in patients with a first episode of proximal DVT based on the assessment of RVT and serial D-dimer leads to an overall annual rate of recurrent VTE lower than 5.0%, which is the rate deemed as acceptable by the Subcommittee on Control of Anticoagulation of the ISTH. However, in males with unprovoked DVT there is room for further improving the long-term strategy of VTE prevention. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01285661). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-07-19

    BACKGROUND Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152-61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247-276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895-419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953-0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895-0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891-0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909-0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. CONCLUSIONS Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction.

  7. Differentiation of deep venous thrombosis from femoral vein mixing artifact on routine abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Ankur M; Hoffman, David; Kierans, Andrea S; Ream, Justin M; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the performance of qualitative and quantitative imaging features for the differentiation of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) from mixing artifact on routine portal venous phase abdominopelvic CT. This retrospective study included 40 adult patients with a femoral vein filling defect on portal venous phase CT and a Duplex ultrasound (n = 36) or catheter venogram (n = 4) to confirm presence or absence of DVT. Two radiologists (R1, R2) assessed the femoral veins for various qualitative and quantitative features. 60% of patients were confirmed to have DVT and 40% had mixing artifact. Features with significantly greater frequency in DVT than mixing artifact (all p ≤ 0.006) were central location (R1 90% vs. 28%; R2 96% vs. 31%), sharp margin (R1 83% vs. 28%; R2 96% vs. 31%), venous expansion (R1 48% vs. 6%, R2 56% vs. 6%), and venous wall enhancement (R1 62% vs. 0%; R2 48% vs. 0%). DVT exhibited significantly lower mean attenuation than mixing artifact (R1 42.1 ± 20.2 vs. 57.1 ± 23.6 HU; R2 43.6 ± 19.4 vs. 58.8 ± 23.4 HU, p ≤ 0.031) and a significantly larger difference in vein diameter compared to the contralateral vein (R1 0.4 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2 cm; R2 0.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1 cm, p ≤ 0.026). At multivariable analysis, central location and sharp margin were significant independent predictors of DVT for both readers (p ≤ 0.013). Awareness of these qualitative and quantitative imaging features may improve radiologists' confidence for differentiating femoral vein DVT and mixing artifact on routine portal venous phase CT. However, given overlap with mixing artifact, larger studies remain warranted.

  8. Postsurgical complications in patients with renal tumours with venous thrombosis treated with surgery.

    PubMed

    Caño-Velasco, J; Herranz-Amo, F; Barbas-Bernardos, G; Mayor-de Castro, J; Aragón-Chamizo, J; Arnal-Chacón, G; Lledó García, E; Hernández-Fernández, C

    2018-04-06

    Surgery on renal tumours with venous thrombosis suffers a high rate of complications and non-negligible perioperative mortality. Our objective was to analyse the postoperative complications, their relationship with the level of the thrombus and its potential predisposing factors. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 101 patients with renal tumours with venous thrombosis operated on between 1988 and 2017. Two patients were excluded because of intraoperative pulmonary thromboembolism and exitus (2%). The postsurgical complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo. To compare the qualitative variables, we employed the chi-squared test. We performed a multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression to identify the independent predictors. Some type of postsurgical complication occurred in 34 (34.3%) patients, 11 (11.1%) of which were severe (Clavien III-V). There were significant differences in the total complications (P=.003) and severe complications (Clavien≥III; P=.03) depending on the level of the tumour thrombus. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Progressive Ischemic Stroke due to Thyroid Storm-Associated Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Natsumi; Hiraoka, Eiji; Hoshino, Masataka; Deshpande, Gautam A.; Sawada, Kana; Norisue, Yasuhiro; Tsukuda, Jumpei; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 49 Final Diagnosis: Cerebral venous thrombosis Symptoms: Altered mental state • weakness in limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but fatal complication of hyperthyroidism that is induced by the hypercoagulable state of thyrotoxicosis. Although it is frequently difficult to diagnose CVT promptly, it is important to consider it in the differential diagnosis when a hyperthyroid patient presents with atypical neurologic symptoms. Care Report: A 49-year-old Japanese female with unremarkable medical history came in with thyroid storm and multiple progressive ischemic stroke identified at another hospital. Treatment for thyroid storm with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, and potassium iodide-iodine was started and MR venography was performed on hospital day 3 for further evaluation of her progressive ischemic stroke. The MRI showed CVT, and anticoagulation therapy, in addition to the anti-thyroid agents, was initiated. The patient’s thyroid function was successfully stabilized by hospital day 10 and further progression of CVT was prevented. Conclusions: Physicians should consider CVT when a patient presents with atypical course of stroke or with atypical MRI findings such as high intensity area in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping. Not only is an early diagnosis and initiation of anticoagulation important, but identifying and treating the underlying disease is essential to avoid the progression of CVT. PMID:28228636

  10. [Case of cerebral venous thrombosis due to graves' disease with increased factor VIII activity].

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Kensaku; Naruse, Satoshi; Umeda, Maiko; Tanaka, Midori; Fujita, Nobuya

    2006-04-01

    A 39 year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache with fever continuing over two weeks. Three days after admission he developed aphasia and right hemiparesis, when his CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage at the left sylvian fissure. He was diagnosed as suffering from cerebral venous thrombosis because empty delta sign was positive on the enhanced brain CT. Suprasagittal sinus and bilateral transverse sinuses were not detected on the cerebral angiography. He was also diagnosed as having Graves' disease for the first time on the basis of free T3 13.56 pg/ml, free T4 4.65 ng/dl, TSH < 0.01 IU/ml, anti-TSH receptor antibody 4.3 IU/l, and thyroid stimulating antibody 224%. On the examination, homocystine and activities of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S were normal. Antinculear, anti-DNA, anti-Sm, anticardiolipin beta2GP-I antibodies, and PR3ANCA were negative. Factor VIII activity, however, markedly increased over 300%, which has been known to increase in the cases of hyperthyroidism. He recovered well after the treatment with thiamazole in addition to warfarin followed by intravenous heparin. There are only six cases of cerebral venous thrombosis due to hyperthyroidism with increased factor VIII level. All of those cases were female, and 5 of them were taking oral contraceptives. This is a first Japanese male case.

  11. [Risk factors of deep venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheter in upper extremity in ICU].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Jiale; Jiang, Ting; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jianning; Ding, Chengzhi; Liu, Fen; Qian, Kejian; Jiang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the incidence and its risk factors of peripherally inserted central venous catheter related upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (PICC-UEDVT) in intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical data of the patients received PICCs in ICU of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from August 2013 to August 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The inclusion criteria in the study included: the age > 18 years old, catheter indwelling time > 1 week and the complete relevant information. The gender, age, history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PICC; number of illness involved organs; complicated with hypertension, diabetes, infection or not; and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), duration of mechanical ventilation; D-dimer, platelet count (PLT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were recorded. According to the occurrence of PICC-UEDVT, univariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of PICC-UEDVT and variables with statistical difference were selected to do multivariate binary logistic regression analysis for the confirmable independence risk factors. Six patients of the 61 cases occurred PICC-UEDVT with the occurrence rate of 9.8%. Time of occurrence was 9 days, 14 days (2 cases), 22 days, 28 days, 62 days after inserted catheter respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that previous DVT, D-dimer and big diameter PICC were risk factors associated with PICC-UEDVT [the previous DVT: 50.00% vs. 7.27%, P = 0.017; D-dimer > 5 mg/L: 66.67% vs. 18.18%, P = 0.021; 5F catheter: 83.33% vs. 29.09%, P = 0.016]. It was shown by multivariate logistic regression analysis that the previous DVT [odds ratio (OR) = 20.539, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.733-243.875, P = 0.017] and increasing size of catheter (OR = 18.070, 95%CI = 1.317-247.875, P = 0.030) were independent risk factors associated with the development of PICC-UEDVT. For critical patients with a history of DVT and D-dimer > 5 mg

  12. Are patients with thrombophilia and previous venous thromboembolism at higher risk to arterial thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Schindewolf, Marc; Zgouras, Dimitrios; Erbe, Matthias; Jarosch-Preusche, Marie; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2008-01-01

    Whether thrombophilic disorders, which are established risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE), also increase the risk of arterial thrombosis is still unknown. We analyzed data from 1081 consecutive patients (649 F/432 M, 16-93 years of age) with previous VTE registered in the MAISTHRO (MAin-ISar-THROmbosis) database with regard to arterial thrombotic events and contributing risk factors. Screening for thrombophilia included testing for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation, antiphospholipid antibodies and activities of factor VIII, protein C, protein S and antithrombin. Of the entire study cohort, 40 patients (3.7%) had a prior myocardial infarction (MI), and 41 (3.8%) suffered a stroke. Other arterial thrombotic events were rare. Elevated factor VIII levels were more prevalent in MI patients than in controls (44.4 vs. 25.9%, p=0.044), but after adjusting for the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, this relationship was no longer significant. We observed a higher rate of lupus anticoagulant in MI patients with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.3 (95%CI 0.84-12.8, p=0.090). No difference in any other tested thrombophilia was observed in patients with MI or stroke relative to those without. The cumulative incidence of arterial thrombotic events in VTE patients is low, and the inherited thrombophilias do not seem to substantially increase the risk of arterial thrombosis.

  13. Shorter Hospital Stays and Lower Costs for Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin for Venous Thrombosis Admissions.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Jay M; Deitelzweig, Steven; Kline, Jeffrey; Tran, Oth; Smith, David M; Bookhart, Brahim; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-06

    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, results in a substantial healthcare system burden. This retrospective observational study compared hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization costs for patients with venous thromboembolism treated with rivaroxaban versus those treated with warfarin. Hospitalizations for adult patients with a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who were initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin were selected from MarketScan's Hospital Drug Database between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients treated with warfarin were matched 1:1 to patients treated with rivaroxaban using exact and propensity score matching. Hospital LOS, time from first dose to discharge, and hospitalization costs were reported descriptively and with generalized linear models (GLMs). The final study cohorts each included 1223 patients (751 with pulmonary embolism and 472 with deep vein thrombosis). Cohorts were well matched for demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean (±SD) LOS was 3.7±3.1 days for patients taking rivaroxaban and 5.2±3.7 days for patients taking warfarin, confirmed by GLM-adjusted results (rivaroxaban 3.7 days, warfarin 5.3 days, P<0.001). Patients with provoked venous thromboembolism admissions showed longer LOSs (rivaroxaban 5.1±4.5 days, warfarin 6.5±5.6 days, P<0.001) than those with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (rivaroxaban 3.3±2.4 days, warfarin 4.8±2.8 days, P<0.001). Days from first dose to discharge were 2.4±1.7 for patients treated with rivaroxaban and 3.9±3.7 for patients treated with warfarin when initiated with parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001), and 2.7±1.7 and 3.7±2.1, respectively, when initiated without parenteral anticoagulants (P<0.001). Patients initiated on rivaroxaban incurred significantly lower mean total hospitalization costs ($8688±$9927 versus $9823±$9319, P=0.004), confirmed by modeling (rivaroxaban $8387 [95

  14. Septic knee-induced deep venous thrombosis in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Backes, Jeffrey; Taylor, Benjamin C; Clayton, Matthew D

    2010-10-11

    This article describes a case of a 26-year-old man presenting with left knee pain of 1 week's duration, fever, and acute onset of shortness of breath the day of admission. An arthrocentesis of the knee joint was grossly positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A left lower extremity venous duplex showed thrombosis of the superficial femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, peroneal, and gastrocnemius veins. Pulmonary computed tomography-angiography was positive for acute pulmonary emboli. Initial management consisted of anticoagulation, intravenous antibiotics, and 2 arthroscopic irrigation and debridement procedures. After a normal transesophageal echocardiogram, a diagnosis of septic knee-induced deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the left lower leg with subsequent septic pulmonary emboli was established. The patient was discharged to a long-term care facility for a 6-week monitored course of intravenous antibiotics. His DVT and pulmonary emboli were managed successfully with oral warfarin. Two months after his initial presentation, the patient returned with acute worsening knee pain. A knee arthrocentesis was unremarkable; however, radiographic imaging revealed fulminant osteomyelitis of the distal femur. He has since undergone open arthrotomy with excisional irrigation and debridement and is on a chronic oral antibiotic regimen. Sparse pediatric literature has shown an association between musculoskeletal sepsis and thrombosis. Only 1 case of septic knee-induced DVT exists in the adult literature, and it was not associated with pulmonary emboli. Our case provides evidence that DVT must be considered by the treating physician as a possible and devastating complication of septic arthritis. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Mesenteric vascular thrombosis associated with disseminated abdominal visceral hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Currao, Rachael L; Buote, Nicole J; Flory, Andrea B; Liu, Serena M

    2011-01-01

    An adult castrated male cat was evaluated because of a 4 day history of lethargy and partial anorexia. Physical examination revealed abdominal pain with a palpable fluid wave. Cytologic and biochemical analyses of peritoneal effusion were suggestive of septic peritonitis. On surgical exploration of the abdomen, the mesenteric vessels had no palpable pulses and they contained gross thromboses. The intestines were white with no visible peristalsis. Necropsy findings included disseminated, poorly differentiated hemangiosarcoma throughout the abdomen. Mesenteric arterioles contained fibrin thrombi. To the author's knowledge, no previous reports exist of complete mesenteric vascular thrombosis associated with disseminated abdominal visceral hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

  16. [Deep venous thrombosis of the upper limb in a violin player: The "bow syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Sanson, H; Gautier, V; Stansal, A; Sfeir, D; Franceschi, C; Priollet, P

    2016-12-01

    Exercise-induced thrombosis is a rare cause of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper limb and usually affects young subjects without comorbid conditions. The diagnosis may be challenging. A 23-year-old female right-handed French teacher and amateur violin player presented with edema of the root of the right arm associated with erythrocyanosis of the extremity and collateral circulation of the shoulder. History taking revealed oral contraception and recent change in violin playing habits. D-dimers were negative. A second duplex-Doppler was required before visualization of a DVT in the right subclavian vein. The patient was given low-molecular-weight heparin alone, followed by rivaroxaban. The outcome was very favorable at 48h. The patient was seen at 4 months and had not had a recurrent episode. The diagnosis of DVT of the upper limb is basically clinical. There is a clinical probability score for the introduction of anticoagulation even if the duplex-Doppler fails to visualize DVT, a situation that can occur due to the clavicular superposition in this region. Exercise-induced DVT should be suspected in patients with minimally intense but repeated exercise (hyper-abduction), e.g. as here playing the violin. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice. The role for surgery and pharmacomechanical strategies remains to be defined. Exercise-induced thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome) should be suspected in young patients free of any comorbidity who develop a thrombosis of the upper limb. Studies comparing different therapeutic options would be useful to achieve more homogeneous management practices despite the heterogeneous clinical presentations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Electrical stimulation of acupoint combinations against deep venous thrombosis in elderly bedridden patients after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lili; Chen, Cuiping; Xu, Lei; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effects of electrical stimulation of different acupoint combinations among postoperative bedridden elderly patients on hemorheology and deep venous blood flow velocity and investigate the.role of electrical stimulation against deep vein thrombosis (DVT). From November 2010 to October 2011, a total of 160 elderly bedridden patients after major surgery were divided into the conventional care group, invigorating and promoting Qi group, blood-activating and damp-eliminating group, and acupoint-combination stimulation group. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, D-dimer levels, lower limb skin temperature, lower limb circumference, and flow velocities of the external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein, and deep calf veins in all patients were documented and compared among the four groups. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, D-dimer levels, and lower limb circumference were significantly reduced in the blood-activating and damp-eliminating group compared with the conventional care group (P < 0.05) and were almost equal to those in the acupoint-combination stimulation group (P > 0.05). Lower limb venous flow velocities were accelerated in the invigorating and promoting Qi group compared with the other groups, excluding the acupoint-combination stimulation group (P < 0.05). Hemorheological indices in postoperative bedridden elderly patients were improved after combined electrical stimulation at Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). Combined electrical stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) and Taichong (LR 3), on the other hand, accelerated lower limb venous flow.

  18. The association of statin therapy with the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, N L; Harrington, L B; Blondon, M; Wiggins, K L; Floyd, J S; Sitlani, C M; McKnight, B; Larson, E B; Rosendaal, F R; Heckbert, S R; Psaty, B M

    2016-07-01

    Essentials A lowered risk of recurrent venous thrombosis (VT) with statin treatment is controversial. Among observational inception cohort of 2,798 adults with incident VT, 457 had recurrent VT. Time-to-event models with time-varying statin use and adjustment for potential confounders was used for analysis. Compared to nonuse, current statin use was associated with 26% lower risk of recurrent VT. Click to hear Prof. Büller's perspective on Anticoagulant Therapy in the Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism Background Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials suggest that treatment with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) lowers the risk of incident venous thrombosis (VT), particularly among those without prevalent clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether this is true for the prevention of recurrent VT is debated. We used an observational inception cohort to estimate the association of current statin use with the risk of recurrent VT. Methods and Results The study setting was a large healthcare organization with detailed medical record and pharmacy information at cohort entry and throughout follow-up. We followed 2798 subjects 18-89 years of age who experienced a validated incident VT between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2010, for a first recurrent VT, validated by medical record review. During follow-up, 457 (16%) developed a first recurrent VT. In time-to-event models incorporating time-varying statin use and adjusting for potential confounders, current statin use was associated with a 26% lower risk of recurrent VT: hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.94. Among cohort members free of CVD (n = 2134), current statin use was also associated with a lower risk (38%) of recurrent VT: hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85. We found similar results when restricting to new users of statins and in subgroups of different statin types and doses. Conclusions In a population-based cohort of subjects who had

  19. Use of a Trellis Device for Endovascular Treatment of Venous Thrombosis Involving a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Saettele, Megan R., E-mail: SaetteleM@umkc.edu; Morelli, John N., E-mail: dr.john.morelli@gmail.com; Chesis, Paul

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are increasingly recognized with CT and venography techniques. Although many patients with IVC anomalies are asymptomatic, recent studies have suggested an association with venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with extensive venous clot involving the infrarenal segment of a duplicated left IVC who underwent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy and tissue plasminogen activator catheter-directed thrombolysis with complete deep venous thrombosis resolution. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the English literature of the use of a Trellis thrombectomy catheter in the setting of duplicated IVC.

  20. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

    1997-05-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

  1. Risk for Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hultcrantz, Malin; Björkholm, Magnus; Dickman, Paul W; Landgren, Ola; Derolf, Åsa R; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Andersson, Therese M L

    2018-03-06

    Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are reported to be at increased risk for thrombotic events. However, no population-based study has estimated this excess risk compared with matched control participants. To assess risk for arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with MPNs compared with matched control participants. Matched cohort study. Population-based setting in Sweden from 1987 to 2009, with follow-up to 2010. 9429 patients with MPNs and 35 820 matched control participants. The primary outcomes were rates of arterial and venous thrombosis. Flexible parametric models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and cumulative incidence with 95% CIs. The HRs for arterial thrombosis among patients with MPNs compared with control participants at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 years were 3.0 (95% CI, 2.7 to 3.4), 2.0 (CI, 1.8 to 2.2), and 1.5 (CI, 1.4 to 1.6), respectively. The corresponding HRs for venous thrombosis were 9.7 (CI, 7.8 to 12.0), 4.7 (CI, 4.0 to 5.4), and 3.2 (CI, 2.9 to 3.6). The rate was significantly elevated across all age groups and was similar among MPN subtypes. The 5-year cumulative incidence of thrombosis in patients with MPNs showed an initial rapid increase followed by gentler increases during follow-up. The HR for venous thrombosis decreased during more recent calendar periods. No information on individual laboratory results or treatment. Patients with MPNs across all age groups have a significantly increased rate of arterial and venous thrombosis compared with matched control participants, with the highest rates at and shortly after diagnosis. Decreases in the rate of venous thrombosis over time likely reflect advances in clinical management. The Cancer Research Foundations of Radiumhemmet, Blodcancerfonden, the Swedish Research Council, the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet, the Adolf H. Lundin Charitable Foundation, and Memorial Sloan

  2. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with thyrotoxicosis, the use of desmopressin and elevated factor VIII/von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Waqar; Aljerdi, Salman; Decker, Barbara; Cushman, Mary; Hamill, Robert W

    2016-08-08

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon disorder associated with diverse processes. We report a patient who, while receiving desmopressin and contraceptive pills (OCP), developed straight sinus thrombosis. Clinical assessment and laboratory investigations revealed untreated hyperthyroidism and a hypercoagulable state, characterised by high levels of von Willebrand factor, factor VIII coagulant activity and IgM cardiolipin antibody. The clinical picture improved with anticoagulation, treatment of hyperthyroidism and discontinuation of OCP and desmopressin. To the best of our knowledge, the association between the use of oral desmopressin and CVT has not been described. The multiple risk factors present in our case were probably additive in increasing the risk of CVT. Although this case represents a rare occurrence, practitioners should be alerted to the possible associations of desmopressin, oral contraceptives and Graves' disease with venous thrombosis. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152–61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247–276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895–419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953–0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895–0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891–0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909–0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. Conclusions Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction. PMID:27432511

  4. Retinal venous thrombosis in a young patient with coagulation factor XII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Borrego-Sanz, L; Santos-Bueso, E; Sáenz-Francés, F; Martínez-de-la-Casa, J M; García-Feijoo, J; Gegúndez-Fernández, J A; García-Sánchez, J

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman, with no relevant medical history, was referred for sudden vision loss in the left eye. Ophthalmological examination showed best corrected visual acuity of 1.0 in the right eye and 0.3 in left eye, with normal anterior pole and intraocular pressure. Fundus examination of the left eye revealed a venous thrombosis in the superior temporal branch, with dilated and tortuous retinal veins. The patient was referred to the hematology unit for thrombophilia study, and was diagnosed with a coagulation XII or Hageman factor deficiency. The development of retinal vessel occlusions, in patients under 50 years of age, is frequently associated with thrombophilia or hypercoagulability disorders. Factor XII deficiency is a rare condition, and its presence could contribute to a higher risk of thromboembolic events. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperthyroidism and venous thrombosis: a casual or causal association? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe; Targher, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    A kaleidoscope of coagulation disorders have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunctions. Globally, these disorders involve both primary and secondary hemostasis and range from subclinical laboratory abnormalities to, more rarely, life-threatening hemorrhages or thrombotic events. While overt hypothyroidism appears to be associated with a bleeding tendency, hyperthyroidism emerged to have an increased risk of thrombotic events. In particular, a number of case reports have documented acute venous thrombosis complications in patients with overt hyperthyroidism, especially at cerebral sites. Nevertheless, further observational and intervention studies might be needed to provide a more definitive information on the clinical relevance of this association, along with the potential implication for prevention and treatment of coagulation-fibrinolytic abnormalities in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  6. Association of deep venous thrombosis with calf vein diameter in acute hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the association between the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and calf vein diameter in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke. We measured the maximum diameter of paralytic side posttibial veins (PTVs) and peroneal veins (PVs) in 49 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage on admission and at 2 weeks after stroke onset by ultrasonography. We also examined for the presence or absence of DVT, and then analyzed the association of DVT with the maximum vein diameter. At 2 weeks after stroke, DVTs were detected in PTVs in 7 patients and in PVs in 6 patients. The maximum calf vein diameters at 2 weeks were significantly greater in patients with DVT compared with those without DVT (PTV, P = .033; PV, P = .015). Although calf vein diameter at admission did not influence the future incidence of DVT in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, the presence of DVT was associated with calf vein dilatation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Deep Venous Thrombosis: Advanced Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Gerard J., E-mail: gerard.osullivan2@hse.ie

    2011-06-15

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is often managed with a health care pathway that funnels patients to anticoagulation therapy alone. This 'usual treatment' is designed to stop propagation and embolisation of venous thrombus but not remove it. Surgical thrombectomy was once the only option in severe cases in which limbs were threatened, but thrombus removal is no longer restricted to emergency cases. Interventional radiologists are now using advanced endovascular techniques to achieve thrombus removal in a minimally invasive manner in a very short treatment time, thereby quickly restoring patency, relieving acute symptoms, and potentially limiting the subsequent development of postthrombotic syndromemore » when followed with anticoagulation and compression regimens. This article provides an overview of the interventions available for treating DVT. One of the newer 'single-session' techniques is isolated pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, which is described here in detail with supporting cases.« less

  8. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism with Prothrombin G20210A Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    Dagli, Canan Eren; Koksal, Nurhan; Guler, Selma; Gelen, Mehmet Emin; Atilla, Nurhan; Tuncel, Deniz

    2010-04-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with symptoms of syncope, cough, headache and hemoptysis. Cranial MR and venography showed thrombus formation in the right transverse sinus and superior sagittal sinus. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) showed an embolic thrombus in the right pulmonary truncus and lung abscess. The patient was young, and there were no signs of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis or other major risk factors for pulmonary embolism (PE) including cardiac anomaly. The only risk factor we were able to identify was the presence of the prothrombin G20210A gene mutation. Anticoagulant treatment with oral warfarin (10 mg daily) and imipenem (4X500 mg) was started. The patient was hospitalized for antibiotic and anticoagulation therapies for three weeks and was discharged on lifelong treatment with warfarin (5 mg daily).

  9. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Levi; Lawrence, Matthew; Speicher, Matthew; Frumkin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins) can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT) often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS), a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1) propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS) is unavailable; and (2) summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation. PMID:27429688

  10. Value of platelet indices in identifying complete resolution of thrombus in deep venous thrombosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sevuk, Utkan; Altindag, Rojhat; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Ay, Nurettin; Demirtas, Ertan; Ayaz, Fırat

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are helpful to identify complete thrombus resolution (CTR) after acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Patients who had first-time episode of acute proximal DVT were included in this retrospective study. 100 patients with DVT were divided into two groups according to absence (group 1; n = 68) or presence (group 2; n = 32) of CTR on doppler ultrasonography at month 6. There were no significant difference in admission MPV and PDW levels between group 1 and group 2. MPV (p = 0.03) and PDW (p < 0.001) levels at month 6 were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. CTR showed a moderate negative correlation with PDW at month 6 (ρ = -0.47) and a weak negative correlation with MPV at month 6 (ρ = -0.26). Logistic regression analysis showed that PDW (OR, 2.2; p = 0.004) at month 6 was an independent risk factor for the presence of residual venous thrombosis in DVT patients. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that a 8.4 % decrease in admission MPV at month 6 provided 62 % sensitivity and 62 % specificity (AUC: 0.64) and a 15.4 % decrease in admission PDW at month 6 provided 87 % sensitivity and 94 % specificity (AUC: 0.89) for prediction of CTR in DVT patients. Percent change in admission MPV and PDW levels at month 6 may be used to identify the patients with CTR after a first episode of acute proximal DVT.

  11. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Levi; Lawrence, Matthew; Speicher, Matthew; Frumkin, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins) can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT) often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS), a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1) propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS) is unavailable; and (2) summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient's risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation.

  12. Outpatient treatment of deep venous thrombosis in diverse inner-city patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, A S; Schechter, C; Gotlin, A; Vomvolakis, D; Jacobs, E; Sacks, H S; Coller, B

    2001-04-15

    We sought to describe the development and outcomes of a hospital-based program designed to provide safe and effective outpatient treatment to a diverse group of patients with acute deep venous thrombosis. Patients enrolled in the program were usually discharged on the day of or the day after presentation. Low- molecular-weight heparin was administered for a minimum of 5 days and warfarin was given for a minimum of 3 months. The hospital provided low-molecular-weight heparin free of charge to patients. Patients received daily home nursing visits to monitor the prothrombin time, assess compliance, and detect complications. The inpatient and outpatient records of the first 89 consecutive patients enrolled in the program were reviewed. Patients were observed for a 3-month period after enrollment. The median length of stay was 1 day. Low-molecular-weight heparin was administered for a mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) of 4.7 +/- 2.4 days at home. Recurrent thromboembolism was noted in 1 patient (1%), major bleeding in 2 patients (2%), and minor bleeding in 2 patients (2%). No patients died or developed thrombocytopenia. Assuming that patients would have been hospitalized for the duration of treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin, the program eliminated a mean of 4.7 days of hospitalization, with an estimated reduction of $1,645 in total health care costs per patient. This hospital-based program to provide outpatient treatment of deep venous thrombosis to a diverse group of inner-city patients achieved a low incidence of adverse events and substantial health care cost savings. Specific strategies, including providing low-molecular-weight heparin free of charge and daily home nursing visits, can be utilized to facilitate access to outpatient treatment and ensure high-quality care.

  13. A Multicenter Study of 1144 Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: The VENOST Study.

    PubMed

    Duman, Taskin; Uluduz, Derya; Midi, Ipek; Bektas, Hesna; Kablan, Yuksel; Goksel, Basak K; Milanlioglu, Aysel; Necioglu Orken, Dilek; Aluclu, Ufuk

    2017-08-01

    Based on a number of small observational studies, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis has diverse clinical and imaging features, risk factors, and variable outcome. In a large, multicenter cerebral venous thrombosis (VENOST) study, we sought to more precisely characterize the clinical characteristics of Caucasian patients. All data for the VENOST study were collected between the years 2000 and 2015 from the clinical follow-up files. Clinical and radiological characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes were compared in terms of age and sex distribution. Among 1144 patients 68% were women, and in older age group (>50 years) male patients were more prevalent (16.6% versus 27.8%). The most frequent symptoms were headache (89.4%) and visual field defects (28.9%) in men, and headache (86.1%) and epileptic seizures (26.8%) in women. Gynecological factors comprised the largest group in women, in particular puerperium (18.3%). Prothrombotic conditions (26.4%), mainly methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (6.3%) and Factor V Leiden mutation (5.1%), were the most common etiologies in both genders. 8.1% of patients had infection-associated and 5.2% had malignancy-related etiology that was significantly higher in men and older age group. Parenchymal involvement constitutively hemorrhagic infarcts, malignancy, and older age was associated with higher Rankin score. Epileptic seizures had no effect on prognosis. Clinical and radiological findings were consistent with previous larger studies but predisposing factors were different with a higher incidence of puerperium. Oral contraceptive use was not a prevalent risk factor in our cohort. Malignancy, older age, and hemorrhagic infarcts had worse outcome. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inherited thrombophilic risk factors and venous thromboembolism: distinct role in peripheral deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Margaglione, M; Brancaccio, V; De Lucia, D; Martinelli, I; Ciampa, A; Grandone, E; Di Minno, G

    2000-11-01

    To investigate whether the FII A(20210) mutation is associated with isolated pulmonary embolism (PE). Case-control study. Five thrombosis centers in southern Italy. Six hundred forty-seven consecutive referred patients with objectively documented venous thrombosis and 1,329 control subjects. Medical histories were collected. The G-to-A transition at nucleotide 1691 within the factor V gene (FV Leiden) and the G-to-A transition at nucleotide position 20210 within the prothrombin gene locus (FII A(20210)), levels of anticoagulant factors, and levels of antiphospholipid antibodies were determined by standard techniques. Patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities (n = 346) or with additional PEs (n = 175) showed similar prevalences of FV Leiden mutation (24.3% and 16.6%, respectively) and FII A(20210) mutation (14.2% and 12.6%, respectively), and similar deficiencies of natural anticoagulants (4.9% and 2.3%, respectively). In both groups, the frequencies of FV Leiden and/or FII A(20210) mutation were higher than those observed among 1,329 apparently healthy control subjects (4.8% and 4.4%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Among patients with isolated PE (n = 126), prevalences of FV Leiden (7.1%) and FII A(20210) mutation (8.7%) were similar to those of control subjects. Inherited thrombophilic abnormalities were less frequent among patients with PE only (15.6%) than among those with DVT only (37.0%; p < 0.001) or whose conditions were complicated by PE (28. 0%; p = 0.020). Adjusting for age and sex, FV Leiden mutation, FII A(20210) mutation, or both mutations were associated with DVT with PE (FV Leiden mutation: odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 5.5; FII A(20210) mutation: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1. 3 to 5.2; and both mutations: OR, 82.1; 95% CI, 7.5 to 901.2) or without PE (FV Leiden mutation: OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 4.0 to 9.3; FII A(20210) mutation: OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7 to 4.8; and both mutations: OR, 167.5; 95% CI, 21.6 to 1

  15. Apixaban for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis: A case series.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shishir Keekana; Ibrahim, Mohammad; Hanni, Claudia M; Suchdev, Kushak; Parker, Dennis; Rajamani, Kumar; Mohamed, Wazim

    2017-10-15

    Venous thrombosis affecting cerebral veins and sinuses (CVT) is an uncommon neurological condition. Traditionally patients are treated with intravenous heparin followed by an oral vitamin K antagonist like warfarin. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may offer advantages over warfarin. There is evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of both dabigatran and rivaroxaban. No data, however, has been published describing the use of apixaban in patients with CVT. Report of three cases of CVT and review literature on available treatment options; efficacy and safety of novel oral anticoagulants in patients with systemic thrombosis. All patients presented with typical features of CVT. After confirming the diagnosis, they were acutely treated with heparin and later discharged on apixaban. During follow up visits, they tolerated apixaban well and did not have any bleeding complications. Follow up scans showed resolution of the thrombus and recanalization. CVT is an uncommon neurological condition and is often complicated by associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Although not recommended in current guidelines, apixaban may be a safe and effective option for the treatment of CVT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Due to Low-molecular-weight Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Lim, Ming Y; Turan, Tanya N

    2017-11-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated complication of heparin exposure. A limited number of studies have reported cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as the presenting thrombotic event induced by HIT, only one of which occurred with exposure to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), with death as outcome. Here, we present a unique case of LMWH-induced HIT leading to CVST but resulting in good clinical outcome. A 52-year-old woman received subcutaneous LMWH for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis while in rehabilitation following kyphoplasty for spinal fracture related to recent trauma. On postoperative day 15, she developed acute onset altered mental status with significant agitation and nonsensical speech and was found to have brain imaging findings suggestive of CVST. Work-up revealed a drop in platelets associated with HIT, which did not improve off heparin products and with steroids, requiring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, likely due to an overlapping immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Patient was managed on an argatroban drip until platelet count normalized and was able to transition to warfarin. Her clinical outcome was very favorable with near-normal neurological exam except for subtle cognitive changes. This unique case of LMWH-induced HIT leading to CVST but resulting in good clinical outcome highlights the importance of linking CVST with HIT and of establishing the need for early alternative antithrombotic therapeutic strategies.

  17. Acute venous thrombosis as complication and clue to diagnose a SAPHO syndrome case. A case report.

    PubMed

    Rosero, A; Ruano, R; Martin, M; Hidalgo, C; Garcia-Talavera, J

    2013-01-01

    This report concerns a male adult admitted for sternal and left arm pain, who was diagnosed and treated for acute deep venous thrombosis in the left subclavian and axillary veins. X-ray and a hybrid single photon emission tomography and computed tomography (SPECT-CT) scintigraphy scan revealed high intensity uptake in both sternoclavicular joints, which corresponded to hyperostosis, thereby suggesting a SAPHO syndrome. Upon reviewing the patient's medical history, we found dermatological pustulosis disease and an intermittent sternal chest pain untreated since 10 years ago. In the biochemical study we found erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, hyperglobulinemia, and mild anaemia. Initial treatment included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with low response, which then changed to methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and prednisone. The patient's pain was controlled almost completely in 10 months. A control bone scan revealed a marked decrease in intensity of bone deposits according to clinical response. To our knowledge, there are only a few cases of SAPHO and thrombosis and none are followed up with a bone SPECT-CT scan.

  18. Management of Venous Thromboembolisms: Part I. The Consensus for Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Han; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Pao-Yen; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chiu, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Chien-Lung; Lee, Chung-Yi; Lin, Yen-Hung; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Yeh, Hung-I; Chiang, Chern-En; Lin, Shing-Jong; Yeh, San-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a potentially catastrophic condition because thrombosis, left untreated, can result in detrimental pulmonary embolism. Yet in the absence of thrombosis, anticoagulation increases the risk of bleeding. In the existing literature, knowledge about the epidemiology of DVT is primarily based on investigations among Caucasian populations. There has been little information available about the epidemiology of DVT in Taiwan, and it is generally believed that DVT is less common in Asian patients than in Caucasian patients. However, DVT is a multifactorial disease that represents the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, and the majority of patients with incident DVT have either inherited thrombophilia or acquired risk factors. Furthermore, DVT is often overlooked. Although symptomatic DVT commonly presents with lower extremity pain, swelling and tenderness, diagnosing DVT is a clinical challenge for physicians. Such a diagnosis of DVT requires a timely systematic assessment, including the use of the Wells score and a D-dimer test to exclude low-risk patients, and imaging modalities to confirm DVT. Compression ultrasound with high sensitivity and specificity is the front-line imaging modality in the diagnostic process for patients with suspected DVT in addition to conventional invasive contrast venography. Most patients require anticoagulation therapy, which typically consists of parenteral heparin bridged to a vitamin K antagonist, with variable duration. The development of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants has revolutionized the landscape of venous thromboembolism treatment, with 4 agents available,including rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban, and edoxaban. Presently, all 4 drugs have finished their large phase III clinical trial programs and come to the clinical uses in North America and Europe. It is encouraging to note that the published data to date regarding Asian patients indicates that such new therapies are safe and

  19. Portal vein thrombosis as a rare cause of abdominal pain: When to consider?

    PubMed Central

    Tavusbay, Cengiz; Kamer, Erdinç; Acar, Turan; Kokulu, İbrahim; Kar, Haldun; Gür, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare condition that is characterized by the presence of thrombus within any segment of the portal vein, including the right and left intrahepatic branches. It may also extend to the splenic or superior mesenteric veins. Portal vein thrombosis may be related to cirrhosis or liver malignancy as well as to local inflammatory conditions in the abdomen and genetic or acquired thrombophilic diseases. Currently, PVT is being increasingly diagnosed due to advances in modern imaging techniques. The clinical presentation has a wide range, from an asymptomatic lesion to a potentially life-threatening situation. In this study, we present three patients with PVT. The diagnosis was made by radiologic and clinical findings. In the first patient, genetic testing revealed factor V Leiden mutation as the cause of PVT. The second patient was diagnosed with lupus anticoagulant syndrome as the cause of PVT. Portal vein thrombosis was associated with intra abdominal infection due to anastomotic leakage in the third patient. Two patients were successfully treated with anticoagulant therapy. This report emphasizes that even though PVT is a rare cause of abdominal pain, timely diagnosis and appropriate management is vital due to its lethal complications such as mesenteric ischemia and mesenteric infarct. PMID:28740966

  20. Early thrombus removal strategies for acute deep venous thrombosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Mark H; Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank; Pappas, Peter; Raffetto, Joseph D; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    The anticoagulant treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been historically directed toward the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. However, such treatment imperfectly protects against late manifestations of the postthrombotic syndrome. By restoring venous patency and preserving valvular function, early thrombus removal strategies can potentially decrease postthrombotic morbidity. A committee of experts in venous disease was charged by the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for early thrombus removal strategies, including catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Evidence-based recommendations are based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature, supplemented when necessary by less rigorous data. Recommendations are made according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, incorporating the strength of the recommendation (strong: 1; weak: 2) and an evaluation of the level of the evidence (A to C). On the basis of the best evidence currently available, we recommend against routine use of the term "proximal venous thrombosis" in favor of more precise characterization of thrombi as involving the iliofemoral or femoropopliteal venous segments (Grade 1A). We further suggest the use of early thrombus removal strategies in ambulatory patients with good functional capacity and a first episode of iliofemoral DVT of <14 days in duration (Grade 2C) and strongly recommend their use in patients with limb-threatening ischemia due to iliofemoral venous outflow obstruction (Grade 1A). We suggest pharmacomechanical strategies over catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis alone if resources are available and that surgical thrombectomy be considered if thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated (Grade 2C). Most data regarding early thrombus removal

  1. Clinical risk factors to predict deep venous thrombosis post-endovenous laser ablation of saphenous veins.

    PubMed

    Chi, Y-W; Woods, T C

    2014-04-01

    Endovenous laser ablation of saphenous veins is an alternative in treating symptomatic varicose veins. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been reported in up to 7.7% of patients undergoing such procedure. We sought to establish clinical risk factors that predict DVT post-endovenous laser ablation. Patients who underwent endovenous laser ablation were prospectively followed. Clinical data and post-interventional duplex ultrasound were analysed. A P value <0.05 was accepted as representing a significant difference. From 2007 to 2008, 360 consecutive patients were followed. Nineteen DVTs were found on follow-up ultrasound. Eighteen cases involved either the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junctions; only one case involved the deep venous system. Age >66 (P = 0.007), female gender (P = 0.048) and prior history of superficial thrombophlebitis (SVT) (P = 0.002) were associated with increased risk of DVT postprocedure. Age >66, female gender and history of SVT were significant predictors of DVT post-endovenous laser ablation of saphenous veins.

  2. Effects of walking in deep venous thrombosis: a new integrated solid and fluid mechanics model.

    PubMed

    López, Josep M; Fortuny, Gerard; Puigjaner, Dolors; Herrero, Joan; Marimon, Francesc; Garcia-Bennett, Josep

    2017-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease. Large thrombi in venous vessels cause bad blood circulation and pain; and when a blood clot detaches from a vein wall, it causes an embolism whose consequences range from mild to fatal. Walking is recommended to DVT patients as a therapeutical complement. In this study the mechanical effects of walking on a specific patient of DVT were simulated by means of an unprecedented integration of 3 elements: a real geometry, a biomechanical model of body tissues, and a computational fluid dynamics study. A set of computed tomography images of a patient's leg with a thrombus in the popliteal vein was employed to reconstruct a geometry model. Then a biomechanical model was used to compute the new deformed geometry of the vein as a function of the fiber stretch level of the semimembranosus muscle. Finally, a computational fluid dynamics study was performed to compute the blood flow and the wall shear stress (WSS) at the vein and thrombus walls. Calculations showed that either a lengthening or shortening of the semimembranosus muscle led to a decrease of WSS levels up to 10%. Notwithstanding, changes in blood viscosity properties or blood flow rate may easily have a greater impact in WSS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The use of micro-/milli-fluidics to better understand the mechanisms behind deep venous thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Zoe; Alexiadis, Alessio; Brill, Alexander; Nash, Gerard; Vigolo, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and painful condition in which blood clots form in deep veins (e.g., femoral vein). If these clots become unstable and detach from the thrombus they can be delivered to the lungs resulting in a life threatening complication called pulmonary embolism (PE). Mechanisms of clot development in veins remain unclear but researchers suspect that the specific flow patterns in veins, especially around the valve flaps, play a fundamental role. Here we show how it is now possible to mimic the current murine model by developing micro-/milli-fluidic experiments. We exploited a novel detection technique, ghost particle velocimetry (GPV), to analyse the velocity profiles for various geometries. These vary from regular microfluidics with a rectangular cross section with a range of geometries (mimicking the presence of side and back branches in veins, closed side branch and flexible valves) to a more accurate venous representation with a 3D cylindrical geometry obtained by 3D printing. In addition to the GPV experiments, we analysed the flow field developing in these geometries by using computational fluid dynamic simulations to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms behind DVT. ZS gratefully acknowledges financial support from the EPSRC through a studentship from the Sci-Phy-4-Health Centre for Doctoral Training (EP/L016346/1).

