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Sample records for abdominal visceral adipose

  1. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  2. Predominance of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Reflects the Presence of Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Masayoshi; Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Misaka, Tomofumi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common feature of aging and is related to coronary artery disease. Although abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays fundamental roles in coronary artery disease, the relationship between abdominal VAT and AVC is not fully understood. Methods. We investigated 259 patients who underwent cardiac and abdominal computed tomography (CT). AVC was defined as calcified lesion on the aortic valve by CT. %abdominal VAT was calculated as abdominal VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Results. AVC was detected in 75 patients, and these patients showed higher %abdominal VAT (44% versus 38%, p < 0.05) compared to those without AVC. When the cutoff value of %abdominal VAT was set at 40.9%, the area under the curve to diagnose AVC was 0.626. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.120, 95% CI 1.078–1.168, p < 0.01), diabetes (OR 2.587, 95% CI 1.323–5.130, p < 0.01), and %abdominal VAT (OR 1.032, 95% CI 1.003–1.065, p < 0.05) were independent risk factors for AVC. The net reclassification improvement value for detecting AVC was increased when %abdominal VAT was added to the model: 0.5093 (95% CI 0.2489–0.7697, p < 0.01). Conclusion. We determined that predominance of VAT is associated with AVC. PMID:26904670

  3. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  4. Susceptibility Variants for Waist Size in Relation to Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Albright, Cheryl L.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D.; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that may contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women were selected among study participants of Multiethnic Cohort, who were of ages 60–65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 40 kg/m2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (p=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (p=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (p=0.03) and percent liver fat (p=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size may also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants may be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  5. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  6. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  7. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Aric A.; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S.; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30+, 50+ and 90+ minutes after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p’s<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk. PMID:24060585

  8. Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: The Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different aspects of diet may be differentially related to body fat distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between whole- and refined- grain intake and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We examined the cross-sectional associati...

  9. Improvement in insulin sensitivity following a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in viscerally obese men: contribution of abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to quantify the effect of a 1-year healthy eating-physical activity/exercise lifestyle modification program on insulin sensitivity in viscerally obese men classified according to their glucose tolerance status and to evaluate the respective contributions of changes in body fat distribution vs changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. Abdominally obese, dyslipidemic men (waist circumference ≥90 cm, triglycerides ≥1.69 mmol/L, and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.03 mmol/L) were recruited. The 1-year intervention/evaluation was completed by 104 men. Body weight, composition, and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry/computed tomography. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk profile were measured. After 1 year, insulin sensitivity improved in association with decreases in both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adiposity (SAT) as well as with the improvement in CRF, regardless of baseline glucose tolerance. Further analyses were performed according to changes in glucose tolerance status: improvement (group I, n = 39), no change (group N, n = 50), or worsening (group W, n = 15) after 1 year. Groups I and N improved their insulin sensitivity and their CRF, whereas group W did not, while losing less VAT than groups I and N. Multiple regressions showed that reduction in VAT was associated with an improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas reduction in SAT was rather associated with improvement of the insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda. Changes in CRF were not independently associated with changes in indices of plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis. A 1-year lifestyle intervention improved plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis in viscerally obese men, including those with normal glucose tolerance status at baseline. Changes in SAT and VAT but not in CRF appeared to mediate these improvements

  10. Association of food consumption with total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in a Northern German population.

    PubMed

    Rüttgers, Daniela; Fischer, Karina; Koch, Manja; Lieb, Wolfgang; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-12-14

    Excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases; further, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and the ratio of both (VAT:SAAT ratio) have been discussed as potentially detrimental. Information about the association between diet and adipose tissue is scarce. This study aimed to identify food group intake associated with VAT and SAAT and the VAT:SAAT ratio in a Northern German population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 344 men and 241 women who underwent an MRI to quantify total volumes of VAT and SAAT. Intake of fourteen food groups was assessed with a self-administered 112-item FFQ. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity, intake of other food groups and mutual adjustment for VAT and SAAT were calculated to analyse the associations between standardised food group intake and VAT and SAAT, or the VAT:SAAT ratio. Intakes of potatoes (P=0·043) and cakes (P=0·003) were positively and inversely, respectively, associated with both VAT and SAAT. By contrast, intake of cereals was negatively associated with VAT (P=0·045) only, whereas intakes of eggs (P=0·006) and non-alcoholic beverages (P=0·042) were positively associated with SAAT only. The association between eggs and non-alcoholic beverages with SAAT remained significant after further consideration of VAT. Intake of non-alcoholic beverages was also inversely associated with the VAT:SAAT ratio (P=0·001). Our analysis adds to the evidence that intake of foods is independently associated with VAT or SAAT volumes. PMID:26439793

  11. Breastfeeding and Subsequent Maternal Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Conroy, Molly B.; Tepper, Ping G.; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim C.