  4. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  5. Nonleg venous thrombosis in critically ill adults: a nested prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, Francois; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Dodek, Peter; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Meade, Maureen; Pemberton, Julia; Skrobik, Yoanna; Seppelt, Ian; Vlahakis, Nicholas E; Muscedere, John; Reece, Graham; Ostermann, Marlies; Padayachee, Soundrie; Alhashemi, Jamal; Walsh, Michael; Lewis, Bradley; Schiff, David; Moody, Alan; Zytaruk, Nicole; Leblanc, Martine; Cook, Deborah J

    2014-05-01

    Critically ill patients are at risk of venous thrombosis, and therefore guidelines recommend daily thromboprophylaxis. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) commonly occurs in the lower extremities but can occur in other sites including the head and neck, trunk, and upper extremities. The risk of nonleg deep venous thromboses (NLDVTs), predisposing factors, and the association between NLDVTs and pulmonary embolism (PE) or death are unclear. To describe the frequency, anatomical location, risk factors, management, and consequences of NLDVTs in a large cohort of medical-surgical critically ill adults. A nested prospective cohort study in the setting of secondary and tertiary care intensive care units (ICUs). The study population comprised 3746 patients, who were expected to remain in the ICU for at least 3 days and were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of dalteparin vs standard heparin for thromboprophylaxis. The proportion of patients who had NLDVTs, the mean number per patient, and the anatomical location. We characterized NLDVTs as prevalent or incident (identified within 72 hours of ICU admission or thereafter) and whether they were catheter related or not. We used multivariable regression models to evaluate risk factors for NLDVT and to examine subsequent anticoagulant therapy, associated PE, and death. RESULTS Of 3746 trial patients, 84 (2.2%) developed 1 or more non-leg vein thromboses (superficial or deep, proximal or distal). Thromboses were more commonly incident (n = 75 [2.0%]) than prevalent (n = 9 [0.2%]) (P < .001) and more often deep (n = 67 [1.8%]) than superficial (n = 31 [0.8%]) (P < .001). Cancer was the only independent predictor of incident NLDVT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.06-4.65). After adjusting for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores, personal or family history of venous thromboembolism, body mass index, vasopressor use, type of thromboprophylaxis, and presence of leg DVT, NLDVTs were associated with an

  6. Active Ankle Movements Prevent Formation of Lower-Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis After Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Guan, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Rui; Li, Bin; Ning, Bo; Su, Wei; Sun, Tao; Li, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the preventive value of active ankle movements in the formation of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT), attempting to develop a new method for rehabilitation nursing after orthopedic surgery. Material/Methods We randomly assigned 193 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the lower limbs into a case group (n=96) and a control group (n=97). The control group received routine nursing while the case group performed active ankle movements in addition to receiving routine nursing. Maximum venous outflow (MVO), maximum venous capacity (MVC), and blood rheology were measured and the incidence of DVT was recorded. Results On the 11th and 14th days of the experiment, the case group had significantly higher MVO and MVC than the control group (all P<0.05). The whole-blood viscosity at high shear rate and the plasma viscosity were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group on the 14th day (both P<0.05). During the experiment, a significantly higher overall DVT incidence was recorded in the control group (8 with asymptomatic DVT) compared with the case group (1 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.034). During follow-up, the case group presented a significantly lower DVT incidence (1 with symptomatic DVT and 4 with asymptomatic DVT) than in the control group (5 with symptomatic DVT and 10 with asymptomatic DVT) (P=0.031). Conclusions Through increasing MVO and MVC and reducing blood rheology, active ankle movements may prevent the formation of lower-extremity DVT after orthopedic surgery. PMID:27600467

  7. The Kallikrein Inhibitor from Bauhinia bauhinioides (BbKI) shows antithrombotic properties in venous and arterial thrombosis models.

    PubMed

    Brito, Marlon V; de Oliveira, Cleide; Salu, Bruno R; Andrade, Sonia A; Malloy, Paula M D; Sato, Ana C; Vicente, Cristina P; Sampaio, Misako U; Maffei, Francisco H A; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2014-05-01

    The Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Inhibitor (BbKI) is a Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitor of plant origin that has been shown to impair the viability of some tumor cells and to feature a potent inhibitory activity against human and rat plasma kallikrein (Kiapp 2.4 nmol/L and 5.2 nmol/L, respectively). This inhibitory activity is possibly responsible for an effect on hemostasis by prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Because the association between cancer and thrombosis is well established, we evaluated the possible antithrombotic activity of this protein in venous and arterial thrombosis models. Vein thrombosis was studied in the vena cava ligature model in Wistar rats, and arterial thrombosis in the photochemical induced endothelium lesion model in the carotid artery of C57 black 6 mice. BbKI at a concentration of 2.0 mg/kg reduced the venous thrombus weight by 65% in treated rats in comparison to rats in the control group. The inhibitor prolonged the time for total artery occlusion in the carotid artery model mice indicating that this potent plasma kallikrein inhibitor prevented thrombosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy and safety of once weekly subcutaneous idrabiotaparinux in the treatment of patients with symptomatic deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Idraparinux, a long acting inhibitor of factor (F) Xa, is as effective as standard anticoagulant therapy for patients with symptomatic deep venous thrombosis. We investigated the potential use of the biotinylated molecule, idrabiotaparinux. Biotinylation enables reversal of the anticoagulant effect. We performed a randomized double-blind trial in 757 patients with symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, comparing equimolar doses of idrabiotaparinux (3 mg) with idraparinux (2.5 mg), both given subcutaneously, once weekly for 6 months. Inhibition of FXa activity was measured at days 15, 36, 57, 92 and 183. The efficacy outcome was recurrent venous thromboembolism. The safety outcomes were clinically relevant bleeding and death. Inhibition of FXa was similar in the two treatment groups at each time point of measurement. Recurrent venous thromboembolism during the 6-month treatment period occurred in nine of 386 patients (2.3%) in the idrabiotaparinux group and in 12 of 371 patients (3.2%) in the idraparinux group, a difference of - 0.9% (95% confidence interval, -3.2-1.4%). The incidence of clinically relevant bleeding was 5.2% in the idrabiotaparinux group and 7.3% in the idraparinux group (P = 0.29), a difference of - 2.1% (95% confidence interval, -5.6-1.4%). Six patients (1.6%) who received idrabiotaparinux died, compared with 12 patients (3.2%) given idraparinux, a difference of - 1.7% (95% confidence interval, -3.9-0.5%). Idrabiotaparinux has a similar time course of FXa inhibition, efficacy and safety to idraparinux for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Higher risk of venous thrombosis associated with drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gronich, Naomi; Lavi, Idit; Rennert, Gad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Combined oral contraceptives are a common method of contraception, but they carry a risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. We assessed whether use of drospirenone was associated with an increase in thrombotic risk relative to third-generation combined oral contraceptives. Methods: Using computerized records of the largest health care provider in Israel, we identified all women aged 12 to 50 years for whom combined oral contraceptives had been dispensed between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2008. We followed the cohort until 2009. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the crude and adjusted rate ratios for risk factors for venous thrombotic events (specifically deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and arterial thromboic events (specifically transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident). We performed multivariable analyses to compare types of contraceptives, with adjustment for the various risk factors. Results: We identified a total of 1017 (0.24%) venous and arterial thrombotic events among 431 223 use episodes during 819 749 woman-years of follow-up (6.33 venous events and 6.10 arterial events per 10 000 woman-years). In a multivariable model, use of drospirenone carried an increased risk of venous thrombotic events, relative to both third-generation combined oral contraceptives (rate ratio [RR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.78) and second-generation combined oral contraceptives (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.02–2.65). There was no increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis with drospirenone. Interpretation: Use of drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives was associated with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, but not transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular attack, relative to second- and third-generation combined oral contraceptives. PMID:22065352

  10. Effects of Analgesic Use on Inflammation and Hematology in a Murine Model of Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hish, Gerald A; Diaz, Jose A; Hawley, Angela E; Myers, Daniel D; Lester, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Surgical animal models are crucial in studies investigating the pathogenesis of this disease and evaluating VT therapies. Because inflammation is critical to both the development and resolution of VT, analgesic medications have the potential to adversely affect multiple parameters of interest in VT research. The objective of this study was to determine how several common analgesics affect key variables in a murine ligation model of deep vein thrombosis. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either local (bupivacaine) or systemic parenteral analgesia (buprenorphine, tramadol, or carprofen) or 0.9% NaCl (control). All mice underwent laparotomy and ligation of the inferior vena cava, and treatment was continued until euthanasia at 6 or 48 h after surgery. Analysis of harvested tissues and blood included: hematology, thrombus weight, serum and vein-wall cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL10, TNFα), soluble P-selectin, and vein-wall leukocyte infiltration. Compared with 0.9% NaCl, all of the analgesics affected multiple parameters important to VT research. Carprofen and tramadol affected the most parameters and should not be used in murine models of VT. Although they affected fewer parameters, a single dose of bupivacaine increased thrombus weight at 6 h, and buprenorphine was associated with reduced vein wall macrophages at 48 h. Although we cannot recommend the use of any of the evaluated analgesic dosages in this mouse model of VT, buprenorphine merits additional investigation to ensure the highest level of laboratory animal care and welfare. PMID:25255071

  11. Altered plasma levels of cytokines, soluble adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteases in venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mosevoll, Knut Anders; Lindås, Roald; Tvedt, Tor Henrik Anderson; Bruserud, Øystein; Reikvam, Håkon

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the importance of the inflammatory response mediated by monocyte and neutrophil activation in deep venous thrombosis (DVT); we therefore investigated whether this response was reflected in the plasma profile of inflammatory mediators in patients with suspected DVT. We included a group of 169 consecutive patients admitted to hospital from the primary health care service with suspected lower limb DVT. Plasma levels of 43 mediators were examined for a cohort of 89 consecutive patients and 20 healthy controls by Luminex multiplex analyses, i.e. 13 interleukins, 3 immunomodulatory cytokines, 8 chemokines, 8 growth factors, 3 adhesion molecules and 8 matrix metalloproteases. Selected mediators were analyzed for a second cohort of 80 consecutive patients. Thirty-five of 169 (21%) of referred patients were diagnosed with DVT. Only P-selectin (p<0.0001), vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1, p=0.0009), matrix metalloprotease 8 (MMP-8, p=0.0151) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, p=0.0415) differed significantly when comparing patients with and without DVT. When comparing DVT patients with healthy controls we observed significant differences for several mediators, where P-selectin (p=0.0009), VCAM-1 (p<0.0001), all the MMPs (all p<0.0014) and HGF (p<0.0001) showed the strongest significant differences. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses based on biomarkers showing differences between patients with and without DVT could be used to identify patient subsets that differed significantly in DVT frequency. Plasma biomarker profiling of selected soluble mediators can be used to identify subsets among patients with suspected lower limb thrombosis that differ significantly in their frequencies of DVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [How to provide practical treatment for ambulatory patients with deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Achkar, A; Samama, M M

    1999-02-01

    Much interest has been focused on low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), light weight fragments of standard heparin, for the management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) without pulmonary embolism (PE). LMWHs offer several advantages: predictable anticoagulant activity, better bioavailability, longer half-life, better patient and caretaker comfort, safety and efficacy at least comparable to continuous intravenous heparin. Ambulatory treatment is quite attractive and a large number of patients with DVT are now being managed as outpatients. There are however certain precautions which must be taken to avoid unsatisfactory anticoagulation and subsequent consequences which have nevertheless been shown to be exceptional in well-designed and well-conducted trials excluding patients with high risk for hemorrhage and based on attentive medical control. The purpose of this review is to propose clear and simple protocols for everyday practice aimed at a global diagnostic and therapeutic management of venous thromboembolism. The review of the literature draws attention to the need for confirmation of the clinical suspicion of DVT, practical application of the anticoagulant treatment, and the importance of the etiology search in order to avoid missing a congenital or acquired state of thrombophilia or an occult cancer revealed by DVT. Half of all cases of thrombosis are caused by these two etiologies. In addition, with the development of noninvasive methods for diagnosing DVT, the efficacy of clear therapeutic regimens and the simplification of coagulation tests warrant outpatient management in many cases of DVT in compliance with certain rules of good clinical practice: confirmation of the diagnosis and regular treatment controls. An essential element is the close collaboration between the patient, the physician, the nursing staff, the laboratory and the pharmacist.

  13. Antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent thrombosis after a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive; Parpia, Sameer; Spencer, Frederick A; Baglin, Trevor; Stevens, Scott M; Bauer, Kenneth A; Lentz, Steven R; Kessler, Craig M; Douketis, James D; Moll, Stephan; Kaatz, Scott; Schulman, Sam; Connors, Jean M; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S; Spadafora, Luciana; Bhagirath, Vinai; Liaw, Patricia C; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Julian, Jim A

    2018-05-10

    It is uncertain whether antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) increase the risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE). We tested for anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant on 2 occasions ∼6 months apart in 307 patients with a first unprovoked VTE who were part of a prospective cohort study. We then determined if APAs were associated with recurrent thrombosis in the 290 patients who stopped anticoagulant therapy in response to negative D-dimer results. Compared with those without an APA, the hazard ratios for recurrent VTE were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-3.7; P = .09) in the 25.9% of patients with an APA on ≥1 occasions, 2.7 (95% CI, 1.1-.7; P = .03) in the 9.0% of patients with the same APA on 2 occasions, and 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5-13.0; P = .006) in the 3.8% of patients with 2 or 3 different APA types on either the same or different occasions. There was no association between having an APA and D-dimer levels. We conclude that having the same type of APA on 2 occasions or having >1 type of APA on the same or different occasions is associated with recurrent thrombosis in patients with a first unprovoked VTE who stop anticoagulant therapy in response to negative D-dimer tests. APA and D-dimer levels seem to be independent predictors of recurrence in patients with an unprovoked VTE. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00720915. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Deep venous thrombosis after saphenous endovenous radiofrequency ablation: is it predictable?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Chad E; Pinzon, Maria Mora; Orozco, Jennifer; Hunt, Peter J B; Rivera, Aksim; McCarthy, Walter J

    2014-04-01

    Endovenous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins caused by saphenous reflux. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a known complication of this procedure. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency of DVT after RFA and the associated predisposing factors. A retrospective analysis was performed using prospectively collected data from December 2008 to December 2011; a total of 277 consecutive office-based RFA procedures were performed at a single institution using the VNUS ClosureFast catheter (VNUS Medical Technologies, San Jose, CA). Duplex ultrasonography scans were completed 2 weeks postprocedure in all patients. Risk factors assessed for the development of DVT included: great versus small saphenous vein (SSV) treated, right versus left side treated, number of radiofrequency cycles used, hypercoagulable state, history of DVT, tobacco use, medications (i.e., oral contraceptives, aspirin, warfarin, and clopidogrel), and vein diameter at the junction of the superficial and deep systems. Seventy-two percent of the patients were women, 56% were treated on the right side, and 86% were performed on the great saphenous vein (GSV). The mean age was 54 ± 14 years (range: 23-88 years). Three percent of patients had a preprocedure diagnosis of hypercoagulable state, and 8% had a history of previous DVT. On postprocedural ultrasound, thrombus protrusion into the deep system without occlusion (endovenous heat-induced thrombosis) was present in 11 patients (4%). DVT, as defined by thrombus protrusion with complete occlusion of the femoral or popliteal vein, was identified in 2 patients (0.7%). Previous DVT was the only factor associated with postprocedural DVT (P = 0.018). Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward a higher risk of DVT in SSV-treated patients. Factors associated with endovascular heat-induced thrombosis alone were male sex (P = 0.02), SSV treatment (P = 0.05), aspirin use (P = 0.008), and

  15. Artificial neural networks predict the incidence of portosplenomesenteric venous thrombosis in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Fei, Y; Hu, J; Li, W-Q; Wang, W; Zong, G-Q

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Predicting the occurrence of portosplenomesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT) is difficult. We studied 72 patients with acute pancreatitis. Artificial neural networks modeling was more accurate than logistic regression in predicting PSMVT. Additional predictive factors may be incorporated into artificial neural networks. Objective To construct and validate artificial neural networks (ANNs) for predicting the occurrence of portosplenomesenteric venous thrombosis (PSMVT) and compare the predictive ability of the ANNs with that of logistic regression. Methods The ANNs and logistic regression modeling were constructed using simple clinical and laboratory data of 72 acute pancreatitis (AP) patients. The ANNs and logistic modeling were first trained on 48 randomly chosen patients and validated on the remaining 24 patients. The accuracy and the performance characteristics were compared between these two approaches by SPSS17.0 software. Results The training set and validation set did not differ on any of the 11 variables. After training, the back propagation network training error converged to 1 × 10 -20 , and it retained excellent pattern recognition ability. When the ANNs model was applied to the validation set, it revealed a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 85.7%, a positive predictive value of 77.6% and negative predictive value of 90.7%. The accuracy was 83.3%. Differences could be found between ANNs modeling and logistic regression modeling in these parameters (10.0% [95% CI, -14.3 to 34.3%], 14.3% [95% CI, -8.6 to 37.2%], 15.7% [95% CI, -9.9 to 41.3%], 11.8% [95% CI, -8.2 to 31.8%], 22.6% [95% CI, -1.9 to 47.1%], respectively). When ANNs modeling was used to identify PSMVT, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 (95% CI, 0.807-0.901), which demonstrated better overall properties than logistic regression modeling (AUC = 0.716) (95% CI, 0.679-0.761). Conclusions ANNs modeling was a more accurate tool than logistic regression in

  16. The Absolute Risk of Venous Thrombosis after Air Travel: A Cohort Study of 8,755 Employees of International Organisations

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Middeldorp, Saskia; Robyn, Luc; Büller, Harry R; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2007-01-01

    Background The risk of venous thrombosis is approximately 2- to 4-fold increased after air travel, but the absolute risk is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Methods and Findings We conducted a cohort study among employees of large international companies and organisations, who were followed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2005. The occurrence of symptomatic venous thrombosis was linked to exposure to air travel, as assessed by travel records provided by the companies and organisations. A long-haul flight was defined as a flight of at least 4 h and participants were considered exposed for a postflight period of 8 wk. A total of 8,755 employees were followed during a total follow-up time of 38,910 person-years (PY). The total time employees were exposed to a long-haul flight was 6,872 PY. In the follow-up period, 53 thromboses occurred, 22 of which within 8 wk of a long-haul flight, yielding an incidence rate of 3.2/1,000 PY, as compared to 1.0/1,000 PY in individuals not exposed to air travel (incidence rate ratio 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.8–5.6). This rate was equivalent to a risk of one event per 4,656 long-haul flights. The risk increased with exposure to more flights within a short time frame and with increasing duration of flights. The incidence was highest in the first 2 wk after travel and gradually decreased to baseline after 8 wk. The risk was particularly high in employees under age 30 y, women who used oral contraceptives, and individuals who were particularly short, tall, or overweight. Conclusions The risk of symptomatic venous thrombosis after air travel is moderately increased on average, and rises with increasing exposure and in high-risk groups. PMID:17896862

  17. The absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel: a cohort study of 8,755 employees of international organisations.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Middeldorp, Saskia; Robyn, Luc; Büller, Harry R; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2007-09-01

    The risk of venous thrombosis is approximately 2- to 4-fold increased after air travel, but the absolute risk is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. We conducted a cohort study among employees of large international companies and organisations, who were followed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2005. The occurrence of symptomatic venous thrombosis was linked to exposure to air travel, as assessed by travel records provided by the companies and organisations. A long-haul flight was defined as a flight of at least 4 h and participants were considered exposed for a postflight period of 8 wk. A total of 8,755 employees were followed during a total follow-up time of 38,910 person-years (PY). The total time employees were exposed to a long-haul flight was 6,872 PY. In the follow-up period, 53 thromboses occurred, 22 of which within 8 wk of a long-haul flight, yielding an incidence rate of 3.2/1,000 PY, as compared to 1.0/1,000 PY in individuals not exposed to air travel (incidence rate ratio 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.8-5.6). This rate was equivalent to a risk of one event per 4,656 long-haul flights. The risk increased with exposure to more flights within a short time frame and with increasing duration of flights. The incidence was highest in the first 2 wk after travel and gradually decreased to baseline after 8 wk. The risk was particularly high in employees under age 30 y, women who used oral contraceptives, and individuals who were particularly short, tall, or overweight. The risk of symptomatic venous thrombosis after air travel is moderately increased on average, and rises with increasing exposure and in high-risk groups.

  18. Arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of 1491 patients.

    PubMed

    Za, Tommaso; De Stefano, Valerio; Rossi, Elena; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Andriani, Alessandro; Annino, Luciana; Cimino, Giuseppe; Caravita, Tommaso; Pisani, Francesco; Ciminello, Angela; Torelli, Fabio; Villivà, Nicoletta; Bongarzoni, Velia; Rago, Angela; Betti, Silvia; Levi, Anna; Felici, Stefano; Gentilini, Fabiana; Calabrese, Elisabetta; Leone, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We carried out a retrospective multicentre cohort study on 1491 patients with MGUS. In 49 patients (3.3%) MGUS was diagnosed after a thrombotic event. Follow-up details for a period of at least 12 months after diagnosis of MGUS were obtained in 1238 patients who had no recent history of thrombosis (<2 years) prior to diagnosis, for a total of 7334 years. During the follow-up, 33 of 1238 patients (2.7%) experienced thrombosis, with an incidence of 2.5 arterial events and 1.9 venous events per 1000 patient-years. Multivariate analysis showed increased risks of arterial thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 4.92, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.42-17.04], and of venous thrombosis in patients with a serum monoclonal (M)-protein level >16 g/l at diagnosis (HR 3.08, 95%CI 1.01-9.36). No thrombosis was recorded in patients who developed multiple myeloma (n = 50) or other neoplastic diseases (n = 21). The incidence of arterial or venous thrombosis in patients with MGUS did not increase relative to that reported in the general population for similarly aged members. Finally, the risk of venous thrombosis did increase when the M-protein concentration exceeded >16 g/l. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Risk factors for deep venous thrombosis in women with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Yasuhiko; Uchiyama, Mihoko; Imafuku, Hitomi; Suzuki, Kaho; Miyahara, Yoshiya; Yamada, Hideto

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We aim to clarify the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) before treatment in women with ovarian cancer and identify risk factors for DVT. In this prospective study, 110 women underwent venous ultrasonography before cancer treatment and D-dimer levels were measured. We investigated factors predicting DVT by logistic regression. DVT was detected in 25 of 110 women (22.7%) and pulmonary thromboembolism was coexisted in 2 women (1.8%). A total of 21 women (84.4%) with DVT were asymptomatic. D-dimer levels in women with DVT (median, 10.9; range, <0.5–98.2 μg/mL) were significantly higher than those in women without DVT (2.0; <0.5–60.8 μg/mL; P < .01). When 10.9 μg/mL was used as a cutoff value for D-dimer levels to predict DVT, specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values were 92.9%, 52.0%, 68.4%, and 86.8%, respectively. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that D-dimer level (odds ratio [OR], 19.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.89–76.76) and clear cell histology (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 2.12–25.67) were independent factors predicting DVT. Asymptomatic DVT occurred with great frequency before treatment in patients with ovarian cancer. High D-dimer level and clear cell pathology is associated with a higher DVT risk. PMID:29879062

  20. Early Detection and Quantification of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Magnetic Resonance Black Blood Thrombus Imaging (MRBTI)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Duan, Jiangang; Fan, Zhaoyang; Qu, Xiaofeng; Xie, Yibin; Nguyen, Christopher; Du, Xiangying; Bi, Xiaoming; Li, Kuncheng; Ji, Xunming; Li, Debiao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Early diagnosis of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVT) is currently a major clinical challenge. We proposed a novel MR black-blood thrombus imaging technique(MRBTI) for detection and quantification of CVT. Methods MRBTI was performed on 23 patients with proven CVT and 24 patients with negative CVT confirmed by conventional imaging techniques. Patients were divided into two groups based on the duration of clinical onset: ≤ 7 days (group 1); between 7 and 30 days (group 2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated for the detected thrombus and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between thrombus and lumen, and also between thrombus and brain tisssue. The feasibility of using MRBTI for thrombus volume measurement was explored and total thrombus volume was calculated for each patient. Results In 23 patients with proven CVT, MRBTI correctly identified 113 out of 116 segments with a sensitivity of 97.4%. Thrombus SNR was 153±57 and 261±95 for group 1(n=10) and group 2(n=13), respectively(P<0.01). Thrombus to lumen CNR was 149±57 and 256±94 for group 1 and group 2. Thrombus to brain tissue CNR was 41±36 and 120±63 (P<0.01), respectively. Quantification of thrombus volume was successfully conducted in all patients with CVT, and mean volume of thrombus was 10.5±6.9cc. Conclusions The current findings support that with effectively suppressed blood signal, MRBTI allows selective visualization of thrombus as opposed to indirect detection of venous flow perturbation and can be used as a promising first line diagnostic imaging tool. PMID:26670082

  1. Clinical features and risk factor analysis for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in Chinese neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fuyou; Shashikiran, Tagilapalli; Chen, Xi; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xianzhi; Song, Laijun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of neurosurgical patients; however, no data regarding lower extremity DVT in postoperative Chinese neurosurgical patients have been reported. Materials and Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, 196 patients without preoperative DVT who underwent neurosurgical operations were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography and D-dimer level measurements on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days after surgery. Follow-up clinical data were recorded to determine the incidence of lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients and to analyze related clinical features. First, a single factor analysis, Chi-square test, was used to select statistically significant factors. Then, a multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis, was used to determine risk factors for lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients. Results: Lower extremity DVT occurred in 61 patients, and the incidence of DVT was 31.1% in the enrolled Chinese neurosurgical patients. The common symptoms of DVT were limb swelling and lower extremity pain as well as increased soft tissue tension. The common sites of venous involvement were the calf muscle and peroneal and posterior tibial veins. The single factor analysis showed statistically significant differences in DVT risk factors, including age, hypertension, smoking status, operation time, a bedridden or paralyzed state, the presence of a tumor, postoperative dehydration, and glucocorticoid treatment, between the two groups (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that an age greater than 50 years, hypertension, a bedridden or paralyzed state, the presence of a tumor, and postoperative dehydration were risk factors for lower extremity DVT in postoperative neurosurgical patients. Conclusions: Lower extremity DVT was a common complication following craniotomy in the enrolled Chinese neurosurgical patients. Multiple

  2. Outcomes after Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in the Community: The Worcester Venous Thromboembolism Study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Frederick A.; Gore, Joel M.; Lessard, Darleen; Douketis, James D.; Emery, Cathy; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite advances in the management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), there are relatively few contemporary data describing and comparing outcomes in patients with these common conditions from a more generalizable community-based perspective. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with validated symptomatic PE and isolated DVT in a New England community. Methods The medical records of residents from the Worcester (MA) area with ICD-9 codes consistent with possible venous thromboembolism (VTE) during 1999, 2001, and 2003 were independently validated and reviewed by trained abstractors. Results Patients presenting with PE or isolated DVT experienced similar rates of subsequent PE, overall venous thromboembolism (VTE), and major bleeding during 3-year follow-up (5.9% vs. 5.1%, 15% vs. 17.9%, 15.6% vs. 12.4%, respectively). Mortality was significantly increased at 1-month follow-up in patients initially presenting with PE (13.0% vs. 5.4%) - this difference persisted at 3 years (35.3% vs. 29.6%). Patients whose course was complicated by major bleeding were more likely to suffer recurrent VTE or to die at 3 years than those without these complications. Conclusions Patients presenting with PE had similar rates of subsequent PE or recurrent VTE as patients with isolated DVT. However, rates of recurrent VTE and major bleeding following DVT and PE remain unacceptably high in the community setting. Efforts remain needed to identify patients most at risk for VTE-associated complications and development of better anticoagulation strategies conducive to long-term use in the community setting. PMID:18299499

  3. Heparin Resistance and Anticoagulation Failure in a Challenging Case of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    King, Adam B; O'Duffy, Anne E; Kumar, Avinash B

    2016-07-01

    We report a challenging case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (multiple etiologic factors) that was complicated by heparin resistance secondary to suspected antithrombin III (ATIII) deficiency. A 20-year-old female previously healthy and currently 8 weeks pregnant presented with worsening headaches, nausea, and decreasing Glasgow Coma Scale/Score (GCS), necessitating mechanical ventilatory support. Imaging showed extensive clots in multiple cerebral venous sinuses including the superior sagittal sinus, transverse, sigmoid, jugular veins, and the straight sinus. She was started on systemic anticoagulation and underwent mechanical clot removal and catheter-directed endovascular thrombolysis with limited success. Complicating the intensive care unit care was the development of heparin resistance, with an inability to reach the target partial thomboplastin time (PTT) of 60 to 80 seconds. At her peak heparin dose, she was receiving >35 000 units/24 h, and her PTT was subtherapeutic at <50 seconds. Deficiency of ATIII was suspected as a possible etiology of her heparin resistance. Fresh frozen plasma was administered for ATIII level repletion. Given her high thrombogenic risk and challenges with conventional anticoagulation regimens, we transitioned to argatroban for systemic anticoagulation. Heparin produces its major anticoagulant effect by inactivating thrombin and factor X through an AT-dependent mechanism. For inhibition of thrombin, heparin must bind to both the coagulation enzyme and the AT. A deficiency of AT leads to a hypercoagulable state and decreased efficacy of heparin that places patients at high risk of thromboembolism. Heparin resistance, especially in the setting of critical illness, should raise the index of suspicion for AT deficiency. Argatroban is an alternate agent for systemic anticoagulation in the setting of heparin resistance.

  4. Development of PEG-PLGA based Intravenous Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Nanoparticles Intended to Treat Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jogala, Satheesh; Rachamalla, Shyam Sunder; Aukunuru, Jithan

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is effective in the treatment of DVT. In this regard, LMWH demonstrated significant promise. It is widely used clinically. The goal of this study was to prepare and evaluate intravenous sustained release stealth nanoparticles encapsulating LMWH using PLGA (polylactidecoglycolide) and different grades of PEG (poly ethylene glycols). The nanoparticles were prepared using w/o/w solvent evaporation technique. Prepared nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro drug release, anti-thrombotic activity in venous thrombosis rat model, estimation of aPTT, tissue bio-distribution studies and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the formation of smooth spherical particles. FTIR study reveals successful coating of PEG on the nanoparticles. DSC and XRD results demonstrated that drug changed its physical form in the formulation. The encapsulation efficiency was 63-74%. In vitro drug release was 57-75% for 48 hrs. Macrophage uptake of LMWH with pegylated nanoparticles was less compared to conventional PLGA nanoparticles. In vivo drug release was sustained for 48hrs; Optimized formulation exhibited good enhancement in pharmacokinetic parameters when compared to free drug solution. In vivo sustained release was also demonstrated with antithrombotic activity as well aPTT activity. Optimized formulation demonstrated significant stability, excellent antithrombotic activity in venous thrombosis rat model, improved aPTT levels when compared to free drug solution. An effective stealth LMWH nanoparticle formulation to treat venous thrombosis was successfully developed using w/o/w solvent evaporation technique.

  5. [CBO guideline 'Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; revision of the earlier guidelines. Dutch Organization for Quality Assurance in Hospitals].

    PubMed

    Büller, H R; van der Meer, J; Oudkerk, M

    2000-08-05

    Diagnosis of clinically suspected deep venous thrombosis is based on a clinical score, serial compression ultrasonography and D-dimer assay. For the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism perfusion scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy, echography of the leg veins and pulmonary angiography in that order lead to the lowest mortality, morbidity and costs. Diagnostics with spiral CT followed by pulmonary angiography leads to equal mortality and fewer angiography procedures. Decision rules based on anamnesis, physical examination, blood gas analysis and chest radiograph have proved to be insufficiently reliable. The present D-dimer assays have too little sensitivity and too much variability. Thrombo-prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin is indicated for general surgery, joint replacement of the knee or hip, cranial and spinal surgery, subarachnoid haemorrhage after surgical treatment of an aneurysm, acute myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke or spinal cord lesion, intensive care patients, patients with acute paralysis due to a neuromuscular disorder, and bedridden patients with a risk factor. Prophylaxis has to be continued as long as the indication exists. In the acute phase of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism treatment with (low-molecular-weight) heparin in an adequate dose is necessary. When started at the same time as coumarin derivatives the treatment with heparin has to be continued for at least 5 days. The risk of postthrombotic syndrome after deep venous thrombosis will be lowered by carrying compression stockings for at least 2 years after the event.

  6. Thromboembolic Risk of Endovascular Intervention for Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Philip; Echeverria, Angela; Poi, Mun J; Matos, Jesus; Bechara, Carlos F; Cheung, Mathew; Lin, Peter H

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the risk of thromboembolism during endovascular interventions in patients with symptomatic lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) METHODS: Clinical records of all patients who underwent endovascular interventions for symptomatic lower extremity DVT from 2001 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed using a prospectively maintained database. Only patients who received an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter were included in the analysis. Trapped intrafilter thrombus was assessed for procedure-related thromboembolism. Clinical outcomes of thrombus management and thromboembolism risk were analyzed. A total 172 patients (mean age 57.4 years, 98 females) who underwent 174 endovascular DVT interventions were included in the analysis. Treatment strategies included thrombolytic therapy (64%), mechanical thrombectomy (n = 86%), pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (51%), balloon angioplasty (98%), and stent placement (28%). Thrombectomy device used included AngioJet (56%), Trellis (19%), and Aspire (11%). Trapped IVC filter thrombus was identified in 58 patients (38%) based on the IVC venogram. No patient developed clinically evident pulmonary embolism (PE). IVC filter retrieval was performed in 98 patients (56%, mean 11.8 months after implantation). Multivariate analysis showed that iliac vein occlusion (P = 0.04) was predictive for procedure-related thromboembolism. Iliac vein thrombotic occlusion is associated with an increased thromboembolic risk in DVT intervention. Retrievable IVC filter should be considered when performing percutaneous thrombectomy in patients with iliac venous occlusion to prevent PE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endovascular Thrombolysis Using Monteplase for Non-chronic Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji, E-mail: yamagami@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yoshimatsu, Rika, E-mail: rika442@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Tanaka, Osamu, E-mail: otanaka@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of endovascular thrombolysis using monteplase for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Between December 2005 and October 2009, at our institution nine endovascular thrombolysis treatments with monteplase were performed for symptomatic DVT in eight patients (6 women, 2 men; mean age, 56 (range, 15-80) years). In all, systemic anticoagulation administered by the peripheral intravenous route with heparin and/or thrombolysis with urokinase followed by anticoagulation with orally administered warfarin had been performed, and subsequently six endovascular treatments without monteplase were administered. However, DVT persisted, and endovascular treatments with monteplase were tried. In six (67%) ofmore » the nine procedures, DVT completely or almost completely disappeared after endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase. Mean dose of monteplase used was 2,170,000 IU. There was only one procedure-related complication. In one patient, just after thrombolysis with monteplase, bleeding at the puncture site and gingival bleeding occurred. Bleeding was stopped by manual astriction only. Endovascular thrombolysis with monteplase may be an effective treatment for DVT, even in cases resistant to traditional systemic anticoagulation and thrombolysis and endovascular procedures without monteplase.« less

  8. Severe subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cerebral venous thrombosis in early pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Takahashi, Mayu; Idei, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Akiba, Daisuke; Shibata, Eiji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) rarely induces subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). During late pregnancy and puerperium, CVT is an uncommon but important cause of stroke. However, severe SAH resulting from CVT is extremely rare during early pregnancy. We report on a rare case of severe SAH due to CVT, and discuss the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. A 32-year-old pregnant woman (9th week of pregnancy) presented with slight head dullness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed focal, abnormal signal intensity in the left thalamus. Nine days later, the patient developed a generalized seizure and severe SAH was detected with computed tomography (CT) scan. MRI and cerebral angiography revealed a completely thrombosed superior sagittal sinus, vein of Galen, straight sinus, and right transverse sinus. Transvaginal sonography indicated a missed abortion. The day after admission, the patient presented again with a progressive loss of consciousness and signs of herniation. The patient underwent emergency decompressive craniotomy, followed by intrauterine curettage. Two months later, she made an excellent recovery except for a slight visual field defect. A rare case of severe SAH due to CVT is reported, with emphasis on the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets cooperate to initiate and propagate venous thrombosis in mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Stark, Konstantin; Steinhart, Alexander; Chandraratne, Sue; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Khandoga, Alexander; Tirniceriu, Anca; Coletti, Raffaele; Köllnberger, Maria; Byrne, Robert A; Laitinen, Iina; Walch, Axel; Brill, Alexander; Pfeiler, Susanne; Manukyan, Davit; Braun, Siegmund; Lange, Philipp; Riegger, Julia; Ware, Jerry; Eckart, Annekathrin; Haidari, Selgai; Rudelius, Martina; Schulz, Christian; Echtler, Katrin; Brinkmann, Volker; Schwaiger, Markus; Preissner, Klaus T; Wagner, Denisa D; Mackman, Nigel; Engelmann, Bernd; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-04-09

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adhering to the venous endothelium provide the initiating stimulus for DVT development. Using conditional mutants and bone marrow chimeras, we show that intravascular activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation via tissue factor (TF) derived from myeloid leukocytes causes the extensive intraluminal fibrin formation characteristic of DVT. We demonstrate that thrombus-resident neutrophils are indispensable for subsequent DVT propagation by binding factor XII (FXII) and by supporting its activation through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Correspondingly, neutropenia, genetic ablation of FXII, or disintegration of NETs each confers protection against DVT amplification. Platelets associate with innate immune cells via glycoprotein Ibα and contribute to DVT progression by promoting leukocyte recruitment and stimulating neutrophil-dependent coagulation. Hence, we identified a cross talk between monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets responsible for the initiation and amplification of DVT and for inducing its unique clinical features.

  10. Monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets cooperate to initiate and propagate venous thrombosis in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Stark, Konstantin; Steinhart, Alexander; Chandraratne, Sue; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Khandoga, Alexander; Tirniceriu, Anca; Coletti, Raffaele; Köllnberger, Maria; Byrne, Robert A.; Laitinen, Iina; Walch, Axel; Brill, Alexander; Pfeiler, Susanne; Manukyan, Davit; Braun, Siegmund; Lange, Philipp; Riegger, Julia; Ware, Jerry; Eckart, Annekathrin; Haidari, Selgai; Rudelius, Martina; Schulz, Christian; Echtler, Katrin; Brinkmann, Volker; Schwaiger, Markus; Preissner, Klaus T.; Wagner, Denisa D.; Mackman, Nigel; Engelmann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adhering to the venous endothelium provide the initiating stimulus for DVT development. Using conditional mutants and bone marrow chimeras, we show that intravascular activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation via tissue factor (TF) derived from myeloid leukocytes causes the extensive intraluminal fibrin formation characteristic of DVT. We demonstrate that thrombus-resident neutrophils are indispensable for subsequent DVT propagation by binding factor XII (FXII) and by supporting its activation through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Correspondingly, neutropenia, genetic ablation of FXII, or disintegration of NETs each confers protection against DVT amplification. Platelets associate with innate immune cells via glycoprotein Ibα and contribute to DVT progression by promoting leukocyte recruitment and stimulating neutrophil-dependent coagulation. Hence, we identified a cross talk between monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets responsible for the initiation and amplification of DVT and for inducing its unique clinical features. PMID:22451716

  11. Pulmonary venous thrombosis secondary to radiofrequency ablation of the pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    López-Reyes, Raquel; García-Ortega, Alberto; Torrents, Ana; Feced, Laura; Calvillo, Pilar; Libreros-Niño, Eugenia Alejandra; Escrivá-Peiró, Juan; Nauffal, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis (PVT) is a rare and underdiagnosed entity produced by local mechanical nature mechanisms, vascular torsion or direct injury to the vein. PVT has been described in clinical cases or small multicenter series mainly in relation to pulmonary vein stenosis, metastatic carcinoma, fibrosing mediastinitis, as an early surgical complication of lung transplantation lobectomy and radiofrequency ablation performed in patients with atrial fibrillation, although in some cases the cause is not known. We report the case of a 57 years old male with history of atrial fibrillation treated by radiofrequency ablation who was admitted in our center because of a two-week history of consistent pleuritic pain in the left hemithorax and low-grade hemoptysis and a lung consolidation treated as a pneumonia with antibiotic but not responding to medical therapy. In view of the poor evolution of the patient, computed tomography angiography was performed with findings of PVT and secondary venous infarction and anticoagulation therapy was optimized. At the end, pulmonary resection was performed due to hemorrhagic recurrence. PVT remains a rare complication of radiofrequency ablation and other procedures involving pulmonary veins. Clinical suspicion and early diagnosis is crucial because is a potentially life-threatening entity.

  12. Genetics of Venous Thrombosis: Insights from a New Genome Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Marine; Saut, Noémie; Greliche, Nicolas; Dina, Christian; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Perret, Claire; Cohen, William; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Antoni, Guillemette; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Zelenika, Diana; Cambien, François; Tiret, Laurence; Bertrand, Marion; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Letenneur, Luc; Lathrop, Mark; Emmerich, Joseph; Amouyel, Philippe; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Background Venous Thrombosis (VT) is a common multifactorial disease associated with a major public health burden. Genetics factors are known to contribute to the susceptibility of the disease but how many genes are involved and their contribution to VT risk still remain obscure. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with VT risk. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 551,141 SNPs genotyped in 1,542 cases and 1,110 controls. Twelve SNPs reached the genome-wide significance level of 2.0×10−8 and encompassed four known VT-associated loci, ABO, F5, F11 and FGG. By means of haplotype analyses, we also provided novel arguments in favor of a role of HIVEP1, PROCR and STAB2, three loci recently hypothesized to participate in the susceptibility to VT. However, no novel VT-associated loci came out of our GWAS. Using a recently proposed statistical methodology, we also showed that common variants could explain about 35% of the genetic variance underlying VT susceptibility among which 3% could be attributable to the main identified VT loci. This analysis additionally suggested that the common variants left to be identified are not uniformly distributed across the genome and that chromosome 20, itself, could contribute to ∼7% of the total genetic variance. Conclusions/Significance This study might also provide a valuable source of information to expand our understanding of biological mechanisms regulating quantitative biomarkers for VT. PMID:21980494

  13. [Clinical analysis of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis complicated with inferior vena cava thrombus].

    PubMed

    Dong, Dian-ning; Wu, Xue-jun; Zhang, Shi-yi; Zhong, Zhen-yue; Jin, Xing

    2013-06-04

    To explore the clinical profiles of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) complicated with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus and summarize their clinical diagnostic and therapeutic experiences. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of 20 hospitalized patients with DVT complicated with inferior vena cava thrombus were analyzed retrospectively. All of them were of proximal DVT. There were phlegmasia cerulea dolens (n = 3), pulmonary embolism (n = 3) and completely occlusion of IVC (n = 5). Clinical manifestations were severe. Retrievable inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) was implanted for 17 cases. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) through ipsilateral popliteal vein was applied for 7 cases and systemic thrombolysis therapy for 8 cases. The effective rate of thrombolysis for fresh IVC thrombus was 100%. Among 5 cases with Cockett Syndrome, 3 cases underwent balloon dilatation angioplasty and endovascular stenting of iliac vein. And 17 IVCFs were retrieved successfully within 3 weeks. IVC thrombus disappeared completely in 15 cases. Systemic or local thrombolysis with protective IVCF is a safe and effective therapy for nonocclusive IVC thrombus in DVT. And CDT is recommended for symptomatic occlusive IVC thrombus.

  14. Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis with a rotator thrombolysis device in iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Oguz; Kutas, H Barıs; Gurbuz, Orcun; Tezcan, Orhan; Caliskan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Celal; Demirtas, Sinan; Mavitas, Binali

    2016-10-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a life-threatening and morbid pathology. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an early thrombolysis procedure using a rotator thrombolysis device. Sixty-seven patients with acute proximal DVT were enrolled in the study. Patients' data were recorded retrospectively. Initially, an infrarenal retrievable vena cava filter was placed through the femoral vein. Then, a rotator thrombolysis device and a thrombolytic agent injection were applied to the occluded segments of the deep veins by puncturing the popliteal vein. The identified reasons were trauma (43.3%), pregnancy (20.9%), undiagnosed (11.9%), major surgical operation (10.5%), immobilization (7.5%), and malignancy (5.9%). Immediate total recanalization was conducted in all patients, and the leg diameters returned to normal ranges in the early postoperative period. Hospital mortality or severe complications were not detected. New thrombolytic devices seem to reduce in-hospital mortality risks and may potentially decrease post-thrombotic morbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Development of a guideline for treatment of deep and superficial venous thrombosis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tosone, Nancy C; Costanzo, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Patients with DVT, aged 45.64 years, often present to the ED, with an annual cost of $1.5-$3.2 billion per year. This paper describes the process used to implement an evidence-based guideline on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) for the emergency department (ED). Specific aims were to (a) conduct an organizational assessment of DVT treatment practices; (b) compare organizational results with evidence-based treatment guidelines; (c) develop recommendations for the treatment of DVT for ED discharge; and (d) conduct an interdisciplinary evaluation of the evidence-based guideline. A retrospective review of 149 records of adults in an urban Midwestern ED in 2010 was undertaken. Differences in provider practices were identified. A guideline was developed that included clinical management, social/financial concerns, patient education, anticoagulation monitoring, and outpatient follow-up. Implementation and evaluation were accomplished through electronic and paper communication, medical record monitoring, and patient call back. Evaluation also included simulation exercises with an interdisciplinary team.

  16. [Clinical experience with the use of rivaroxaban in the treatment of cancer patients with venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, P F; Katorkin, S E; Melnicov, M A

    The urgency of the problem. The incidence of various thromboembolic complications in patients with oncopathology reaches 5-12%. When treating VTE in patients with oncology it is necessary to choose between two generally recognized alternatives. The recommended two-component scheme of the initiating phase of anticoagulant therapy with subsequent long-term admission of VKA is fraught with the development of clinically significant bleeding during the initial selection of the dose of warfarin and an increased risk of recurrence of VTE. Long-term parenteral use of LMWH is often negatively treated by patients and adversely affects compliance. For these reasons, enteral administration of new oral anticoagulants is promising for prolonged anticoagulant therapy in this category of patients. The paper cites three clinical cases of treatment of patients with acute venous thrombosis of deep veins against a background of different oncological processes. In the first case - the operated previously for cancer, in the second case - to be treated over oncological process and in the third case - in the primary cancer detection. The results of the studies of EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE allow us to consider the use of rivaroxaban in the treatment of patients with VTE on the background of oncopathology. The possibility of its use from the first day, in our opinion, is a significant advantage, since it allows us to reveal the clinical effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy already during the first stage of treatment, since NOAKs does not imply the possibility of laboratory monitoring.

  17. Design of a HIFU array for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Petr; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-08-01

    Deep venous thrombosis of the iliofemoral veins is a common and morbid disease, with the recommended interventional treatment carrying a high risk of hemorrhaging and complications. High intensity focused ultrasound delivered with a single element transducer has been shown to successfully precipitate thrombolysis non-invasively in vitro and in vivo. However, in all previous studies damage to the veins or surrounding tissue has been observed. Using a simulation model of the human thigh, this study investigated whether a phased array device could overcome the large focal region limitations faced by single transducer treatment devices. Effects of the size, shape and frequency of the array on its focal region were considered. It was found that a λ/2 spaced array of 7680 elements operating at 500 kHz could consistently focus to a region fully contained within the femoral vein. Furthermore, it is possible to reduce the number of elements required by building arrays operating at lower frequencies. The results suggest that phased transducer arrays hold potential for developing a safe, non-invasive treatment of thrombolysis.

  18. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnosis and management of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Monagle, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Neonates and children represent a specific population that can suffer from deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In considering how the diagnosis and management of DVT/PE in neonates and children differs from adults, one has to consider the fundamental differences in the general characteristics of the patient population, the specific differences in the disease entity, the differences in sensitivity or specificity of diagnostic strategies and risk/benefit profile of therapeutic options available, and then finally the practical applications of therapies, using an evidence-based approach. This review will articulate the key differences in the patient population, disease entity, diagnostic strategies, and drug therapies that must be understood to apply a rigorous evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management of DVT and PE in neonates and children. Finally, there will be a brief discussion of the latest American College of Chest Physician guidelines for antithrombotic treatment in neonates and children. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. [Usefulness of Edoxaban for Deep Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Hemorrhagic Infarction:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Takeo; Uesaka, Toshio; Kameda, Katsuharu; Uno, Junji; Nagaoka, Shintaro; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Gi, Hidefuku

    2017-07-01

    We describe a case of deep cerebral venous sinus thrombosis(DCVST)that was successfully treated by oral administration of the Xa inhibitor edoxaban. A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a headache and undifferentiated dizziness. Computed tomography(CT)demonstrated a low-density area in the bilateral thalamus and high-density lesions in the internal cerebral veins(ICVs)and vein of Galen. Magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted images detected areas of hyperintensity in the bilateral thalamus. Additionally, the inferior sagittal sinus, ICV, and vein of Galen were not detected by CT venography or cerebral angiography. We therefore diagnosed DCVST and started anticoagulation therapy with heparin(IV)and warfarin. A week after admission, lesions that showed hypointensity on T2* images and high density on CT scans were detected in the bilateral thalamus. We thought that hemorrhagic infarction had occurred in association with DCVST, and changed the anticoagulation therapy to oral administration of edoxaban on day 9. The patient's symptoms gradually diminished, and CT venography indicated partial recanalization of the DCV from the ICV to the vein of Galen on day 72. We report our experience, and discuss the safety and usefulness of the Xa inhibitor for treating DCVST with hemorrhagic infarction.

  1. Progressive Ischemic Stroke due to Thyroid Storm-Associated Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Natsumi; Hiraoka, Eiji; Hoshino, Masataka; Deshpande, Gautam A; Sawada, Kana; Norisue, Yasuhiro; Tsukuda, Jumpei; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2017-02-23

    BACKGROUND Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but fatal complication of hyperthyroidism that is induced by the hypercoagulable state of thyrotoxicosis. Although it is frequently difficult to diagnose CVT promptly, it is important to consider it in the differential diagnosis when a hyperthyroid patient presents with atypical neurologic symptoms. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old Japanese female with unremarkable medical history came in with thyroid storm and multiple progressive ischemic stroke identified at another hospital. Treatment for thyroid storm with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, and potassium iodide-iodine was started and MR venography was performed on hospital day 3 for further evaluation of her progressive ischemic stroke. The MRI showed CVT, and anticoagulation therapy, in addition to the anti-thyroid agents, was initiated. The patient's thyroid function was successfully stabilized by hospital day 10 and further progression of CVT was prevented. CONCLUSIONS Physicians should consider CVT when a patient presents with atypical course of stroke or with atypical MRI findings such as high intensity area in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping. Not only is an early diagnosis and initiation of anticoagulation important, but identifying and treating the underlying disease is essential to avoid the progression of CVT.

  2. Treatment of Experimentally Induced Caval Thrombosis With Oral Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Delivery Agent in a Porcine Model of Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Salartash, Khashayar; Lepore, Michael; Gonze, Mark D.; Leone-Bay, Andrea; Baughman, Robert; Charles Sternbergh, W.; Bowen, John C.; Money, Samuel R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective This experiment evaluated enterally administered low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) combined with sodium N-[10-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino] decanoate (SNAD) for the treatment of induced venous thrombosis. Summary Background Data SNAD is a delivery agent that potentiates the gastrointestinal absorption of LMWH. Methods Forty female pigs were equally assigned to four groups: control (saline); enteral LMWH, 2,000 IU/kg; enteral SNAD, 50 mg/kg; and enteral LMWH, 2,000 IU/kg and SNAD, 50 mg/kg. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the infrarenal vena cava was occluded with a balloon catheter. Two milliliters of ethanol was injected into the distal vena cava. The inflated balloon catheter remained in situ for 5 days, at which time animals angiographically exhibiting thrombus were randomly assigned to the four groups. Study medications were dosed at 12-hour intervals by means of a gastrostomy tube placed previously. After 7 days of treatment, thrombus was extracted. A separate group of 10 animals was used to measure plasma antifactor Xa levels for 6 hours after enteral dosing of LMWH/SNAD. Results The amount of residual thrombus after treatment with enteral LMWH/SNAD was significantly decreased. Antifactor Xa levels were significantly elevated in the LMWH/SNAD group versus baseline. Conclusion The combination of enterally administered LMWH and SNAD given for 7 days appeared to decrease caval thrombosis in this model of deep vein thrombosis. Enteral LMWH/SNAD effected an increase in plasma levels of antifactor Xa. PMID:10816621

  3. Risk of venous thrombosis in users of hormonal contraceptives in German gynaecological practices: a patient database analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziller, M; Ziller, V; Haas, G; Rex, J; Kostev, K

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies showed differences in the risk of venous thrombosis between different combined hormonal contraceptives. Database studies comprising large cohorts can add relevant aspects from daily clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different progestogen in combination with ethinylestradiol on the risk of venous thrombosis in Germany. Computerized data from 68,168 contraceptive users in gynecological practices throughout Germany (Disease Analyzer Database) were analyzed. The adjusted odds ratios for risk of thrombosis were estimated in users of different oral contraceptive (OC) formulations relative to users of levonorgestrel-containing preparations. In total, 38 (0.06 %) of the 68,168 contraceptive users had a recorded diagnosis of thrombosis within 365 days after the initial prescription. The adjusted risk was 1.95 for desogestrel (95 % CI 0.52-7.29), 2.97 for dienogest (95 % CI 0.96-9.24), 1.57 for drospirenone (95 % CI 0.46-5.38), 2.54 for chlormadinone (95 % CI 0.72-9.04), and 3.24 for norgestimate (95 % CI 0.59-17.75) compared to levonorgestrel. None of those findings reached statistical significance. The maximum absolute increase versus levonorgestrel was 6 cases per 10,000 women (n.s.). The study shows the low incidence rates of thrombosis in OC users. Since there is no significant difference, this study does not confirm an increased risk but shows only a tendency for this risk of third- and fourth-generation OC versus levonorgestrel-containing products.

  4. Anatomic and functional outcomes of pharmacomechanical and catheter-directed thrombolysis of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hager, Eric; Yuo, Theodore; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Naddaf, Abdullah; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Marone, Luke; Chaer, Rabih

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) and catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) are commonly used for the treatment of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The purpose of this study was to examine the short- and long-term venous patency and venous valvular function as well as clinical outcomes of patients treated for iliofemoral DVT by PMT and CDT. A retrospective review of all patients with symptomatic DVT treated between 2006 and 2011 with PMT or CDT was performed. All patients were treated by local tissue plasminogen activator delivered with PMT or CDT. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of initial treatment modality: patients treated by PMT alone (group 1), and those who underwent PMT and CDT or CDT alone (group 2). Group comorbidities, initial presenting symptoms, and Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathologic (CEAP) classification scores were compared. Postprocedural duplex ultrasound was used to assess valve function and treated vein patency rates. At all visits, Villalta and CEAP scores were recorded and compared. Group demographic and procedural results were analyzed by Fisher exact test for dichotomous variables and Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test for the ordinal and continuous data. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to assess preserved valve function as well as primary and secondary patency rates. There were 79 patients with 102 limbs treated for extensive iliofemoral DVT (median age, 51.5 years; range, 16.6-83.8 years). There were 18 patients in group 1 and 61 patients in group 2 (PMT + CDT [n = 54] or CDT alone [n = 7]). There were no differences in demographics or comorbidities between groups aside from malignant disease, which was more common in group 1 (35.3% vs 11.5%; P = .03). A total of 102 limbs were analyzed, 24 in group 1 and 78 in group 2. Patients in group 1 had a shorter symptom duration compared with group 2 (7 days vs 16 days; P = .011). The median number of procedures in group 1

  5. Sex-specific effect of CPB2 Ala147Thr but not Thr325Ile variants on the risk of venous thrombosis: A comprehensive meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zwingerman, Nora; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Kassam, Irfahan; Wilson, Michael D.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Gagnon, France

    2017-01-01

    Background Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), encoded by the Carboxypeptidase B2 gene (CPB2), is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis and plays a role in the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis. Experimental findings support a functional role of genetic variants in CPB2, while epidemiological studies have been unable to confirm associations with risk of venous thrombosis. Sex-specific effects could underlie the observed inconsistent associations between CPB2 genetic variants and venous thrombosis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted for associations between Ala147Thr and Thr325Ile variants with venous thrombosis. Authors were contacted to provide sex-specific genotype counts from their studies. Combined and sex-specific random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate a pooled effect estimate for primary and secondary genetic models. Results A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. A sex-specific meta-analysis applying a dominant model supported a protective effect of Ala147Thr on venous thrombosis in females (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.68,0.97; p = 0.018), but not in males (OR = 1.06, 95%CI:0.96–1.16; p = 0.263). The Thr325Ile did not show a sex-specific effect but showed variation in allele frequencies by geographic region. A subgroup analysis of studies in European countries showed decreased risk, with a recessive model (OR = 0.83, 95%CI:0.71–0.97, p = 0.021) for venous thrombosis. Conclusions A comprehensive literature review, including unpublished data, provided greater statistical power for the analyses and decreased the likelihood of publication bias influencing the results. Sex-specific analyses explained apparent discrepancies across genetic studies of Ala147Thr and venous thrombosis. While, careful selection of genetic models based on population genetics, evolutionary and biological knowledge can increase power by decreasing the need to adjust for testing multiple models. PMID:28552956

  6. Sex-specific effect of CPB2 Ala147Thr but not Thr325Ile variants on the risk of venous thrombosis: A comprehensive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zwingerman, Nora; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Kassam, Irfahan; Wilson, Michael D; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Gagnon, France

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), encoded by the Carboxypeptidase B2 gene (CPB2), is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis and plays a role in the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis. Experimental findings support a functional role of genetic variants in CPB2, while epidemiological studies have been unable to confirm associations with risk of venous thrombosis. Sex-specific effects could underlie the observed inconsistent associations between CPB2 genetic variants and venous thrombosis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for associations between Ala147Thr and Thr325Ile variants with venous thrombosis. Authors were contacted to provide sex-specific genotype counts from their studies. Combined and sex-specific random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate a pooled effect estimate for primary and secondary genetic models. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. A sex-specific meta-analysis applying a dominant model supported a protective effect of Ala147Thr on venous thrombosis in females (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.68,0.97; p = 0.018), but not in males (OR = 1.06, 95%CI:0.96-1.16; p = 0.263). The Thr325Ile did not show a sex-specific effect but showed variation in allele frequencies by geographic region. A subgroup analysis of studies in European countries showed decreased risk, with a recessive model (OR = 0.83, 95%CI:0.71-0.97, p = 0.021) for venous thrombosis. A comprehensive literature review, including unpublished data, provided greater statistical power for the analyses and decreased the likelihood of publication bias influencing the results. Sex-specific analyses explained apparent discrepancies across genetic studies of Ala147Thr and venous thrombosis. While, careful selection of genetic models based on population genetics, evolutionary and biological knowledge can increase power by decreasing the need to adjust for testing multiple models.

  7. Adherence to Guidelines for Oral Anticoagulation after Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, David A; Glynn, Robert J; Mogun, Helen; Knight, Eric L; Bohn, Rhonda L; Avorn, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Guidelines for oral anticoagulation after deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) have recommended that patients be anticoagulated for at least 3 months after hospital discharge. We sought to determine whether this recommendation was being followed and what patient characteristics predict a shorter than recommended duration of therapy. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using linked health care claims data. SETTING Routine clinical practice. PATIENTS Five hundred seventy-three members of New Jersey's Medicaid or Pharmacy Assistance for the Aged and Disabled programs aged 65 years and older who were hospitalized for DVT or PE between January 1, 1991 and June 30, 1994. RESULTS Of the 573 patients, 129 (23%) filled prescriptions covering less than 90 days of oral anticoagulant therapy. In multivariate models, African-American race was associated with an increased risk of a shorter than recommended duration of therapy (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 3.08), but age and gender were not. Patients who used anticoagulants in the year prior to admission were less likely to have a short duration of therapy (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.78), than were patients with PE (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88). CONCLUSIONS Nearly a quarter of those anticoagulated following DVT or PE received therapy for less than the recommended length of time after hospital discharge, with African Americans more likely to have a shorter than recommended course of treatment. Further research is needed to evaluate the causes of shorter than recommended duration of therapy and racial disparities in anticoagulant use. PMID:11119169

  8. Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in trauma: improved compliance with a novel miniaturized pneumatic compression device.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Maki; McDill, Tandace L; Cindrick-Pounds, Lori; Loran, David B; Woodside, Kenneth J; Mileski, William J; Hunter, Glenn C; Killewich, Lois A

    2003-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices prevent lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT) when used properly, but compliance remains an issue. Devices are frequently discontinued when patients are out of bed, and they are rarely used in emergency departments. Trauma patients are at high risk for LEDVT; however, IPCs are underused in this population because of compliance limitations. The hypothesis of this study was that a new miniaturized, portable, battery-powered pneumatic compression device improves compliance in trauma patients over that provided by a standard device. This was a prospective trial in which trauma patients (mean age, 46 years; revised trauma score, 11.7) were randomized to DVT prophylaxis with a standard calf-length sequential IPC device (SCD group) or a miniaturized sequential device (continuous enhanced-circulation therapy [CECT] group). The CECT device can be battery-operated for up to 6 hours and worn during ambulation. Timers attached to the devices, which recorded the time each device was applied to the legs and functioning, were used to quantify compliance. For each subject in each location during hospitalization, compliance rates were determined by dividing the number of minutes the device was functioning by the total minutes in that location. Compliance rates for all subjects were averaged in each location: emergency department, operating room, intensive care unit, and nursing ward. Total compliance rate in the CECT group was significantly higher than in the SCD group (77.7% vs. 58.9%, P =.004). Compliance in the emergency department and nursing ward were also significantly greater with the CECT device (P =.002 and P =.008 respectively). Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced compliance with IPC devices results in a higher incidence of LEDVT. Given its ability to improve compliance, the CECT may provide superior DVT prevention compared with that provided by standard devices.

  9. Accuracy of magnetic resonance venography in diagnosing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liansheng; Xu, Weilin; Li, Tao; Yu, Xiaobo; Cao, Shenglong; Xu, Hangzhe; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao

    2018-05-17

    The non-specific clinical manifestations and lack of effective diagnostic techniques have made cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) difficult to recognize and easy to misdiagnose. Several studies have suggested that different types of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) have advantages in diagnosing CVST. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of MRV in identifying CVST. We searched the Embase, PubMed, and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) databases comprehensively to retrieve eligible articles up to Mar 31, 2018. The methodological quality of each article was evaluated individually. The summary diagnostic accuracy of MRV for CVST was obtained from pooled analysis with random-effects models. Sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression were used to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A trim and fill analysis was conducted to correct the funnel plot asymmetry. The meta-analysis synthesized 12 articles containing 27 cohorts with a total of 1933 cases. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.89) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.95), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 75.24 (95% CI: 38.33, 147.72). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9472 (95% CI: 0.9229, 0.9715). Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis revealed the technical types of MRV and the methods of counting cases contributing to the heterogeneity. The trim and fill method confirmed that publication bias has little effect on our results. MRV has excellent diagnostic performance and is accurate in confirming CVST. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Association of Statin Therapy with the Risk of Recurrent Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas L.; Harrington, Laura B.; Blondon, Marc; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Floyd, James S.; Sitlani, Colleen M.; McKnight, Barbara; Larson, Eric B.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials suggest that treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) lowers the risk of incident venous thrombosis (VT), particularly among those without prevalent clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether this is true for the prevention of recurrent VT is debated. We used an observational inception cohort to estimate the association of current statin use with the risk of recurrent VT. Methods and Results The study setting was a large healthcare organization with detailed medical record and pharmacy information at cohort entry and throughout follow-up. We followed 2,798 subjects 18–89 years of age who experienced a validated incident VT between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2010, for a first recurrent VT, validated by medical record review. During follow-up, 457 (16%) developed a first recurrent VT. In time-to-event models incorporating time-varying statin use and adjusting for potential confounders, current statin use was associated with a 26% lower risk of recurrent VT: HR=0.74; 95%CI: 0.59–0.94. Among cohort members free of CVD (n=2,134), current statin use was also associated with a lower risk (38%) of recurrent VT: HR=0.62; 95%CI: 0.45–0.85. We found similar results when restricting to new users of statins and in subgroups of different statin types and doses. Conclusions In a population-based cohort of subjects who had experienced an incident VT, statin use, compared with non-use, was associated with a clinically-relevant lower risk of recurrent VT. These findings suggest a potential secondary benefit of statins among patients who have experienced an incident VT. PMID:27061794

  11. Direct oral anticoagulant use in patients with thrombophilia, antiphospholipid syndrome or venous thrombosis of unusual sites: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Laurent; Benhamou, Ygal; Béjot, Yannick; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Cheggour, Saida; Aleil, Boris; Lellouche, Nicolas; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; Delluc, Aurélien

    2018-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are indicated in the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the use of DOACs in unusual VTE, including cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT), and in patients with biological thrombophilia including minor thrombophilia (Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A), major innate thrombophilia (protein C and S deficiency, and antithrombin) and major acquired thrombophilia (antiphospholipid syndrome [APS]), remains controversial due to the paucity of available data. There are some reports of DOACs use in the initial treatment or long-term maintenance of patients with either CVT or SVT, but their efficacy remains unclear. The efficacy of DOACs may be suitable in patients with biological minor or major thrombophilia. The use of DOACs for the long-term maintenance of patients with APS is more contentious. Randomized clinical trials, which are currently underway, should offer definitive insight into the efficacy and safety profiles of DOACs in these patient populations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Competing risk of atherosclerotic risk factors for arterial and venous thrombosis in a general population: the Tromso study.

    PubMed

    Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hald, Erin M; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Rosendaal, Frits R; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2012-02-01

    To investigate and compare the impact of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors for the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis, taking into account competing risks. In 1994-1995, 26,185 subjects were screened in the Tromsø study. Information on traditional atherosclerotic risk factors was obtained by physical examination, blood samples, and questionnaires. Subjects were followed to the first incident event of myocardial infarction (MI) or venous thromboembolism (VTE), or December 31, 2005. During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up, there were 1279 cases of incident MI and 341 VTE events. Advancing age and high body mass index were both associated with MI and VTE. Hazard ratio per decade of age was 2.34 (95% CI: 2.25-2.43) for MI and 1.87 (1.74-2.01) for VTE, and 3 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was associated with 1.16 (1.11-1.21) and 1.20 (1.12-1.29) increased risk of MI and VTE, respectively. Blood pressure, high levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, self-reported diabetes, and smoking were all associated with increased risk of MI but not associated with VTE. Our findings imply that traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are not shared by arterial and venous thrombosis.

  13. Regional lymph node metastases are a strong risk factor for venous thromboembolism: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickmann, Boris; Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Ay, Cihan; Dunkler, Daniela; Thaler, Johannes; Scheithauer, Werner; Quehenberger, Peter; Zielinski, Christoph; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Advanced cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. However, lymph node metastases are usually not considered an established risk factor. In the framework of the prospective, observational Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study we investigated the association between local (N0), regional (N1–3), and distant (M1) cancer stages and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. Furthermore, we were specifically interested in the relationship between stage and biomarkers that have been reported to be associated with venous thromboembolism. We followed 832 patients with solid tumors for a median of 527 days. The study end-point was symptomatic venous thromboembolism. At study inclusion, 241 patients had local, 138 regional, and 453 distant stage cancer. The cumulative probability of venous thromboembolism after 6 months in patients with local, regional and distant stage cancer was 2.1%, 6.5% and 6.0%, respectively (P=0.002). Compared to patients with local stage disease, patients with regional and distant stage disease had a significantly higher risk of venous thromboembolism in multivariable Cox-regression analysis including age, newly diagnosed cancer (versus progression of disease), surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (regional: HR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.5–9.6; distant: HR=5.4, 95% CI: 2.3–12.9). Furthermore, patients with regional or distant stage disease had significantly higher levels of D-dimer, factor VIII, and platelets, and lower hemoglobin levels than those with local stage disease. These results demonstrate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with regional disease. Elevated levels of predictive biomarkers in patients with regional disease underpin the results and are in line with the activation of the hemostatic system in the early phase of metastatic dissemination. PMID:23585523

  14. Endotoxaemia-augmented murine venous thrombosis is dependent on TLR-4 and ICAM-1, and potentiated by neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Obi, Andrea T; Andraska, Elizabeth; Kanthi, Yogendra; Kessinger, Chase W; Elfline, Megan; Luke, Cathy; Siahaan, Teruna J; Jaffer, Farouc A; Wakefield, Thomas W; Henke, Peter K

    2017-01-26

    Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of death during and immediately post-sepsis. Venous thrombosis (VT) is mediated by cell adhesion molecules and leukocytes, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Sepsis, or experimentally, endotoxaemia, shares similar characteristics and is modulated via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). This study was undertaken to determine if endotoxaemia potentiates early stasis thrombogenesis, and secondarily to determine the role of VT TLR4, ICAM-1 and neutrophils (PMNs). Wild-type (WT), ICAM-1 -/- and TLR4 -/- mice underwent treatment with saline or LPS (10 mg/kg i. p.) alone, or followed by inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation to generate stasis VT. In vivo microscopy of leukocyte trafficking was performed in non-thrombosed mice, and tissue and plasma were harvested during early VT formation. Pre-thrombosis, circulating ICAM-1 was elevated and increased leukocyte adhesion and rolling occurred on the IVC of LPS-treated mice. Post-thrombosis, endotoxaemic mice formed larger, platelet-poor thrombi. Endotoxaemic TLR4 -/- mice did not have an augmented thrombotic response and exhibited significantly decreased circulating ICAM-1 compared to endotoxaemic WT controls. Endotoxaemic ICAM-1 -/- mice had significantly smaller thrombi compared to controls. Hypothesising that PMNs localised to the inflamed endothelium were promoting thrombosis, PMN depletion using anti-Ly6G antibody was performed. Paradoxically, VT formed without PMNs was amplified, potentially related to endotoxaemia induced elevation of PAI-1 and circulating FXIII, and decreased uPA. Endotoxaemia enhanced early VT occurs in a TLR-4 and ICAM-1 dependent fashion, and is potentiated by neutropenia. ICAM-1 and/or TLR-4 inhibition may be a unique strategy to prevent sepsis-associated VT.

  15. Choline deficiency is associated with increased risk for venous catheter thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Buchman, Alan L; Ament, Marvin E; Jenden, Donald J; Ahn, Chul

    2006-01-01

    Patients with intestinal failure who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) develop catheter thrombosis as a complication. This patient group may also develop choline deficiency because of a defect in the hepatic transsulfuration pathway in the setting of malabsorption. This study was undertaken to determine whether choline deficiency is a risk factor for development of catheter thrombosis. Plasma free and phospholipid-bound choline concentrations were measured in a group of 41 patients that required long-term PN. Episodes of catheter thrombosis from onset of PN to the time of blood testing were recorded. Sixteen (39%) patients developed catheter thrombosis, and 5 of these had recurrent catheter thrombosis. Plasma free choline was 7.7 +/- 2.7 nmol/mL in patients with no history of catheter thrombosis and 6.2 +/- 1.7 nmol/mL in patients with previous catheter thrombosis (p = .076 by Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The partial correlation between plasma free choline concentration and the frequency of clots after controlling for catheter duration was r = -0.33 (p = .038). The relative risk for catheter thrombosis in subjects with a plasma free choline concentration <8 nmol/mL was 10.0, 95% confidence interval (1.134-88.167). Plasma phospholipid-bound choline concentration was 2191.7 +/- 679.0 nmol/mL in patients with previous catheter thrombosis and 2103.3 +/- 531.2 nmol/mL in patients without history of catheter thrombosis (p = NS). Choline deficiency is a significant risk factor for development of catheter thrombosis in patients with intestinal failure who require PN.

  16. Cortical vein thrombosis in adult patients of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis correlates with poor outcome and brain lesions: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiahui; Chen, Hongbing; Li, Zhuhao; He, Shaofu; Luo, Boning; Tang, Shujin; Shang, Wenjin; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2017-12-15

    Cortical vein thrombosis (CVT) receives little attention in adult patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). This study aimed to investigate the clinical and radiological features of adult CVST patients with concomitant CVT. From May 2009 to May 2016, we recruited 44 adult CVST patients (diagnosed within 1 month of onset; 33.8 ± 14.0 years of age, 28 males). CVT was primarily confirmed using computed tomography venography and magnetic resonance imaging sequence of contrast enhanced three dimensions magnetization prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo. Patients with concomitant CVT were divided into the CVT group; otherwise, the patients were placed into the non-CVT group. The clinico-radiological characteristics were compared between the two groups. The CVT group included 27 patients (61.4%), and the non-CVT group included 17 patients (38.6%). Seizure (63.0% versus 11.8%), focal neurological deficits (44.4% versus 5.9%), and consciousness disorders (33.3% versus 0) occurred more frequently in the patients in the CVT group than in those of the non-CVT group (P < 0.05). The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge was higher for the CVT group patients (median 2, range 1-4) than for the non-CVT group patients (median 0, range 0-4) (P < 0.001). Venous infarction (63.0% versus 11.8%), parenchymal hemorrhage (40.7% versus 5.9%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (22.2% versus 0) were identified more frequently in the CVT group than in the non-CVT group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that concomitant CVT is a common finding in adult patients with CVST and is associated with severe clinical manifestations, poor short-term outcomes, and brain lesions.

  17. Fibrin clot structure is affected by levels of particulate air pollution exposure in patients with venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoxi; Gong, Yun Yun; Martinelli, Ida; Angelici, Laura; Favero, Chiara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Mannucci, Pier M; Ariëns, Robert A S; Routledge, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and thrombosis. Long-term exposure to particulate matter with a diameter<10μm (PM10) has been associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not particulate air pollution alters fibrin clot structure and thus modulates thrombosis risk. We investigated fibrin polymerization by turbidity (maximum absorbance mOD), clot structure by confocal microscopy (fibre number per μm) and fibrin pore size by permeability (Ks×10(-10)cm(2)) in 103 patients with deep vein thrombosis and 121 healthy controls, for whom levels of air pollution exposure had been recorded. Exposure groups were defined by mean PM10 concentrations over the 730days before the event. We found a higher average number of fibres per clot area in patients than controls, but no difference in Ks or fibre thickness. When the two groups were divided into high or low exposure to PM10, a significantly denser fibrin clot network structure with thicker fibres (higher maximum absorbance, p<0.05), decreased permeability (lower Ks value, p<0.05) and higher average fibre numbers per clot area (p<0.05) was observed in patients in the high exposure group compared to those with low exposure. There were no significant differences in fibrin clot structure between the two exposure levels in healthy subjects. PM10 levels are associated with altered fibrin clot structure in patients with deep vein thrombosis but not in controls, suggesting that air pollution may trigger differences in fibrin clot structure only in patients predisposed to thrombotic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of digital infrared thermal imaging in detecting lower extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fangge; Tang, Qing; Zeng, Guangqiao; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Nuofu; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-05-01

    The authors aimed to determine the effectiveness of infrared thermal imaging (IRTI) as a novel, noninvasive technique in adjunctive diagnostic screening for lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The authors used an infrared thermal imaging sensor to examine the lower limbs of 64 DVT patients and 64 healthy volunteers. The DVT patients had been definitively diagnosed with either Doppler vascular compression ultrasonography or angiography. The mean area temperature (T_area) and mean linear temperature (T_line) in the region of interest were determined with infrared thermal imaging. Images were evaluated with qualitative pseudocolor analysis to verify specific color-temperature responses and with quantitative temperature analysis. Differences in T_area and T_line between the DVT limb and the nonaffected limb in each DVT patient and temperature differences (TDs) in T_area (TDarea) and T_line (TDline) between DVT patients and non-DVT volunteers were compared. Qualitative pseudocolor analysis revealed visible asymmetry between the DVT side and non-DVT side in the presentation and distribution characteristics (PDCs) of infrared thermal images. The DVT limbs had areas of abnormally high temperature, indicating the presence of DVT. Of the 64 confirmed DVT patients, 62 (96.88%) were positive by IRTI detection. Among these 62 IRTI-positive cases, 53 (82.81%) showed PDCs that agreed with the DVT regions detected by Doppler vascular compression ultrasonography or angiography. In nine patients (14.06%), IRTI PDCs did not definitively agree with the DVT regions established with other testing methods, but still correctly indicated the DVT-affected limb. There was a highly significant difference between DVT and non-DVT sides in DVT patients (P < 0.01). The TDarea and TDline in non-DVT volunteers ranged from 0.19 ± 0.15 °C to 0.21 °C ± 0.17 °C; those in DVT patients ranged from 0.86 °C ± 0.71 °C to 1.03 °C ± 0.79 °C (P < 0.01). Infrared thermal imaging

  19. Outcomes and predictors of failure of thrombolysis for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Hager, Eric S; Naddaf, Abdallah; Dillavou, Ellen; Singh, Michael; Chaer, Rabih A

    2015-01-01

    Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) with adjunctive mechanical techniques, when successful, is reported to alleviate symptoms of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (IFDVT) and to lower the occurrence of the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). This study aimed to determine longer term outcomes of catheter-based interventions for IFDVT and to identify predictors of immediate and mid-long-term failures that would guide optimal patient selection. Consecutive patients who underwent CDT or pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for IFDVT between May 2007 and March 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Assessment of predictors of immediate periprocedural failure was based on the degree of clot lysis (≤ 50% vs >50%) and 30-day recurrence of DVT. Long-term anatomic and clinical failures and outcomes were assessed by ultrasound imaging of the lysed segments and Villalta score (≥ 5 vs <5). Survival analysis was used to assess primary patency and PTS morbidity. Multivariate binary logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of anatomic and clinical failures. During the study period, 93 patients (118 limbs; mean age, 49.4 ± 16.2 years; 47 women) with symptoms averaging 11.1 ± 9.6 days in duration were treated with various combinations of CDT or pharmacomechanical thrombolysis; in 52 (56%), at least one iliocaval stent was deployed. Immediate treatment failure was seen in 11 patients (12%) predicted by the preoperative indication "phlegmasia" (odds ratio, 3.12; P = .042) and recent surgery (odds ratio, 19.6; P = .018). At a mean ultrasonographic follow-up of 16 ± 14 months (range, 1-65 months), six more patients sustained a rethrombosis, accounting for an overall 3-year primary patency of 72.1%. In the long-term model, loss of primary patency was associated with recent surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 4.04; P = .023), malignant disease (HR, 6.75; P = .016), and incomplete thrombolysis (≤ 50%) (HR, 5.83; P < .001). By

  20. Effect of pathological heterogeneity on shear wave elasticity imaging in the staging of deep venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaona; Li, Na; Wen, Chaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to observe the relationship between the pathological components of a deep venous thrombus (DVT), which was divided into three parts, and the findings on quantitative ultrasonic shear wave elastography (SWE) to increase the accuracy of thrombus staging in a rabbit model. Methods A flow stenosis-induced vein thrombosis model was used, and the thrombus was divided into three parts (head, body and tail), which were associated with corresponding observation points. Elasticity was quantified in vivo using SWE over a 2-week period. A quantitative pathologic image analysis (QPIA) was performed to obtain the relative percentages of the components of the main clots. Results DVT maturity occurred at 2 weeks, and the elasticity of the whole thrombus and the three parts (head, body and tail) showed an increasing trend, with the Young's modulus values varying from 2.36 ± 0.41 kPa to 13.24 ± 1.71 kPa; 2.01 ± 0.28 kPa to 13.29 ± 1.48 kPa; 3.27 ± 0.57 kPa to 15.91 ± 2.05 kPa; and 1.79 ± 0.36 kPa to 10.51 ± 1.61 kPa, respectively. Significant increases occurred on different days for the different parts: the head showed significant increases on days 4 and 6; the body showed significant increases on days 4 and 7; and the tail showed significant increases on days 3 and 6. The QPIA showed that the thrombus composition changed dynamically as the thrombus matured, with the fibrin and calcium salt deposition gradually increasing and the red blood cells (RBCs) and platelet trabecula gradually decreasing. Significant changes were observed on days 4 and 7, which may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi. Significant heterogeneity was observed between and within the thrombi. Conclusions Variations in the thrombus components were generally consistent between the SWE and QPIA. Days 4 and 7 after thrombus induction may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi in rabbit models. A dynamic examination of

  1. Predictors of cerebral venous thrombosis and arterial ischemic stroke in young Asian women.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Kaul, Subhash; Menon, Bindu; Gunaratne, Padma; Malik, Abdul; Mehmood, Kauser; Ahmed, Shahzad; Awan, Safia; Mehndiratta, M M

    2012-11-01

    The management and outcome of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may be different from that of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Clinically differentiating the 2 diseases on clinical grounds may be difficult. The main objective of this study was to identify predictors differentiating CVT from AIS in a large cohort of young Asian women, based on risk factors and investigations. Twelve centers in 8 Asian countries participated. Women aged 15-45 years were included if they had a diagnosis of first-ever symptomatic AIS or CVT confirmed by brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Patients with head trauma, cerebral contusions, intracranial hemorrhage, and subarachnoid or subdural hemorrhage were excluded. Data, including demographic data, risk factor assessment, neuroimaging studies, blood tests, and cardiac studies, were collected by retrospective and then prospective chart review between January 2001 and July 2008. Outcome was based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at admission, discharge, and latest follow-up. A total of 958 patients (204 with CVT and 754 with AIS) were included in the study. Age under 36 years, anemia, pregnancy or postpartum state, and presence of hemorrhagic infarcts on computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging were significant predictors of CVT on univariate analysis. Age over 36 years, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, recent myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram abnormalities, and blood glucose level >150 mg/dL were strong predictors of AIS. On multivariate analysis, postpartum state and hemorrhagic infarct were the strongest predictors of CVT (P < .001). Mortality was comparable in the 2 patient groups. Prognosis was significantly better for patients with CVT than for those with AIS (mRS score 0-2, 74% v 46%; P < .001). There was no difference in outcome between patients with obstetric and nonobstetric CVT. Our data indicate that in young Asian women, predictors of CVT

  2. Effect of pathological heterogeneity on shear wave elasticity imaging in the staging of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Li, Na; Wen, Chaoyang

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to observe the relationship between the pathological components of a deep venous thrombus (DVT), which was divided into three parts, and the findings on quantitative ultrasonic shear wave elastography (SWE) to increase the accuracy of thrombus staging in a rabbit model. A flow stenosis-induced vein thrombosis model was used, and the thrombus was divided into three parts (head, body and tail), which were associated with corresponding observation points. Elasticity was quantified in vivo using SWE over a 2-week period. A quantitative pathologic image analysis (QPIA) was performed to obtain the relative percentages of the components of the main clots. DVT maturity occurred at 2 weeks, and the elasticity of the whole thrombus and the three parts (head, body and tail) showed an increasing trend, with the Young's modulus values varying from 2.36 ± 0.41 kPa to 13.24 ± 1.71 kPa; 2.01 ± 0.28 kPa to 13.29 ± 1.48 kPa; 3.27 ± 0.57 kPa to 15.91 ± 2.05 kPa; and 1.79 ± 0.36 kPa to 10.51 ± 1.61 kPa, respectively. Significant increases occurred on different days for the different parts: the head showed significant increases on days 4 and 6; the body showed significant increases on days 4 and 7; and the tail showed significant increases on days 3 and 6. The QPIA showed that the thrombus composition changed dynamically as the thrombus matured, with the fibrin and calcium salt deposition gradually increasing and the red blood cells (RBCs) and platelet trabecula gradually decreasing. Significant changes were observed on days 4 and 7, which may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi. Significant heterogeneity was observed between and within the thrombi. Variations in the thrombus components were generally consistent between the SWE and QPIA. Days 4 and 7 after thrombus induction may represent the transition points for acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi in rabbit models. A dynamic examination of the same part of the thrombus may be

  3. Absence of inferior vena cava in 14-year old boy associated with deep venous thrombosis and positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae serum antibodies--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kalicki, Boleslaw; Sadecka, Monika; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Kozinski, Piotr; Dziekiewicz, Miroslaw; Jung, Anna

    2015-04-14

    Absence of the inferior vena cava is a rare vascular anomaly, which usually remains asymptomatic in childhood. It is recognized as the risk factor for deep venous thrombosis, since the collateral circulation does not provide adequate drainage of the lower limbs. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in school-aged children and adolescents. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection might be associated with deep venous thrombosis but its pathophysiology remains unknown. According to previous reports, deep venous thrombosis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is associated with positive serum anticardiolipin antibodies. To our knowledge, we describe the first case of deep venous thrombosis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae serum antibodies indicating early stage of infection with negative anticardiolipin serum antibodies in adolescent with absence of inferior vena cava. 14-year old boy was admitted to the pediatric unit few days after the appendectomy complaining with pain of the left hip that caused him unable to walk. The pain was accompanied with subfebrile temperature. After clinical examination and additional tests, the boy was diagnosed with a deep venous thrombosis. Computed tomography revealed absence of the vena cava inferior distally to the hepatic veins and varices of the collateral circulation in the pelvis. Anticardiolipin IgM and IgG antibodies and antinuclear antibodies were not detected. Additionally, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in classes IgM, IgA and IgG were detected in serum as another risk factor of thrombosis. After the initial treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin in combination with clarithromycin the clinical condition of the patient improved. The patient became a candidate for life-long anticoagulation therapy. In this case Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were associated with deep venous thrombosis in child with congenital absence of inferior vena cava. Uncommonly for deep venous thrombosis due

  4. [Endovascular treatment of acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis - our results with catheter-directed thrombolysis and AngioJet].

    PubMed

    Berencsi, Anikó; Dósa, Edit; Nemes, Balázs; Hüttl, Kálmán; Legeza, Péter; Oláh, Zoltán; Kristóf, Vera; Acsády, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2017-03-01

    Most of the patients with iliofemoral thrombosis treated with anticoagulants only are affected with postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) that worsens the patients' quality of life. In the acute phase of proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) catheter-directed (CDT) and pharmacomechanical thrombolysis may be a reasonable alternative therapeutic method. Our aim was to summarize our results using these methods. Since 2009 twenty-four patients with iliofemoral DVT were treated with these endovascular procedures and with stenting at our Institution. The median age of the patients was 35.83 ± 15.9 years, the female: male ratio was approximately 2:1. The mean time between the onset of the symptoms and the procedures was eleven days. CDT alone was performed in 8 patients, thrombus aspiration in addition to CDT using AngioJet device in 16 patients; in 19 cases the procedure was completed with venous stenting. During the follow-up we performed US examinations and estimated the severity of PTS by Villalta-scale. The total recanalization-rate was more than 50%, which even improved during the follow-up. The total lysis time and the amount of used recombinant tissue plasminogen activator decreased significantly by applying the AngioJet. We did not find any severe PTS among our patients during the follow-up visits. Our data suggests that these methods can be used efficiently and safely in the treatment of acute iliofemoral DVT.

  5. Influence of decreased fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism on the risk of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Biljana A; Djeric, Mirjana J; Tomic, Branko V; Djordjevic, Valentina J; Bajkin, Branislav V; Mitic, Gorana P

    2018-01-01

    : Objective of our study is to determine whether decreased fibrinolytic activity or plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G polymorphism influence the risk of venous thrombosis.Our case-control study included 100 patients with venous thrombosis, and 100 random controls. When patients were compared with random controls, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Decreased fibrinolytic activity yielded a 2.7-fold increase in risk for venous thrombosis than physiological fibrinolytic activity (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.22-5.98), when comparing patients with random controls. Adjustment for several putative confounders did not change the estimate (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.26-7.22). Analysis of venous thrombotic risk influenced by PAI-1 genotype, showed no influence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in comparison with 5G/5G genotype (OR 0.57 95% CI; 0.27-1.20).Decreased fibrinolytic activity increased, whereas PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism did not influence venous thrombosis risk in this study.

  6. Effect of estetrol, a selective nuclear estrogen receptor modulator, in mouse models of arterial and venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Valéra, Marie-Cécile; Noirrit-Esclassan, Emmanuelle; Dupuis, Marion; Fontaine, Coralie; Lenfant, Françoise; Briaux, Anne; Cabou, Cendrine; Garcia, Cedric; Lairez, Olivier; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Payrastre, Bernard; Arnal, Jean-François

    2018-06-19

    Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver, and the physiological role of this hormone is unknown. Interestingly, E4 was recently evaluated in preclinical and phase II-III clinical studies in combination with a progestin, with the advantage to not increase the circulating level of coagulation factors, at variance to oral estradiol or ethinylestradiol. Here, we evaluated the effect of E4 on hemostasis and thrombosis in mouse. Following chronic E4 treatment, mice exhibited a prolonged tail-bleeding time and were protected from arterial and also venous thrombosis in vivo. In addition, E4 treatment decreased ex vivo thrombus growth on collagen under arterial flow conditions. We recently showed that E4 activates uterine epithelial proliferation through nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α. To analyze the impact of nuclear ERα actions on hemostasis and thrombosis, we generated hematopoietic chimera with bone marrow cells deficient for nuclear ERα. E4-induced protection against thromboembolism was significantly reduced in the absence of hematopoietic nuclear ERα activation, while the increased tail-bleeding time was not impacted by this deletion. In addition to its "liver friendly" profile described in women, our data shows that E4 has anti-thrombotic properties in various mouse models. Altogether, the natural fetal estrogen E4 could represent an attractive alternative to classic estrogens in oral contraception and treatment of menopause. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A case of huge colon carcinoma and right renal angiomyolipoma accompanied by proximal deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and tumor thrombus in the renal vein.

    PubMed

    Ban, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kuno, Hirofumi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shin; Akasu, Takayuki; Moriya, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    A preoperative inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is reported to be effective in surgical cases with proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or in which pulmonary embolism (PE) has already developed, and considered to be at high risk of developing secondary fatal PE during or after surgery. However, guidelines for using an IVC filter have yet to be established. The patient in the present report had two huge tumors, ascending colon cancer and renal angiomyolipoma, which occupied the entire right half of the abdomen, coexisting PE, DVT and tumor thrombus in the right renal vein. Secondary PE is fatal in the perioperative period, therefore, the vena cava filters were preoperatively inserted into the supra- and the infrarenal IVC. We successfully removed the tumors without complications. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence and PE or recurrent DVT 1 year and 6 months after surgery. The coexistence of two huge abdominal tumors as potential causes of PE and DVT is extremely rare, and we could have safely undergone the operation, using two vena cava filters in the supra- and infrarenal IVC.