    2013-01-01

    Women gain visceral fat during pregnancy. Studies examining the impact of breastfeeding on maternal body composition are inconclusive. We examined the extent to which breastfeeding was associated with visceral adiposity in a sample of US women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 351 women aged 45–58 years, who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and had not used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy in the 3 months prior to enrollment in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)-Heart Study (2001–2003). History of breastfeeding was self-reported. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. Among premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers, those who never breastfed had 28% greater visceral adiposity (95% confidence interval (CI): 11–49, P = 0.001), 4.7% greater waist-hip ratio (95% CI: 1.9–7.4, P < 0.001), and 6.49 cm greater waist circumference (95% CI: 3.71–9.26, P < 0.001) than mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months in models adjusting for study site; age; parity; years since last birth; socioeconomic, lifestyle, and family history variables; early adult BMI; and current BMI. In comparison to women who were nulliparous, mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months had similar amounts of visceral fat (P > 0.05). In contrast, premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers who had never breastfed had significantly greater visceral adiposity (42% (95% CI: 17–70), P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.15 cm (95% CI: 2.75–9.56), P < 0.001), and waist-hip ratio (3.7% (95% CI: 0.69–6.8), P = 0.02) than nulliparous women. No significant relationships were observed among late peri-menopausal/postmenopausal women. In conclusion, until menopause, mothers who did not breastfeed all of their children for ≥3 months exhibit significantly greater amounts of metabolically active visceral fat than mothers who had breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months. PMID:21720436

  12. Estimation of CT-Derived Abdominal Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Depots from Anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V.; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Heasman, John; Willis, Joseph; Godsland, Ian F.; Forouhi, Nita; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D.; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT) adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry. Objective We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT. Design 669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70±7 years) underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means. Results South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference), model fit was better in men (R2 range 0.59-0.71) than women (range 0.35-0.59). Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference) improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively). For basic SAT equations, R2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%. Conclusion We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available. PMID:24069381

  13. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity measurements in adults: Influence of measurement site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess abdominal adiposity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography can be used to examine the visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) components of abdominal adiposity, but it is unresolved whether single-slice or multi-slice protocols are needed. Nine computed tomograp...

  14. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges' g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z = 10.35, P < 0.05). Significant moderator effects of gender (Z = −2.90) and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z = −2.17) were found for visceral fat (P < 0.05), but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z = −5.10) and subcutaneous (Z = −7.09) abdominal adiposity volumes (P < 0.05). Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics) were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity. PMID:25525511

  15. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter to Measure Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight or Obese Adolescent Children and Its Role as A Marker of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yashoda, H.T.; Boraiah, Ganga; Vishwa, Suma

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of sagittal abdominal diameter using a revalidated caliper is simple, inexpensive, non-invasive method. It strongly correlates with insulin resistance and can be used as a surrogate marker to predict risk for Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Aim To assess visceral abdominal fat by measuring sagittal abdominal diameter using sliding calipers and to predict insulin resistance in obese or overweight adolescent children. Study design Explorative study for Paediatric age group among over weight and obese children aged 10-18 years in urban population in a Tertiary Care Centre. Materials and Methods Paediatric population satisfying ADA guidelines for diagnosis of prediabetes were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements with SAD were recorded. Blood was collected to investigate for prediabetes and insulin resistance using HOMA-IR. Results Out of 924 subjects who gave assent to participate in study 108 fulfilled ADA criteria. 33 subjects who didn’t come for the follow up were excluded. Out of 75 subjects 12 were detected to have insulin resistance (16%) and 63 were normal (84%). Pearson’s partial correlation of HOMA-IR and OGTT with SAD has demonstrated it to be better correlation with Insulin Resistance (IR) than other anthropometric measurements. Fasting Glucose correlated better with Waist Hip Circumference. Conclusion Insulin Resistance was diagnosed in 16% of the population and these had high levels of insulin resistance. SAD in relation to glucose metabolism, had a better correlation with OGTT followed by HOMA-IR and fasting Insulin. SAD with anthropometric measurements had better correlation all the parameters other than Waist Circumference, which had negative correlation. SAD can be used in evaluation of obese or overweight children for evaluation. PMID:26673888

  16. Fully automated adipose tissue measurement on abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Sussman, Daniel L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Obesity has become widespread in America and has been associated as a risk factor for many illnesses. Adipose tissue (AT) content, especially visceral AT (VAT), is an important indicator for risks of many disorders, including heart disease and diabetes. Measuring adipose tissue (AT) with traditional means is often unreliable and inaccurate. CT provides a means to measure AT accurately and consistently. We present a fully automated method to segment and measure abdominal AT in CT. Our method integrates image preprocessing which attempts to correct for image artifacts and inhomogeneities. We use fuzzy cmeans to cluster AT regions and active contour models to separate subcutaneous and visceral AT. We tested our method on 50 abdominal CT scans and evaluated the correlations between several measurements.

  17. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Schjerling, Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus; Støckel, Mikael; Mikines, Kári J; Dela, Flemming

    2010-06-15

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled respiration was measured after addition of FCCP. Visceral fat contained more mitochondria per milligram of tissue than subcutaneous fat, but the cells were smaller. Robust, stable oxygen fluxes were found in both tissues, and coupled state 3 (GMOS(D)) and uncoupled respiration were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in visceral (0.95 +/- 0.05 and 1.15 +/- 0.06 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) compared with subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P < 0.05) lower mitochondrial respiration. Substrate control ratios were higher and uncoupling control ratio lower (P < 0.05) in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that visceral fat is bioenergetically more active and more sensitive to mitochondrial substrate supply than subcutaneous fat. Oxidative phosphorylation has a higher relative activity in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:20421291

  18. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population) has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24829577

  19. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  20. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  1. Familial aggregation of abdominal visceral fat level: results from the Quebec family study.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Lemieux, S; Rice, T; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of familial aggregation in abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Four measures of abdominal adipose tissue, obtained from an abdominal scan between the fourth and fifth Lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) taken in 366 adult subjects from 100 French-Canadian nuclear families, were considered in this study. Total abdominal fat, AVF, subcutaneous abdominal fat, obtained by computing the difference between total and AVF tissue areas, and the visceral to total abdominal fat ratio were measured. Spouses, parent-offspring, and sibling correlations were computed by maximum likelihood methods after adjustment of the four phenotypes for age and for age and total fat mass (FM) derived from underwater weighing. Significant familial aggregation was found for all phenotypes, whether adjusted or not for body FM. However, after adjustment of data for body FM, in addition to age, all spouse correlations became nonsignificant, suggesting that the familial aggregation of abdominal fat is primarily genetic. Heritability estimates reached 42% and 56% for subcutaneous fat and AVF, respectively. These results suggest that genetic factors are major determinants of the familial aggregation observed in the amount of abdominal fat, irrespective of total body fat content, and that AVF seems more influenced by genetic factors than abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. These findings imply that some individuals are more at risk than others to exhibit the various metabolic complications associated with upper-body obesity because of their inherited tendency to store abdominal fat in the visceral depot rather than in the subcutaneous depot. PMID:8606647

  2. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p < 0.001) and maximum lifespan (p < 0.04) and significant reduction in the incidence of severe renal disease (p < 0.01). CR rats demonstrated the greatest mean and maximum lifespan (p < 0.001) and the lowest rate of death as compared to AL-fed rats (0.13). Taken together, these observations provide the most direct evidence to date that a reduction in fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902

  3. Comparison of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Area Measured by Computed Tomography with That Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method in Korean Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hwa; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Soyeon; Ku, Eu Jeong; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Yoon Ji; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the concordance between visceral fat area (VFA) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) or computed tomography (CT) in Korean subjects with a wide range in age and body mass index (BMI). In 1006 individuals (mean age 55.2 ± 11.8 (19–87) years, mean BMI 26.0 ± 3.5 (17–46) kg/m2, 48.9% men), VFA quantified by CT was compared with VFA using multifrequency BIA machines within 15 days. Concordance rates were compared by age or BMI using correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Using BIA data, we established a regression formula to reflect CT-VFA. The mean VFAs by CT and BIA were 131.9 ± 57.3 cm2 and 110.5 ± 33.9 cm2, respectively (r = 0.605, p < 0.001). The mean difference was 21.4 ± 45.6 cm2, tending to increase with BMI. In women with BMI <25 kg/m2 or age <50 years, the VFAs by BIA were similar to those by CT (ICC = 0.496 in BMI <25 kg/m2 and ICC = 0.638 in age <50 years). However, the difference was greater in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or age ≥50 years. Applying our formula, the difference between estimations decreased to 0.2 ± 38.2cm2. VFA estimated by BIA correlated well with that by CT, but a more accurate formula is needed to match CT data, particularly in older men or subjects with a high BMI. PMID:26694460