  8. Congenital portosystemic venous connections and other abdominal venous abnormalities in patients with polysplenia and functionally univentricular heart disease: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, Doff B; Marx, Gerald R; Newburger, Jane W

    2011-01-01

    Published case reports suggest that congenital portosystemic venous connections (PSVC) and other abdominal venous anomalies may be relatively frequent and potentially important in patients with polysplenia syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the frequency and range of portal and other abdominal systemic venous anomalies in patients with polysplenia and inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption who underwent a cavopulmonary anastomosis procedure at our center, and to review the published literature on this topic and the potential clinical importance of such anomalies. Retrospective cohort study and literature review were used. Among 77 patients with heterotaxy, univentricular heart disease, and IVC interruption who underwent a bidirectional Glenn and/or modified Fontan procedure, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were diagnosed in 33 (43%). Bilateral superior vena cavas were present in 42 patients (55%). Despite inadequate imaging in many patients, a partial PSVC, dual IVCs, and/or renal vein anomalies were detected in 15 patients (19%). A PSVC formed by a tortuous vessel running from the systemic venous system to the extrahepatic portal vein was found in six patients (8%). Abdominal venous anomalies other than PSVC were documented in 13 patients (16%), including nine (12%) with some form of duplicated IVC system, with a large azygous vein continuing to the superior vena cava and a parallel, contralateral IVC of similar or smaller size, and seven with renal vein anomalies. In patients with a partial PSVC or a duplicate IVC that connected to the atrium, the abnormal connection allowed right-to-left shunting. PSVC and other abdominal venous anomalies may be clinically important but under-recognized in patients with IVC interruption and univentricular heart disease. In such patients, preoperative evaluation of the abdominal systemic venous system may be valuable. More data are necessary to determine whether there is a pathophysiologic connection between the

  9. Angioarchitectural changes in subacute cerebral venous thrombosis. A synchrotron-based micro- and nano-CT study.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Erwin; Yeniguen, Mesut; Kreisel, Melanie; Kampschulte, Marian; Doenges, Simone; Sedding, Daniel; Ritman, Erik L; Gerriets, Tibo; Langheinrich, Alexander C

    2011-02-01

    It is well known that recanalization of thrombosed cerebral sinuses occurs early but without marked influence on the long-term outcome and on final venous infarct volume on magnetic resonance imaging. To better understand the possible microvascular mechanisms behind these clinical observations, we evaluated the sequels of subacute superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis in rats using micro- and nano-CT imaging of the same specimen to provide large volume and high resolution CT image data respectively. SSS thrombosis was induced in 11 animals which were euthanized after 6h (n=4) or 6 weeks (n=7). Eight sham-operated rats served as controls. After infusion of contrast into the vasculature of the brains, these were isolated and scanned using micro-, nano-, and synchrotron-based micro-CT ((8 μm³), (900 nm)³, and (1.9 μm³) voxel sizes). The cross-sectional area of the superior sagittal sinus, microvessels and cortical veins were quantified. Tissue sections were stained against VEGF antigen. Immunohistochemistry was confirmed using quantitative rtPCR. SSS thrombosis led to a congestion of the bridging veins after 6h. After 6 weeks, a network of small vessels surrounding the occluded SSS was present with concurrent return towards the diameter of the draining bridging veins of controls. This microvascular network connected to cortical veins as demonstrated by nano- and synchrotron-based micro-CT. Also the volume fraction and number of cortical veins increased significantly. Immunohistochemistry in the region of the microsvascular network demonstrated a strong immunoreactivity against VEGF, confirmed by rtPCR. The sequel of subacute SSS thrombosis induced a network of microvessels ("venogenesis") draining the bridging veins. Also the volume fraction of cortical veins increased significantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Angioarchitectural Changes in Subacute Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. A Synchrotron-based Micro- and Nano-CT Study

    SciTech Connect

    E Stolz; M Yeniguen; M Kreisel

    2011-12-31

    It is well known that recanalization of thrombosed cerebral sinuses occurs early but without marked influence on the long-term outcome and on final venous infarct volume on magnetic resonance imaging. To better understand the possible microvascular mechanisms behind these clinical observations, we evaluated the sequels of subacute superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis in rats using micro- and nano-CT imaging of the same specimen to provide large volume and high resolution CT image data respectively. SSS thrombosis was induced in 11 animals which were euthanized after 6 h (n = 4) or 6 weeks (n = 7). Eight sham-operated rats servedmore » as controls. After infusion of contrast into the vasculature of the brains, these were isolated and scanned using micro-, nano-, and synchrotron-based micro-CT ((8 {mu}m{sup 3}), (900 nm){sup 3}, and (1.9 {mu}m{sup 3}) voxel sizes). The cross-sectional area of the superior sagittal sinus, microvessels and cortical veins were quantified. Tissue sections were stained against VEGF antigen. Immunohistochemistry was confirmed using quantitative rtPCR. SSS thrombosis led to a congestion of the bridging veins after 6 h. After 6 weeks, a network of small vessels surrounding the occluded SSS was present with concurrent return towards the diameter of the draining bridging veins of controls. This microvascular network connected to cortical veins as demonstrated by nano- and synchrotron-based micro-CT. Also the volume fraction and number of cortical veins increased significantly. Immunohistochemistry in the region of the microsvascular network demonstrated a strong immunoreactivity against VEGF, confirmed by rtPCR. The sequel of subacute SSS thrombosis induced a network of microvessels ('venogenesis') draining the bridging veins. Also the volume fraction of cortical veins increased significantly.« less

  11. Apixaban or Dalteparin in Reducing Blood Clots in Patients With Cancer Related Venous Thromboembolism

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-28

    Cerebral Vein Thrombosis; Deep Vein Thrombosis; Gonadal Thrombosis; Hepatic Thrombosis; Malignant Neoplasm; Mesenteric Thrombosis; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm; Portal Vein Thrombosis; Pulmonary Embolism; Renal Vein Thrombosis; Splenic Thrombosis; Venous Thromboembolism

  12. Efficacy of prophylactic inferior vena caval filters in prevention of pulmonary embolism in the absence of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark G; Hart, Joseph P; El-Sayed, Hosam F

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing use of inferior vena caval filters (IVCFs) as prophylactic activity in the absence of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) in high-risk patients. These devices are effective in preventing PE in the presence of lower extremity DVT, when anticoagulation is contraindicated or has failed. An electronic databases search of MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for relevant articles listed between January 2000 and December 2014 was performed. The review was confined to patients without a history of previous venous thromboembolism and no evidence of changes on venous duplex imaging suggestive of previous DVT. At present, the use of prophylactic IVCF is predominantly in the trauma, orthopedic, and bariatric surgical populations. Currently, no class I studies exist to support insertion of an IVCF in a patient without an established DVT or PE. However, there is a body of class II and class III evidence that would support the use of IVCFs in certain "high-risk" patients who do not have a documented DVT or the occurrence of a PE. Widespread use of prophylactic IVCFs is not supported by evidence and should be discouraged. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low values of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) during surgery and anastomotic leak of abdominal trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Isaza-Restrepo, Andres; Moreno-Mejia, Jose F; Martin-Saavedra, Juan S; Ibañez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2017-01-01

    There is a well known relationship between hypoperfusion and postoperative complications like anastomotic leak. No studies have been done addressing this relationship in the context of abdominal trauma surgery. Central venous oxygen saturation is an important hypoperfusion marker of potential use in abdominal trauma surgery for identifying the risk of anastomotic leak development. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between low values of central venous oxygen saturation and anastomotic leak of gastrointestinal sutures in the postoperative period in abdominal trauma surgery. A cross-sectional prospective study was performed. Patients over 14 years old who required surgical gastrointestinal repair secondary to abdominal trauma were included. Anastomotic leak diagnosis was confirmed through clinical manifestations and diagnostic images or secondary surgery when needed. Central venous oxygen blood saturation was measured at the beginning of surgery through a central catheter. Demographic data, trauma mechanism, anatomic site of trauma, hemoglobin levels, abdominal trauma index, and comorbidities were assessed as secondary variables. Patients who developed anastomotic leak showed lower mean central venous oxygen saturation levels (60.0% ± 2.94%) than those who did not (69.89% ± 7.21%) ( p  = 0.010). Central venous oxygen saturation <65% was associated with the development of gastrointestinal leak during postoperative time of patients who underwent surgery secondary to abdominal trauma.

  14. Toll-like receptor 9 gene expression in the post-thrombotic syndrome, residual thrombosis and recurrent deep venous thrombosis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y Whitney; Bouman, Annemieke C; Castoldi, Elisabetta; Wielders, Simone J; Spronk, Henri M H; Ten Cate, Hugo; Ten Cate-Hoek, Arina J; Ten Wolde, Marije

    2016-04-01

    Animal models suggest that toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) promotes thrombus resolution after acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesized that TLR9 expression is lower in patients with post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and investigated the role of TLR9 in residual thrombosis (RT) and recurrence. Patients with a history of DVT with PTS (cases, n=30) and without PTS after minimal 24 months follow-up (controls, n=30) were selected. Healthy individuals (HI, n=29) without DVT were included as reference. TLR9 mRNA expression in leukocytes was determined by qPCR and normalized to the housekeeping succinate dehydrogenase subunit A gene using the ΔCt method. Sub analyses were performed to explore the TLR9 expression in patients with and without RT and multiple DVT episodes. The median TLR9 expression was 0.45 (interquartile range 0.31 to 0.93), 0.39 (0.25 to 0.69) and 0.62 (0.32 to 0.75) in cases, controls and HI respectively (p=0.61). The median TLR9 expression was 0.39 (0.26 to 0.51) in patients with RT compared to 0.55 (0.30 to 0.86, p=0.13) in those without. The median TLR9 expression was significantly lower in patients who had one DVT compared to patients with recurrent DVT, 0.37 (0.23 to 0.63) versus 0.55 (0.43 to 0.96) respectively (p<0.01). No significant difference in TLR9 expression was found between cases, controls and HI. However TLR9 expression seems lower in individuals with DVT and RT, albeit not significant. Interestingly, TLR9 might play a role in recurrent DVT, as the TLR9 expression was significantly higher in patients with recurrent DVT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with primary lower limb deep venous thrombosis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadeem A; Sophie, Ziad; Zafar, Farhan; Soares, Delvene; Naz, Iram

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Post-thrombotic syndrome is a common and debilitating sequelae of lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Very little awareness is present about the risk factors and about the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition. Objective The objective of this study is to identify the predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome after lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Materials and methods A case-control study was conducted on all adult patients who were admitted with lower limb deep venous thrombosis at our institution from January 2005 to June 2012. These patients were scheduled for a research clinic visit, which included informed consent, data collection, and physical examination. Patients found to have post-thrombotic syndrome served as cases and those without post-thrombotic syndrome served as controls. Villalta scoring system was used to diagnose the post-thrombotic syndrome and then to assess the severity of the condition in both the groups. Cox regression risk factor analysis was performed to identify the predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome. Results Out of the 125 patients examined, 49 were found to have post-thrombotic syndrome. Risk factors found to be significant were body mass index of more than 35 kg/m 2 ( n = 13, p = 0.003), history of immobilization ( n = 19, p = 0.003), one or more hypercoagable disorders ( n = 32, p = 0.02), iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis ( n = 18, p = 0.001), complete obstruction on ultrasound ( n = 26, p = 0.016), unstable range of international normalized ratio ( n = 23, p = 0.041) and non-compliance for the use of compressions stockings ( n = 14, p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, one or more hypercoagable disorder, iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, and non-compliance to the use of compression stockings were found to be independent risk factors for the development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Conclusion One or more hypercoagable disorders, iliofemoral

  16. Deep venous thrombosis among disaster shelter inhabitants following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Hanzawa, K; Ueda, S; Yambe, T

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of data collected during subject screening following Japan's March 2011 earthquake and tsunami was performed. We aimed to determine the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among screened subjects and to identify risk factors associated with the development of DVT as independent variables. Calf ultrasonography was undertaken in 269 subjects living in 21 shelters in Miyagi prefecture during the one-month period immediately following the March 2011 disaster. Information regarding the health and risk factors of subjects was collected by questionnaire and assessment of physical signs. Of the 269 evacuees screened, 65 (24%) met the criteria for calf DVT. We found lower limb trauma, reduced frequency of urination and sleeping in a vehicle to be independent positive predictors of DVT. Evacuees had an increased risk of developing DVT, associated with tsunami-related lower limb injury, immobility and dehydration.

  17. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Following Second Transsphenoidal Surgery: Report of a Rare Complication and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhuangzhuang; Zhang, Zhuo; Chen, Juan; Wang, Junwen; Zhang, Huaqiu; Lei, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cushing disease, induced by a pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenoma, is associated with high risk of stroke. At present, transsphenoidal surgery remains the first line of therapy. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon form of stroke with variable presentations. There are no previous reports of its occurrence in patients with Cushing disease following transsphenoidal surgery. We report a patient with Cushing disease who sustained CVST several days after a second transsphenoidal surgery. With adequate care and treatment, along with timely diagnosis, the patient made a near-complete recovery with only minor sequelae. In view of the poor outcome of untreated CVST, symptoms such as severe headache, nausea and vomiting, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage after transsphenoidal surgery could be of valuable assistance in early diagnosis, allowing immediate medical intervention with consequent improved prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracranial venous sinus thrombosis as a complication of otitis media in children: Critical review of diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Cazzador, Diego; Faccioli, Chiara; Sari, Marianna; Bovo, Roberto; Martini, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) is a rare intracranial complication of acute otitis media (AOM), which can lead to severe neurological sequelae and death. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, management and outcome of LST in children, investigating a possible correlation between clinical aspects, radiological findings and anatomical variations. At a tertiary Italian hospital, a retrospective review was conducted on the medical records of eight patients diagnosed with otogenic LST over a 3-year period. Four children were males and mean age was 4.7 years. All patients had a history of otitis media at diagnosis and 4/8 presented also with more than one neurological sign or symptom. Mastoiditis signs were detected in 5/8 patients. Thrombosis was diagnosed by computed tomography, enhanced magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance venography. Treatment was medical, alone or combined with surgery. Medical treatment consisted in anticoagulants eventually combined with anti-edema medication on clinical basis. Mastoidectomy and/or myringotomy±trans-tympanic drainage placement were performed in 7/8 patients. Complete vessel recanalization was obtained in 6/8 children after a median follow-up time of 4.8 months. No complications, neither clinical sequelae occurred. In our series, neurological signs and symptoms were significantly associated with the presence of hypoplasia of the contralateral venous sinus (p=0.029). LST is a severe condition occurring even in absence of otological signs, and despite adequate antibiotic therapy for AOM, which should be ruled out and promptly treated. A dominant neurological presentation is associated in our series with anatomical variations of cerebral sinus venous drainage patterns. This should be carefully evaluated and considered in diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Statins improve the resolution of established murine venous thrombosis: reductions in thrombus burden and vein wall scarring.

    PubMed

    Kessinger, Chase W; Kim, Jin Won; Henke, Peter K; Thompson, Brian; McCarthy, Jason R; Hara, Tetsuya; Sillesen, Martin; Margey, Ronan J P; Libby, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Lin, Charles P; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2015-01-01

    Despite anticoagulation therapy, up to one-half of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Improving the long-term outcome of DVT patients at risk for PTS will therefore require new approaches. Here we investigate the effects of statins--lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties--in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and macrophages, and these effects were most notable in the earlier timepoints after DVT formation. In addition, statins reduced DVT-induced vein wall scarring by 50% durably up to day 21 in stasis VT, as shown by polarized light microscopy of picrosirius red-stained vein wall collagen. The overall results demonstrate that statins improve VT resolution via profibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and anti-vein wall scarring effects. Statins may therefore offer a new pharmacotherapeutic approach to improve DVT resolution and to reduce the post-thrombotic syndrome, particularly in subjects who are ineligible for anticoagulation therapy.

  20. Statins Improve the Resolution of Established Murine Venous Thrombosis: Reductions in Thrombus Burden and Vein Wall Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Kessinger, Chase W.; Kim, Jin Won; Henke, Peter K.; Thompson, Brian; McCarthy, Jason R.; Hara, Tetsuya; Sillesen, Martin; Margey, Ronan J. P.; Libby, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Lin, Charles P.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite anticoagulation therapy, up to one-half of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Improving the long-term outcome of DVT patients at risk for PTS will therefore require new approaches. Here we investigate the effects of statins—lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties—in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and macrophages, and these effects were most notable in the earlier timepoints after DVT formation. In addition, statins reduced DVT-induced vein wall scarring by 50% durably up to day 21 in stasis VT, as shown by polarized light microscopy of picrosirius red-stained vein wall collagen. The overall results demonstrate that statins improve VT resolution via profibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and anti-vein wall scarring effects. Statins may therefore offer a new pharmacotherapeutic approach to improve DVT resolution and to reduce the post-thrombotic syndrome, particularly in subjects who are ineligible for anticoagulation therapy. PMID:25680183

  1. A thrombolytic regimen for high-risk deep venous thrombosis may substantially reduce the risk of postthrombotic syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Neil A.; Durham, Janette D.; Knapp-Clevenger, R.

    2007-01-01

    Important predictors of adverse outcomes of thrombosis in children, including postthrombotic syndrome (PTS), have recently been identified. Given this knowledge and the encouraging preliminary pediatric experience with systemic thrombolysis, we sought to retrospectively analyze our institutional experience with a thrombolytic regimen versus standard anticoagulation for acute, occlusive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the proximal lower extremities in children in whom plasma factor VIII activity and/or D-dimer concentration were elevated at diagnosis, from within a longitudinal pediatric cohort. Nine children who underwent the thrombolytic regimen and 13 who received standard anticoagulation alone were followed from time of diagnosis with serial clinical evaluation and standardized PTS outcome assessments conducted in uniform fashion. The thrombolytic regimen was associated with a markedly decreased odds of PTS at 18 to 24 months compared with standard anticoagulation alone, which persisted after adjustment for significant covariates of age and lag time to therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.018, 95% confidence interval [CI] = < 0.001-0.483; P = .02). Major bleeding developed in 1 child, clinically judged as not directly related to thrombolysis for DVT. These findings suggest that the use of a thrombolysis regimen may safely and substantially reduce the risk of PTS in children with occlusive lower-extremity acute DVT, providing the basis for a future clinical trial. PMID:17360940

  2. Comparison of Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Warfarin in the Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Chronic Phase.

    PubMed

    Wakakura, Shingo; Hara, Fumihiko; Fujino, Tadashi; Hamai, Asami; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kabuki, Takayuki; Harada, Masahiko; Ikeda, Takanori

    2018-01-27

    We assessed the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the chronic phase through comparison with conventional warfarin therapy.A total of 807 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with having DVT in the chronic phase were included (484 patients to warfarin therapy and 323 patients to DOAC therapy). The condition of leg veins was assessed 3 to 6 months after starting the therapies by ultrasound examination. Major bleeding and mortality during the therapies were followed-up.There was no significant difference between the two groups in the thrombosis improvement rate (DOAC group: 91.2% versus warfarin group: 88.9%). There was no significant difference between the two groups in major bleeding (DOAC group: 1.8% versus warfarin group: 1.8%). In patients with active cancer, the DOAC group had a borderline higher thrombosis improvement rate than the warfarin group (92.1% versus 80.0%, P = 0.05). The proportion of major bleeding in the patients with active cancer was slightly higher in the warfarin group than in the DOAC group (4.3% versus 2.8%; P = 0.71). Active cancer was not an independent risk factor for major bleeding and recurrence in the DOAC group (OR 2.68, 95% CI 0.51-14.1; P = 0.24 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.20-2.07; P = 0.47).In treatment using oral anticoagulants for DVT in the chronic phase, DOACs exhibited equal efficacy and safety as warfarin did. Particularly DOACs appear to be an attractive therapeutic option for cancer-associated DVT in chronic phase, with relatively low anticipated rates of recurrence and major bleeding.

  3. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis of the first deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hameed, Fahad; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Shamy, Abdulrahman; Qadi, Abdulelah; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Aboelnazar, Essam; Abdelaal, Mohamad; Al Khuwaitir, Tarig; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger; Mustafa, Reem; Falavigna, Maicon

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may be challenging due to the inaccuracy of clinical assessment and diversity of diagnostic tests. On one hand, missed diagnosis may result in life-threatening conditions. On the other hand, unnecessary treatment may lead to serious complications. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (SAVTE; a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) with the methodological support of the McMaster University Working Group, produced this clinical practice guideline to assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the diagnosis of a suspected first DVT of the lower extremity. Twenty-four questions were identified and corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. These recommendations included assessing the clinical probability of DVT using Wells criteria before requesting any test and undergoing a sequential diagnostic evaluation, mainly using highly sensitive D-dimer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compression ultrasound. Although venography is the reference standard test for the diagnosis of DVT, its use was not recommended. PMID:25593601

  4. Is real-time elastography helpful to differentiate acute from subacute deep venous thrombosis? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ahmet; Barutca, Hakan; Ayaz, Ercan; Aslan, Mine; Kocaaslan, Cemal; Inan, Ibrahim; Sahin, Sinan; Yıkılmaz, Ali

    2018-02-01

    To detect and characterize changes in stiffness of thrombus in patients with acute and subacute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by using real-time elastography (RTE). Fifty-eight patients with acute or subacute DVT were prospectively evaluated by B-mode sonography (US), color Doppler US (CDUS), and RTE. Two radiologists evaluated the thrombus echogenicity, compressibility, and recanalization of the affected vein, and thrombus stiffness in consensus. The thrombi were classified into 3 groups as soft, intermediate, and hard on RTE images. The final study group consisted of 30 patients with acute DVT, among whom 10 were women (33%), and 19 patients with subacute DVT, among whom 6 were women (32%). The presence of hypoechoic thrombus, incompressible vein, and absence of recanalization on US and CDUS were significantly associated with acute DVT (P < .001 for all variables). The differences in elasticity pattern of the thrombi between acute and subacute DVT were not significant (P = .202). Venous thrombus hardens with age; however, elastography pattern on RTE, in its present form, may not be able to differentiate acute DVT from subacute DVT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Extensive left-leg venous thrombosis in young patients: Should we perform extended tests?

    PubMed

    Gómez Carrillo, Víctor; Pérez de Pedro, Ivan; Salazar de Troya, Cristina; Vallejo Herrera, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We report 3 cases of left iliac vein thrombosis whose underlying cause was right iliac artery compression syndrome, also known as May-Thurner syndrome. Endovascular treatment with anatomical correction (stent placement) was applied in 2 of the cases; anticoagulant therapy was maintained given the presence of associated hypercoagulability. A thorough understanding of this diagnosis is important so that an attempt at anatomical correction can be proposed to complement anticoagulant therapy in the interest of improving prognosis.

  6. YouTube as a potential source of information on deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bademci, Mehmet Ş; Yazman, Serkan; Güneş, Tevfik; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Tayfur, Kaptanderya; Gokalp, Orhan

    2017-09-01

    Background No work has been reported on the use of video websites to learn about deep vein thrombosis and the value of education using them. We examined the characteristics and scientific accuracy of videos related to deep vein thrombosis on YouTube. Methods YouTube was surveyed using no filter and the key words 'deep vein thrombosis' and 'leg vein clot' in June 2016. The videos evaluated were divided into three groups in terms of their scientific content, accuracy, and currency: useful, partly useful, and useless. Results Of the 1200 videos watched, 715 (59.58%) were excluded with the exclusion criteria. Although most of the videos uploaded (22.9%, n = 111) were created by physicians, the number of views for website-based videos was significantly higher (p = 0.002). When the uploaded videos were assessed in terms of their usefulness, videos from physicians and hospitals were statistically more useful than other videos (p < 0.001). Conclusions For videos created by medical professionals to be of higher quality, we believe they should be more up-to-date and comprehensive, and contain animations about treatment modalities and early diagnosis in particular.

  7. Suprascarpal fat pad thickness may predict venous drainage patterns in abdominal wall flaps.

    PubMed

    Bast, John; Pitcher, Austin A; Small, Kevin; Otterburn, David M

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal wall flaps are routinely used in reconstructive procedures. In some patients inadequate venous drainage from the deep vein may cause fat necrosis or flap failure. Occasionally the superficial inferior epigastric vessels (SIEV) are of sufficient size to allow for microvascular revascularization. This study looked at the ratio of the sub- and suprascarpal fat layers, the number of deep system perforators, and SIEV diameter to determine any correlation of the fat topography and SIEV. 50 abdominal/pelvic CT angiograms (100 hemiabdomens) were examined in women aged 34-70 years for number of perforators, SIEV diameter, and fat pad thickness above and below Scarpa's fascia. Data was analyzed using multivariate model. The average suprascarpal and subscarpal layers were 18.6 ± 11.5 mm and 6.2 ± 7.2 mm thick, respectively. The average SIEV diameter was 2.06 ± 0.81 mm and the average number of perforators was 2.09 ± 1.03 per hemiabdomen. Hemiabdomens with suprascarpal thickness>23 mm had greater SIEV diameter [2.69 mm vs. 1.8 mm (P < 0.0001)] The fat layer thickness did not correlate with the number of perforators. Neither subscarpal fat thickness nor suprascarpal-to-subscarpal fat layer thickness correlated significantly with SIEV caliber or number of perforators in multivariate model. Suprascarpal fat pad thicker than 23 mm had larger SIEVs irrespective of the number of deep system perforators. This may indicate a cohort of patients at risk of venous congestion from poor venous drainage if only the deep system is revascularized. We recommend harvesting the SIEV in patients with suprascarpal fat pad >23 mm to aid in superficial drainage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adalimumab-based treatment versus DMARDs for venous thrombosis in Behçet syndrome. A retrospective study of 70 patients with vascular involvement.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Giacomo; Vitale, Antonio; Silvestri, Elena; Boddi, Maria; Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Fabiani, Claudia; Frediani, Bruno; Emmi, Lorenzo; Scala, Gerardo Di; Goldoni, Matteo; Bettiol, Alessandra; Vaglio, Augusto; Cantarini, Luca; Prisco, Domenico

    2018-04-20

    Since Behçet syndrome (BS) is the prototype of inflammation-induced thrombosis, immunosuppressants are recommended in place of anticoagulants. Here we assessed the clinical efficacy and the corticosteroid-sparing effect of adalimumab (ADA)-based treatment versus DMARDs in a large retrospective cohort of patients with BS-related venous thrombosis. We retrospectively collected data from 70 BS patients treated with DMARDs or ADA-based regimens (ADA ± DMARDs) because of venous complications. Clinical and imaging evaluations were performed to define vascular response. We explored differences in outcomes between ADA-based regimens and DMARDs, with respect to efficacy, corticosteroid-sparing role and time on treatment. We also evaluated the role of anticoagulants as concomitant treatment. After a mean follow-up of 25.7±23.2 months, ADA-based regimens induced clinical and instrumental improvement of venous thrombosis more frequently (p=0.001) and rapidly (p<0.0001) than DMARDs. The mean dose of corticosteroids administered at the last follow-up was significantly lower in the ADA-based regimens than in the DMARDs one (p<0.0001). The time on treatment was significantly longer in ADA-based regimens than in the DMARDs one (p=0.002). No differences were found in terms of efficacy and time on treatment between DMARDs or ADA-based regimens among subjects receiving anticoagulants and those who did not. In this large retrospective study we have shown that ADA-based regimen is more effective and rapid in inducing resolution of venous thrombosis in BS patients than DMARDs, allowing reduction of steroid exposure. Moreover, our findings suggest that anticoagulation does not modify the efficacy on venous complications of either ADA-based regimens or DMARDs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma during induction chemotherapy with l-asparaginase: The GRAALL experience.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Marie-Anne; Huguet, Françoise; Chevallier, Patrice; Suarez, Felipe; Thomas, Xavier; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Cacheux, Victoria; Pignon, Jean-Michel; Bonmati, Caroline; Sanhes, Laurence; Bories, Pierre; Daguindau, Etienne; Dorvaux, Véronique; Reman, Oumedaly; Frayfer, Jamile; Orvain, Corentin; Lhéritier, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Tanguy-Schmidt, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) thrombotic events are a well-known complication of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) induction therapy, especially with treatments including l-asparaginase (l-ASP). Data on risk factors and clinical evolution is still lacking in adult patients. We report on the clinical evolution of 22 CNS venous thrombosis cases occurring in 708 adults treated for ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL) with the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL)-induction protocol, which included eight L-ASP (6,000 IU/m(2) ) infusions. The prevalence of CNS thrombosis was 3.1%. CNS thrombosis occurred after a median of 18 days (range: 11-31) when patients had received a median of three l-ASP injections (range: 2-7). Patients with CNS thrombosis exhibited a median antithrombin (AT) nadir of 47.5% (range: 36-67%) at Day 17 (range: D3-D28), and 95% of them exhibited AT levels lower than 60%. There were no evident increase in hereditary thrombotic risk factors prevalence, and thrombosis occurred despite heparin prophylaxis which was performed in 90% of patients. Acquired AT deficiency was frequently detected in patients with l-ASP-based therapy, and patients with CNS thrombosis received AT prophylaxis (45%) less frequently than patients without CNS thrombosis (83%), P = 0.0002). CNS thrombosis was lethal in 5% of patients, while 20% had persistent sequelae. One patient received all planned l-ASP infusions without recurrence of CNS thrombotic whereas l-ASP injections were discontinued in 20 patients during the management of thrombosis without a significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.4). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intracerebral venous thrombosis and hematoma secondary to high-voltage brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sure, U; Kleihues, P

    1997-06-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old male who sustained an electrodynamic (16.67 Hz) high-voltage (15,000 V) railway overhead cable injury. He lost consciousness 30 minutes after contact and died secondary to brainstem herniation as a result of intracerebral swelling within 8 days. Repeated cranial computed tomography revealed a huge hemispheric mass bleeding accompanied by subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Additionally, necropsy showed an extensive thrombosis of the adjacent cerebral veins. The pathophysiological mechanism of this unusual injury is discussed.

  11. The risk of venous thrombosis in women over 50 years old using oral contraception or postmenopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Roach, R E J; Lijfering, W M; Helmerhorst, F M; Cannegieter, S C; Rosendaal, F R; van Hylckama Vlieg, A

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraception (OC) and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) can be used to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, the risk of venous thrombosis (VT) associated with OC use in women over 50 years old has never been assessed and the two preparations have not been directly compared. To determine and compare the risk of VT associated with OC and HT use. From a large case-control study, 2550 women aged over 50 years old, 1082 patients with a first VT and 1468 controls, were included. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for VT were calculated for OC-users (164 patients and 54 controls) and HT-users (88 patients and 102 controls) compared with non-hormone users (823 patients and 1304 controls). OC-users had a 6.3-fold (4.6-9.8) increased risk of VT. This ranged from 5.4 (3.3-8.9) for preparations containing levonorgestrel to 10.2 (4.8-21.7) for desogestrel. The VT-risk associated with oral HT use was 4.0 (1.8-8.2) for conjugated equine estrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate and 3.9 (1.5-10.7) for micronized estradiol combined with norethisterone acetate. Non-oral HT did not increase the risk of VT: OR 1.1 (0.6-1.8). Relative risk estimates were further increased in hormone users with factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A or blood group non-O and hormone users with a family history of VT. In this study, non-oral HT seemed to be the safest hormonal preparation in women over 50 years old. OC use increased the VT risk the most, especially in women with inherited thrombophilia or a family history of VT. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Initial Clinical Experience with an Endoluminal Spiral Prosthesis for Treating Complicated Venous Thrombosis and Preventing Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, H.; Oelert, H.; Schmiedt, W.; Teusch, P.; Iversen, S.; Hake, U.; Schild, H.; Maass, D.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen patients with complicated venous thrombosis or recurrent pulmonary embolism were treated by implantation of an endoluminal spiral prosthesis subsequent to balloon angioplasty, surgical thrombectomy or embolectomy, a combination of these, or, in 2 cases, no other treatment. The patients were divided into 2 groups, based on their primary diagnosis and the purpose of the prosthesis. Group I included 8 patients with extensive iliofemoral or caval thrombosis, caused by congenital caval stenosis (1 case) or extravascular compression or retraction (7 cases); 7 of these patients had had previous operations, and the remaining patient had undergone thrombolysis, which failed. The current treatment consisted of balloon angioplasty and surgical thrombectomy or embolectomy, and implantation of an endoluminal spiral stent to prevent elastic recoil of the vessel. In 4 cases, an arteriovenous fistula was constructed and was taken down 3 months later; in 1 additional patient, a bilateral arteriovenous fistula was created. Group II comprised 6 patients with recurrent pulmonary embolism (4 cases), massive pulmonary embolism (1 case), or paradoxical bilateral carotid artery embolism (1 case). Four of these patients underwent surgical thrombectomy or embolectomy, while 2 had no treatment other than filter implantation. All 6 underwent transluminal implantation of a helix caval filter (a modification of the endoluminal spiral stent). All but 1 implantation was accomplished by means of either a transfemoral or a transjugular cutdown; the remaining implantation was performed transatrially after a pulmonary embolectomy. The only device-related complication was a retroperitoneal hematoma in Group I, resulting from perforation of the inferior vena cava by the guidewire during device implantation. This complication necessitated an emergency laparotomy and takedown of the arteriovenous fistula, which resulted in rethrombosis of the left iliofemoral vein. The other 7 stented veins were

  13. Survival and recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with first proximal or isolated distal deep vein thrombosis and no pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Barco, S; Corti, M; Trinchero, A; Picchi, C; Ambaglio, C; Konstantinides, S V; Dentali, F; Barone, M

    2017-07-01

    Essentials The long-term risk of recurrence and death after distal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is uncertain. We included subjects with first proximal or isolated distal DVT (IDDVT) and no pulmonary embolism. The risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrence is lower after IDDVT (vs. proximal). IDDVT may be associated with a lower long-term risk of death, especially after unprovoked DVT. Background A few studies have focused on the risk of recurrence after first acute isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT) compared with proximal DVT (PDVT), whereas the incremental risk of death has never been explored beyond the first 3 years after acute event. Methods Our single-center cohort study included patients with first symptomatic acute PDVT or IDDVT. Patients were excluded if they had concomitant pulmonary embolism (PE) or prior venous thromboembolism. The primary outcomes were symptomatic objectively diagnosed recurrent PDVT or PE and all-cause death. Results In total, 4759 records were screened and 831 subjects included: 202 had symptomatic IDDVT and 629 had PDVT. The median age was 66 years and 50.5% were women. A total of 125 patients had recurrent PDVT or PE during 3175 patient-years of follow-up: 109 events occurred after PDVT (17.3%) and 16 after IDDVT (7.9%). Annual recurrence rates were 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-5.4%) and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.1-3.2%), respectively, for an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IDDVT patients of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.19-0.55). Death occurred in 263 patients (31.6% [95% CI, 28.6-34.9%]) during 5469 patient-years of follow-up for an overall annual incidence rate of 4.8% (95% CI, 4.2-5.4%). The mortality rate was 33.5% (n = 211) in PDVT patients and 25.7% (n = 52) in IDDVT patients. The long-term hazard of death appeared lower for IDDVT patients (aHR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55-1.02]), especially after unprovoked events (aHR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.26-1.31]). Conclusions Compared with PDVT, IDDVT patients were at a lower risk of recurrent VTE

  14. Factor v leiden mutation in patients with breast cancer with a central venous catheter: risk of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Curigliano, Giuseppe; Mandalà, Mario; Sbanotto, Alberto; Colleoni, Marco; Ferretti, Gianluigi; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Peruzzotti, Giulia; de Braud, Filippo; De Pas, Tommaso; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Pietri, E; Orsi, Franco; Banfi, Maria G; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the prothrombotic factor V Leiden (FVL) and G20210A prothrombin mutations on the frequency of the first episode of catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a cohort of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer during continuous venous insult (infusion of 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy). Between January 1999 and February 2001, we retrospectively analyzed the incidence of first DVT in 300 consecutive patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer treated at a single institution with a combination of chemotherapy administered continuously through a totally implanted access port. We identified 25 women (study group) with catheter-related DVT. For each of the 25 patients, we selected 2 women eligible for identical chemotherapy who had similar age, stage of disease, and prognostic features as a control group. The prothrombotic FVL and prothrombin mutation G20210A genotype analyses were performed in all patients. Analyses were performed on blinded samples, and all patients signed a specific informed consent form. A total of 25 cases (with thrombosis) and 50 frequency-matched controls were evaluated for FVL. Five cases and 2 controls were found with the mutation in the FVL, for incidences of 20% (95% CI, 9%-39%) and 4% (95% CI, 1%-14%), respectively. Thus, the frequency of the mutation was significantly higher in the cases than in controls (P = 0.04), and a logistic regression analysis, adjusted by age, yielded an odds ratio of 6.1 (95% CI, 1.1%-34.3%; P = 0.04). Time from start of infusion chemotherapy to thrombosis was not significantly different between those with the mutation (median, 31 days) and without the mutation (median, 43 days; P = 0.6). Only 1 subject (in the case group) was found with the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene. Factor V Leiden carriers with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer are at high risk of catheter-related DVT during chemotherapy

  15. Ultrasound-assisted drug delivery for treatment of venous thrombosis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marchiondo, Kathleen; Frink, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted drug delivery is a relatively new medical intervention that combines low-intensity ultrasound waves with infusion of a thrombolytic agent directly into a thrombosed vein. Studies have demonstrated that clots are eradicated faster, more completely, and with fewer bleeding events with the use of ultrasound-assisted drug delivery for treatment of deep vein thrombosis compared to that of traditional therapies. Critical care nurses are responsible for preprocedure assessment and teaching and continuous monitoring of the patient during therapy for effectiveness and potential complications. An advantage of this technology from a nursing perspective is the minimal amount of time required for monitoring the drug delivery system, allowing greater focus on patient assessment and care.

  16. Noninvasive treatment of deep venous thrombosis using pulsed ultrasound cavitation therapy (histotripsy) in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Adam D; Owens, Gabe; Gurm, Hitinder S; Ives, Kimberly; Myers, Daniel D; Xu, Zhen

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated histotripsy as a noninvasive, image-guided method of thrombolysis in a porcine model of deep vein thrombosis. Histotripsy therapy uses short, high-intensity, focused ultrasound pulses to cause mechanical breakdown of targeted soft tissue by acoustic cavitation, which is guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. This is an in vivo feasibility study of histotripsy thrombolysis. Acute thrombi were formed in the femoral vein of juvenile pigs weighing 30-40 kg by balloon occlusion with two catheters and thrombin infusion. A 10-cm-diameter 1-MHz focused transducer was used for therapy. An 8-MHz ultrasound imager was used to align the clot with the therapy focus. Therapy consisted of five cycle pulses delivered at a rate of 1 kHz and peak negative pressure between 14 and 19 MPa. The focus was scanned along the long axis of the vessel to treat the entire visible clot during ultrasound exposure. The targeted region identified by a hyperechoic cavitation bubble cloud was visualized via ultrasound during treatment. Thrombus breakdown was apparent as a decrease in echogenicity within the vessel in 10 of 12 cases and in 7 cases improved flow through the vein as measured by color Doppler. Vessel histology found denudation of vascular endothelium and small pockets of hemorrhage in the vessel adventitia and underlying muscle and fatty tissue, but perforation of the vessel wall was never observed. The results indicate histotripsy has potential for development as a noninvasive treatment for deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pre-Clinical Model to Study Recurrent Venous Thrombosis in the Inferior Vena Cava.

    PubMed

    Andraska, Elizabeth A; Luke, Catherine E; Elfline, Megan A; Henke, Samuel P; Madapoosi, Siddharth S; Metz, Allan K; Hoinville, Megan E; Wakefield, Thomas W; Henke, Peter K; Diaz, Jose A

    2018-06-01

     Patients undergoing deep vein thrombosis (VT) have over 30% recurrence, directly increasing their risk of post-thrombotic syndrome. Current murine models of inferior vena cava (IVC) VT model host one thrombosis event.  We aimed to develop a murine model to study IVC recurrent VT in mice.  An initial VT was induced using the electrolytic IVC model (EIM) with constant blood flow. This approach takes advantage of the restored vein lumen 21 days after a single VT event in the EIM demonstrated by ultrasound. We then induced a second VT 21 days later, using either EIM or an IVC ligation model for comparison. The control groups were a sham surgery and, 21 days later, either EIM or IVC ligation. IVC wall and thrombus were harvested 2 days after the second insult and analysed for IVC and thrombus size, gene expression of fibrotic markers, histology for collagen and Western blot for citrullinated histone 3 (Cit-H3) and fibrin.  Ultrasound confirmed the first VT and its progressive resolution with an anatomical channel allowing room for the second thrombus by day 21. As compared with a primary VT, recurrent VT has heavier walls with significant up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), elastin, interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), MMP2 and a thrombus with high citrullinated histone-3 and fibrin content.  Experimental recurrent thrombi are structurally and compositionally different from the primary VT, with a greater pro-fibrotic remodelling vein wall profile. This work provides a VT recurrence IVC model that will help to improve the current understanding of the biological mechanisms and directed treatment of recurrent VT. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  18. Comparison of an enhanced versus a written feedback model on the management of Medicare inpatients with venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R; Bratzler, D; Armour, B; Moore, L; Murray, C; Stevens, B R; Radford, M; Fitzgerald, D; Elward, K; Ballard, D J

    2001-03-01

    A multistate randomized study conducted under the Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA's) Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP) offered the opportunity to compare the effect of a written feedback intervention (WFI) with that of an enhanced feedback intervention (EFI) on improving the anticoagulant management of Medicare beneficiaries who present to the hospital with venous thromboembolic disease. Twenty-nine hospitals in five states were randomly assigned to receive written hospital-specific feedback (WFI) of feedback enhanced by the participation of a trained physician, quality improvement tools, and an Anticoagulant Management of Venous Thrombosis (AMVT) project liaison (EFI). Differences in the performance of five quality indicators between baseline and remeasurement were assessed. Quality managers were interviewed to determine perceptions of project implementation. No significant differences in the change from baseline to remeasurement were found between the two intervention groups. Significant improvement in one indicator and significant decline in two indicators were found for one or both groups. Yet 59% of all quality managers perceived the AMVT project as being successful to very successful, and more EFI quality managers perceived success than did WFI managers (71% versus 40%). In the majority of EFI hospitals, physician liaisons played an important role in project implementation. Study results indicated that the addition of a physician liaison, quality improvement tools, and a project liaison did not provide incremental value to hospital-specific feedback for improving quality of care. Future studies with larger sample sizes, lengthier follow-up periods, and interventions that include more of the elements shown to affect practice behavior change are needed to identify an optimal feedback model for use by external quality management organizations.

  19. Incidence and risk factors for preoperative deep venous thrombosis in 314 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for spinal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Brad E; Kahn, Sweena; Bander, Evan D; Cederquist, Gustav Y; Cope, William P; McLaughlin, Lily; Hijazi, Alexa; Reiner, Anne S; Laufer, Ilya; Bilsky, Mark

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors of this study aimed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing surgical treatment for spinal metastases. METHODS Univariate analysis of patient age, sex, ethnicity, laboratory values, comorbidities, preoperative ambulatory status, histopathological classification, spinal level, and surgical details was performed. Factors significantly associated with DVT univariately were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS The authors identified 314 patients, of whom 232 (73.9%) were screened preoperatively for a DVT. Of those screened, 22 (9.48%) were diagnosed with a DVT. The screened patients were older (median 62 vs 55 years, p = 0.0008), but otherwise similar in baseline characteristics. Nonambulatory status, previous history of DVT, lower partial thromboplastin time, and lower hemoglobin level were statistically significant and independent factors associated with positive results of screening for a DVT. Results of screening were positive in only 6.4% of ambulatory patients in contrast to 24.4% of nonambulatory patients, yielding an odds ratio of 4.73 (95% CI 1.88-11.90). All of the patients who had positive screening results underwent preoperative placement of an inferior vena cava filter. CONCLUSIONS Patients requiring surgery for spinal metastases represent a population with unique risks for venous thromboembolism. This study showed a 9.48% incidence of DVT in patients screened preoperatively. The highest rates of preoperative DVT were identified in nonambulatory patients, who were found to have a 4-fold increase in the likelihood of harboring a DVT. Understanding the preoperative thrombotic status may provide an opportunity for early intervention and risk stratification in this critically ill population.

  20. Association of vWA and TPOX Polymorphisms with Venous Thrombosis in Mexican Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S.; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Magaña, Jonathan J.; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder and, worldwide, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors play a critical role in its aetiology. Microsatellites are the most important source of human genetic variation having more phenotypic effect than many single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hence, we evaluate a possible relationship between VTE and the genetic variants in von Willebrand factor, human alpha fibrinogen, and human thyroid peroxidase microsatellites to identify possible diagnostic markers. Methods. Genotypes were obtained from 177 patients with VTE and 531 nonrelated individuals using validated genotyping methods. The allelic frequencies were compared; Bayesian methods were used to correct population stratification to avoid spurious associations. Results. The vWA-18, TPOX-9, and TPOX-12 alleles were significantly associated with VTE. Moreover, subjects bearing the combination vWA-18/TPOX-12 loci exhibited doubled risk for VTE (95% CI = 1.02–3.64), whereas the combination vWA-18/TPOX-9 showed an OR = 10 (95% CI = 4.93–21.49). Conclusions. The vWA and TPOX microsatellites are good candidate biomarkers in venous thromboembolism diseases and could help to elucidate their origins. Additionally, these polymorphisms could become useful markers for genetic studies of VTE in the Mexican population; however, further studies should be done owing that this data only show preliminary evidence. PMID:25250329

  1. [Self-active physical thrombosis prophylaxis in the patients' bed with the Phlebostep: acceptance and measurement of venous blood flow in immobilized patients].