  4. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karina; Rüttgers, Daniela; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA) in the accumulation of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAAT) abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2). Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT) were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET), or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02) than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07), but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05) than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3). Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3) and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3) in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA) or second (4.0–6.8 h/wk VPA) tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA) tertile (P ≤ 0.016; Ptrend ≤ 0.0005). They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥4.0–6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT. PMID

  5. Clinical significance of visceral adiposity assessed by computed tomography: A Japanese perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Miwa; Kishida, Ken; Nakamura, Tadashi; Yoshizumi, Tohru; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, rather than total amount of fat, is linked to obesity-related disorders. Visceral adiposity is an important component of obesity-related disorders in Japanese individuals with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. In 1983, our group reported techniques for body fat analysis using computed tomography (CT) and established the concept of visceral fat obesity in which intra-abdominal fat accumulation is an important factor in the development of obesity-related complications, such as diabetes, lipid disorders, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Our group also established ideal imaging conditions for determining abdominal fat area at the umbilical level CT scan. Visceral fat area (VFA) measured in a single slice at L4 level correlated significantly with the total abdominal visceral fat volume measured on multislice CT scan. In a large-scale study of a Japanese population, the mean number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia) was greater than 1.0 at 100 cm2 of VFA, irrespective of gender, age and body mass index. Our group also demonstrated that reduction of visceral fat accumulation subsequent to voluntary lifestyle modification, “Hokenshido”, correlated with a decrease in the number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors. It is important to select the most appropriate subjects from the general population (e.g., non-obese subjects with a cluster of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome) that are most suitable for body weight reduction, with the goal of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25071881

  6. IMMUNOLOGICAL GOINGS-ON IN VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation of visceral adipose tissue, and systemically, is a critical link between recent strikingly parallel rises in the incidence of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Macrophages have been recognized for some time to be critical participants in obesity-induced inflammation of adipose-tissue. Of late, a score of other cell-types of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system have been suggested to play a positive or negative role in adipose-tissue infiltrates. This piece reviews the existing data on these new participants; discusses experimental uncertainties, inconsistencies and complexities; and puts forward a minimalist synthetic scheme. PMID:23747244

  7. Novel Approaches to Targeting Visceral and Hepatic Adiposities in HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tien, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Visceral and hepatic adiposities have been associated with both cardiovascular and liver disease and are of concern in HIV-infected persons in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of therapeutic targets to reduce visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons has been slow, because of early reports that attributed the excess adiposity to specific antiretroviral drugs. Visceral adiposity was initially thought to occur as part of a protease inhibitor-induced "HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome." Subsequent studies show that visceral adiposity is likely a result of effective ART, recovery of health, and the normal aging process. Visceral adiposity is an established risk factor for hepatic adiposity. Identifying drug targets for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is under active investigation. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the pathogenesis of visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons, current therapeutic strategies, and novel interventions in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. PMID:26493063

  8. Visceral adipose tissue area as an independent risk factor for elevated liver enzyme in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwark, Min Sun; Kim, Won; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Chronic elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are associated with body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated liver enzyme levels and the visceral tissue area in subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).An observational cohort study was conducted with subjects undergoing general health examinations. To evaluate the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area, a computed tomography scan was performed. NAFLD was diagnosed if a person demonstrated fatty liver on ultrasonography without a history of significant alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease. Abnormal liver enzyme levels were based on ALT elevations according to the updated Asian definition.Of the 5100 subjects, 3712 (72.8%) met the inclusion criteria, and NAFLD was found in 1185 subjects. Elevated ALT values were positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue area. These relationships were attenuated, although they remained significant in a dose-dependent manner, after adjusting for multiple liver injury risk factors. In addition, when body mass index and subcutaneous and visceral tissue areas were finally considered in combination, only visceral adipose tissue remained independently associated with elevated ALT levels in the ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD group (P for trend <0.001 for men and women).Elevated ALT levels were independently and dose-dependently associated with visceral fat accumulation in the healthy general population, especially in ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD patients. These results reemphasize the importance of visceral fat in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25738475