    PubMed

    Olivier, L C; Ostovan, D; Heywinkel, W; Kendoff, D; Wolfhard, U

    2007-11-01

    Despite the broad use of low molecular weight heparin, deep vein thrombosis is still a relevant risk for immobilized patients in orthopedic surgery. Patients can reduce this risk by active training exercises with a muscle pump. The aim of this study was to test the acceptance and effect of a self-developed training device to accelerate venous return as well as a technical optimization. The device was installed for in-patients in orthopedic and traumatology departments. A simple pillow-like device was developed, which can be positioned against the foot end of the patient's bed (Phlebostep). The device gives a sound-based feedback to the patient while pushing actively against it with complete ankle flexion. A digital integrated counter device allows direct feedback to the physician and nursing staff at any time. Initial testing including duplex sonography for venous flow measurements were done on 10 orthopedic in-patients. Prior testing on 7 healthy volunteers was carried out to define the effect of various amounts of pressure on the Phlebostep on the venous blood flow. Additionally, a questionnaire on the general acceptance and user-friendliness was filled out by 84 patients who had used the Phlebostep. The optimal pressure force was defined as 35 mmHg for further measurements. The venous flow measurements in the 10 postoperative patients revealed an increased venous blood flow in the affected leg by an average of 99.9%. Analysis of the questionnaire from the 84 patients showed a high degree of acceptance. In addition to the technical feasibility, this study showed that use of the Phlebostep resulted on average in a doubling of venous return. The increase of venous flow offers an additional effective device for thrombosis prophylaxis through patient's own active movements and is clearly superior to the use of devices such as antithrombosis stockings alone. The Phlebostep found a high degree of acceptance with the patients.

  2. Patients with inferior vena cava thrombosis frequently present with lower back pain and bilateral lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Christiane; Hecking, Carola; Schwonberg, Jan; Schindewolf, Marc; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Linnemann, Birgit

    2013-07-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is rare, and data about the clinical presentation of patients are scarce. Therefore, we reviewed all cases of IVC thrombosis consecutively registered in the MAISTHRO (MAin-ISar-THROmbosis) database and described patients’ characteristics in terms of their clinical presentations in the acute setting of IVC thrombosis. From the MAISTHRO registry, which enrolled 1470 consecutive patients with documented histories of venous thromboembolism, we identified 60 patients (0,4 %; females 60 %) with IVC thrombosis and 888 patients (60.4 %; females 55 %) with isolated lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis (LE-DVT). The median age at the time of IVC thrombosis manifestation was 36.5 years (9 to 83). IVC thrombosis was the initial VTE event in 47 patients (78 %). In the majority of cases, IVC thrombosis extended to the lower-extremity veins, and both lower extremities were affected in 17 cases (28 %). The initial clinical symptom of IVC thrombosis was lower back or abdominal pain which preceded typical symptoms of LE-DVT in 29 (48 %) patients. Symptomatic pulmonary embolism was more frequently observed in IVC thrombosis patients when compared to a sex- and age-matched subgroup of LE-DVT patients, although the difference was not significant (27 % vs. 12 %; p = 0.064). Malignant disease was the only established VTE risk factor with a higher prevalence among IVC thrombosis patients than patients with isolated LE-DVT (27 % vs. 9 %; p = 0.015). Congenital IVC anomalies were identified in another eight IVC thrombosis patients (13 %). IVC thrombosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for inexplicable lower back or abdominal pain especially in young patients. Malignant disease and congenital IVC anomalies seem to be predisposing factors for thrombosis involving the inferior vena cava.

  3. Role of coexisting contralateral primary venous disease in development of post-thrombotic syndrome following catheter-based treatment of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, John J; Al-Jubouri, Mustafa; Acino, Robin; Comerota, Anthony J; Lurie, Fedor

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that early clot removal benefits patients with iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by removing obstruction and preserving valve function. However, a substantial number of patients who had successful clot removal develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Residual thrombus and rethrombosis play a part in this phenomenon, but the role of coexisting primary chronic venous disease (PCVD) in these patients has not been studied. All patients who underwent catheter-based techniques of thrombus removal for symptomatic acute iliofemoral DVT during a 5-year period compose the study group. These patients were assessed for PTS by the Villalta scale, the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life (VEINES-QOL) questionnaire. The presence of coexisting PCVD was determined by clinical and duplex ultrasound findings in the contralateral leg at the time of the initial DVT diagnosis. Patients who had coexisting PCVD were compared with those without PCVD. Forty patients (40 limbs) were included in the study group. At initial diagnosis, 15 patients (38%) had coexisting symptomatic primary valve reflux in the unaffected limb. After thrombolysis, 9 of 40 limbs (22%) had complete lysis, 29 (73%) had ≥ 50% to 99% lysis, and 2 (5%) had <50% lysis. The mean percentage of lysis in patients with or without PCVD was similar (78% vs 86%; P = .13). Patients without coexisting PCVD had significantly better Villalta score and VCSS compared with those with coexisting PCVD (Villalta score, 2.52 vs 3.27, P = .014; VCSS, 2.96 vs 3.29, P = .005). Forty-five percent of patients (18 of 40) developed PTS. Patients who developed PTS had less clot lysis than those without PTS. This was true for patients with coexisting PCVD (60% vs 85%; P = .025) and in patients without PCVD (75% vs 89%; P = .013). There was no significant difference in the VEINES-QOL score between those with or without PCVD (79.5 vs 80

  4. [Recanalization of lower-limb deep veins as an index of efficacy of treatment for acute venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, M R; Sapelkin, S V; Boldin, B V; Leont'ev, S G; Neskhodimov, L A

    The authors analysed the results of examination and treatment of a total of 102 patients presenting with iliofemoral venous thrombosis. During treatment, ultrasonographic duplex scanning was used to determine the localization of the proximal margin of thrombotic masses, the time of appearing of the first signs of recanalization, its degree at various levels of the deep venous system, as well as alteration in velocity of the venous blood flow in the deep veins of the lower limbs. The dynamics of clinical symptoms was assessed by the visual analogue scale. Clinical and instrumental examination was performed on day 10, and then 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the beginning of treatment. The patients were subdivided into three groups. Group One comprised 38 patients receiving therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaprin) followed by switching to indirect anticoagulants (warfarin) combined with venotonics (original highly-purified diosmin 600 mg once daily). Group Two was composed of 33 patients receiving rivaroxaban at a dose of 15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily. Group Tree patients (n=31) were also given rivaroxaban according to the above-described standard regimen but in combination with venotonics (original highly-purified diosmin 600 mg once daily). The obtained findings showed that prescribing rivaroxaban to patients from the first day of the disease made it possible to considerably improve and accelerate the processes of restoration of patency of deep veins of lower extremities as compared with the patients taking vitamin K antagonists (warfarin). In patients receiving rivaroxaban, there were no cases of residual thrombotic occlusions of the major veins, and recanalization in three fourths of patients was assessed as good and in the remaining third as moderate. In the warfarin group, occlusion in the iliac veins was noted to persist persisted in 13% of patients, with good recanalization observed only in half of the patients. Addition

  5. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis Suggests Hypoxia-Triggered Hyper-Coagulation Leading to Venous Thrombosis at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhash Kumar; Sahu, Anita; Prabhakar, Amit; Tyagi, Tarun; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Arvind, Prathima; Nair, Jiny; Gupta, Neha; Kumari, Babita; Nair, Velu; Bajaj, Nitin; Shanker, Jayashree; Sharma, Manish; Kumar, Bhuvnesh; Ashraf, Mohammad Zahid

    2018-06-04

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a multi-factorial disease, is the third most common cardiovascular disease. Established genetic and acquired risk factors are responsible for the onset of VTE. High altitude (HA) also poses as an additional risk factor, predisposing individuals to VTE; however, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. This study aimed to identify genes/pathways associated with the pathophysiology of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at HA. Gene expression profiling of DVT patients, who developed the disease, either at sea level or at HA-DVT locations, resulted in differential expression of 378 and 875 genes, respectively. Gene expression profiles were subjected to bioinformatic analysis, followed by technical and biological validation of selected genes using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Both gene ontology and pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes involved in haemostasis and platelet activation in HA-DVT patients with the most relevant pathway being 'response to hypoxia'. Thus, given the environmental condition the differential expression of hypoxia-responsive genes (angiogenin, ribonuclease, RNase A family, 5; early growth response 1; lamin A; matrix metallopeptidase 14 [membrane-inserted]; neurofibromin 1; PDZ and LIM domain 1; procollagen-lysine 1, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1; solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin], member 4; solute carrier family 9 [sodium/hydrogen exchanger], member 1; and TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial) in HA-DVT could be a determining factor to understand the pathophysiology of DVT at HA. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  6. Quantity of residual thrombus after successful catheter-directed thrombolysis for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis correlates with recurrence.

    PubMed

    Aziz, F; Comerota, A J

    2012-08-01

    Iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (IFDVT) is an independent risk factor for recurrent DVT. It has been observed that recurrent DVT correlates with residual thrombus. This study evaluates whether risk of recurrence is related to the amount of residual thrombus following catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for IFDVT. Patients who underwent CDT for IFDVT had their degree of lysis quantified by a reader blind to the patients' long-term clinical outcome. Patients were classified into two groups, ≥50% and <50% residual thrombus. Recurrence was defined as a symptomatic presentation with image verification of new or additional thrombus. A total of 75 patients underwent CDT for IFDVT. Median follow-up was 35.9 months. Sixty-eight patients (91%) had no evidence of recurrence and seven (9%) developed recurrence. Of the patients who had ≥50% (mean 80%) residual thrombus, 50% (4/8) experienced recurrence, but in those with <50% (mean 35%) residual thrombus, only 5% (3/67) had recurrent DVT (P = 0.0014). The burden of residual thrombus at completion of CDT correlates with the risk of DVT recurrence. Patients having CDT for IFDVT had a lower risk of recurrence than expected. Successful clearing of acute clot in IFDVT patients significantly reduces the recurrence risk compared to patients with a large residual thrombus burden. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of US in the evaluation of patients with symptoms of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Useche, Juan N; de Castro, Alfredo M Fernández; Galvis, Germán E; Mantilla, Rodolfo A; Ariza, Alvaro

    2008-10-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem and is estimated to have an incidence of 600,000 cases per year. Clinical signs and symptoms of DVT are unreliable. If clinical signs alone were used to diagnose DVT, 42% of patients would receive unnecessary anticoagulation therapy. Most patients evaluated with ultrasonography (US) do not have DVT. The key to making a precise diagnosis is recognizing the characteristics of various diseases on US images. The anatomic approach is the most useful strategy for characterizing the spectrum of pathologic conditions seen in patients with symptoms that simulate DVT. The inferior extremity can be divided into four regions-inguinal, thigh, popliteal, and lower leg-with the rough limits defined for each as they are examined at US. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower extremities include infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, inflammatory, vascular, and miscellaneous entities. Some pathologic conditions seen in the inguinal region are adenopathies, lymphangitis, soft-tissue tumors, hematomas, adductor tendonitis, and hernias. In the thigh, cellulitis, myositis, abscess, benign and malignant tumors, and sports-related lesions are seen. In the popliteal region, cellulitis, arthritis, benign and malignant masses, muscle contusions, ruptured popliteal cysts, and thrombophlebitis are seen. And in the lower leg, cellulitis, lipomas, tennis leg, superficial thrombophlebitis, tendonitis, and soft-tissue hydrostatic edema secondary to cardiac and renal failure can simulate DVT. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  8. Noninvasive Imaging of Early Venous Thrombosis by 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Targeted Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Temme, Sebastian; Grapentin, Christoph; Quast, Christine; Jacoby, Christoph; Grandoch, Maria; Ding, Zhaoping; Owenier, Christoph; Mayenfels, Friederike; Fischer, Jens W; Schubert, Rolf; Schrader, Jürgen; Flögel, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    Noninvasive detection of deep venous thrombi and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism is a serious medical challenge, since both incidences are difficult to identify by conventional ultrasound techniques. Here, we report a novel technique for the sensitive and specific identification of developing thrombi using background-free 19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2-antiplasmin peptide (α2AP)-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCs) as contrast agent, which is cross-linked to fibrin by active factor XIII. Ligand functionality was ensured by mild coupling conditions using the sterol-based postinsertion technique. Developing thrombi with a diameter<0.8 mm could be visualized unequivocally in the murine inferior vena cava as hot spots in vivo by simultaneous acquisition of anatomic matching 1H and 19F magnetic resonance images at 9.4 T with both excellent signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (71±22 and 17±5, respectively). Furthermore, α2AP-PFCs could be successfully applied for the diagnosis of experimentally induced pulmonary thromboembolism. In line with the reported half-life of factor XIIIa, application of α2AP-PFCs>60 minutes after thrombus induction no longer resulted in detectable 19F magnetic resonance imaging signals. Corresponding results were obtained in ex vivo generated human clots. Thus, α2AP-PFCs can visualize freshly developed thrombi that might still be susceptible to pharmacological intervention. Our results demonstrate that 1H/19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2AP-PFCs, is a sensitive, noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombi and pulmonary thromboemboli. Furthermore, ligand coupling by the sterol-based postinsertion technique represents a unique platform for the specific targeting of PFCs for in vivo 19F magnetic resonance imaging. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Inflammation Modulates Murine Venous Thrombosis Resolution In Vivo: Assessment by Multimodal Fluorescence Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Kessinger, Chase W.; Li, Chunqiang; Kim, Jin Won; McCarthy, Jason R.; Weissleder, Ralph; Henke, Peter K.; Lin, Charles P.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Assessment of thrombus inflammation in vivo could provide new insights into deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution. Here we develop and evaluate two integrated fluorescence molecular-structural imaging strategies to quantify DVT-related inflammation and architecture, and to assess the effect of thrombus inflammation on subsequent DVT resolution in vivo. Methods and Results Murine DVT were created with topical 5% FeCl3 application to thigh or jugular veins (n=35). On day 3, mice received macrophage and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity fluorescence imaging agents. On day 4, integrated assessment of DVT inflammation and architecture was performed using confocal fluorescence intravital microscopy (IVM). Day 4 analyses showed robust relationships among in vivo thrombus macrophages, MMP activity, and FITC-dextran deposition (r>0.70, p<0.01). In a serial two-timepoint study, mice with DVT underwent IVM at day 4 and at day 6. Analyses revealed that the intensity of thrombus inflammation at day 4 predicted the magnitude of DVT resolution at day 6 (p<0.05). In a second approach, noninvasive fluorescence molecular tomography-computed tomography (FMT-CT) was employed, and detected macrophages within jugular DVT (p<0.05 vs. sham-controls). Conclusions Integrated fluorescence molecular-structural imaging demonstrates that the DVT-induced inflammatory response can be readily assessed in vivo, and can inform the magnitude of thrombus resolution. PMID:22995524

  10. Risk Factors for Intracardiac Thrombosis in the Right Atrium and Superior Vena Cava in Critically Ill Neonates who Required the Installation of a Central Venous Catheter.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Ricardez, Alfredo; Romero-Espinoza, Lizett; Estrada-Loza, María de Jesús; González-Cabello, Héctor Jaime; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) installation is essential for the treatment of critically ill neonates; however, it is associated with the development of neonatal intracardiac thrombosis, which is a complication that is associated with a poor prognosis. We aimed to identify specific risk factors for the development of intracardiac thrombosis in the right atrium (RA) and superior vena cava (SVC) related to the use of CVC in critically ill neonates. A case-control study was conducted at the tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit of the Pediatric Hospital Siglo XXI in Mexico City, Mexico from 2008 to 2013. The included cases (n = 43) were de novo patients with intracardiac thrombosis in the RA and SVC diagnosed by echocardiography. The controls (n = 43) were neonates without intracardiac thrombosis or thrombosis at other sites. A logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The independent risk factors for intracardiac thrombosis in the RA and SVC were the surgical cut-down insertion technique (OR = 2.98; 95% CI: 1.18-9.10), a maternal history of gestational diabetes/diabetes mellitus (OR = 10.64; 95% CI: 1.13-121.41), Staphylococcus epidermidis infection (OR = 7.09; 95% CI: 1.09-45.92), and CVC placement in the SVC (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.10-30.18). This study allowed us to identify several contributing factors to the development of intracardiac thrombosis in the RA and SVC related to the installation of a CVC in a subgroup of critically ill neonates. Multicenter and well-designed studies with a larger number of patients could help validate our findings and/or identify other risk factors that were not identified in the present study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Predictive Factors for Developing Venous Thrombosis during Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Porres, Daniel; Veek, Nica; Heidenreich, Axel; Pfister, David

    2017-01-01

    Malignancies and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are both known to correlate with a high risk of venous thrombotic events (VTT). In testicular cancer, the information regarding the incidence and reason of VTT in patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still discussed controversially. Moreover, no risk factors for developing a VTT during cisplatin-based chemotherapy have been elucidated so far. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with testicular cancer undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy at our institution for the development of a VTT during or after chemotherapy. Clinical and pathological parameters for identifying possible risk factors for VTT were analyzed. The Khorana risk score was used to calculate the risk of VTT. Student t test was applied for calculating the statistical significance of differences between the treatment groups. Twenty-six out of 153 patients (17%) developed a VTT during chemotherapy. When we analyzed the risk factors for developing a VTT, we found that Lugano stage ≥IIc was significantly (p = 0.0006) correlated with the risk of developing a VTT during chemotherapy. On calculating the VTT risk using the Khorana risk score model, we found that only 2 out of 26 patients (7.7%) were in the high-risk Khorana group (≥3). Patients with testicular cancer with a high tumor volume have a significant risk of developing a VTT with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The Khorana risk score is not an accurate tool for predicting VTT in testicular cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in bedridden or wheelchair-bound multiple sclerosis patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, G; Bavera, P M; Caputo, D; Mendozzi, L; Cavarretta, R; Agus, G B; Milani, M; Ippolito, E; Cimminiello, C

    2010-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) often causes progressive loss of mobility, leading to limb paralysis. Venous and lymphatic stasis is a risk condition for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is, however, no data on the frequency of VTE complicating the progression of MS. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with late-stage MS attending a neurology center for rehabilitation. A total of 132 patients with MS were enrolled, 87 women and 45 men, mean age 58+/-11 years. The disease had started on average 18.7 years before; patients reported 9.6 hours bedridden per day or 14.3 hours wheelchair-bound. Only 25 patients reported a residual ability to walk alone or with help. Lower limb edema was present in 113 patients, bilateral in 41 cases. At admission all patients underwent extended compression ultrasonography. Their plasma D-dimer levels were measured. No antithrombotic prophylaxis was given. DVT was found in 58 patients (43.9%); 32 had a history of VTE. Forty of these patients (69%) had chronic lower limb edema, in 19 cases bilateral. D-dimer levels in the DVT patients were significantly higher than in patients without DVT (553+/-678 vs. 261+/-152 ng/mL, p=0.0112, Mann-Whitney Test). Nearly half the DVT patients (26, 45%) had high D-dimer levels (701+/-684 ng/mL). Of the 74 patients without DVT, 48 had normal D-dimer (193.37+/-67.28 ng/mL) and 26 high (387.61+/-187.42 ng/mL). The frequency of DVT in late-stage MS may be over 40%. The long history of the disease means the onset of each episode cannot be established with certainty. A number of patients with positive CUS findings had negative D-dimer values, suggesting a VTE event in the past. However, the level of DVT risk in this series should lead physicians to consider the systematic application of long-term preventive measures. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thromboelastogram-guided enoxaparin dosing does not confer protection from deep venous thrombosis: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Louis, Scott G; Van, Philbert Y; Riha, Gordon M; Barton, Jeffrey S; Kunio, Nicholas R; Underwood, Samantha J; Differding, Jerome A; Rick, Elizabeth; Ginzburg, Enrique; Schreiber, Martin A

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) remains high in general surgery and trauma patients despite widespread prophylaxis with enoxaparin. A recent study demonstrated decreased incidence of DVT if patients on enoxaparin had a change in R time (ΔR) of greater than 1 minute when heparinase-activated thromboelastography (TEG) was compared with normal TEG. We hypothesized that using ΔR-guided dosing would result in decreased DVT rates. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed at a Level 1 trauma center. Both trauma and general surgery patients were included. Upon enrollment, demographic data including age, sex, body mass index, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were obtained. Enrolled patients were randomized to standard (30 mg twice a day) or TEG-guided dosing. Dose-adjusted patients underwent daily enoxaparin titration to achieve an ΔR of 1 minute to 2 minutes. Venous thromboembolism screening was performed per institutional protocol. Antithrombin III (AT-III) and anti-Xa levels were drawn at peak enoxaparin concentrations. A total of 87 patients were enrolled. There was no difference in demographic data between the groups. No pulmonary emboli were identified. The control group had a DVT rate of 16%, while the experimental group had a rate of 14% (p = nonsignificant). The experimental group's median enoxaparin dosage, 50 mg twice a day, was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.01). TEG ΔR was not different between the control and experimental groups. Beginning at Day 3, anti-Xa levels were higher in the experimental group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in AT-III activity between the two groups; 67% of the patients demonstrated AT-III deficiency. TEG adjusted enoxaparin dosing led to significant increases in anti-Xa activity, which did not correlate with a decreased DVT rate. Failure to reduce the DVT rate and increase ΔR despite increased dosing and increased anti-Xa activity is consistent

  14. Isolation and characterization of a heparin with low antithrombin activity from the body of Styela plicata (Chordata-Tunicata). Distinct effects in venous and arterial models of thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joana C.; Mesquita, Juliana M. F.; Belmiro, Celso L.R.; da Silveira, Carolina B.M.; Viskov, Christian; Mourier, Pierre A.; Pavão., Mauro S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction a heparin preparation with low antithrombin activity and different disaccharide composition than mammalian heparin was isolated from the body of the ascidian Styela plicata (Chordata-Tunicata). The disaccharide composition and the effect of the invertebrate glycan on venous and arterial models of thrombosis was investigated. Methods and Results High performance liquid chromatography of the products formed by a mixture of heparin-lyases showed that the ascidian heparin is composed mainly by ΔUA(2SO4)-1→4-β-D-GlcN(SO4) (47.5%), ΔUA(2SO4)-1→4-β-D-GlcN(SO4)(6SO4) (38.3%) disaccharides. Smaller amounts of the disaccharides ΔUA(2SO4)-1→4-β-D-GlcN(SO4)(3SO4)(6SO4) (2.8%) and ΔUA(2SO4)-1→4-β-D-GlcN(SO4)(3SO4) (8.0%). The invertebrate heparin has an aPTT activity of 18 IU/mg and an antithrombin-mediated anti-thrombin and anti-factor Xa activities 10-fold lower than that of mammalian heparin. In a venous model of thrombosis in the vena cava, S.plicata heparin inhibits only 80% of thrombosis at a dose 10-fold higher than that of the mammalian heparin that inhibits 100% of thrombosis. However, in an arterio-shunt model of arterial thrombosis, both S.plicata and mammalian heparin possess equivalent antithrombotic activity. It is also shown that at equivalent doses, ascidian heparin has a lower bleeding effect than mammalian heparin. Conclusion the antithrombin-mediated anticoagulant activity of heparin polymers is not directly related to antithrombotic potency in the arterio-venous shunt. The results of the present work suggest that heparin preparations obtained from the body of S.plicata may have a safer therapeutic action in the treatment of arterial thrombosis than mammalian heparin. PMID:17482241

  15. Thrombosis-related complications and mortality in cancer patients with central venous devices: an observational study on the effect of antithrombotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fagnani, D; Franchi, R; Porta, C; Pugliese, P; Borgonovo, K; Bertolini, A; Duro, M; Ardizzoia, A; Filipazzi, V; Isa, L; Vergani, C; Milani, M; Cimminiello, C

    2007-03-01

    Recent guidelines do not recommend antithrombotic prophylaxis (AP) to prevent catheter-related thrombosis in cancer patients with a central line. This study assessed the management of central lines in cancer patients, current attitude towards AP, catheter-related and systemic venous thromboses, and survival. Of 1410 patients enrolled, 1390 were seen at least once in the 6-month median follow-up. Continuous AP, mainly low-dose warfarin, was given to 451 (32.4%); they were older, with a more frequent history of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and more advanced cancer. There was no difference in catheter-related thrombosis in patients given AP or not (2.8% and 2.2%, odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.64-2.6). The median time to first catheter-related complication was 120 days. Systemic VTE including deep and superficial thromboses and pulmonary embolism, were less frequent with AP (4% versus 8.2%, P = 0.005). Mortality was also lower (25% versus 44%, P = 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis found only advanced cancer and no AP significantly associated with mortality. No major bleeding was recorded with AP. Current AP schedules do not appear to prevent catheter-related thrombosis. Systemic VTE and mortality, however, appeared lower after prophylaxis.

  16. Use of Percutaneous Aspiration Thrombectomy vs. Anticoagulation Therapy to Treat Acute Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis: 1-year Follow-up Results of a Randomised, Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Volkan, E-mail: drvolkancakir@gmail.com; Gulcu, Aytac, E-mail: aytac.gulcu@deu.edu.tr; Akay, Emrah, E-mail: emrahakay@hotmail.com

    2014-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) followed by standard anticoagulant therapy, with anticoagulation therapy alone, for the treatment of acute proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.MethodsIn this randomised, prospective study, 42 patients with acute proximal iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis documented via Doppler ultrasound examination, were separated into an interventional treatment group (16 males, 5 females, average age 51 years) and a medical treatment group (13 males, 8 females, average age 59 years). In the interventional group, PAT with large-lumen 9-F diameter catheterisation was applied, after initiation of standard anticoagulant therapy. Balloon angioplasty (nmore » 19) and stent implementation (n: 14) were used to treat patients with residual stenosis (>50 %) after PAT. Prophylactic IVC filters were placed in two patients. The thrombus clearance status of the venous system was evaluated by venography. In both the medical and interventional groups, venous patency rates and clinical symptom scores were evaluated at months 1, 3, and 12 after treatment.ResultsDeep venous systems became totally cleared of thrombi in 12 patients treated with PAT. The venous patency rates in month 12 were 57.1 and 4.76 % in the interventional and medical treatment groups, respectively. A statistically significant improvement was observed in clinical symptom scores of the interventional group (PAT) with or without stenting (4.23 ± 0.51 before treatment; 0.81 ± 0.92 at month 12) compared with the medical treatment group (4.00 ± 0.63 before treatment; 2.43 ± 0.67 at month 12). During follow-up, four patients in the medical treatment and one in the interventional group developed pulmonary embolisms.ConclusionsFor treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis, PAT with or without stenting is superior to anticoagulant therapy alone in terms of both ensuring venous patency and improving clinical

  17. Incidence of Postoperative Deep Venous Thrombosis Is Higher among Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Patients as Compared with General Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Patel, Mayank; Ortenzi, Gail; Reed, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    Unlike general surgery patients, most of vascular and cardiac surgery patients receive therapeutic anticoagulation during operations. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among cardiac and vascular surgery patients, compared with general surgery. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients who underwent surgical procedures from 2005 to 2010. Patients who developed DVT within 30 days of an operation were identified. The incidence of DVT was compared among vascular, general, and cardiac surgery patients. Risk factors for developing postoperative DVT were identified and compared among these patients. Of total 2,669,772 patients underwent surgical operations in the period between 2005 and 2010. Of all the patients, 18,670 patients (0.69%) developed DVT. The incidence of DVT among different surgical specialties was cardiac surgery (2%), vascular surgery (0.99%), and general surgery (0.66%). The odds ratio for developing DVT was 1.5 for vascular surgery patients and 3 for cardiac surgery patients, when compared with general surgery patients (P < 0.001). The odds ratio for developing DVT after cardiac surgery was 2, when compared with vascular surgery (P < 0.001). The incidence of DVT is higher among vascular and cardiac surgery patients as compared with that of general surgery patients. Intraoperative anticoagulation does not prevent the occurrence of DVT in the postoperative period. These patients should receive DVT prophylaxis in the perioperative period, similar to other surgical patients according to evidence-based guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extrahepatic portal venous system thrombosis in recurrent acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is caused by local inflammation and not thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Rebours, Vinciane; Boudaoud, Larbi; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre; Vidaud, Dominique; Condat, Bertrand; Hentic, Olivia; Maire, Frédérique; Hammel, Pascal; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Lévy, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Extrahepatic portal venous system thrombosis (EPVST) occurs in 13% of patients with either recurrent acute (AP) or chronic (CP) alcoholic pancreatitis. The role of thrombophilia has never been assessed in this entity. All consecutive patients with alcoholic AP or CP were included in a prospective study. All patients underwent a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the pancreas to evaluate EPVST as well as thorough testing for thrombophilia (protein C, S, and antithrombin deficiency, factor II, factor V, and JAK2 gene mutations, homocystein, biological antiphospholipid syndrome). A total of 119 patients (male, n=100 (84%); smokers, n=110 (92%)) were included. EPVST was found in 41 patients (35%). The portal, superior mesenteric, or splenic veins were involved in 34%, 24%, and 93% of patients, respectively. Thrombophilia was identified in 18% (n=22), including the biological antiphospholipid syndrome, factor V Leiden mutation, and factor II G20210A gene mutation in 21 (17.6%), 2 (1.6%), and 1 patient (0.8%), respectively. On univariate analysis, the factors associated with EPVST were smoking (RR=1.6 (1.38-1.85), P=0.03), pseudocysts (RR=2.91 (1.29-6.56), P=0.008), a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail (P=0.03), a high CT severity index for AP (P=0.007), and pancreatic parenchymal necrosis (P=0.02). The presence of hemostatic risk factors was not associated with an increased risk of EPVST. On multivariate analysis, only pseudocysts were associated with EPVST (hazard ratio: 6.402; 95% confidence interval (1.59-26.54), P=0.009). EPVST is found in 35% of patients with acute/chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Local inflammation appears to be the major predisposing condition. The presence of some form of thrombophilia does not increase the risk of EPVST and should not be systematically searched for in case of EPVST.

  19. Superficial venous thrombosis: prevalence of common genetic risk factors and their role on spreading to deep veins.

    PubMed

    Milio, Glauco; Siragusa, Sergio; Minà, Chiara; Amato, Corrado; Corrado, Egle; Grimaudo, Stefania; Novo, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    Superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) has been considered for a long time a limited clinical condition with a low importance, but this approach has changed in recent years, when several studies demonstrated spreading to deep veins occurring from 7.3 to 44%, with high prevalence of pulmonary embolism. To evaluate the prevalence of genetic risk factors for VTE in patients suffering from SVT on both normal and varicose vein, and to understand their role on spreading to deep veins, we studied 107 patients with SVT, without other risk factors. Ultrasound examination was performed, and the presence of FV Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A mutation, and MTHFR C677T mutation was researched. In the patients where SVT occurred in normal veins, the presence of FV Leiden was 26.3% of the non-spreading and 60% of the spreading to deep veins SVT; Prothrombin mutation was found in 7.9% of the former case and in 20% of the latter; MTHFR C677T mutation was found respectively in 23.7% and 40%. In the patients with SVT on varicose veins, the presence of these factors was less evident (6.7%, 4.4% and 6.7% respectively), but their prevalence was considerably higher (35.7%, 7.4% and 21.4% respectively) in SVT spreading to deep veins than in non-spreading. Our data demonstrate the high prevalence of these mutations, especially FV Leiden and associations, in patients with SVT on normal veins and their role in the progression to deep vein system.

  20. Estimated effect of an integrated approach to suspected deep venous thrombosis using limited-compression ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Poley, Rachel A; Newbigging, Joseph L; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2014-09-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is both common and serious, yet the desire to never miss the diagnosis, coupled with the low specificity of D-dimer testing, results in high imaging rates, return visits, and empirical anticoagulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new approach incorporating bedside limited-compression ultrasound (LC US) by emergency physicians (EPs) into the workup strategy for DVT. This was a cross-sectional observational study of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected DVT. Patients on anticoagulants; those with chronic DVT, leg cast, or amputation; or when the results of comprehensive imaging were already known were excluded. All patients were treated in the usual fashion based on the protocol in use at the center, including comprehensive imaging based on the modified Wells score and serum D-dimer testing. Seventeen physicians were trained and performed LC US in all subjects. The authors identified a priori an alternate workup strategy in which DVT would be ruled out in "DVT unlikely" (Wells score < 2) patients if the LC US was negative and in "DVT likely" (Wells score ≥ 2) patients if both the LC US and the D-dimer were negative. The criterion standard was based on comprehensive imaging interpreted by radiologists blinded to LC US findings and by structured medical record review at 6 months in patients without comprehensive imaging. A total of 227 patients were enrolled (47% DVT likely), of whom 24 had DVT. The LC US was positive in 27 cases (21 actually DVT positive), indeterminate in 28 (one DVT positive), and negative in 172 (two DVT positive). Of 130 patients deemed DVT negative by the new strategy, one had confirmed DVT (miss rate = 0.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1% to 4.0%), but this patient had been misclassified by the treating physician as low risk by Wells criteria. The stand-alone sensitivity and specificity of LC US were 91% (95% CI = 70% to 98%) and 97% (95% CI = 92% to 99%), respectively

  1. The use of an exclusion-based risk-assessment model for venous thrombosis improves uptake of appropriate thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients.

    PubMed

    Bagot, C; Gohil, S; Perrott, R; Barsam, S; Patel, R K; Arya, R

    2010-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common condition in hospitalized medical patients. Numerous studies have demonstrated that low molecular weight heparin significantly reduces this risk but, despite this, the use of thromboprophylaxis remains poor. To evaluate the use of an exclusion based risk-assessment model (RAM) for venous thrombosis in improving the uptake of appropriate thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients. A survey with a subsequent audit cycle of three separate audits over 36 months. 497 hospitalized patients with acute medical conditions on general medical wards were audited at a secondary care centre in London, UK. The survey and subsequent audits were performed by reviewing the notes and medication charts of medical patients, prior to the launch of the RAM and at 12, 28 and 36 months following its introduction. Prior to launching the RAM, 49% of hospitalized medical patients received appropriate thromboprophylaxis. This did not change 12 months after the RAM was introduced but increased significantly to 71% following formal education of the health care professionals involved in thromboprophylaxis prescription. This improvement was maintained as demonstrated by a subsequent audit 8 months later (75.9%). The introduction of a simple exclusion-based RAM for venous thrombosis in medical patients significantly improved delivery of thromboprophylaxis. The successful uptake of the RAM appears to have been dependent on direct education of those health carers involved in its use. A similar exclusion-based model used nationally could have a significant impact on the burden of VTE currently experienced in the UK.

  2. Form of presentation, natural history and course of postoperative venous thromboembolism in patients operated on for pelvic and abdominal cancer. Analysis of the RIETE registry.

    PubMed

    Bustos Merlo, Ana Belén; Arcelus Martínez, Juan Ignacio; Turiño Luque, Jesús Damián; Valero, Beatriz; Villalobos, Aurora; Aibar, Miguel Ángel; Monreal Bosch, Manuel

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a serious complication after oncologic surgery. Recent studies have shown that the risk of VTE persists several weeks after surgery. This study assesses the form of presentation and time course of VTE after abdominal and pelvic cancer surgery. Prospective, multicenter, observational study that analyzes data from an international registry (RIETE) that includes consecutive patients with symptomatic VTE. Our study assesses the form and time of presentation of postoperative VTE, as well as main outcomes, in patients operated for abdominopelvic cancer 8 weeks prior to VTE diagnosis. Variables related to the presentation of VTE after hospital discharge are identified. Out of the 766 analyzed patients with VTE, 395 (52%) presented pulmonary embolism (PE). Most VTE cases (84%) were detected after the first postoperative week, and 38% after one month. Among patients with VTE in the first postoperative week, 70% presented PE. VTE presented after hospital discharge in 54% of cases. Colorectal, urologic, and gynecologic tumors, the use of radiotherapy, and blood hemoglobin levels were independently associated with VTE diagnosis after hospital discharge. Complications (thrombosis recurrence, bleeding, and death) occurred in 34% of patients with VTE detected before hospital discharge, compared to 24% in VTE after hospital discharge (P<0.01). VTE occurs after hospital discharge in most patients, particularly in those operated for colorectal, urologic, and gynecologic cancer. Pulmonary embolism is more frequent in patients who develop early VTE, who also have worse prognosis. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Inferior vena cava filter insertion through the popliteal vein: enabling the percutaneous endovenous intervention of deep vein thrombosis with a single venous access approach in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kang, Yang Jun; Jung, Hye Doo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placing an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter through the same popliteal vein access site used for percutaneous endovenous intervention in patients with extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. METHODS This retrospective study included 21 patients who underwent IVC filter insertion through the popliteal vein over a three-year period. Patient medical records were reviewed for the location of the deep vein thrombosis, result of filter removal, and total number of endovascular procedures needed for filter insertion and recanalization of the lower extremity venous system. Follow-up lower extremity computed tomography (CT) venography was also reviewed in each patient to assess the degree of filter tilt in the IVC. RESULTS All patients had extensive lower extremity deep vein thrombosis involving the iliac vein and/or femoral vein. Seventeen patients showed deep vein thrombosis of the calf veins. In all patients, IVC filter insertion and the recanalization procedure were performed during a single procedure through the single popliteal vein access site. In the 17 patients undergoing follow-up CT, the mean tilt angle of the filter was 7.14°±4.48° in the coronal plane and 8.77°±5.49° in the sagittal plane. Filter retrieval was successful in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%) in whom filter retrieval was attempted. CONCLUSION Transpopliteal IVC filter insertion is an efficient technique that results in low rates of significant filter tilt and enables a single session procedure using a single venous access site for filter insertion and percutaneous endovenous intervention. PMID:27559713

  4. Relationship between development of post-thrombotic syndrome and serial ultrasound, D-dimer, and factor VIII activity after a first deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lara N; Patel, Raj K; Goss, David E; Chitongo, Paradzai; Bonner, Lynda; Arya, Roopen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) with residual vein thrombosis, deep venous reflux (DVT), D-dimer, and factor VIII (FVIII) after a first deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There were 133 participants with objectively confirmed DVT, of whom 114 were observed for 6 months after completion of anticoagulation. Ultrasound, D-dimer, and FVIII evaluations were undertaken at 6 weeks after completion of anticoagulation and at the end of follow-up. PTS was considered present in those with a score of ≥5 on the Villalta scale at either assessment. The cumulative incidence of PTS was 51.8%, with median duration of follow-up of 11 months. Median D-dimer and FVIII in those with PTS were significantly higher at both time points compared with those without. Similarly, residual vein thrombosis and deep venous reflux were more prevalent in those with PTS at both study assessments. On multivariable analysis, only FVIII at end of study remained significantly associated with PTS with an odds ratio of 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-7.42; P = .034). Ultrasound markers and D-dimer were not significantly associated with PTS after adjustment for age, body mass index, Charlson Index ≥1, and proximal extent of DVT. FVIII activity at end of follow-up was independently associated with PTS, suggesting underlying activation of coagulation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of catheter-related large vein thrombosis in centrally inserted versus peripherally inserted central venous lines in the neurological intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas J; Stetler, William R; Fletcher, Jeffrey J

    2013-07-01

    To compare cumulative complication rates of peripherally (PICC) and centrally (CICVC) inserted central venous catheters, including catheter-related large vein thrombosis (CRLVT), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and line insertion-related complications in neurological intensive care patients. Retrospective cohort study and detailed chart review for 431 consecutive PICCs and 141 CICVCs placed in patients under neurological intensive care from March 2008 through February 2010. Cumulative incidence of CRLVT, CLABSI, and line insertion-related complications were compared between PICC and CICVC groups. Risk factors for CRLVT including mannitol therapy during dwell time, previous history of venous thromboembolism, surgery longer than 1h during dwell time, and line placement in a paretic arm were also compared between groups. During the study period, 431 unique PICCs were placed with cumulative incidence of symptomatic thrombosis of 8.4%, CLABSI 2.8%, and line insertion-related complications 0.0%. During the same period, 141 unique CICVCs were placed with cumulative incidence of symptomatic thrombosis of 1.4%, CLABSI 1.4%, and line insertion-related complications 0.7%. There was a statistically significant difference in CRLVT with no difference in CLABSI or line insertion-related complications. In neurological critical care patients, CICVCs appear to have a better risk profile compared to PICCs, with a decreased risk of CRLVT. As use of PICCs in critical care patients increases, a prospective randomized trial comparing PICCs and CICVCs in neurological critical care patients is necessary to assist in choosing the appropriate catheter and to minimize risks of morbidity and mortality associated with central venous access. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. False aneurysm of the popliteal artery complicated by a deep venous thrombosis revealing an exostosis in a 20-year-old young woman.

    PubMed

    Bakkali, Tarik; Hormatallah, Mohamed; Bounssir, Ayoub; Aghtoutane, Nabil; Taous, Hamza; Idrissi, Redouane; Sefiani, Yasser; Lekhel, Brahim; Mesnaoui, Abbes; Bensaid, Younes

    2018-05-19

    Exostoses or osteochondromas are benign osseous tumors that develop on the bone surface and can be sporadic or hereditary. Their evolution is generally benign but they may be complicated in some patients by conflicts with the surrounding nervous or vascular structures, in particular arteries. We report a case of false aneurysm of the popliteal artery secondary to an isolated exostosis of the left femur in a 20-year-old young woman. A delay in the diagnosis allowed the development of the false aneurysm which was at the origin of a major venous compression. The surgical treatment consisted in aneurysmectomy and reconstruction by end to end anastomosis associated to the resection of the osseous tumor, and the deep venous thrombosis was treated medically. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [Sequence of venous blood flow alterations in patients after recently endured acute thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins based on the findings of ultrasonographic duplex scanning].

    PubMed

    Tarkovskiĭ, A A; Zudin, A M; Aleksandrova, E S

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence of alterations in the venous blood flow to have occurred within the time frame of one year after sustained acute thrombosis of the lower-limb deep veins, which was carried out using the standard technique of ultrasonographic duplex scanning. A total of thirty-two 24-to-62-year-old patients presenting with newly onset acute phlebothrombosis were followed up. All the patients were sequentially examined at 2 days, 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after the manifestation of the initial clinical signs of the disease. Amongst the parameters to determine were the patency of the deep veins and the condition of the valvular apparatus of the deep, superficial and communicant veins. According to the obtained findings, it was as early as at the first stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations after the endured thrombosis, i. e., during the acute period of the disease, that seven (21.9%) patients were found to have developed valvular insufficiency of the communicant veins of the cms, manifesting itself in the formation of a horizontal veno-venous reflux, and 6 months later, these events were observed to have occurred in all the patients examined (100%). Afterwards, the second stage of the phlebohaemodynamic alterations was, simultaneously with the process of recanalization of the thrombotic masses in the deep veins, specifically characterized by the formation of valvular insufficiency of the latter, manifesting itself in the form of the development of a deep vertical veno-venous reflux, which was revealed at month six after the onset of the disease in 56.3% of the examined subjects, to be then observed after 12 months in 93.8% of the patients involved. Recanalization of thrombotic masses was noted to commence 3 months after the onset of thrombosis in twelve (37.5%) patients, and after 12 months it was seen to ensue in all the patients (100%), eventually ending in complete restoration of the patency of the affected

  8. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Debourdeau, P; Farge, D; Beckers, M; Baglin, C; Bauersachs, R M; Brenner, B; Brilhante, D; Falanga, A; Gerotzafias, G T; Haim, N; Kakkar, A K; Khorana, A A; Lecumberri, R; Mandala, M; Marty, M; Monreal, M; Mousa, S A; Noble, S; Pabinger, I; Prandoni, P; Prins, M H; Qari, M H; Streiff, M B; Syrigos, K; Büller, H R; Bounameaux, H

    2013-01-01

    Although long-term indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) and loss of the CVC, there is lack of consensus on management of CVC-related thrombosis (CRT) in cancer patients and heterogeneity in clinical practices worldwide. To establish common international Good Clinical Practices Guidelines (GCPG) for the management of CRT in cancer patients. An international working group of experts was set up to develop GCPG according to an evidence-based medicine approach, using the GRADE system. For the treatment of established CRT in cancer patients, we found no prospective randomized studies, two non-randomized prospective studies and one retrospective study examining the efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). One retrospective study evaluated the benefit of CVC removal and two small retrospective studies were on thrombolytic drugs. For the treatment of symptomatic CRT, anticoagulant treatment (AC) is recommended for a minimum of 3 months; in this setting, LMWHs are suggested. VKAs can also be used, in the absence of direct comparisons of these two types of anticoagulants in this setting [Guidance]. The CVC can be kept in place if it is functional, well-positioned and non-infected and there is good resolution under close surveillance; whether the CVC is kept or removed, no standard approach in terms of AC duration has been established [Guidance]. For the prophylaxis of CRT in cancer patients, we found six randomized studies investigating the efficacy and safety of VKA vs. placebo or no treatment, one on the efficacy and safety of unfractionnated heparin, six on the value of LMWH, one double-blind randomized and one non randomized study on thrombolytic drugs and six meta-analyses of AC and CVC thromboprophylaxis. Type of catheter (open-ended like the Hickman(®) catheter vs. closed-ended catheter with a valve like the Groshong(®) catheter), its position (above, below or at the

  9. Deep venous thrombosis in elderly patients as a surgical emergency at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Reham Muqbil; Alanazi, Ashjan Aqeel; Alenezi, Ibtihaj Qaseem; Alsulobi, Anwar Matar; Almutairy, Abdulrhman Fahad; Ali, Wafaa Mohamed Bakr; Alanazi, Mohammed Abdullah; Alkhidhr, Mohammed Abdullah; Elfetoh, Nagah Mohamed Abo; Ali, Abdalla Mohamed Bakr

    2017-01-01

    Background Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs frequently among surgical, as well as acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Risk factors include older age, surgery and immobilization (as with bed rest, orthopedic casts, and sitting on long flights. Objective This study was conducted to identify the frequency and factors associated with occurrence of DVT among elderly patients referred to King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods The current study is a hospital based cross sectional study. The emergency, inpatients and outpatients’ departments at KAU hospital were reviewed. We studied all the referred elderly subjects during the study period. All elderly patients (540) referred to or admitted to the hospital departments and who were clinically suspected to have DVT and subjected to Doppler examination were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test. Results Based on the results of Doppler examination, DVT was detected in 97 (18.0%) of the studied elderly population. There were no significant differences in gender between patients who developed DVT and those who were negative by Doppler examination (p=0.018). Other comorbidities as diabetes, IHD and hypertension were significantly associated with the occurrence of DVT among the participants (p=0.05, 0.05 and 0.04 respectively). Furthermore, the other investigated factors such as being bed ridden, cancer, orthopedic cast and previous DVT were not significantly associated with the development of DVT among the studied elderly patients (p=0.42, 0.16, 0.45 and 0.75 respectively). Conclusion DVT has high prevalence in Jeddah; KSA. Thrombophilia screening should be regular for elderly patients with diabetes, hypertension and bed-ridden patients with recurrent DVT or patients with other risk factors. Knowing the most common risk

  10. Validating the HERDOO2 rule to guide treatment duration for women with unprovoked venous thrombosis: multinational prospective cohort management study.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A; Le Gal, Gregoire; Anderson, David R; Schmidt, Jeannot; Pernod, Gilles; Kahn, Susan R; Righini, Marc; Mismetti, Patrick; Kearon, Clive; Meyer, Guy; Elias, Antoine; Ramsay, Tim; Ortel, Thomas L; Huisman, Menno V; Kovacs, Michael J

    2017-03-17

    Objective  To prospectively validate the HERDOO2 rule (Hyperpigmentation, Edema, or Redness in either leg; D-dimer level ≥250 μg/L; Obesity with body mass index ≥30; or Older age, ≥65 years), which states that women with none or one of the criteria can safely discontinue anticoagulants after short term treatment. Design  Prospective cohort management study. Setting  44 secondary or tertiary care centres in seven countries. Participants  Of 3155 consecutive eligible participants with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE, proximal leg deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) who completed 5-12 months of short term anticoagulant treatment, 370 declined to participate, leaving 2785 enrolled participants. 2.3% were lost to follow-up. Interventions  Women with none or one of the HERDOO2 criteria were classified as at low risk of recurrent VTE and discontinued anticoagulants (intervention arm), whereas anticoagulant management for high risk women (≥2 HERDOO2 criteria) and men was left to the discretion of the clinicians and patients (observation arm). Main outcome measure  Recurrent symptomatic VTE (independently and blindly adjudicated) over one year of follow-up. Results  Of 1213 women, 631 (51.3%) were classified as low risk and 591 discontinued oral anticoagulant treatment. In the primary analysis, 17 low risk women who discontinued anticoagulants developed recurrent VTE during 564 patient years of follow-up (3.0% per patient year, 95% confidence interval 1.8% to 4.8%). In 323 high risk women and men who discontinued anticoagulants, 25 had VTE during 309 patient years of follow-up (8.1%, 5.2% to 11.9%), whereas in 1802 high risk women and men who continued anticoagulants 28 had recurrent VTE during 1758 patient years of follow-up (1.6%, 1.1% to 2.3%). Conclusions  Women with a first unprovoked VTE event and none or one of the HERDOO2 criteria have a low risk of recurrent VTE and can safely discontinue anticoagulants after completing short

  11. Incidence and Outcomes of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Thrombus during Catheter-directed Thrombolysis for Proximal Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguang; Tu, Jianfei; Jia, Zhongzhi; Chen, Jiezhong; Cao, Haitao; Meng, Qingli; Fuller, Tyler A; Tian, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence and outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter thrombus during catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for acute proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT). From October 2006 to June 2015, patients diagnosed with acute proximal DVT and received CDT after a retrievable IVC filter was placed were included. The incidence, treatment, and outcomes of IVC filter thrombus during CDT were recorded and analyzed. A total of 189 patients (91 women, 98 men; mean age, 57.6 ± 9.8 years; range, 24-85 years) were included in this study. Among the 189 cases, the DVTs involved popliteal iliofemoral veins in 54 patients, iliofemoral veins in 113 patients, and iliac veins in 22 patients, of which 18 patients had thrombus extended into the IVC. Of the 189 patients, a total of 8 (4.2%, 8 of 189) patients were identified with IVC filter thrombus during CDT. The IVC filter thrombus was detected on a median of 2 days (range, 2-4 days) of CDT therapy, including small-size (n = 6) and large-size (n = 2) filter thrombus. Of the 8 patients, CDTs were performed with a mean 7.6 ± 1.1 days (range, 6-11 days) after the presence of symptoms for the treatment of proximal DVT, and all the IVC filter thrombi were lysed during CDT for the proximal DVT. All the IVC filters were removed successfully with a mean of 12.8 ± 0.93 days from placement. There were no procedure- or thrombolysis-related major complications, and no symptomatic pulmonary embolism breakthrough was seen in any of the patients after the filter placement. IVC filter thrombus during CDT for the acute proximal DVT is uncommon, and all of them did not need any additional treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis of pregnancy with a strategy of thrombus removal is safe and avoids post-thrombotic morbidity.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Comerota, Anthony J; Thakur, Subhash; Sunderji, Shiraz; DiSalle, Robert; Kazanjian, Sahira N; Assi, Zakaria

    2014-02-01

    Extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) during pregnancy is usually treated with anticoagulation alone, risking significant post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in young patients. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) and operative venous thrombectomy have been safely and effectively used in nonpregnant patients, demonstrating significant reduction in post-thrombotic morbidity. This report reviews short- and long-term outcomes of 13 patients with extensive DVT of pregnancy treated with a strategy of thrombus removal. From 1999 to 2013, 13 patients with iliofemoral DVT during pregnancy were offered CDT, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT), and/or venous thrombectomy. Gestational age ranged from 8 to 34 weeks. Fetal monitoring was performed throughout hospitalization. Radiation exposure was minimized with pelvic lead shields, focal fluoroscopy, and limited angiographic runs. Follow-up included objective vein evaluation using venous duplex and PTS assessment using the Villalta scale. CDT and/or PMT were used in 11 patients. Two patients underwent venous thrombectomy alone, and one patient had operative thrombectomy as an adjunct to CDT and PMT. Each patient had complete or near-complete thrombus resolution and rapid improvement in clinical symptoms. Eight of 11 having CDT or PMT underwent venoplasty and stenting of the involved iliac veins. Twelve of the 13 delivered healthy infants at term. One patient opted for termination of her pregnancy. Mean patient and gestational ages were 26 years and 26 weeks, respectively. Mean follow-up was 1.3 years, with only one recurrence. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated patent veins in all but one patient and normal valve function in 10 patients. Eleven patients had Villalta scores <5 (considered normal), with a mean score of 0.7. Extensive DVT of pregnancy can be effectively and safely treated with a strategy of thrombus removal, resulting in a patent venous system, normal valve function in many, prevention of PTS, and reduction in

  13. [Meta-analysis on randomized trials comparing the results of low-molecular weight heparins to those of fractioned heparins in the prevention of deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Daures, J P; Schved, J F; Momas, I; Gril, J C; Azoulay, P; Gremy, F

    1989-01-01

    The main reason for using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is its capacity to keep the antithrombotic effect of standard non-fractioned heparin (NFH) while reducing its hemorrhagic power. Various studies comparing LMWH to NFH gave contradictory results, so we carried out a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing these two treatments in prevention of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) (and in prevention of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism). From a selection of ten trials we could not show any significant difference in the DVT rates, as well as for the whole of surgical indications as for the subgroups of abdominal and orthopedic surgery. The weighted global difference between the DVT rates is so low that, in spite of the use of meta-analysis, the power is clearly insufficient. The hemorrhagic risk is not statistically reduced as well for the whole of surgical indications as for the subgroups.

  14. The use of indium-111 labeled platelet scanning for the detection of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in a high risk population

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.S.; Rae, J.L.; Ryan, N.L.

    Five hundred indium-111 labeled platelet imaging studies (387 donor and 113 autologous) were performed postoperatively in 473 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, total knee replacement, or internal fixation of a hip fracture to detect occult deep venous thrombosis. All patients had been anticoagulated prophylactically with aspirin, warfarin sodium (Coumadin), or dextran. Thirty-four possible cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis were identified in 28 asymptomatic patients. To verify the scan results, 31 venograms were performed in 25 patients (three refused). In 21 of 31 cases, totally occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, partially occlusive thrombi were detected; inmore » 5 cases, no thrombus was seen. No patient who had a negative scan nor any patient who had a verified positive scan (and received appropriate heparin therapy) subsequently developed symptoms or signs of pulmonary embolism. One hundred forty-one indium study patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography/impedance plethysmography (Doppler/IPG) as a comparative non-invasive technique. In 137 cases, the results of the indium study and Doppler/IPG studies were congruent. The indium study had no false negative results that were detected by Doppler/IPG. No patient had any clinically evident toxicity. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scanning is a safe, noninvasive means for identifying DVT in high risk patients.« less

  15. Recurrent pulmonary embolism associated with deep venous thrombosis diagnosed as protein s deficiency owing to a novel mutation in PROS1: A case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojie; Xu, Fangfang; Assa, Carmel Rebecca; Shen, Laigen; Chen, Bing; Liu, Zhenjie

    2018-05-01

    Protein S (PS) deficiency that can be inherited or acquired is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this report, we present a case of recurrent pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) due to PS deficiency. A 32-year-old male patient with significant decrease in PS activity was detected by laboratory tests. Genetic examination of the PROS1 gene showed a transition of G to T in exon 14 (c.1792 G>T, p.E598X), which was a paternal inherited heterozygous G1792T substitution in the laminin G-type repeat domain, generating a premature stop codon at Glu598. We considered that the inherited PS deficiency due to a PROS1 gene mutation may associate with recurrent VTE. The patient was suggested to have an extended anticoagulant therapy to avoid a severe VTE event. The patient was discharged home with continued oral anticoagulants and was still seen in clinic for follow-up. It is necessary for the young patient with recurrent idiopathic thrombosis to perform an inherited PS deficiency test and receive anticoagulant therapy for an extended period.

  16. Mesenteric venous thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... after eating and over time Bloating Diarrhea Fever Gastrointestinal bleeding Vomiting and nausea ... to treat MVT when there is no associated bleeding. In some cases, ... (an opening from the colon into the skin) may be needed.

  17. Diagnosis of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism - position paper of the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH).

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Bauersachs, Rupert; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Zotz, Rainer; Gerhardt, Andrea; Boddenberg-Pätzold, Barbara; Toth, Bettina; Scholz, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Over the past decade, new diagnostic algorithms have been established, combining clinical probability, laboratory testing and imaging studies for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the non-pregnant population. However, there is no such generally accepted algorithm for the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated VTE. Studies establishing clinical prediction rules have excluded pregnant women, and prediction scores currently in use have not been prospectively validated in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. D-dimers physiologically increase throughout pregnancy and peak at delivery, so a negative D-dimer test result, based on the reference values of non-pregnant subjects, becomes unlikely in the second and third trimesters. Imaging studies therefore play a major role in confirming suspected DVT or PE in pregnant women. Major concerns have been raised against radiologic imaging because of foetal radiation exposure, and doubts about the diagnostic value of ultrasound techniques in attempting to exclude isolated iliac vein thrombosis grow stronger as pregnancy progresses. As members of the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH), we summarise evidence from the available literature and aim to establish a more uniform strategy for diagnosing pregnancy-associated VTE.

  18. Acute physical exercise is safe in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome with exclusive venous thrombosis and under oral anticoagulation with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolina Borges; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Bonfa, Eloisa; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effects of maximal acute physical exercise on prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) under oral anticoagulation with warfarin and the safety of acute exercise in regard to thrombosis and bleeding risk. Eighteen physically inactive women with PAPS (Sydney criteria) with exclusive venous events and without thrombocytopenia were included. All patients were under stable warfarin therapy (PT/INR target: 2.0-3.0). Eighteen age-matched healthy sedentary women without thrombosis/bleeding disorders were selected as controls. All subjects performed a maximal exercise test, and capillary blood samples were obtained pre-, post- and at 1-h post-exercise (recovery time) for PT/INR analysis using a portable CoaguCheck. PAPS patients and controls had similar mean age (31.50 ± 8.06 vs. 29.61 ± 7.05 years, p = 0.46) and body mass index (24.16 ± 3.67 vs. 24.66 ± 2.71 kg/m(2), p = 0.65). PAPS had a mild but significant increase in PT/INR value at 1-h post-exercise (recovery) compared with pre- (2.33 ± 0.34 vs. 2.26 ± 0.29, p = 0.001) and post-exercise (2.33 ± 0.34 vs. 2.26 ± 0.32, p = 0.001) that was observed in 61.11 % of these patients. None of the subjects had thrombotic or bleeding complications related to the acute exercise. Acute exercise in patients with PAPS with exclusive venous thrombosis was safe with a minor increase in PT/INR. This is an important step to introduce regular exercise training as a therapeutic tool in the management of these patients.

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G genotype and residual venous occlusion following acute unprovoked deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giurgea, Georgiana-Aura; Brunner-Ziegler, Sophie; Jilma, Bernd; Sunder-Plassmann, Raute; Koppensteiner, Renate; Gremmel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    A recent study suggested that the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G genotype may play a role in the resolution of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the association between PAI-1 4G/5G genotype and the persistence of venous occlusion after acute idiopathic DVT of the lower limb. The PAI-1 4G/5G genotype was determined by real-Time PCR in 43 patients with unprovoked DVT of the lower limb. Residual venous occlusion was assessed by duplex sonography 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24months after the acute event. The PAI-1 Activity was determined by ELISA. Ten patients (23%) were homozygous for 4G (4G/4G), 27 patients (63%) were heterozygous 4G/5G and 6 patients (14%) were homozygous for 5G (5G/5G). Residual venous occlusion (RVO) was found in 77%, 65%, 58%, 56% and 37% of the overall study population, at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24months after acute DVT, respectively. The presence of residual venous occlusion at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24months after acute unprovoked DVT did not differ significantly between genotypes, but age was associated with RVO. Plasma levels of PAI-1 activity correlated with body mass index but was not associated with genotypes in our study. The PAI-1 4G/5G genotype was not a relevant predictor of persistent residual venous occlusion after idiopathic DVT, which however was associated with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative Slow Blood Flow in Lower Extremity Deep Veins on Doppler Sonography: Quantitative Assessment and Preliminary Evaluation of Correlation With Subsequent Deep Venous Thrombosis Development in a Tertiary Care Oncology Center.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Corey T; Chahin, Antoun; Amin, Veral D; Khalaf, Ahmed M; Elsayes, Khaled M; Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Shouhao; Bedi, Deepak G

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether the qualitative sonographic appearance of slow deep venous flow in the lower extremities correlates with quantitative slow flow and an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in oncology patients. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, we reviewed lower extremity venous Doppler sonographic examinations of 975 consecutive patients: 482 with slow flow and 493 with normal flow. The subjective slow venous flow and absence of initial DVT were confirmed by 2 radiologists. Peak velocities were recorded at 3 levels. Each patient was followed for DVT development. The associations between DVT and the presence of slow venous flow were examined by the Fisher exact test; a 2-sample t test was used for peak velocity and DVT group comparisons. The optimal cutoff peak velocity for correlation with the radiologists' perceived slow flow was determined by the Youden index. Deep venous thrombosis development in the slow-flow group (21 of 482 [4.36%]) was almost doubled compared with patients who had normal flow (11 of 493 [2.23%]; P = .0456). Measured peak venous velocities were lower in the slow-venous flow group (P < .001). Patients with subsequent DVT did not have a significant difference in venous velocities compared with their respective patient groups. The sum of 3 venous level velocities resulted in the best cutoff for dichotomizing groups into normal versus slow venous flow. Qualitative slow venous flow in the lower extremities on Doppler sonography accurately correlates with quantitatively slower flow, and this preliminary evaluation suggests an associated mildly increased rate of subsequent DVT development in oncology patients. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Time-dependent hardening of blood clots quantitatively measured in vivo with shear-wave ultrasound imaging in a rabbit model of venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mfoumou, Etienne; Tripette, Julien; Blostein, Mark; Cloutier, Guy

    2014-02-01

    Provide in vivo blood clot hardening evolution with ultrasound using supersonic imaging of shear waves. We conducted a prospective study in flow stasis-induced venous thrombosis within jugular veins of white female New Zealand rabbits. Blood clot elasticity was noninvasively measured in vivo using the Young's modulus (in kilopascals), on a 2-hour and a 2-week periods after thrombus induction. Monitoring was followed by a necropsy and ex vivo mechanical characterization to validate the existence and elasticity of explanted thrombi. Stagnant blood in the region of interest underwent clotting and progressive hardening with thrombus aging. The mean Young's moduli varied from 1.0 ± 0.6 kPa (at 10 min) to 5.3 ± 1.6 kPa (at 2 hours), then to 25.0 ± 6.8 kPa (at 14 days) post-surgery. Mean ex vivo moduli of 6.2 ± 0.7 kPa at 2 hours and 29.0 ± 2.4 kPa at 2 weeks agreed with in vivo measures. Supersonic imaging of shear waves provides consistent quantitative non-invasive elasticity measurements not available with standard compression ultrasound imaging for diagnosing and following venous thromboembolism. This information translatable to humans could aid in determining whether continued anticoagulant treatment is necessary, especially in the setting of unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria is rare cause for thrombosis of the intra-abdominal veins in the ethnic Indian population - results from FLAER-based flowcytometry screening.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Naseem, Shano; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Bose, Parveen; Bose, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Narender; Thapa, Babu Ram; Varma, Neelam; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may present as cytopenia, hemolysis, or thrombosis at unusual sites including splanchnic vessels. Thrombosis of the portal veins and hepatic veins are associated with thrombophilic risk factors: deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin, positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies, and factor V Leiden mutation. There is limited information regarding PNH presenting primarily as a thrombotic event. We prospectively screened 142 consecutive patients with intrabdominal thrombosis and 106 controls with fluorescently labeled inactive toxin aerolysin (FLAER)-based flowcytometry to assess the frequency of PNH as a thrombophilic risk factor in patients with intra-abdominal thrombosis. Granulocytes of patients and controls were screened with CD 24 and FLAER and monocytes with CD 14 and FLAER. Dual negativity of >1% events in both lineages was interpreted as a positive PNH clone. Screening for thrombophilia risk factors was carried out. Two (1.4%) cases had large PNH clones. RBC also demonstrated the PNH defect. Thrombophilia risk factors were as follows: deficiency of protein S, protein C, and antithrombin in 13.4%, 4.9%, and 2.1%, respectively, and positivity for anti-beta-2 glycoprotein 1, anticardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant in 9.2%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Factor V Leiden mutation was seen in 1.4% patients. PNH was uncommon in patients with intra-abdominal thrombosis in the ethnic Indian population. Despite low positivity, screening by flowcytometry for PNH is of value in this group of patients because it provides an opportunity to rapidly establish the diagnosis of this treatable disorder, which might otherwise be missed if the initial presentation is only thrombotic. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  4. [Traveler's thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Riedel, M; Bohanes, V

    2002-08-01

    It is pathophysiologically conceivable that prolonged sitting in a tight space (e.g., in airplane or other transport vehicle) may lead to leg vein thrombosis. The association between the incidence of venous thromboembolism and long travel has not been sufficiently documented but seems probable. However, this association is only weak and the incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism much lower than the impression given by the recent publicity. In a healthy person, the risk of suffering a clinically relevant leg vein thrombosis solely because of a flight is extreme low. In persons with risk factors for venous thromboembolism, the flight represents an additional, as yet not quantifiable risk. This risk increases with the duration of the travel. The most important cause of thrombosis during long journeys seems to be venostasis due to relative immobilization. It is not clear whether flight travel represents a higher risk of thrombosis compared to other transport vehicles with comparable duration and immobilization. Until more exact information becomes available, it seems reasonable to recommend simple isometric and isotonic leg exercises during long travel. More aggressive measures must be considered for persons with risk factors for thromboembolism, but these measures should be individualized.

  5. The use of natural language processing on pediatric diagnostic radiology reports in the electronic health record to identify deep venous thrombosis in children.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Pappas, Janine M; Ahumada, Luis; Martin, John N; Simpao, Allan F; Rehman, Mohamed A; Witmer, Char

    2017-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially life-threatening condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. We sought to improve detection and reporting of children with a new diagnosis of VTE by applying natural language processing (NLP) tools to radiologists' reports. We validated an NLP tool, Reveal NLP (Health Fidelity Inc, San Mateo, CA) and inference rules engine's performance in identifying reports with deep venous thrombosis using a curated set of ultrasound reports. We then configured the NLP tool to scan all available radiology reports on a daily basis for studies that met criteria for VTE between July 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016. The NLP tool and inference rules engine correctly identified 140 out of 144 reports with positive DVT findings and 98 out of 106 negative reports in the validation set. The tool's sensitivity was 97.2% (95% CI 93-99.2%), specificity was 92.5% (95% CI 85.7-96.7%). Subsequently, the NLP tool and inference rules engine processed 6373 radiology reports from 3371 hospital encounters. The NLP tool and inference rules engine identified 178 positive reports and 3193 negative reports with a sensitivity of 82.9% (95% CI 74.8-89.2) and specificity of 97.5% (95% CI 96.9-98). The system functions well as a safety net to screen patients for HA-VTE on a daily basis and offers value as an automated, redundant system. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric study to apply NLP technology in a prospective manner for HA-VTE identification.

  6. Retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis in perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Köcher, Martin; Krcova, Vera; Cerna, Marie; Prochazka, Martin

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute deep vein thrombosis in the perinatal period and to discuss the technical demands associated with the filter's implantation and retrieval. Between 1996 until 2007, eight women (mean age 27.4 years, range 20-42 years) with acute deep iliofemoral venous thrombosis in the perinatal period of pregnancy and increased risk of pulmonary embolism during delivery were indicated for retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter implantation. All filters were inserted and removed under local anesthesia from the jugular approach. The Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filter was implanted suprarenally in all patients on the day of caesarean delivery. In follow-up cavograms performed just before planned filter removal, no embolus was seen in the filter in any patient. In all patients the filter was retrieved without complications on the 12th day after implantation. Retrievable Günther Tulip Vena Cava Filters can be inserted and removed in patients during the perinatal period without major complications.

  7. Major bleeding risks of different low-molecular-weight heparin agents: a cohort study in 12 934 patients treated for acute venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    van Rein, N; Biedermann, J S; van der Meer, F J M; Cannegieter, S C; Wiersma, N; Vermaas, H W; Reitsma, P H; Kruip, M J H A; Lijfering, W M

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Low-molecular-weight-heparins (LMWH) kinetics differ which may result in different bleeding risks. A cohort of 12 934 venous thrombosis patients on LMWH was followed until major bleeding. The absolute major bleeding risk was low among patients registered at the anticoagulation clinic. Once-daily dosing was associated with a lower bleeding risk as compared with twice-daily. Background Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are considered members of a class of drugs with similar anticoagulant properties. However, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between LMWHs differ, which may result in different bleeding risks. As these agents are used by many patients, small differences may lead to a large effect on numbers of major bleeding events. Objectives To determine major bleeding risks for different LMWH agents and dosing schedules. Methods A cohort of acute venous thrombosis patients from four anticoagulation clinics who used an LMWH and a vitamin K antagonist were followed until they ceased LMWH treatment or until major bleeding. Exposures were classified according to different types of LMWHs and for b.i.d. and o.d. use. Cumulative incidences for major bleeding per 1000 patients and risk ratios were calculated and adjusted for study center. Results The study comprised 12 934 patients with a mean age of 59 years; 6218 (48%) were men. The cumulative incidence of major bleeding was 2.5 per 1000 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.5). Enoxaparin b.i.d. or o.d. was associated with a relative bleeding risk of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.2-17.5) compared with nadroparin o.d. In addition, a nadroparin b.i.d. dosing schedule was associated with a 2.0-fold increased major bleeding risk (95% CI, 0.8-5.1) as compared with a nadroparin o.d. dosing schedule. Conclusions Absolute major bleeding rates were low for all LMWH agents and dosing schedules in a large unselected cohort. Nevertheless, twice-daily dosing with nadroparin appeared to be associated with an increased

  8. A nurse-led ambulatory care pathway for patients with deep venous thrombosis in an acute teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Deagle, Jennifer; Allen, James; Mani, Raj

    2005-06-01

    This article describes the management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) using an ambulatory nurse-led pathway and the compression technique using duplex ultrasound. This pathway permits the management of the "walking wounded" as well as other patients at varying risks of having DVT and in so doing has changed the approach toward the management of this common clinical event. The success of the described pathway is attributed to the development of low molecular weight heparin and the reliability of diagnostics.

  9. Erythrocytes from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and splanchnic venous thrombosis show greater expression of Lu/BCAM.

    PubMed

    Novitzky-Basso, I; Spring, F; Anstee, D; Tripathi, D; Chen, F

    2018-05-13

    Lutheran/BCAM protein (Lu) on the surface of erythrocytes is key for their adhesion to the endothelium, and erythrocytes from individuals with JAK2V617F-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) have increased endothelial adhesion. Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a devastating thrombotic complication of MPN, and frequently, the only diagnostic feature is the JAK2V617F mutation. We sought to examine whether erythrocytes from patients with JAK2V617F mutated SVT (MPN-SVT) exhibited increased Lu expression, thereby supporting a mechanistic contribution to the development of thrombosis. We report the validation of a novel flow cytometry assay for Lu expression on erythrocytes. We examined the expression of Lu on erythrocytes from a cohort of MPN patients with and without SVT, and healthy controls. Samples were obtained from 20 normal individuals, 22 with MPN (both JAK2V617F-mutated and wild-type) and 8 with JAK2V617F-mutated MPN-SVT. Lu expression by erythrocytes from patients with MPN and MPN-SVT is significantly increased compared to erythrocytes from healthy individuals (P < .05), but there was no significant difference between patients with MPN-SVT and MPN. Patients with MPN have increased expression of the red cell Lu/BCAM adhesion molecule. Further work is required to determine the role of the increased Lu/BCAM adhesion to the endothelium in the development of thrombosis in MPN of all genotypes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Frosted branch angiitis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis as an initial onset of neuro-Behçet's disease: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino; Rodriguez, Ever Ernesto Caso; Prado, Leandro Lara do; Gonçalves, Celio Roberto; Hirata, Carlos Eduardo; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae

    2017-04-15

    Frosted branch angiitis is a rare, severe condition. It can be either a primary or a secondary condition and is characterized by rapid deterioration of vision and fulminant retinal vasculitis that manifests as diffuse sheathing of retinal vessels, macular edema, papillitis, vitritis and anterior uveitis. We aimed to describe a case of frosted branch angiitis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis as an initial neuro-Behçet's disease onset. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease was based on the current 2014 International Criteria for Behçet's Disease and the International consensus recommendation criteria for neuro-Behçet's disease. In addition, a literature review using search parameters of "frosted branch angiitis", "Behçet" and "neuro-Behçet" in the PubMed database is presented. A 28-year-old Brazilian pardo woman presented to our hospital with abrupt bilateral vision loss associated with recurrent aphthous oral ulcers 6 months before visual symptom onset. A fundus examination showed bilateral widespread retinal vasculitis with venous and arterial white sheathing, optic disc swelling, macular edema, and retinal hemorrhages, leading to the diagnosis of frosted branch angiitis. An extensive systemic workup for retinal vasculitis was uneventful, except for brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and lymphocytic aseptic meningitis. A diagnosis of neuro-Behçet's disease was made, and treatment was started with methylprednisolone therapy 1 g/day for 5 consecutive days, followed by oral mycophenolate mofetil and infliximab 5 mg/kg infusion. The patient's response was rapid, with improvement of visual acuity to hand movement and counting fingers by day 7 and final visual acuity of counting fingers and 20/130. Frosted branch angiitis may be associated with infectious, noninfectious, or idiopathic causes. An extensive workup should be done to exclude systemic vasculitis such as Behçet's disease. Treatment with systemic steroids must be

  11. Traditional Chinese and western medicine for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shibai; Song, Yi; Chen, Xi; Qian, Wenwei

    2018-04-10

    Chinese herbal medicine has traditionally been considered to promote blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels and clear pathogenic heat to drain dampness effects. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate its benefits for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Relevant, published studies were identified using the following keywords: lower extremity orthopedic surgery, arthroplasty, joint replacement, fracture, traditional Chinese and western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and Venous thromboembolism (VTE). The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs with a date of search of 31 May 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of knowledge, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Wanfang Database (including three English and four Chinese databases). All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were the incidence rate of DVT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and D-dimer; subcutaneous hematoma; and other reported outcomes. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 published studies (1862 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group, 910 patients (48.87%), received the Chinese herbal medicine or traditional Chinese and western medicine for prevention of DVT; the control group, 952 patients (51.13%), received the standard western treatment. The meta-analysis showed that traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy reduced the incidence rates of DVT significantly when compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P < 0.00001), and the D-dimer was lower in the experimental group (P = 0.01). Besides, the incidence rate of subcutaneous hematoma was lower in the experimental group (P < 0

  12. Blood Accessibility to Fibrin in Venous Thrombosis is Thrombus Age-Dependent and Predicts Fibrinolytic Efficacy: An In Vivo Fibrin Molecular Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein-Merlob, Ashley F.; Kessinger, Chase W.; Erdem, S. Sibel; Zelada, Henry; Hilderbrand, Scott A.; Lin, Charles P.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jaff, Michael R.; Reed, Guy L.; Henke, Peter K.; McCarthy, Jason R.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinolytic therapy of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increasingly utilized, yet limited knowledge is available regarding in vivo mechanisms that govern fibrinolytic efficacy. In particular, it is unknown how age-dependent thrombus organization limits direct blood contact with fibrin, the target of blood-based fibrinolytic agents. Utilizing high-resolution in vivo optical molecular imaging with FTP11, a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) fibrin-specific reporter, here we investigated the in vivo interrelationships of blood accessibility to fibrin, thrombus age, thrombus neoendothelialization, and fibrinolysis in murine venous thrombosis (VT). In both stasis VT and non-stasis VT, NIRF microscopy showed that FTP11 fibrin binding was thrombus age-dependent. FTP11 localized to the luminal surface of early-stage VT, but only minimally to subacute VT (p<0.001). Transmission electron microscopy of early stage VT revealed direct blood cell contact with luminal fibrin-rich surfaces. In contrast, subacute VT exhibited an encasing CD31+ neoendothelial layer that limited blood cell contact with thrombus fibrin in both VT models. Next we developed a theranostic strategy to predict fibrinolytic efficacy based on the in vivo fibrin accessibility to blood NIRF signal. Mice with variably aged VT underwent FTP11 injection and intravital microscopy (IVM), followed by tissue plasminogen activator infusion to induce VT fibrinolysis. Fibrin molecular IVM revealed that early stage VT, but not subacute VT, bound FTP11 (p<0.05), and experienced higher rates of fibrinolysis and total fibrinolysis (p<0.05 vs. subacute VT). Before fibrinolysis, the baseline FTP11 NIRF signal predicted the net fibrinolysis at 60 minutes (p<0.001). Taken together, these data provide novel insights into the temporal evolution of VT and its susceptibility to therapeutic fibrinolysis. Fibrin molecular imaging may provide a theranostic strategy to identify venous thrombi amenable to fibrinolytic therapies. PMID

  13. Novel microspheres reduce the formation of deep venous thrombosis and repair the vascular wall in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bingyang; Li, Lan; Li, Qiangqiang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Yan, Wenjin; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Fang; Xu, Zhihong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-07-01

    : L-Arginine (L-arg), widely known as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis, can improve endothelial function associated with the vasculature, inhibit platelet aggregation, and alter the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. P-selectin is a membrane component of the platelet alpha-granule and the endothelial cell-specific Wiebel-Palade body that plays a central role in mediating interactions between platelets and both leukocytes and the endothelium. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of novel microspheres with L-arg targeting P-selectin on the formation of deep vein thrombosis and repair of vascular wall in a rat model. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava was induced by applying a piece of filter paper (5 mm × 10 mm) saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution for 5 min. Targeted microspheres with L-arg, targeted microspheres with water, and saline were injected into the tail veins of the rats after 30 min of applying the filter paper saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution. The dry weight and length of the thrombus isolated from the inferior vena cava were significantly decreased in the group with L-arg in microsphere after 24 h. No significant differences in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen among the groups were indicated. Images revealed that apoptosis in the vascular wall was less in the group injected with targeted microspheres with L-arg than in the other two groups at 1 and 8 d postsurgery. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was considerably excessive in the group injected with L-arg wrapped in targeted microspheres. Therefore, these novel microspheres could decrease the formation of thrombus in the early stages and in the subsequent periods of thrombosis. The microspheres can also enhance the vitality of impaired endothelial cells and reduce cell apoptosis.

  14. Novel microspheres reduce the formation of deep venous thrombosis and repair the vascular wall in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bingyang; Li, Lan; Li, Qiangqiang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Yan, Wenjin; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Fang; Xu, Zhihong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    L-Arginine (L-arg), widely known as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis, can improve endothelial function associated with the vasculature, inhibit platelet aggregation, and alter the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. P-selectin is a membrane component of the platelet alpha-granule and the endothelial cell-specific Wiebel–Palade body that plays a central role in mediating interactions between platelets and both leukocytes and the endothelium. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of novel microspheres with L-arg targeting P-selectin on the formation of deep vein thrombosis and repair of vascular wall in a rat model. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava was induced by applying a piece of filter paper (5 mm × 10 mm) saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution for 5 min. Targeted microspheres with L-arg, targeted microspheres with water, and saline were injected into the tail veins of the rats after 30 min of applying the filter paper saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution. The dry weight and length of the thrombus isolated from the inferior vena cava were significantly decreased in the group with L-arg in microsphere after 24 h. No significant differences in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen among the groups were indicated. Images revealed that apoptosis in the vascular wall was less in the group injected with targeted microspheres with L-arg than in the other two groups at 1 and 8 d postsurgery. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was considerably excessive in the group injected with L-arg wrapped in targeted microspheres. Therefore, these novel microspheres could decrease the formation of thrombus in the early stages and in the subsequent periods of thrombosis. The microspheres can also enhance the vitality of impaired endothelial cells and reduce cell apoptosis. PMID:28306627

  15. Haemorrhagic Complications and Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Interventional Tumour Ablations: The Impact of Peri-interventional Thrombosis Prophylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Mohnike, Konrad, E-mail: konrad.mohnike@med.ovgu.de; Sauerland, Hanna; Seidensticker, Max

    AimThe aim of this study was to assess the rates of haemorrhagic and thrombotic complications in patients undergoing interventional tumour ablation with and without peri-interventional low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thrombosis prophylaxis.MethodsPatients presented with primary and secondary neoplastic lesions in the liver, lung, kidney, lymph nodes and other locations. A total of 781 tumour ablations (radiofrequency ablation, n = 112; interstitial brachytherapy, n = 669) were performed in 446 patients over 22 months; 260 were conducted under peri-interventional thrombosis prophylaxis with LMWH (H-group;) and 521 without this (NH-group, in 143 of these, LMWH was given post-interventionally).ResultsSixty-three bleeding events occurred. There were significantly more bleedings in the H-groupmore » than in the NH-group (all interventions, 11.66 and 6.26 %, p = 0.0127; liver ablations, 12.73 and 7.1 %, p = 0.0416). The rate of bleeding events Grade ≥ III in all procedures was greater by a factor of >2.6 in the H-group than in the NH-group (4.64 and 1.73 %, p = 0.0243). In liver tumour ablations, the corresponding factor was about 3.3 (5.23 and 1.54 %, p = 0.028). In uni- and multivariate analyses including covariates, the only factor constantly and significantly associated with the rate of haemorrhage events was peri-interventional LMWH prophylaxis. Only one symptomatic lung embolism occurred in the entire cohort (NH-group). The 30- and 90-day mortalities were significantly greater in the H-group than in the NH-group.ConclusionsPeri-interventional LMWH thrombosis prophylaxis should be considered with caution. The rate of clinically relevant thrombotic events was extremely low.« less

  16. Platelets Drive Thrombus Propagation in a Hematocrit and Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Manner in an In Vitro Venous Thrombosis Model.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcus; Schoeman, Rogier M; Krohl, Patrick J; Wallbank, Alison M; Samaniuk, Joseph R; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Neeves, Keith B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the role of platelets and red blood cells on thrombus propagation in an in vitro model of venous valvular stasis. A microfluidic model with dimensional similarity to human venous valves consists of a sinus distal to a sudden expansion, where for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, 2 countercurrent vortices arise because of flow separation. The primary vortex is defined by the points of flow separation and reattachment. A secondary vortex forms in the deepest recess of the valve pocket characterized by low shear rates. An initial fibrin gel formed within the secondary vortex of a tissue factor-coated valve sinus. Platelets accumulated at the interface of the fibrin gel and the primary vortex. Red blood cells at physiological hematocrits were necessary to provide an adequate flux of platelets to support thrombus growth out of the valve sinus. A subpopulation of platelets that adhered to fibrin expose phosphatidylserine. Platelet-dependent thrombus growth was attenuated by inhibition of glycoprotein VI with a blocking Fab fragment or D-dimer. A 3-step process regulated by hemodynamics was necessary for robust thrombus propagation: First, immobilized tissue factor initiates coagulation and fibrin deposition within a low flow niche defined by a secondary vortex in the pocket of a model venous valve. Second, a primary vortex delivers platelets to the fibrin interface in a red blood cell-dependent manner. Third, platelets adhere to fibrin, activate through glycoprotein VI, express phosphatidylserine, and subsequently promote thrombus growth beyond the valve sinus and into the bulk flow. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Soft tissue involvement, mediastinal pseudotumor, and venous thrombosis in pustulotic arthro-osteitis. A study of eight new cases.

    PubMed

    van Holsbeeck, M; Martel, W; Dequeker, J; Favril, A; Gielen, J; Verschakelen, J; Hoogmartens, M

    1989-01-01

    A syndrome of hyperostosis of the thoracic wall, nonspecific signs of inflammatory disease, and palmar and plantar pustulosis is described in eight patients (Table 1). Seven had intersternocostoclavicular ossification, and one had chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. This complex of findings has been called "pustulotic arthro-osteitis". This report emphasizes the periosseous soft tissue inflammation and the unexplained subclavian and mediastinal vein thrombosis seen in two patients. Inflammatory periosseous and mediastinal lesions were seen on plain films in all eight patients and on computed tomographic (CT) scans in seven. Radiographs of the spine showed a spondyloarthropathy in three patients. This was characterized by ossification of the vertebral ligaments and sclerosis of the vertebral bodies. Awareness of the radiologic features of pustulotic arthro-osteitis is important because the clinical, biochemical and pathologic findings are often nonspecific and misleading.

  18. [Survey of nurses about compression therapy of acute deep venous thrombosis. Field study in Saxony-Anhalt].

    PubMed

    Thieme, Dorothea; Langer, Gero; Behrens, Johann

    2010-03-01

    In clinical practice, the compression therapy is an established method for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The aim of this study was to clarify the extent to which current guidelines and results of studies done in the field for the treatment of acute DVT--particularly compression therapy--are implemented in clinical practice. All hospitals in Saxony-Anhalt using primary diagnosis and therapy for DVT (n = 34) were informed about a survey in 2007 and the nursing staff of angiology and internistical wards in these hospitals was asked to take part. The collection of data was done with the help of a questionnaire that had been designed and tested for its validity in a specialised hospital. 510 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate of questionnaires was 69 percent. 79 percent of the nursing staff of internistical wards in Saxony-Anhalt and 94 percent of the nursing staff of angiology wards said that patients with acute DVT have initially received a compression bandage. Significant deficits were visible in transferring the knowledge of evidence-based medicine and nursing regarding techniques of compression bandage. The recommended Fischer-Bandage was only put on in exceptional cases in internistical wards (3 percent) and Angiology (2 percent). Compression stockings were not a suitable method into the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis of Angiology. 21 percent of the nursing staff of internistical wards said that they have initially applied compression stockings. The treatment of acute DVT is important in clinical practice. The compression bandage should be effectively put on the leg. The quality of care and long-term compliance of the patients could be increased this way, leading to prevention of post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and reduction the duration of patients stay in the clinics.

  19. Determining the magnitude of surveillance bias in the assessment of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis: A prospective observational study of two centers.

    PubMed

    Shackford, Steven R; Cipolle, Mark D; Badiee, Jayraan; Mosby, Danielle L; Knudson, M Margaret; Lewis, Paul R; McDonald, Victoria S; Olson, Erik J; Thompson, Kimberly A; Van Gent, Jan-Michael; Zander, Ashley L

    2016-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma. Controversy exists regarding the use of lower extremity duplex ultrasound screening and surveillance (LEDUS). Advocates cite earlier diagnosis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to prevent clot propagation and pulmonary embolism (PE). Opponents argue that LEDUS identifies more DVT (surveillance bias) but does not reduce the incidence of PE. We sought to determine the magnitude of surveillance bias associated with LEDUS and test the hypothesis that LEDUS does not decrease the incidence of PE after injury. We compared data from two Level 1 trauma centers: Scripps Mercy Hospital, which used serial LEDUS, and Christiana Care Health System, which used LEDUS only for symptomatic patients. Beginning in 2013, both centers prospectively collected data on demographics, injury severity, and VTE risk for patients admitted for more than 48 hours. Both centers used mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis based on VTE risk assessment. Scripps Mercy treated 772 patients and Christiana Care treated 454 patients with similar injury severity and VTE risk. The incidence of PE was 0.4% at both centers. The odds of a DVT diagnosis were 5.3 times higher (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-12.9; p < 0.0001) for patients admitted to Scripps Mercy than for patients admitted to Christiana Care. Of the 80 patients who developed DVT, PE, or both, 99% received prophylaxis before the event. Among those who received pharmacologic prophylaxis, the VTE rates between the two centers were not statistically significantly different (Scripps Mercy, 11% vs. Christiana Care, 3%; p = 0.06). The odds of a diagnosis of DVT are increased significantly when a program of LEDUS is used in trauma patients. Neither pharmacologic prophylaxis nor mechanical prophylaxis is completely effective in preventing VTE in trauma patients. VTE should not be considered a "never event" in this cohort. Prognostic

  20. Role of IVC Filters in Endovenous Therapy for Deep Venous Thrombosis: The FILTER-PEVI (Filter Implantation to Lower Thromboembolic Risk in Percutaneous Endovenous Intervention) Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, Mohsen, E-mail: seyedmohsensharifi@yahoo.com; Bay, Curt; Skrocki, Laura

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of and recommend indications for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter implantation during percutaneous endovenous intervention (PEVI) for deep venous thrombosis (DVT).BackgroundPEVI has emerged as a powerful tool in the management of acute proximal DVT. Instrumentation of extensive fresh thrombus is potentially associated with iatrogenic pulmonary embolism (PE). The true frequency of this complication has not been studied in a randomized fashion. We evaluated IVC filter implantation during PEVI for DVT. Methods: A total of 141 patients with symptomatic proximal DVT undergoing PEVI for symptomatic DVT were randomized to receivemore » an IVC filter (70 patients) or no filter (71 patients; control group). The anticoagulation and PEVI regimen were similar between the two groups. Patients with development of symptoms suggestive of PE underwent objective testing for PE. Results: PE developed in 1 of the 14 symptomatic patients in the filter group and 8 of the 22 patients in the control group (P = 0.048). There was no mortality in any group. Three patients (4.2%) in the control group had transient hemodynamic instability necessitating resuscitory efforts. Predictors of iatrogenic PE were found to be PE at admission; involvement of two or more adjacent venous segments with acute thrombus; inflammatory form of DVT (severe erythema, edema, pain, and induration); and vein diameter of {>=}7 mm with preserved architecture. Conclusions: IVC filter implantation during PEVI reduces the risk of iatrogenic PE by eightfold without a mortality benefit. A selective approach may be exercised in filter implantation during PEVI.« less

  1. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: a prospective observational cohort study: part 2.

    PubMed

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Clemence, Bonnie J

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a 2-part series that reports on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Part 1, published in the May/June 2014 issue of the Journal of Infusion Nursing, provided an extensive review and critique of the literature regarding risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT and identified 28 suspected risk factors. A study was undertaken to examine each of the risk factors among 203 acute care patients with PICCs, 13 of whom experienced a UEDVT, yielding an incidence of 6.4%. The most common reason for admission was infection (33.5%), and the primary reason for insertion of the PICC was venous access (58.6%). Hypertension (P = .022) and obesity (P = .008), defined as a body mass index ≥30, were associated with UEDVT. The clinical symptoms of edema (P < .001) and a 3-cm or more increase in arm circumference (P < .001) in the PICC arm after PICC placement were associated with UEDVT. All other variables were not statistically significant. The results suggest that patients who are obese and hypertensive may be at greater risk for the development of UEDVT and that the physical finding of edema and increased arm circumference in the PICC arm are possibly suggestive of UEDVT.

  2. Need for tissue plasminogen activator for central venous catheter dysfunction is significantly associated with thrombosis in pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Jessica; MacDonald, Tamara; Digout, Carol; Smith, Nadine; Rigby, Krista; Kulkarni, Ketan

    2018-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) dysfunction is a common complication among pediatric cancer patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is administered to resolve CVC dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine risk factors associated with requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction and to assess the clinical impact of CVC dysfunction in terms of CVC loss and venous thrombotic events (VTE). Case records of all pediatric patients with cancer from the Maritimes, Canada were reviewed following ethics approval. Data regarding demographics, clinical diagnosis, CVC dysfunction, characteristics of CVCs, and VTE were pooled from multiple data sources. Seven hundred and forty-one patients required ≥1 CVC. 26.3% of patients required tPA for ≥1 episodes of CVC dysfunction. Requirement of one or more doses of tPA for episodes of CVC dysfunction increased the odds of VTE by two times (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.6). Patients that required ≥1 doses of tPA required significantly more CVCs (2.05 ± 1.29 per individual patient, 55% of the patients needed >1 CVCs) as compared to the remainder (1.52 ± 0.95 per individual patient, 32% needed >1 CVCs) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed age > 10 years, diagnosis of sarcoma, and tunneled line were independently associated with tPA requirement. We determined independent risk factors associated with requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction. Requirement of tPA for CVC dysfunction was associated with significantly increased risk of VTE and requirement of more CVCs. These observations can assist in identification of patients at increased risk of CVC dysfunction and inform approaches to reduce CVC loss and VTE. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Observational cohort study of pediatric inpatients with central venous catheters at "intermediate risk" of thrombosis and eligible for anticoagulant prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Harney, Kathy M; McCabe, Margaret; Branowicki, Patricia; Kalish, Leslie A; Neufeld, Ellis J

    2010-01-01

    The risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among hospitalized children is rising.The optimal approach to DVT prophylaxis in children is unclear. This study set out to ascertain the prevalence of DVT among pediatric inpatients who neither have contraindications to nor absolute indications for prophylactic therapy. A prospective surveillance of at-risk children plus a retrospective chart review were conducted. Patients were considered to be at risk after the first 2 days of their admission. Of 1,637 patients reviewed, 198 patients met criteria; among these, 84% did not receive prophylaxis. Of 2,354 observed days at risk for nonprophylaxed patients (including days at risk prior to initiating prophylaxis among prophlyaxed patients), there were 9 DVT events, for a rate 3.82/1,000 days observed. A total of 31 patients received prophylaxis. Three of these patients experienced a DVT. One patient had a bleeding event, hematuria. These results describe patients who may be eligible for prophylaxis and should be screened for further risk factors.

  4. Prophylactic Placement of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter During Aspiration Thrombectomy for Acute Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Park, So Hyun; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Song, Myung Gyu; Seo, Tae-Seok

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter during aspiration thrombectomy for acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremity. From July 2004 to December 2013, a retrospective analysis of 106 patients with acute DVT was performed. All patients received an IVC filter and were treated initially with aspiration thrombectomy. Among the 106 patients, DVT extension into the IVC was noted in 27 but was not evident in 79. We evaluated the presence of trapped thrombi in the filters after the procedure. The sizes of the trapped thrombi were classified into 2 grades based on the ratio of the maximum transverse length of the trapped thrombus to the diameter of the IVC (Grades I [≤ 50%] and II [> 50%]). A trapped thrombus in the filter was detected in 46 (43%) of 106 patients on final venograms. The sizes of the trapped thrombi were grade I in 12 (26.1%) patients and grade II in 34 (73.9%). Among the 27 patients with DVT extension into the IVC, 20 (74.1%) showed a trapped thrombus in the filter, 75% (15 of 20) of which were grade II. Among the 79 patients without DVT extension into the IVC, 26 (32.9%) showed a trapped thrombus in the IVC filter, 73% (19 of 26) of which were grade II. Thrombus migration occurred frequently during aspiration thrombectomy of patients with acute DVT in the lower extremity. However, further studies are needed to establish a standard protocol for the prophylactic placement of an IVC filter during aspiration thrombectomy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Genetic Determinants of Thrombin Generation and Their Relation to Venous Thrombosis: Results from the GAIT-2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fernandez, Laura; Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Carrasco, Marina; Millon, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Vilalta, Noelia; Brunel, Helena; Font, Montserrat; Hamsten, Anders; Souto, Juan Carlos; Soria, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease where known genetic risk factors explain only a small portion of the genetic variance. Then, the analysis of intermediate phenotypes, such as thrombin generation assay, can be used to identify novel genetic risk factors that contribute to VTE. Objectives To investigate the genetic basis of distinct quantitative phenotypes of thrombin generation and its relationship to the risk of VTE. Patients/Methods Lag time, thrombin peak and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured in the families of the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT-2) Project. This sample consisted of 935 individuals in 35 extended families selected through a proband with idiopathic thrombophilia. We performed also genome wide association studies (GWAS) with thrombin generation phenotypes. Results The results showed that 67% of the variation in the risk of VTE is attributable to genetic factors. The heritabilities of lag time, thrombin peak and ETP were 49%, 54% and 52%, respectively. More importantly, we demonstrated also the existence of positive genetic correlations between thrombin peak or ETP and the risk of VTE. Moreover, the major genetic determinant of thrombin generation was the F2 gene. However, other suggestive signals were observed. Conclusions The thrombin generation phenotypes are strongly genetically determined. The thrombin peak and ETP are significantly genetically correlated with the risk of VTE. In addition, F2 was identified as a major determinant of thrombin generation. We reported suggestive signals that might increase our knowledge to explain the variability of this important phenotype. Validation and functional studies are required to confirm GWAS results. PMID:26784699

  6. Risk of deep venous thrombosis in elective neurosurgical procedures: a prospective, Doppler ultrasound-based study in children 12 years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Andrea G; White, Ian K; Shaikh, Kashif A; Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) from deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is significant in neurosurgical patients. VTE is considered a leading cause of preventable hospital deaths and preventing DVT is a closely monitored quality metric, often tied to accreditation, hospital ratings, and reimbursement. Adult protocols include prophylaxis with anticoagulant medications. Children's hospitals may adopt adult protocols, although the incidence of DVT and the risk or efficacy of treatment is not well defined. The incidence of DVT in children is likely less than in adults, although there is very little prospectively collected information. Most consider the risk of DVT to be extremely low in children 12 years of age or younger. However, this consideration is based on tradition and retrospective reviews of trauma databases. In this study, the authors prospectively evaluated pediatric patients undergoing a variety of elective neurosurgical procedures and performed Doppler ultrasound studies before and after surgery. METHODS A total of 100 patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. All of the patients were between the ages of 1 month and 12 years and were undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures. The 91 patients who completed the protocol received a bilateral lower-extremity Doppler ultrasound examination within 48 hours prior to surgery. Patients did not receive either medical or mechanical DVT prophylaxis during or after surgery. The ultrasound examination was repeated within 72 hours after surgery. An independent, board-certified radiologist evaluated all sonograms. We prospectively collected data, including potential risk factors, details of surgery, and details of the clinical course. All patients were followed clinically for at least 1 year. RESULTS There was no clinical or ultrasound evidence of DVT or VTE in any of the 91 patients. There was no clinical evidence of VTE in the 9 patients who did not complete the protocol. CONCLUSIONS In this

  7. Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery: What Is the Current State of Practice?

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert A; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Dines, Joshua S; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Limpisvasti, Orr

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant perioperative risk with many common orthopaedic procedures. Currently, there is no standardized recommendation for the use of VTE prophylaxis during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study sought to evaluate the current prophylactic practices of fellowship-trained sports medicine orthopaedic surgeons in the United States. Very few surgeons use perioperative VTE prophylaxis for ACL reconstructive surgery. Survey. Surveys were emailed to the alumni networks of 4 large ACGME-accredited sports medicine fellowship programs. Questions were focused on their current use of chemical and nonchemical VTE prophylaxis. Surveys were completed by 142 surgeons in the United States, yielding a response rate of 32%. Of those who responded, 50.7% stated that they routinely use chemical prophylaxis, with 95.5% of those using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA]). There was no standardized dosing protocol, with respondents using ASA 325 mg once (46%) or twice daily (26%) or ASA 81 mg once (18%) or twice (10%) daily. The most common reason for not including chemical prophylaxis within the reconstruction procedure was that it is unnecessary given the low risk of VTE. Physicians also based their prophylaxis regimen more on their own clinical experience than concern for litigation. Half of all sports medicine fellowship-trained surgeons surveyed routinely use chemical VTE prophylaxis after ACL reconstruction, with more than 90% of those using ASA. Of those using ASA, there was no prevailing dosing protocol. For those not using chemical prophylaxis, the most important reason was that it was felt to be unnecessary due to the risks outweighing the benefits. Those who do not regularly use chemical prophylaxis would be willing to, however, if a patient had a personal or family history of clotting disorder or is currently on birth control. Additionally, clinical experience was the primary driver for a current prophylaxis protocol

  8. Acute Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Aspiration Thrombectomy Therapy by Combined Route of Superior Mesenteric Vein and Artery in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuofei, E-mail: yangshuofei@gmail.com; Liu, Baochen, E-mail: 306446264@qq.com; Ding, Weiwei, E-mail: dingwei-nju@hotmail.com

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy by combined route of superior mesenteric vein and artery (SMV+SMA) for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT).MethodsThis retrospective study reviewed eight ASMVT patients with transcatheter direct thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy via SMV and indirect thrombolysis via SMA during a period of 14 months. The demographics, etiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, complications, mortality, and follow-up of the study population were assessed. Anatomic and imaging classification of location and extent of thrombus at diagnosis and degree of thrombus lysis were described.ResultsTechnical success was achieved with substantial improvement inmore » symptoms and thrombus resolution after thrombolytic therapy in all patients. The local urokinase infusion by SMA and SMV was performed for 5–7 (6.13 ± 0.83) and 7–15 (12 ± 2.51) days. Anticoagulation was performed catheter-directed and then orally throughout hospitalization and after discharge. Four patients required delayed localized bowel resection after thrombolytic therapy with no death. Thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted despite minor bleeding at the puncture site in two patients and sepsis in another two postoperatively. Nearly complete removal of thrombus was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT scan and portography before discharge. Patients were discharged in 10–27 (19.25 ± 4.89) days after admission. No recurrence developed during the follow-up of 10–13 (12.13 ± 0.99) months.ConclusionsCatheter-directed thrombolytic and aspiration therapy via SMV+SMA is beneficial for ASMVT in avoiding patient death, efficient resolving thrombus, rapid improving symptoms, reversing extensive intestinal ischemia, averting bowel resection, or localizing infarcted bowel segment and preventing short bowel syndrome.« less

  9. Analysis of 1,338 Patients with Acute Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) Supports the Inadequacy of the Term "Proximal DVT".

    PubMed

    De Maeseneer, M G R; Bochanen, N; van Rooijen, G; Neglén, P

    2016-03-01

    For decades acute lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been subdivided into distal DVT (isolated to the calf veins) and proximal DVT (extending above calf vein level). The aim of this study was to analyse the anatomical site and extent of thrombus in a large cohort of patients with acute DVT. A retrospective analysis of all patients aged >18 years, presenting with unilateral DVT according to duplex ultrasound investigation was performed at the University Hospital of Antwerp, Belgium (1994-2012). The anatomical site and extent of thrombus was registered and subdivided into five segments: calf veins (segment 1), popliteal vein (segment 2), femoral vein (segment 3), common femoral vein (segment 4), and iliac veins, with or without inferior vena cava (segment 5). The median age of the 1,338 patients (50% male) included was 62 years (range 18-98 years). Left sided DVT was predominant (57%). DVT was limited to one segment in 443 patients, of whom 370 had DVT isolated to the calf veins (28% of total cohort). In 968 patients with what was previously called "proximal DVT", the median number of affected segments was three (range 1-5 segments). In this group iliofemoral DVT (at least involving segment four and/or five) was present in 506 patients (38% of total cohort), whereas the remaining patients had femoropopliteal DVT (at least in segment two and/or three but not in four or five). Iliofemoral DVT without thrombus in segments one and two was present in 160 patients (12% of total cohort). This study illustrates the large diversity of thrombus distribution in patients previously described as having "proximal DVT". Therefore, this term should be abandoned and replaced with iliofemoral and femoropopliteal DVT. Patients with iliofemoral DVT (38%) could be considered for early clot removal; 12% of all patients with DVT would be ideal candidates for such intervention. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prophylaxis against Deep Venous Thrombosis in Patients Hospitalized in Surgical Wards in One of the Hospitals in Iran: Based on the American College of Chest Physician's Protocol.

    PubMed

    Shohani, Masoumeh; Mansouri, Akram; Norozi, Siros; Parizad, Naser; Azami, Milad

    2018-01-01

    There is not enough studies to determine the frequency of using the prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis (DVT) based on the American College of Chest Physician's (ACCP) guidelines in Iran. Thus, providing such statistics is essential to improve thromboprophylaxis in hospital. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of using the prophylaxis against DVT based on ACCP guidelines in patients hospitalized in surgical wards in one of teaching hospital in Ilam, Iran. In a cross-sectional, the samples were selected among medical records of patients who were hospitalized and underwent surgery in surgical wards of the hospital from April 2012 to September 2013. Type of prophylaxis was determined based on ACCP guidelines. After reviewing inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients' data were extracted from medical records based on required variables. In reviewing 169 qualified samples, 46.2% (78 patients) were women. Of these, 132 patients were at risk of DVT and needed prophylaxis, only 39 patients (29.5%) received prophylaxis. Thromboprophylaxis based on ACCP guidelines had been fully implemented only in 30 cases (22.7%) of patients with the risk of DVT.. The highest thromboprophylaxis was in the intensive care unit (46.6%) and neurosurgery (37.5%), and the least rate was in urology (0%). As the results of this study, there are differences between clinical practice and the ACCP guidelines recommendation in prophylaxis against DVT. Thromboprophylaxis has not been implemented based on ACCP guidelines in more than 75% of patients with the risk of DVT. Thus, new strategies are needed to implement thromboprophylaxis against DVT in Iranian hospitals.

  11. Multi-faceted implementation strategy to increase use of a clinical guideline for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Anna E C; van Stel, Henk F; Oudega, Ruud; Moons, Karel G M; Geersing, Geert-Jan

    2017-08-01

    A clinical decision rule (CDR), combined with a negative D-dimer test, can safely rule out deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in primary care. This strategy is recommended by guidelines, yet uptake by GPs is low. To evaluate a multi-faceted implementation strategy aimed at increased use of the guideline recommended CDR plus D-dimer test in primary care patients with suspected DVT. This multi-faceted implementation strategy consisted of educational outreach visits, financial reimbursements and periodical newsletters. 217 Dutch GPs (implementation group) received this strategy and included patients. Effectiveness was measured through the following patient-level outcomes: (i) proportion of non-referred patients, (ii) proportion of missed DVT cases within this group and (iii) the proportion of patients in whom the guideline was applied incorrectly. Implementation outcomes ('acceptability', 'feasibility', 'fidelity' and 'sustainability') were assessed with an online questionnaire. Patient-level outcomes were compared with those of patients included by 450 GPs, uninformed about the study's purposes providing information about usual care. 336 (54%) of 619 analyzable implementation group patients were not referred, missing 6 [1.8% (95% confidence interval 0.7% to 3.9%)] DVT cases. Incorrect guideline use was observed in 199 patients (32%). Self-reported acceptability, feasibility and expected sustainability were high. Guideline use increased from 42% to an expected continuation of use of 91%. Only 32 usual care GPs included 62 patients, making formal comparison unreliable. This multi-faceted implementation strategy safely reduced patient referral to secondary care, despite frequently incorrect application of the guideline and resulted in high acceptability, feasibility and expected sustainability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Treatment of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism - position paper from the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH).

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Scholz, Ute; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Zotz, Rainer; Gerhardt, Andrea; Toth, Bettina; Bauersachs, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of maternal morbidity during pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, because there is a lack of adequate study data, management strategies for pregnancy-associated VTE must be deduced from observational stu-dies and extrapolated from recommendations for non-pregnant patients. In this review, the members of the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH) have summarised the evidence that is currently available in the literature to provide a practical approach for treating pregnancy-associated VTE. Because heparins do not cross the placenta, weight-adjusted therapeutic-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the anticoagulant treatment of choice in cases of acute VTE during pregnancy. No differences between once and twice daily LMWH dosing regimens have been reported, but twice daily dosing seems to be advisable, at least peripartally. It remains unclear whether determining dose adjustments according to factor Xa activities during pregnancy provides any benefit. Management of delivery deserves attention and mainly depends on the time interval between the diagnosis of VTE and the expected delivery date. In particular, if VTE manifests at term, delivery should be attended by an experienced multidisciplinary team. In lactating women, an overlapping switch from LMWH to warfarin is possible. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 6 weeks postpartum or for a minimum period of 3 months. Although recommendations are provided for the treatment of pregnancy-associated VTE, there is an urgent need for well-designed prospective studies that compare different management strategies and define the optimal duration and intensity of anticoagulant treatment.

  13. Portal vein thrombosis in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Tomizuka, H; Hatake, K; Kitagawa, S; Yamashita, K; Arai, H; Miura, Y

    1999-01-01

    A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and low-grade fever. He had a 6-month history of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), and laboratory data showed anaemia and liver dysfunction. An abdominal ultrasonography showed ascites and portal vein thrombosis. After receiving antithrombotic treatment, the portal vein thrombosis did not extend. Portal vein thrombosis is very rare but should be considered when we encounter liver dysfunction associated with PNH as well as hepatic vein thrombosis. Ultrasonography is very useful in detecting portal vein thrombosis and facilitating early diagnosis. Warfarin is very effective in preventing exacerbation of portal vein thrombosis in PNH.

  14. Cerebral infarction and femoral venous thrombosis detected in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and heterozygous factor V Leiden G1691A and PAI-1 4G/5G mutations.

    PubMed

    Yaroglu Kazanci, Selcen; Yesilbas, Osman; Ersoy, Melike; Kihtir, Hasan Serdar; Yildirim, Hamdi Murat; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral infarction is one of the serious neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Especially in patients who are genetically prone to thrombosis, cerebral infarction may develop due to inflammation, dehydration, and hyperviscocity secondary to DKA. A 6-year-old child with DKA is diagnosed with cerebral infarction after respiratory insufficiency, convulsion, and altered level of consciousness. Femoral and external iliac venous thrombosis also developed in a few hours after central femoral catheter had been inserted. Heterozygous type of factor V Leiden and PAI-14G/5G mutation were detected. In patients with DKA, cerebral infarction may be suspected other than cerebral edema when altered level of consciousness, convulsion, and respiratory insufficiency develop and once cerebral infarction occurs the patients should also be evaluated for factor V Leiden and PAI-14G/5G mutation analysis in addition to the other prothrombotic risk factors.

  15. A Rare Case of Ileocecal Tuberculosis with Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Tan Chor Lip; Ho, Choon Aik; Mohamad, Yuzaidi

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism in tuberculosis is not a well recognised entity. It is a less frequently reported complication of severe pulmonary tuberculosis. It is exceedingly rare when it complicates extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Here, we present a case of 22-year-old young female with abdominal tuberculosis complicated with reverse ileocecal intussusception, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An emergency vena cava filter was inserted prior to a limited right hemicolectomy. In this article, we discuss the rare association of venous thromboembolism with ileocecal tuberculosis. PMID:28892968

  16. Subacute methotrexate neurotoxicity and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a 12-year-old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism: homocysteine-mediated methotrexate neurotoxicity via direct endothelial injury.

    PubMed

    Mahadeo, Kris M; Dhall, Girish; Panigrahy, Ashok; Lastra, Carlos; Ettinger, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    From as early as the 1970s methotrexate has been associated with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy and other neurotoxic sequelae. Yet, a clear mechanism for methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity has not been established. The authors describe the case of a 12-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation, who developed subacute methotrexate-induced toxicity and cerebral venous thrombosis after receiving intrathecal methotrexate. The role of homocysteine as a possible mediator in methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity via direct endothelial injury is discussed.

  17. 1D-¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics reveals age-related changes in metabolites associated with experimental venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Obi, Andrea T; Stringer, Kathleen A; Diaz, Jose A; Finkel, Michael A; Farris, Diana M; Yeomans, Larisa; Wakefield, Thomas; Myers, Daniel D

    2016-04-01

    Age is a significant risk factor for the development of venous thrombosis (VT), but the mechanism(s) that underlie this risk remain(s) undefined and poorly understood. Aging is known to adversely influence inflammation and affect metabolism. Untargeted metabolomics permits an agnostic assessment of the physiological landscape and lends insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of clinical phenotypes. The objective of this exploratory study was to test the feasibility of a metabolomics approach for identifying potential metabolic mechanisms of age-related VT. We subjected whole blood samples collected from young and old nonthrombosed controls and VT mice 2 days after thrombus induction using the electrolytic inferior vena cava, to a methanol:chloroform extraction and assayed the resulting aqueous fractions using 1D-(1)H- nuclear magnetic resonance. Normalized mouse metabolite data were compared across groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Holm-Sidak post-testing. In addition, associations between metabolite concentrations and parameters of thrombosis such as thrombus and vein wall weights, and markers of inflammation, vein wall P- and E-selectin levels, were assessed using linear regression. The relatedness of the found significant metabolites was visually assessed using a bioinformatics tool, Metscape, which generates compound-reaction-enzyme-gene networks to aid in the interpretation of metabolomics data. Old mice with VT had a greater mean vein wall weight compared with young mice with VT (P < .05). Clot weight differences between old and young mice followed the same trend as vein wall weight (0.011 ± 0.04 g vs 0.008 ± 0.003 g; P = not significant). Glutamine (ANOVA, P < .01), proline (ANOVA, P < .01), and phenylalanine (ANOVA, P < .05) levels were increased in old VT mice compared with age-matched controls and young VT mice. Betaine and/or trimethylamine N-oxide levels were increased in aged mice compared with young animals. Vein wall weight was

  18. Red blood cells in thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, James R; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2017-10-19

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have historically been considered passive bystanders in thrombosis. However, clinical and epidemiological studies have associated quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in RBCs, including altered hematocrit, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, and malaria, with both arterial and venous thrombosis. A growing body of mechanistic studies suggests that RBCs can promote thrombus formation and enhance thrombus stability. These findings suggest that RBCs may contribute to thrombosis pathophysiology and reveal potential strategies for therapeutically targeting RBCs to reduce thrombosis. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Epidemiological trends of deep venous thrombosis in HIV-infected subjects (1997-2013): A nationwide population-based study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Ryan, Pablo; Martínez-Larrull, Esther; Micheloud, Dariela; Berenguer, Juan; Resino, Salvador

    2018-02-01

    Chronic infections may be a triggering factor as well as a risk factor of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiological trends of hospital admissions related to DVT in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients during the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, in relation to hepatitis C virus (HCV) serological status. We performed a retrospective study using the Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set. We selected HIV-infected subjects over 15years old with a hospital admission and DVT diagnosis (ICD-9-CM codes: 453.4x and 453.8x) between 1997 and 2013. Patients were classified according to HCV serology. We estimated the incidence (events per 100,000 patient-years) in four calendar periods (1997-1999, 2000-2003, 2004-2007, and 2008-2013). Overall, the incidence of DVT-related hospitalizations had a significant upward trend in all HIV-infected patients (P<0.001), with significant differences between 1997-1999 and 2008-2013 [49.5 vs. 88.1 (P<0.001)]. Moreover, the incidence was higher in HIV-monoinfected patients than in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients during the entire follow-up (P<0.001). However, the incidence had a significant downward trend in HIV-monoinfected patients (P=0.002) and a significant upward trend in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (P<0.001). Specifically, the incidence of DVT-related hospitalizations in HIV-monoinfected patients significantly decreased from 1997-1999 to 2008-2013 [142.7 vs. 103.1 (P=0.006)], whereas in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, the incidence increased from 8.4 (1997-1999) to 70.7 (2008-2013) (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that DVT is an emerging health problem among HIV-infected patients, with increasing incidence during the first 17years after the introduction of cART, particularly in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of CYP2C9 polymorphism and phenytoin co-administration on acenocoumarol dose in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    De, Tanima; Christopher, Rita; Nagaraja, Dindagur

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the contribution of genetic variations in the drug metabolizing enzyme, CYP2C9, and the influence of co-medication with the antiepileptic drug, phenytoin, to variability in acenocoumarol response, in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). 476 acenocoumarol-treated CVT patients (153 males and 323 females) were genotyped for CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Mean acenocoumarol dose required for achieving and maintaining a stable international normalized ratio (INR) was calculated for different genotypes. The effect of co-administration with phenytoin was determined. Genotype distributions of CYP2C9 were as follows: 83%CYP2C9*1/*1, 8.6%CYP2C9*1/*3, 5.9%CYP2C9*1/*2, 1.9%CYP2C9*3/*3, 0.4%CYP2C9*2/*3 and 0.2%CYP2C9*2/*2. During the initiation phase of anticoagulation the CYP2C9*2 allele was independently associated with low acenocoumarol dose requirement (Adjusted OR 5.38; 95%CI 1.65-17.49; p=0.005). Similarly, the adjusted odds ratio for requiring a low dose during the induction phase in patients bearing the CYP2C9*3 allele was 12.79 (95%CI 4.74-34.57; p<0.0001). During the maintenance phase, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles were associated with 19-fold (Adjusted OR 19.67; 95%CI 2.46-157.19; p=0.005) and 11.9-fold odds (Adjusted OR 11.98; 95%CI 2.61-55.08; p=0.001) of requiring a low dose. Clinical covariates such as age, alcohol consumption, postpartum state and oral contraceptive intake also influenced acenocoumarol dosage. Co-medication with phenytoin was associated with lower dose requirement across genotypes during the initiation phase. However, during the maintenance phase, phenytoin-treated patients of all genotypes required higher doses of acenocoumarol. This study emphasizes the fact that polymorphisms in CYP2C9 gene and co-medication with phenytoin alter the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Dabigatran Compared to Vitamin-K Antagonists for the Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis in the Netherlands Using Real-World Data.

    PubMed

    van Leent, Merlijn W J; Stevanović, Jelena; Jansman, Frank G; Beinema, Maarten J; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) present an effective anticoagulant treatment in deep venous thrombosis (DVT). However, the use of VKAs is limited because of the risk of bleeding and the necessity of frequent and long-term laboratory monitoring. Therefore, new oral anticoagulant drugs (NOACs) such as dabigatran, with lower rates of (major) intracranial bleeding compared to VKAs and not requiring monitoring, may be considered. To estimate resource utilization and costs of patients treated with the VKAs acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon, for the indication DVT. Furthermore, a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of dabigatran compared to VKAs for DVT treatment was performed, using these estimates. A retrospective observational study design in the thrombotic service of a teaching hospital (Deventer, The Netherlands) was applied to estimate real-world resource utilization and costs of VKA monitoring. A pooled analysis of data from RE-COVER and RE-COVER II on DVT was used to reflect the probabilities for events in the cost-effectiveness model. Dutch costs, utilities and specific data on coagulation monitoring levels were incorporated in the model. Next to the base case analysis, univariate probabilistic sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed. Real-world resource utilization in the thrombotic service of patients treated with VKA for the indication of DVT consisted of 12.3 measurements of the international normalized ratio (INR), with corresponding INR monitoring costs of €138 for a standardized treatment period of 180 days. In the base case, dabigatran treatment compared to VKAs in a cohort of 1,000 DVT patients resulted in savings of €18,900 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) -95,832, 151,162) and 41 (95% UI -18, 97) quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained calculated from societal perspective. The probability that dabigatran is cost-effective at a conservative willingness-to pay threshold of €20,000 per QALY was 99%. Sensitivity and scenario analyses also

  2. [A 26-year-old woman with splanchnic vein thrombosis as the initial manifestation of polycythemia vera].

    PubMed

    Escher, R; Demarmels Biasiutti, F

    1999-09-01

    A 26-year-old woman, after cesarean section in the 33rd week of gestation, developed after delivery thrombosis of the popliteal vein, pulmonary embolism and thrombosis of the portal vein. After completion of a six month period of oral anticoagulation, laboratory investigations revealed diminished levels of plasminogen and free protein S antigen as well as APC-resistance due to heterozygous FV R506Q mutation. After six uneventful years, abdominal sonography and magnetic resonance examination, performed because of abdominal pain, showed liver cirrhosis with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Additional hematological investigations led to the diagnosis of polycythemia vera. Association of myeloproliferative disorders, mainly polycythemia vera, with splanchnic venous thrombosis is well known and should always be looked for.

  3. Near-Infrared Imaging for the Assessment of Anastomotic Patency, Thrombosis, and Reperfusion in Microsurgery: A Pilot Study in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Christina R.; Nguyen, John T.; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Silvestre, Jason; Venugopal, Vivek; Neacsu, Florin; Kettenring, Frank; Frangioni, John V.; Gioux, Sylvain; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in microsurgical techniques have increased the use of free tissue transfer. Methods of intraoperative flap perfusion assessment, however, still rely primarily on subjective evaluation of traditional clinical parameters. Anastomotic thrombosis, if not expeditiously identified and revised, can result in flap loss with significant associated morbidity. This study aims to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging in the assessment of microsurgical anastomotic patency, thrombosis, and vascular revision. Materials and Methods A model of pedicle thrombosis was created using bilateral abdominal flaps isolated on deep superior epigastric vascular pedicles in four Yorkshire pigs. Following flap elevation, microvascular arterial and venous anastomoses were performed unilaterally, preserving an intact contralateral control flap. Thrombosis was induced at the arterial anastomosis site using ferric chloride, and both flaps imaged using NIR fluorescence angiography. The thrombosed vascular segments were subsequently excised and new anastomoses performed to restore flow. Follow-up imaging of both flaps was then obtained to confirm patency using fluorescence imaging technology. Results Pedicled abdominal flaps were created and successful anastomotic thrombosis was induced unilaterally in each pig. Fluorescence imaging technology identified large decreases in tissue perfusion of the thrombosed flap within 2 minutes. After successful revision anastomosis, NIR imaging demonstrated dramatic increase in flow to the reconstructed flap, but intensity did not return to pre-thrombosis levels. Conclusions Early identification of anastomotic thrombosis is important in successful free tissue transfer. Real-time, intraoperative evaluation of flap perfusion, anastomotic thrombosis, and successful revision can be performed using NIR fluorescence imaging. PMID:25571855

  4. Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Lee, Kevin; Prince, Marloe; Jetty, Vybhav; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    When exogenous testosterone or treatments to elevate testosterone (human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG] or Clomid) are prescribed for men who have antecedent thrombophilia, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism often occur and may recur despite adequate anticoagulation if testosterone therapy is continued. A 55-year-old white male was referred to us because of 4 thrombotic events, 3 despite adequate anticoagulation over a 5-year period. We assessed interactions between thrombophilia, exogenous testosterone therapy, and recurrent thrombosis. In 2009, despite low-normal serum testosterone 334 ng/dL (lower normal limit [LNL] 300 ng/dL), he was given testosterone (TT) cypionate (50 mg/week) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG; 500 units/week) for presumed hypogonadism. Ten months later, with supranormal serum T (1385 ng/dL, upper normal limit [UNL] 827 ng/dL) and estradiol (E2) 45 pg/mL (UNL 41 pg/mL), he had a pulmonary embolus (PE) and was then anticoagulated for 2 years (enoxaparin, then warfarin). Four years later, on TT-HCG, he had his first deep venous thrombosis (DVT). TT was stopped and HCG continued; he was anticoagulated (enoxaparin, then warfarin, then apixaban, then fondaparinux). One year after his first DVT, on HCG, still on fondaparinux, he had a second DVT (5/315), was anticoagulated (enoxaparin + warfarin), with a Greenfield filter placed, but 8 days later had a second PE. Thrombophilia testing revealed the lupus anticoagulant. After stopping HCG, and maintained on warfarin, he has been free of further DVT-PE for 9 months. When DVT-PE occur on TT or HCG, in the presence of thrombophilia, TT-HCG should be stopped, lest DVT-PE reoccur despite concurrent anticoagulation.

  5. The Role of Duplex Ultrasound In Detecting Graft Thrombosis And Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair For Abdominal Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mazzaccaro, Daniela; Farina, Augusto; Petsos, Kostantinos; Nano, Giovanni

    2018-05-19

    to assess the role of DUS in detecting endoleaks (EL) and graft thrombosis (GT) in a cohort of patients submitted to EVAR for elective infrarenal AAA in two centers. Data of all consecutive patients treated in two Operative Unit of Vascular Surgery, from 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2016, were retrospectively collected and evaluated. Follow-up data were analyzed to evaluate survival and device-related complications, both at thirty-day and in the mid-term. The results of CTA and DUS that were performed yearly, with a time interval between the two exams lower than 30 days, were paired in terms of maximum transverse diameters of the aneurysmal sac, identification of EL and of GT. Sensibility (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy (ACC) of the DUS were calculated with respect to data of each paired CTA and to data of the real clinical diagnosis of either EL or GT. A Student's t test was performed to compare the aneurysmal sac diameters measured with DUS to those of CTA. "Kappa" coefficient of agreement was also calculated. A P value <0.05 was the level reference for statistical significance. A total of 920 patients (104 female, 11.3%) underwent EVAR for elective infrarenal AAA. Technical success was achieved in 910 cases (98.9%). At 30 days, there were 5 deaths (0.5%), no GT and 3 small type II EL which didn't require any adjunctive procedure. Mean follow-up was 64.8 months (range 1-120.3 months). Survival and freedom from complications were estimated to be 78.4%+1.9% and 48.3%+1.7% respectively at 10 years. Seventy-six more EL and 8 GT were recorded. Considering the CTA as the gold standard, SE, SP, and ACC of DUS in the detection of the EL were 93.2%+5.8%, 98.8%+1.1% and 97.8%, respectively, with a PPV of 94.5%+5.2% and a NPV of 98.3%+1.4%. Considering however the real diagnosis of the EL, SE, SP and ACC of DUS were slightly lower (89.4%+6.9%, 98.5%+1.3% and 96.9%, respectively), as well as PPV and NPV (93

  6. Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis in a Patient with Bowel Infarction due to Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyue Mee; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Lee, Hak Seung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Chee Hae; Oh, Sooyeon; Kim, Jung Ho; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Ante mortem cases of venous thrombosis in patients with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) have not yet been reported. We describe a rare case of NBTE in a patient with mesenteric vein thrombosis. A healthy 37-year-old man with abdominal pain and fever underwent emergency small bowel resection due to bowel ischemia resulting from mesenteric vein thrombosis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed multiple mobile masses attached to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valves and their chordae tendineae. On suspicion of infective endocarditis, the cardiac masses were excised through open-heart surgery. However, pathologic reviews were compatible with NBTE. The patient was stable after the cardiac surgery and was treated with warfarin. Laboratory and imaging findings regarding his hypercoagulable condition were all negative.

  7. The Influence of a Pfannenstiel Scar on Venous Anatomy of the Lower Abdominal Wall and Implications for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    A Pfannenstiel incision involves the obstruction of superficial venous pathways and functional diversion of flow through alternative pathways and adjacent vessels. This study investigated the effect of a prior Pfannenstiel incision on venous anatomy of the lower abdominal wall; specifically, the superficial inferior epigastric vein (SIEV), using computed tomographic angiography. A case-control study was performed of 50 patients with Pfannenstiel scars and 50 age-matched, body mass index-matched control patients without Pfannenstiel scars. The authors compared the number of direct/indirect and total communications between the SIEV and deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) venae comitantes, midline crossover, and other SIEV-related anatomical changes by using computed tomographic angiography. Flap-related clinical outcomes and donor-site-related complications were also assessed. The median number of direct and total communications between the SIEV and DIEP venae comitantes in the study group was greater than in the control group. The percentage of SIEVs having more than two branching patterns per hemiabdomen was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The study group also showed a significantly lower rate of fat necrosis compared with the control group (p = 0.03). The rate of donor-site seroma was significantly higher in the study group. This study suggests that the presence of a Pfannenstiel scar may promote the development of direct and total communications between the SIEV and DIEP venae comitantes and branching within the SIEV in the lower abdominal wall, which may facilitate venous drainage of adipose tissue in DIEP flap breast reconstruction. Risk, II.

  8. Prevention of edema, flight microangiopathy and venous thrombosis in long flights with elastic stockings. A randomized trial: The LONFLIT 4 Concorde Edema-SSL Study.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Shah, Sandeep S G; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Geroulakos, George; Ippolito, Edmondo; Winford, Michelle; Lennox, Andrew; Pellegrini, Luciano; Brandolini, Rossella; Myers, Kenneth A; Simeone, Emilio; Bavera, Peter; Dugall, Mark; Di Renzo, Andrea; Moia, Marco

    2002-01-01

    The LONFLIT1/2 studies have established that in high-risk subjects after long (> 10 hours) flights the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is between 4% and 6%. The LONFLIT4 study has been planned to evaluate the control of edema and DVT in low-medium-risk subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate edema and its control with specific flight stockings, in long-haul flights. In the first part of the study 400 subjects at low-medium risk for DVT were contacted; 28 were excluded for several nonmedical problems; 372 were randomized into 2 groups to evaluate prophylaxis with stockings in 7-8-hour flights; the control group had no prophylaxis. Below-knee, Scholl, Flight Socks, producing 14-17 mm Hg of pressure at the ankle, were used in the treatment group. The occurrence of DVT was evaluated with high-resolution ultrasound scanning (femoral, popliteal, and tibial veins). Edema was assessed with a composite score based on parametric and nonparametric measurements. Part II: In this part of the study 285 subjects at low-medium risk for DVT were included and randomized into 2 groups to evaluate edema prophylaxis in 11-12-hour flights; the controls had no prophylaxis while the prevention group had below-knee, Scholl, Flight Socks (comparable to part I). Part 1: DVT evaluation. Of the 184 included subjects in the stockings group and 188 in the control group, 358 (96.2%) completed the study. Dropouts were due to compliance or connection problems. Age/sex distributions were comparable in the groups. Stockings Group: of 179 subjects (mean age 49; SD 7; M:F = 101:78), none had DVT or superficial thromboses. of 179 subjects (mean age 48.4; SD 7.3; M:F = 98:81), 4 (2.2%) had a DVT. There were also 2 superficial thromboses. In total, 3.35% (6) subjects had a thrombotic event. The difference (p<0.002) is significant. Intention-to-treat analysis detects 15 failures in the control group (9 lost + 6 thromboses) out of 188 subjects (7.9%) versus 5 subjects (2.7%) in the

  9. Hydatid liver cyst causing portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kirmizi, Serdar; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with abdominal distention after meals was admitted to the hospital. He had a history of surgery for hydatid liver cyst. The cyst was located at the liver hilum and there were portal venous thrombosis and cavernous transformation. It had been treated with partial cystectomy, omentoplasty and albendazole. Two years later at the admission to our center, his laboratory tests were in normal ranges. Abdominal imaging methods revealed splenomegaly, portal vein thrombosis, cavernous transformation and the previously operated hydatid liver cyst. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated esophageal and gastric fundal varices. Due to his young age and low risk for surgery, the patient was planned for surgical treatment of both pathologies at the same time. At laparotomy, hydatid liver cyst was obliterated with omentum and there was no sign of active viable hydatid disease. A meso-caval shunt with an 8 mm in-diameter graft was created. In the postoperative period, his symptoms and endoscopic varices were regressed. There were four similar cases reported in the literature. This one was the youngest and the only one treated by a surgical shunt. Hydatid liver cysts that located around the hilum can lead to portal vein thrombosis and cavernous thrombosis. Treatment should consist of both hydatid liver cyst and portal hypertension. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of surgically treated portal vein thrombosis that was originated from a hydatid liver cyst. PMID:27895860

  10. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema.

    PubMed

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-09-28

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema.

  11. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema

    PubMed Central

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  12. Travel-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  14. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Heit, John A

    2015-08-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and-in women-pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing.

  15. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis - unusual management of unusual complication of Whipple procedure.

    PubMed

    Huťan, Martin; Bartko, Christian; Slyško, Roman; Sekáč, Jaroslav; Prochotský, Augustín; Majeský, Ivan; Skultéty, Ján

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is an extensive procedure carrying risk of a number of postoperative complications. Of these the most common are surgical site infections (SSI), bleeding, delayed gastric emptying, and anastomotic leakage. However, the most serious complications are ones, that are rare, clinically hardly diagnosed, and if untreated, leading to the death of a patient. Among the latter complications is thrombosis of superior mesenteric vein. Its clinical signs are unspecific and diagnostics complicated. Treatment requires aggressive approach. If this is absent, intestinal necrosis with septic state, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) lead to a death of a patient. Authors present a case of a patient after pancreatoduodenectomy, complicated by the thrombosis of superior mesenteric vein. Patient was managed by resection of the necrotic bowel, venous decompression by venous bypass from superior mesenteric vein to the right ovarian vein, and open abdomen with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Patient suffered severe abdominal sepsis with need for intensive organ support. Abdomen was definitely closed on fourth NPWT redress. Patient healed without any further complications, is well and was released to the ambulatory setting. Superior mesenteric vein (VMS) thrombosis is a rare complication. It diagnosis requires high level of vigilance and once diagnosed, aggressive therapy is essential. Two goals of surgical treatment exist: resection of the necrotic bowel and facilitation of the blood outflow. Mesenteroovarian anastomosis is one of the options in treatment of thrombosis of VMS if thrombectomy is not feasible. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovarian vein thrombosis: A complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Louisa; Hall, Grayson; Thomas, Richard; Beiko, Darren

    2016-01-01

    The medical and surgical complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) are well-known, including deep venous thrombosis. Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare, but potentially serious type of venous thrombosis that has not previously been reported as a complication of PCNL or ureteral stent placement. We report a case of OVT associated with ureteral stenting following a tubeless PCNL. This complication was successfully managed conservatively without any short- or long-term sequelae. PMID:27695586

  17. Management of acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in a patient with duplicated inferior vena cava and contraindication to anticoagulation: case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shrinil; Cheema, Anmol; Karawadia, Tejas; Carson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Duplication of the inferior vena cava (DIVC) is an uncommon embryological anatomic phenomenon. We report a 63-year-old woman with extensive right leg deep vein thrombosis who required an IVC filter due to contraindications for anticoagulation, but was found to have DIVC which required the placement of two IVC filters with good result. This report will review and summarise past reports of DIVC management to provide a guide for future clinicians, and review the embryological development, diagnosis and IVC filter placement options as they are based on the type of anatomic malformation encountered. PMID:29866665

  18. C4BPB/C4BPA is a new susceptibility locus for venous thrombosis with unknown protein S–independent mechanism: results from genome-wide association and gene expression analyses followed by case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Buil, Alfonso; Souto, Juan Carlos; Saut, Noémie; Germain, Marine; Rotival, Maxime; Tiret, Laurence; Cambien, Françcois; Lathrop, Mark; Zeller, Tanja; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Münzel, Thomas; Wild, Philipp; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Gagnon, France; Emmerich, Joseph; Almasy, Laura; Blankenberg, Stefan; Soria, José-Manuel; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Through its binding with protein S (PS), a key element of the coagulation/fibrinolysis cascade, the C4b-binding protein (C4BP) has been hypothesized to be involved in the susceptibility to venous thrombosis (VT). To identify genetic factors that may influence the plasma levels of the 3 C4BP existing isoforms, α7β1, α6β1, and α7β0, we conducted a genome-wide association study by analyzing 283 437 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia (GAIT) study composed of 352 persons. Three SNPs at the C4BPB/C4BPA locus were found genome-wide significantly associated with α7β0 levels. One of these SNPs was further found to explain approximately 11% of the variability of mRNA C4BPA expression in the Gutenberg Heart Study composed of 1490 persons, with no effect on C4BPB mRNA expression. The allele associated with increased α7β0 plasma levels and increased C4BPA expression was further found associated with increased risk of VT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [1.03-1.53]) in 2 independent case-control studies (MARseille THrombosis Association study [MARTHA] and FActeurs de RIsque et de récidives de la maladie thromboembolique VEineuse [FARIVE]) gathering 1706 cases and 1379 controls. This SNP was not associated with free PS or total PS. In conclusion, we observed strong evidence that the C4BPB/C4BPA locus is a new susceptibility locus for VT through a PS-independent mechanism that remains to be elucidated. PMID:20212171

  19. Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kiet; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Sharara, Rihab; Young, Meilin; Singh, Anil C; Bihler, Eric

    Venous thromboembolisms are major risk factors for many of our hospitalized patients. These events, however, can be prevented with prophylactic measurements when administered appropriately and on a timely basis. As patients are admitted, discharged, transferred, and scheduled for procedures on an hourly basis, anticoagulation and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis are held or discontinued in anticipation for possible procedures. This results in delay of care and intervals where patients may not be covered with any prophylactic measurements. Similarly, alterations in clinical status can quickly change such as an increase in creatinine levels or the development of a new bleed, thus requiring a revision in their deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Nurses, therefore, play an integral role in not only administering the medicine but also routinely assessing the patients' clinical status and, therefore, their deep vein thrombosis prophylactic regimens as well. This article will review the indications, scoring systems, common prophylactic methods, and special populations at increased risks for venous thromboembolisms.

  20. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: literature review: part 1.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Bonnie J; Maneval, Rhonda E

    2014-01-01

    This is part 1 of a 2-part series of articles that report on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine the risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. This article provides an extensive review and critique of the literature that serves to explicate what is currently known about risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT. Risk factors such as anticoagulant use, cancer, infection, hypertension, catheter tip placement, and catheter size were identified most frequently in the literature as being associated with UEDVT development. Other risk factors--such as obesity, smoking history, surgery, and presence of pain or edema--were examined in a limited number of studies and lacked consistent evidence of their impact on UEDVT development. The subsequent study that evolved from the review of the literature investigates the relationship between identified risk factors and UEDVT development.

  1. Management of acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in a patient with duplicated inferior vena cava and contraindication to anticoagulation: case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shrinil; Cheema, Anmol; Karawadia, Tejas; Carson, Michael

    2018-06-04

    Duplication of the inferior vena cava (DIVC) is an uncommon embryological anatomic phenomenon.We report a 63-year-old woman with extensive right leg deep vein thrombosis who required an IVC filter due to contraindications for anticoagulation, but was found to have DIVC which required the placement of two IVC filters with good result. This report will review and summarise past reports of DIVC management to provide a guide for future clinicians, and review the embryological development, diagnosis and IVC filter placement options as they are based on the type of anatomic malformation encountered. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Behçet’s Syndrome and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Seyahi, Emire; Yurdakul, Sebahattin

    2011-01-01

    Behçet syndrome (BS) is a multisystem vasculitis with unknown etiology and a unique geographic distribution. The disease course is characterized by exacerbations and remissions while abating as the years pass. The usual onset is in the third decade. Recurrent skin mucosa lesions and sight threatening panuveitis are the hallmark of the disease. Males are more severely affected than females. Vascular involvement can occur in up to 40% of cases. BS is unique among the vasculitides in that it may involve all sizes and types of vessels. It affects the veins more than the arteries. Lower extremity vein thrombosis is the most frequent manifestation of vascular involvement, followed by vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary artery aneurysms, Budd-Chiari syndrome, peripheral artery aneurysms, dural sinus thrombosis and abdominal aorta aneurysms. Vascular involvement is frequently associated with constitut onal symptoms and increased acute phase response and is the major cause of increased mortality. A predominantly neutrophilic vasculitis around the vaso vasorum is typical of BS. The thrombus is tightly adherent to the vessel wall which probably explains why thromboembolism is so rare despite the high frequency of venous disease. Thrombophilic factors do not seem to explain thrombotic tendency in BS. Immunosuppressive treatment is essential in suppression and preventing the attacks. PMID:21869912

  3. Prospective study of catheter-related central vein thrombosis in home parenteral nutrition patients with benign disease using serial venous Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Joly, Francisca; Corcos, Olivier; Concejo, Javier; Puiggrós, Carolina; Gil, Carmen; Pironi, Loris

    2016-02-01

    Catheter-related central vein thrombosis (CRVT) is a severe complication of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) that may be clinically manifest or subclinical. The aims of the study were to prospectively investigate the incidence of CRVT in patients on HPN with benign disease and determine the influence of different variables on this complication. A prospective, multicentre, observational study in the Home Artificial Nutrition-Chronic Intestinal Failure ESPEN group was performed. Patients with benign disease starting HPN or already on HPN after the insertion of a new catheter, were recruited and followed up with Color Doppler Duplex Sonography (CDDS) evaluations at baseline, 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months after catheter insertion. Fisher's exact test was used to calculate the association of different variables (related to the patient, type of catheter, vascular access, insertion method, catheter care and anticoagulant treatment) with CRVT events. Sixty-two patients (31 males, 31 females) aged 50 ± 19 (19-83) years were included and followed for a median 363 days, with an Inter Quartile Range of 180-365 days, and a total of 16,186 catheter-days. Six patients had previous CRVT and 16 had history of thromboembolic disease (pulmonary and mesenteric). Forty one patients were receiving anticoagulant treatment. Fifty two patients had tunneled catheters and 10 implanted ports. Two patients had symptomatic thrombosis at 3 and 12 months of follow-up (2 and 3 weeks after normal routine CDDS evaluation). The incidence of CRVT was 0.045/catheter/year. CRVT was not significantly associated with any of the variables analyzed. The incidence of CRVT in patients on HPN for benign disease followed by CDDS is low in the first year of catheterization. We did not observe any case of asymptomatic CRVT. Based on our data, CDDS seems to have low effectiveness as a screening tool for CRVT in asymptomatic patients on HPN with benign disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for

  4. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance venography in the detection of deep venous thrombosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, G; Fawzi Matuk, R; Venugopal, V; Verde, F; Magnuson, T H; Schweitzer, M A; Steele, K E

    2015-08-01

    To search the literature for further evidence for the use of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the detection of suspected DVT and to re-evaluate the accuracy of MRV in the detection of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched. Study quality and the risk of bias were evaluated using the QUADAS 2. A random effects meta-analysis including subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. The search resulted in 23 observational studies all from academic centres. Sixteen articles were included in the meta-analysis. The summary estimates for MRV as a diagnostic non-invasive tool revealed a sensitivity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89% to 95%) and specificity of 96% (95% CI: 94% to 97%). The heterogeneity of the studies was high. Inconsistency (I2) for sensitivity and specificity was 80.7% and 77.9%, respectively. Further studies investigating the use of MRV in the detection of suspected DVT did not offer further evidence to support the replacement of ultrasound with MRV as the first-line investigation. However, MRV may offer an alternative tool in the detection/diagnosis of DVT for whom ultrasound is inadequate or not feasible (such as in the obese patient). Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extensive deep vein thrombosis following prolonged gaming ('gamer's thrombosis'): a case report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsien-Cheng Leon; Burbridge, Hayley; Wong, Conroy

    2013-10-08

    The average time spent playing video games is increasing. Prolonged immobility associated with gaming may therefore be an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis associated with prolonged playing of PlayStation® games. A 31-year-old Caucasian man, an exterior painter, presented with a three-day history of left leg pain and swelling after playing PlayStation® games for almost eight hours a day for four consecutive days. Doppler ultrasound of the left leg confirmed extensive left leg deep venous thrombosis requiring thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Video gaming should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Further studies are needed to estimate the degree of risk associated with prolonged periods of playing video games, and education for preventing venous thrombosis should be provided to gamers.

  6. A RCT study of Rivaroxaban, low-molecular-weight heparin, and sequential medication regimens for the prevention of venous thrombosis after internal fixation of hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yilun; Wang, Kunzheng; Shi, Zhibin; Yang, Pei; Dang, Xiaoqian

    2017-08-01

    The guidelines for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgeries have reached a consensus on the postoperative conventional anticoagulation. However, the choice of anticoagulant drugs is yet controversial. The use of the drug rivaroxaban is expensive. Since the compliance of patients with low-molecular-weight heparin is considerably low, a cost-effective, efficacious and convenient anticoagulant program is essential. The present study investigated the efficacy, safety, patient compliance, and cost-effectiveness of low-molecular-weight heparin with sequential Rivaroxaban anticoagulant therapy in patients with a hip fracture, following internal fixation. A total of 287 patients with hip fractures were randomized into three groups: Rivaroxaban alone, Enoxaparin alone, and Enoxaparin followed by Rivaroxaban. The primary endpoint was the incidence of postoperative VTE, whereas the secondary endpoints were the compliance and treatment costs. Adverse reactions included bleeding and wound complications. The incidences of VTE were 5.21%, 14.74%, and 10.42% in the Rivaroxaban, low-molecular-weight heparin, and sequential therapy groups, respectively. The VTE-related mortality rates were 0%, 1.05%, and 1.04%. The average hospital stay was 12±8,15±7, and 11±5d, whereas the compliance rates of the three groups were 82.3%, 71.6%, and 88.5%, respectively. The incidences of adverse incisions were 14.6%, 4.2%, and 6.3% for the three groups examined. The effects and the incidence of postoperative bleeding in the treatment of low-molecular-weight heparin followed by Rivaroxaban did not differ significantly from that of Rivaroxaban alone. However, the postoperative drainage, the cost of treatment and the incidence of VTE reduced significantly, whereas the incidences of adverse incisions and the patient compliance were increased. ChiCTR-INR-17010495. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Vitamin K Antagonists for Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in the Outpatient Setting: Comparative Economic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Al Saleh, Abdullah S; Berrigan, Patrick; Anderson, David; Shivakumar, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Background To date, there have been few economic evaluations, from a Canadian perspective, of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with acute unprovoked VTE. As a result, there is a lack of consensus about which treatment strategy should be adopted in the clinical setting. Objectives To assess the cost-effectiveness of currently approved anti-coagulant options, in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients with unprovoked events managed on an outpatient basis. Methods Microsoft Excel was used to develop a Markov model. Model parameters were determined using published literature, local hospital data, expert opinion, and chart review. The analysis considered the costs associated with pharmaceuticals, laboratory testing, hematologist fees, and treatment of recurrent VTE and major bleeding events. Effectiveness was measured in terms of QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results For treatment lasting 3 months, apixaban represented the most cost-effective DOAC relative to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) + vitamin K antagonist, with an ICER of $7379.66. For 6 months of treatment, apixaban again represented the most cost-effective treatment, with an ICER of $84.08 per QALY gained, and this drug dominated all the other strategies at 12 months. For lifetime treatment, DOACs were unlikely to be cost-effective, given a maximum willingness to pay of $50 000 to $100 000 per QALY. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis at 6 months, 46.4% of iterations resulted in apixaban having lower costs and better outcomes than LMWH + vitamin K antagonist, and 78.6% of iterations resulted in an ICER below $100 000 Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that apixaban is likely cost-effective for treatment durations of 3, 6, and 12 months. However, for indefinite treatment, DOACs were unlikely to be cost

  8. Doping and thrombosis in sports.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Historically, humans have long sought to enhance their "athletic" performance to increase body weight, aggressiveness, mental concentration and physical strength, contextually reducing fatigue, pain, and improving recovery. Although regular training is the mainstay for achieving these targets, the ancillary use of ergogenic aids has become commonplace in all sports. The demarcation between ergogenic aids and doping substances or practices is continuously challenging and mostly based on perceptions regarding the corruption of the fairness of competition and the potential side effects or adverse events arising from the use of otherwise unnecessary ergogenic substances. A kaleidoscope of side effects has been associated with the use of doping agents, including behavioral, skeletal, endocrinologic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and cardiovascular imbalances. Among the various doping substances, the most striking association with thrombotic complications has been reported for androgenic anabolic steroids (i.e., cardiomyopathy, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, myocardial infarction [MI], intracardiac thrombosis, stroke, venous thromboembolism [VTE], limb arterial thrombosis, branch retinal vein occlusion, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) and blood boosting (i.e., VTE and MI, especially for epoetin and analogs). The potential thrombotic complication arising from misuse of other doping agents such as the administration of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, cocaine, and platelet-derived preparations is instead speculative or anecdotal at best. The present article provides an overview on the epidemiological association as well as the underlying biochemical and biological mechanisms linking the practice of doping in sports with the development of thrombosis. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  9. Clinical presentation and outcome of mesenteric vein thrombosis: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Mabrok, Jamela; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Sulaiti, Marym; Tabeb, Abdel Hakem; Hajaji, Khairi; Elgohary, Hesham; Asim, Mohammad; Latifi, Rifat

    2015-03-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon event. We retrospectively analyzed data for patients who were admitted with MVT between June 2005 and May 2012 in Qatar. The study included 35 patients with a mean age of 45 ± 11 years. The risk of MVT was significantly high among males who smoked and females of Arab ethnicity. The main manifestations of MVT were abdominal distension and vomiting. The major etiological factors included deficiency in protein C and S, homocysteinemia, and prior abdominal surgery. Computed tomography (CT) findings were helpful in 80% of the patients. Bowel resection with primary anastomosis was performed in 25 (71%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 17%. High index of suspicion, detection of risk factors, CT imaging, and timely intervention are essential for better prognosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Venous thromboembolism and arterial complications.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Piovella, Chiara; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis. The two vascular complications share several risk factors, such as age, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, blood hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, there are many examples of conditions accounting for both venous and arterial thrombosis, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, malignancies, infections, and the use of hormonal treatment. Finally, several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with venous thromboembolism are at a higher risk of arterial thrombotic complications than matched control individuals. We, therefore, speculate the two vascular complications are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent, and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Congestive renal failure: the pathophysiology and treatment of renal venous hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward A

    2012-12-01

    Longstanding experimental evidence supports the role of renal venous hypertension in causing kidney dysfunction and "congestive renal failure." A focus has been heart failure, in which the cardiorenal syndrome may partly be due to high venous pressure, rather than traditional mechanisms involving low cardiac output. Analogous diseases are intra-abdominal hypertension and renal vein thrombosis. Proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms include reduced transglomerular pressure, elevated renal interstitial pressure, myogenic and neural reflexes, baroreceptor stimulation, activation of sympathetic nervous and renin angiotensin aldosterone systems, and enhanced proinflammatory pathways. Most clinical trials have addressed the underlying condition rather than venous hypertension per se. Interpreting the effects of therapeutic interventions on renal venous congestion are therefore problematic because of such confounders as changes in left ventricular function, cardiac output, and blood pressure. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence from small studies of intense medical therapy or extracorporeal ultrafiltration for heart failure that there can be changes to central venous pressure that correlate inversely with renal function, independently from the cardiac index. Larger more rigorous trials are needed to definitively establish under what circumstances conventional pharmacologic or ultrafiltration goals might best be directed toward central venous pressures rather than left ventricular or cardiac output parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thrombus in Transit: A Potentially Life-threatening Complication of Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Petracca, Martina; Calandrelli, Rosalinda; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Caliandro, Pietro; Della Marca, Giacomo; Frisullo, Giovanni; Morosetti, Roberta; Profice, Paolo; Lamendola, Priscilla; Pennestrì, Faustino; Pilato, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old, 7-weeks-pregnant patient, presenting with headache and generalized seizure due to cerebral venous thrombosis complicated by jugular thrombosis and thrombus dislocation into right cardiac cavities. The patient was treated with intravenous heparin, and underwent embolectomy in extracorporeal circulation. This case illustrates the variability of cerebral venous thrombosis progression and a potentially life-threatening condition even during anticoagulant therapy.

  13. Blueberry Phenolics Reduce Gastrointestinal Infection of Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Improving Depressant-Induced Autoimmune Disorder via miR-155-Mediated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Meng, Hao; Liu, Tianyi; Feng, Yingli; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Donghuan; Wang, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often causes human depression, whereas depression-induced low immunity makes the patients susceptible to gastrointestinal infection. Blueberry possesses antidepressant properties which may improve autoimmunity and reduce gastrointestinal infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) performs antidepressant function and can be regulated by miR-155, which may be affected by blueberry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, blueberry compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Activity of compounds was tested by using HT22 cells. The present study tested 124 patients with CVT-induced mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale [CES-D] ≥16) and gastrointestinal infection. Patients were randomly assigned to blueberry extract group (BG, received 10 mg blueberry extract daily) and placebo group (PG, received 10 mg placebo daily). After 3 months, depression, gastrointestinal infection and lipid profiles were investigated. Serum miR-155 and BDNF were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and or Western Blot. Blueberry treatment improved depressive symptoms and lipid profiles, and also reduced gastrointestinal infection in the BG group (P < 0.05) but those of the PG group (P = 1). These changes were paralleled by increase in serum levels of BDNF and miR-155 (P < 0.05). HPLC analysis showed that blueberry extracts were the main phenolic acids with 0.18, 0.85, 0.26, 0.72, 0.66, 0.4,1, and 1.92 mg/g of gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, [2]-epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, p-anisic acid, and quercetin in blueberry extracts, respectively. Phenolics in blueberry are possible causal agents in improving antidepressant activity and reducing gastrointestinal infection. Administration of blueberry increased BDNF expression and miR-155. Blueberry cannot affect BDNF level when miR-155 is overexpressed or inhibited. Phenolics from

  14. Association Between the Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis, the Warfarin Maintenance Dose, and CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 Genetic Polymorphisms: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ju, Shang; Gao, Yu; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Fu; Yan, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Feng-Tong

    2017-09-01

    This study explored the association between the CYP2C9*3/CYP2D6*10/CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphisms with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT) and the warfarin maintenance dose. Five hundred thirty-six patients who were pathologically diagnosed with LEDVT after surgery were included in the LEDVT group. At the same time, 540 patients without LEDVT who underwent surgery were recruited as the control group. Patients were given warfarin at an initial dose of 2.5-3.0 mg. Blood samples were collected to detect the initial and stable international normalized ratio (INR) values. The warfarin maintenance dose was obtained if the INR remained within a range of 2.0-3.0 for 3 consecutive days. The genotype distribution and haplotype analysis of the CYP2C9*3/CYP2D6*10/CYP3A5*3 alleles were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) testing and SHEsis software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk and protective factors for LEDVT. The A/G genotypes, G/G genotypes, and G allele of CYP3A5*3 in the LEDVT group were observed with increased frequency compared with the control group. The LEDVT group displayed a higher ACG haplotype frequency, and lower ACA and ATA haplotype frequencies than the control group. Age, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein, CYP3A5*3 and the ACG haplotype were independent risk factors for LEDVT. High-density lipoprotein and the ACA haplotype were independent protective factors for LEDVT. The genotype distributions of the CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphisms were associated with the warfarin maintenance dose. The CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism may be an important risk factor for LEDVT. Moreover, CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 are associated with the warfarin maintenance dose.

  15. EVAR-first strategy for ruptured aneurysm focuses on Fitzgerald classification and vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuri; Toya, Naoki; Fukushima, Soichiro; Ito, Eisaku; Akiba, Tadashi; Ohki, Takao

    2018-05-17

    We report on the results of our endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)-first strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) focuses on Fitzgerald classification and vein thrombosis. From 2011 to 2017, 31 patients with RAAA underwent EVAR at our hospital. We compared Fitzgerald (F)-1 patients (group A) with F-2-4 patients with obvious retroperitoneal hematoma (group B). The baseline characteristics in group A (n=9) and group B (n=22) were similar. In group B, there were 8 cases of F-2, 10 cases of F-3, and 4 cases of F-4. Of the 22 cases in group B, 16(73%) cases involved preoperative shock. Operation time was not significantly different (group A: 147 minutes, group B: 131 minutes, p = 0.48). The total mortality rate of group A and group B combined was 77.4%. The 30-day mortality was 0% for group A and 23.8% for group B, in which there were two F-4 cases and three F-3 cases. In group B, hematoma-related complications developed in six cases (deep vein thrombosis: four cases, abdominal compartment syndrome: one case, and hematoma infection: one case), and one case with deep vein thrombosis developed a pulmonary embolism that resulted in cardiac arrest. The three-year survival rate was significantly higher for group A (100% vs. 52.3%, p=0.016), but the freedom from aortic-related death rate was not significantly different (100% vs. 66.7%, p=0.056). Using EVAR for RAAA is a valid strategy. Certain complications that are associated with peritoneal hematoma, especially venous thrombosis, should receive particular attention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Portal vein thrombosis after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Belnap, LeGrand; Rodgers, George M; Cottam, Daniel; Zaveri, Hinali; Drury, Cara; Surve, Amit

    2016-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a serious problem with a high morbidity and mortality, often exceeding 40% of affected patients. Recently, PVT has been reported in patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The frequency is surprisingly high compared with other abdominal operations. We present a series of 5 patients with PVT after LSG. The treatment was not restricted simply to anticoagulation alone, but was determined by the extent of disease. A distinction is made among nonocclusive, high-grade nonocclusive, and occlusive PVT. We present evidence that systemic anticoagulation is insufficient in occlusive thrombosis and may also be insufficient in high-grade nonocclusive disease. Single private institution, United States. We present a retrospective analysis of 646 patients who underwent LSG between 2012 and 2015. In all patients, the diagnosis was established with an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan as well as duplex ultrasound of the portal venous system. All patients received systemic anticoagulation. Depending on the extent of disease, thrombolytic therapy and portal vein thrombectomy were utilized. All patients received long-term anticoagulation. Four patients with PVT were identified. A fifth patient with PVT after LSG was referred from another center. The mean age of all patients was 49 years. One patient had a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). No complications were identified intraoperatively or during the hospital stay, and all patients were discharged by postoperative day 2. The patients presented with PVT at an average of 20 days (range: 10-35) post-LSG. The CT scan was positive for PVT in all patients. In stable noncirrhotic patients with nonocclusive disease, we administered therapeutic anticoagulation. One patient with high-grade, nonocclusive PVT received anticoagulation alone. Patients with occlusive disease were treated with operative thrombectomy including intraoperative and postoperative thrombolysis (tissue plasminogen

  17. Management of Chronic Deep Vein Thrombosis in Women.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Rulon L

    2018-03-01

    Chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) affects hundreds of thousands of women in the United States. Chronic DVT can lead to pain, edema, venous ulcers, and varicosities. While there are limited data regarding the management of chronic DVT, several interventional radiology groups aggressively treat chronic DVT to aid patient symptom resolution. Recanalization of occluded veins and venous stenting re-establishes deep vein flow and decreases venous hypertension.

  18. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. Methods and Findings We used data from a large population-based case–control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case–control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case–control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom

  19. [Arterial bypass iterative thrombosis and cancer: three cases].

    PubMed

    Villemur, B; Payraud, E; Seetha, V; De Angelis, M-P; Magne, J L; Perennou, D; Carpentier, P; Pernod, G

    2014-02-01

    Cancer associated with venous thromboembolic disease has been recognized since Trousseau, but a link between cancer and iterative arterial thrombosis is rarely described. We report three cases of patients with iterative bypass thrombosis in whom cancer was subsequently diagnosed: lung cancer in one patient and hepatocarcinoma and bladder cancer in the others. Smoking and hypertension were risk factors in both patients. The link between arterial thrombosis and cancer is probably multifactorial. In case of iterative arterial bypass thrombosis, the search for cancer is as useful as the control of cardiovascular risk factors and the search for antiphospholipid syndrome, since patient management can be affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Portal vein thrombosis and liver abscess due to Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Güz, Galip; Yeğin, Zeynep Arzu; Doğan, Ibrahim; Hizel, Kenan; Bali, Musa; Sindel, Sükrü

    2006-06-01

    A 26-year-old man was admitted with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound eventually revealed portal vein thrombosis and a pyogenic liver abscess (17x11x11 cm). Lactococcus lactis was isolated from a culture of the abscess material. This organism is not a common pathogen in humans. This is the first published description of portal vein thrombosis and pyogenic liver abscess due to L. lactis.

  1. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Myeloid-related protein-14 regulates deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunmei; Gao, Huiyun; Kessinger, Chase W.; Schmaier, Alvin; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2017-01-01

    Using transcriptional profiling of platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, we identified myeloid-related protein-14 (MRP-14, also known as S100A9) as an acute myocardial infarction gene and reported that platelet MRP-14 binding to platelet CD36 regulates arterial thrombosis. However, whether MRP-14 plays a role in venous thrombosis is unknown. We subjected WT and Mrp-14–deficient (Mrp-14-/-) mice to experimental models of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) by stasis ligation or partial flow restriction (stenosis) of the inferior vena cava. Thrombus weight in response to stasis ligation or stenosis was reduced significantly in Mrp-14-/- mice compared with WT mice. The adoptive transfer of WT neutrophils or platelets, or the infusion of recombinant MRP-8/14, into Mrp-14-/- mice rescued the venous thrombosis defect in Mrp-14-/- mice, indicating that neutrophil- and platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulate venous thrombogenesis. Stimulation of neutrophils with MRP-14 induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and NETs were reduced in venous thrombi harvested from Mrp-14-/- mice and in Mrp-14-/- neutrophils stimulated with ionomycin. Given prior evidence that MRP-14 also regulates arterial thrombosis, but not hemostasis (i.e., reduced bleeding risk), MRP-14 appears to be a particularly attractive molecular target for treating thrombotic cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. PMID:28570273

  3. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadhel, Ehab

    2015-08-20

    Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow's triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present case shows that external jugular vein thrombosis can also be found in persons without malignancy.

  4. Advanced imaging in acute and chronic deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karande, Gita Yashwantrao; Sanchez, Yadiel; Baliyan, Vinit; Mishra, Vishala; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) affecting the extremities is a common clinical problem. Prompt imaging aids in rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment. While ultrasound (US) remains the workhorse of detection of extremity venous thrombosis, CT and MRI are commonly used as the problem-solving tools either to visualize the thrombosis in central veins like superior or inferior vena cava (IVC) or to test for the presence of complications like pulmonary embolism (PE). The cross-sectional modalities also offer improved visualization of venous collaterals. The purpose of this article is to review the established modalities used for characterization and diagnosis of DVT, and further explore promising innovations and recent advances in this field. PMID:28123971

  5. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with acute leukemia at high bleeding risk: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Mariasanta; Valore, Luca; Malato, Alessandra; Saccullo, Giorgia; Vetro, Calogero; Mitra, Maria Enza; Fabbiano, Francesco; Mannina, Donato; Casuccio, Alessandra; Lucchesi, Alessandro; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Candoni, Anna; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Siragusa, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, evaluation of clinically relevant thrombotic complications in patients with acute leukemia (AL) has been poorly investigated. The authors performed a multi-center study to evaluate the management of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients with AL. The intention was to find as clinically relevant the following: symptomatic Venous Thrombosis (VT) occurred in typical (lower limbs) and atypical (cerebral, upper limbs, abdominal, etc) sites with or without pulmonary embolism (PE). Over a population of 1461 patients with AL, 22 cases of symptomatic VTE were recorded in hospitalized patients with a mean age of 54.6 years. The absolute incidence of VTE was 1.5%. VTE occurred during chemotherapy in 17/22 (77.2%) cases, mainly (14/17, 82.3%) during the induction phase. Treatment of acute VTE was based on Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) at full dosage for the first month from diagnosis and reduced dosage (75%) for the following months.

  6. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Clopidogrel (Plavix) reduces the rate of thrombosis in the rat tuck model for microvenous anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael G; Deschler, Daniel G

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of clopidogrel on the rate of thrombosis in a rat model for venous microvascular failure. Forty rats were treated with clopidogrel or saline control via gastric gavage in a randomized, blinded fashion. After allowing for absorption and activation, each femoral vein was isolated and a venous "tuck" procedure was performed. The bleeding time and vessel patency were subsequently evaluated. The rate of vessel thrombosis was decreased in the clopidogrel-treated group compared to controls (7.9% vs 31.4%, P < 0.025). The bleeding time was longer in the clopidogrel-treated group compared to controls (250 +/- 100 seconds vs 173 +/- 59 seconds, P < 0.015). Clopidogrel decreased the rate of thrombosis in the rat model for venous microvascular failure. The use of clopidogrel may reduce the rate of venous thrombosis after free tissue transfer and may be indicated in select patients.

  8. Natural history of deep vein thrombosis in children.

    PubMed

    Spentzouris, G; Gasparis, A; Scriven, R J; Lee, T K; Labropoulos, N

    2015-07-01

    To determine the natural history of deep vein thrombosis in children presented with a first episode in the lower extremity veins. Children with objective diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis were followed up with ultrasound and clinical examination. Risk factors and clinical presentation were prospectively collected. The prevalence of recurrent deep vein thrombosis and the development of signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease were recorded. There were 27 children, 15 males and 12 females, with acute deep vein thrombosis, with a mean age of 4 years, range 0.1-16 years. The median follow-up was 23 months, range 8-62 months. The location of thrombosis involved the iliac and common femoral vein in 18 patients and the femoral and popliteal veins in 9. Only one vein was affected in 7 children, two veins in 14 and more than two veins in 6. Recurrent deep vein thrombosis occurred in two patients, while no patient had a clinically significant pulmonary embolism. Signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease were present at last follow-up in 11 patients. There were nine patients with vein collaterals, but no patient developed varicose veins. Reflux was found in 18 veins of 11 patients. Failure of recanalization was seen in 7 patients and partial recanalization in 11. Iliofemoral thrombosis (p = 0.012) and failure to recanalize (p = 0.036) increased significantly the risk for developing signs and symptoms. Children with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis develop mild chronic venous disease signs and symptoms at mid-term follow-up and are closely related with iliofemoral thrombosis and failure to recanalization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  10. Portal vein thrombosis in the district general hospital: management and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Saadeddin, Abid; Holt, Caroline E M Bruckner; Bateman, Jeffrey M; Ahmed, Monz; Syn, Wyn King

    2009-05-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) refers to a thrombosis that occurs in the extrahepatic portal venous system in the presence or absence of underlying liver disease. The clinical presentation of PVT is extremely variable and there is no absolute consensus on its investigation and management. A paucity of literature examining this clinical entity in the district general hospital is observed. We reviewed the experience of two medium-sized district general hospitals in the UK. Twenty-five patients, who were diagnosed with PVT, were identified from the electronic databases of the two hospitals from 1994 to 2007. Fifty-six percent of patients were females with a median age of 59 years. Seventy-six percent of patients had an identifiable comorbidity at presentation, the most common being chronic liver disease. The most frequently presenting symptom was abdominal pain and distension (60%). Twenty-four percent of patients presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to oesophageal and/or gastric varices. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomographical imaging were the imaging modalities most commonly used to diagnose PVT, although abdominal ultrasound missed 12% of patients subsequently diagnosed by other methods. Fifty percent of patients, who had a thrombophilia screen, were found to have a coagulopathy. Twenty-eight percent of patients were anticoagulated with warfarin with no adverse bleeding events observed. Forty-four percent of patients were placed on an endoscopic variceal band ligation programme. Nine patients died over the study period from either upper gastrointestinal bleeding, end-stage liver failure or biliary sepsis. The acturial 5-year survival was 72%. The mortality from PVT is low and survival is related to the underlying cause. Although the diagnosis of PVT remains uncommon outside the specialist centre, both specialist and nonspecialist physicians must remain mindful of this important condition.

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  12. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  13. Extrinsic cerebral venous sinus obstruction resulting in intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, P; Burn, D; Coulthard, A; Jenkins, A

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man reporting with headache and visual disturbances who was being treated for prostate cancer. Investigations showed him to have intracranial hypertension caused by venous sinus obstruction. Patients with metastatic disease and raised intracranial pressure in the absence of focal signs should be considered as possible cases of venous outflow obstruction.


Keywords: intracranial hypertension; venous sinus thrombosis; malignancy PMID:10616691

  14. Current challenges in diagnostic imaging of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A

    2015-01-01

    Because the clinical diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is nonspecific, integrated diagnostic approaches for patients with suspected venous thromboembolism have been developed over the years, involving both non-invasive bedside tools (clinical decision rules and D-dimer blood tests) for patients with low pretest probability and diagnostic techniques (compression ultrasound for deep-vein thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography for pulmonary embolism) for those with a high pretest probability. This combination has led to standardized diagnostic algorithms with proven safety for excluding venous thrombotic disease. At the same time, it has become apparent that, as a result of the natural history of venous thrombosis, there are special patient populations in which the current standard diagnostic algorithms are not sufficient. In this review, we present 3 evidence-based patient cases to underline recent developments in the imaging diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Status of the Application of Intracranial Venous Sinus Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Yuan, Yongjie; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    The intracranial venous sinus is an important component of vascular disease. Many diseases involve the venous sinus and are accompanied by venous sinus stenosis (VSS), which leads to increased venous pressure and high intracranial pressure. Recent research has focused on stenting as a treatment for VSS related to these diseases. However, a systematic understanding of venous sinus stenting (VS-Stenting) is lacking. Herein, the literature on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), venous pulsatile tinnitus, sinus thrombosis, high draining venous pressure in dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and tumor-caused VSS was reviewed and analyzed to summarize experiences with VS-Stenting as a treatment. The literature review showed that satisfactory therapeutic effects can be achieved through stent angioplasty. Thus, the present study suggests that selective stent release in the venous sinus can effectively treat these diseases and provide new possibilities for treating intracranial vascular disease. PMID:26516306

  16. Predicting the clinical manifestations in necrotizing acute pancreatitis patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Ke, Lu; Yang, Dongliang; Chen, Yizhe; Li, Gang; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    Splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT) is a relatively rare but important complication of necrotizing acute pancreatitis (NAP). Clinical manifestations and severity of this complication in different patients vary greatly, ranging from mild abdominal discomfort even asymptomatic to lethal gastrorrhagia or hepatic failure. The aim of the present study was to develop a model to predict the clinical manifestations of SVT in NAP patients. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of Jinling Hospital. Patients with the presence of both pancreatic necrosis and SVT were selected for possible inclusion. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied using 12 indices including age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (APACHE II), CRP(C - reactive protein) levels, etc to assess potential predictors for symptomatic pancreatic splanchnic venous thrombosis (PSVT) in this cohort. A prognostic nomogram was also applied to develop an easy-to-use prediction model. A total of 104 patients with necrotizing acute pancreatitis (NAP) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) from January 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled for analysis. A quarter of study subjects (26 of 104, 25%) developed variable symptomatic manifestations including variceal bleeding, persistent ascites and enteral nutrition (EN) intolerance during the disease course. In the multivariable regression model, the following factors were found to be associated with the occurrence of symptomatic SVT: Balthazar's computed tomography (CT) score (OR = 1.818; 95% CI: 1.251-2.641; P = 0.002), intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) (OR = 1.172; 95% CI: 1.001-1.251; P = 0.043 and presence of SMVT (OR = 6.946; 95% CI: 2.290-21.074; P = 0.001). A prediction model incorporating these factors demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.842. Balthazar's CT score, IAP and SMVT are predictors of symptomatic

  17. Basilar artery thrombosis in the setting of antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Larry T.; Heithaus, R. Evans; Shamim, Sadat A.; Opatowsky, Michael J.; Layton, Kennith F.

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by arterial or venous thrombosis, recurrent first-trimester pregnancy loss, and multiple additional clinical manifestations. We describe a man with severe atherosclerotic basilar artery stenosis and superimposed in situ thrombus who was found to have antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:24982561

  18. Leukocytes and the natural history of deep vein thrombosis: current concepts and future directions

    PubMed Central

    P, Saha; J, Humphries; B, Modarai; K, Mattock; M, Waltham; C, Evans; A, Ahmad; A, Patel; S, Premaratne; OTA, Lyons; A, Smith

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that inflammatory cells accumulate within the thrombus and surrounding vein wall during the natural history of venous thrombosis. More recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms that regulate this interaction and have confirmed that thrombosis and inflammation are intimately linked. This review outlines our current knowledge of the complex relationship between inflammatory cell activity and venous thrombosis and highlights new areas of research in this field. A better understanding of this relationship could lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets that inhibit thrombus formation or promote its resolution. PMID:21325673

  19. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus.

    PubMed

    Duncumb, Joseph W; Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto; Malata, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  20. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  1. Etiology and VTE risk factor distribution in patients with inferior vena cava thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Schmidt, Henriette; Schindewolf, Marc; Erbe, Matthias; Zgouras, Dimitrios; Grossmann, Ralf; Schambeck, Christian; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2008-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a rare event and data detailing the underlying etiology are scarce. Therefore, we reviewed all available cases of IVC thrombosis consecutively registered in the MAISTHRO (MAin-ISar-THROmbosis) database and described the prevalence of VTE risk factors and other conditions contributing to IVC thrombosis development. 53 patients (35 F, 18 M) with IVC thrombosis aged 12 to 79 years were identified. 40 patients (75.5%) developed thrombosis under the age of 45. Local problems, such as IVC anomalies or external venous compression, contributed to the development of thrombosis in 12 cases (22.6%). Lupus anticoagulants (10.9 vs. 2.3%, p=0.013) and malignoma (17.0 vs. 6.4%, p=0.023) were more prevalent in IVC thrombosis patients compared to 265 age and sex matched controls with isolated lower extremity DVT. No difference was identified with regard to inherited thrombophilia or other known VTE risk factors. Symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred in 32.1% of IVC thrombosis patients compared to 15.2% of controls (p=0.005). Local problems such as IVC anomalies and external venous compression, malignancy and the presence of lupus anticoagulants contribute to the risk of IVC thrombosis. The risk of symptomatic pulmonary embolism in the acute setting is high.

  2. An umbilical venous catheter complication presented as acute abdomen: case report.

    PubMed

    Oztan, Mustafa O; Ilhan, Ozkan; Abay, Elif; Koyluoglu, Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    Umbilical venous catheterization has become a widely accepted intravenous route for premature babies. These catheters allow administration of parenteral nutrition and medication and facilitate blood sampling. Besides these benefits, they also have significant potential complications like portal vein thrombosis, infection, vascular or hepatic injury, arrhythmia and sepsis. One of the rare but important complication is extravasation of the fluids due to misplacement of the catheter. The typical symptoms of this condition are sudden deterioration, hepatic enlargement, hematocrit drop, hypotension and abdominal distension. We herein present a premature newborn with unusual acute abdomen findings suggesting a surgical pathology after the extravasation of total parenteral nutrition into the abdomen. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of portal vein thrombosis following splenectomy.

    PubMed

    van't Riet, M; Burger, J W; van Muiswinkel, J M; Kazemier, G; Schipperus, M R; Bonjer, H J

    2000-09-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of splenectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, treatment and outcome of portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy in a large series of patients. All patients who had undergone a splenectomy in the University Hospital, Rotterdam, between 1984 and 1997 were reviewed retrospectively. Splenectomy that was followed by symptomatic portal vein thrombosis was selected for analysis. Risk factors for portal vein thrombosis were sought. Of 563 splenectomies, nine (2 per cent) were complicated by symptomatic portal vein thrombosis. All these patients had either fever or abdominal pain. Two of 16 patients with a myeloproliferative disorder developed portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy (P = 0.03), and four of 49 patients with haemolytic anaemia (P = 0.005). Treatment within 10 days after splenectomy was successful in all patients, while delayed treatment was ineffective. Portal vein thrombosis should be suspected in a patient with fever or abdominal pain after splenectomy. Patients with a myeloproliferative disorder or haemolytic anaemia are at higher risk; they might benefit from early detection and could have routine Doppler ultrasonography after splenectomy.

  4. The Arm is Not the Leg: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Adam M; Dickey, John

    2017-05-01

    Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) involves thrombosis of the deep veins of the arm as they enter the thorax. They are increasing in frequency, largely due to the rising use of central venous catheters and implantable cardiac devices, and represent more than 10% of all DVT cases, Upper extremity deep venous thrombosis has been historically misunderstood when compared to lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). Their associated disease states may carry devastating complications, with mortality rates often higher than that of LEDVT. Thus, education on recognition, classification and management is critical to avoid long-term sequelae and mortality from UEDVT. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-05.asp].

  5. A novel mutation in exon 2 of FGB caused by c.221G>T † substitution, predicting the replacement of the native Arginine at position 74 with a Leucine (p.Arg74Leu † ) in a proband from a Kurdish family with dysfibrinogenaemia and familial venous and arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Shlebak, Abdul A; Katsarou, Alexia D; Adams, George; Fernando, Fiona

    2017-02-01

    Dysfibrinogenaemias may present in either congenital or acquired form and are disorders of fibrinogen structure which may or may not be associated with abnormal function. More than 100 point mutations with single amino acid substitutions have been identified in over 400 families. These lead to defective DNA in the translated fibrinogen molecule. Such cases have improved our understanding of the fibrinogen-fibrin structure. Six members of a consanguineous family including a female proband, a female sibling, three male siblings and a daughter, with ages between 29 years and 53 years presented with early onset venous and premature arterial thromboembolic disease were investigated for a pro-thrombotic tendency associated with dysfibrinogenaemia. The family was investigated using standard coagulation assays and DNA sequencing of the genes encoding the FGA, FGB and FGG. All cases have dysfibrinogenaemia with a fibrinogen level 1.4 to 1.5 (1.9-4.3 g/L). Thrombophilia testing (including AT, PS & PC, F5 G1691A (FV Leiden)/F2 (prothombin G20210A) genotypes, homocysteine, antiphosphlipid antibody, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria by flow cytometry and Janus Kinase-2 (exon 14)) were normal. PCR amplification and sequencing of exon 2 of FBG revealed a heterozygous mutation for a c.221G> T † substitution, predicting the replacement of the native Arginine at position 74 with a Leucine (p.Arg74Leu † ). In silico analysis of p.Arg74Leu strongly support pathogenicity. A novel mutation was identified in exon 2 of FGB caused by c.221G> T † substitution, predicting the replacement of Arginine at position 74 with a Leucine (p.Arg74Leu † ) in a proband from a Kurdish family with dysfibrinogenaemia and familial venous and arterial thrombosis.

  6. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  7. Extensive deep vein thrombosis following prolonged gaming (‘gamer’s thrombosis’): a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The average time spent playing video games is increasing. Prolonged immobility associated with gaming may therefore be an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis associated with prolonged playing of PlayStation® games. Case presentation A 31-year-old Caucasian man, an exterior painter, presented with a three-day history of left leg pain and swelling after playing PlayStation® games for almost eight hours a day for four consecutive days. Doppler ultrasound of the left leg confirmed extensive left leg deep venous thrombosis requiring thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Conclusions Video gaming should be considered a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Further studies are needed to estimate the degree of risk associated with prolonged periods of playing video games, and education for preventing venous thrombosis should be provided to gamers. PMID:24192285

  8. Free Flap Survival Despite Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kiya, Koichiro; Seike, Shien; Hosokawa, Ko

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Microvascular free tissue transfer is one of the most common techniques of reconstruction for complex head and neck surgical defects. Generally, venous thrombosis is more likely to occur than arterial thrombosis in vascular anastomosis. Thus, recipient veins must be chosen carefully. Although the internal jugular vein is preferred as a recipient vein by many microsurgeons, internal jugular vein thrombosis is a potential complication, as shown in our report. Therefore, we consider that the external jugular vein still is an option as a recipient for venous anastomosis and that it is better to perform multiple vein anastomoses with 2 different venous systems, such as the internal and external jugular systems, than anastomoses within the same venous system. PMID:29464172

  9. Newly-recognized roles of factor XIII in thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, James R.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

    2017-01-01

    Arterial and venous thrombosis are major contributors to coagulation-associated morbidity and mortality. Greater understanding of mechanisms leading to thrombus formation and stability is expected to lead to improved treatment strategies. Factor XIII (FXIII) is a transglutaminase found in plasma and platelets. During thrombosis, activated FXIII crosslinks fibrin and promotes thrombus stability. Recent studies have provided new information about FXIII activity during coagulation and its effects on clot composition and function. These findings reveal newly-recognized roles for FXIII in thrombosis. Herein, we review published literature on FXIII biology and effects on fibrin structure and stability, epidemiologic data associating FXIII with thrombosis, and evidence from animal models indicating FXIII has an essential role in determining thrombus stability, composition, and size. PMID:27056150