  9. Uteroplacental Insufficiency Increases Visceral Adiposity and Visceral Adipose PPARγ2 Expression in Male Rat Offspring Prior to the Onset of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Joss-Moore, Lisa A; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S; Moore, Barry; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Desai, Mina; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Lane, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes individuals to adult onset metabolic morbidities, including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. An underlying component of the development of these morbidities is adipose dysfunction; specifically a disproportionately abundant visceral adipose tissue. We hypothesize that IUGR will increase rats visceral adiposity and visceral expression of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipogenesis. To test this hypothesis we employed a well described UPI induced IUGR rat model. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose levels were measured in adolescent control and IUGR rats using MRI. Expression of PPARγ mRNA and protein, as well as PPARγ target genes, was measured in neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. UPI induced IUGR increases the relative amount of visceral adipose tissue in male, but not female, adolescent rats in conjunction with an increase in PPARγ2mRNA and protein in male visceral adipose. Importantly, these effects are seen prior to the onset of overt obesity. We conclude that increased PPARγ2 expression in VAT of IUGR males is associated with increased visceral adiposity. We speculate that the increase in visceral adiposity may contribute to the metabolic morbidities experienced by this population. PMID:20227202

  10. Predicting visceral adipose tissue by MRI using DXA and anthropometry in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laddu, Deepika R.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Sato, Tetsuya; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue, independent of total adiposity, is associated with development of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in children and adults. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for estimating visceral adiposity (VAT) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using anthropometric variables and measures of abdominal fat mass from DXA in adolescents and young adults. Methods Cross-sectional data was collected from a multiethnic population of seventy males and females, aged 12–25 years, with BMI ranging from 14.5–38.1 kg/m2. Android (AFM; android region as defined by manufacturers instruction) and lumbar L1-L4 regional fat masses were assessed using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy; GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI, USA). Criterion measures of intra-abdominal visceral fat were obtained using single-slice MRI (General Electric Signa Model 5x 1.5T) and VAT area was analyzed at the level OF L4–L5. Image analysis was carried out using ZedView 3.1. Results DXA measures of AFM (r=0.76) and L1-L4 (r=0.71) were significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with MRI-measured VAT. DXA AFM, together with gender and weight, explained 62% of the variance in VAT (SEE=10.06 cm2). DXA L1-L4 fat mass with gender explained 54% of the variance in VAT (SEE=11.08 cm2). Addition of the significant interaction, gender × DXA fat mass, improved prediction of VAT from AFM (Radj2=0.61, SEE=10.10cm2) and L1-L4 (Radj2=0.59, SEE=10.39cm2). Conclusion These results demonstrate that VAT is accurately estimated from regional fat masses measured by DXA in adolescents and young adults. PMID:26097436

  11. Dysregulation of the Peripheral and Adipose Tissue Endocannabinoid System in Human Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sádor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R.; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes. PMID:17065342

  12. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  13. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  14. Characterization of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transcriptome and Biological Pathways in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: Evidence for Pregnancy-Related Regional-Specific Differences in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Romero, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Study Design The transcriptome of paired visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues from pregnant women at term and matched non-pregnant women (n = 11) was profiled with the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array. Differential expression of selected genes was validated with the use of quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Six hundred forty-four transcripts from 633 known genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.1; fold-change >1.5), while 42 exons from 36 genes showed differential usage (difference in FIRMA scores >2 and FDR<0.1) between the visceral and subcutaneous fat of pregnant women. Fifty-six known genes were differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant subcutaneous fat and three genes in the visceral fat. Enriched biological processes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant women were mostly related to inflammation. Conclusion The transcriptome of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots reveals pregnancy-related gene expression and splicing differences in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, for the first time, alternative splicing in adipose tissue has been associated with regional differences and human parturition. PMID:26636677

  15. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  16. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  17. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  18. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine; Lohmann, Tobias; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  19. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype. PMID:26180183

  20. Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Conway, J M; Yanovski, S Z; Avila, N A; Hubbard, V S

    1995-04-01

    Fat distribution and metabolic variables were studied in 8 black and 10 white age- and weight-matched obese women undergoing a 6-mo weight-reducing regimen. Fat patterning was determined by using anthropometry and computed tomography to quantitate total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 levels of the lumbar spine, before, during, and after a modified fast. Black women had smaller depots of VAT than white women at both the L2-L3 (P = 0.004) and L4-L5 (P = 0.054) sites. Differences persisted after an average 17.2-kg weight loss. Although waist-hip ratio was similar in both groups, black women had 23% less VAT than white women (P = 0.007). Black women had significantly lower plasma glucose (P = 0.031) and triglycerides (P = 0.006) with significantly higher plasma high-density-lipoprotein concentrations (P < 0.001). Data from this study suggest that racial differences exist in VAT and metabolic risk factors for obesity-related illness. PMID:7702017

  1. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Lesser, I A; Dick, T J M; Guenette, J A; Hoogbruin, A; Mackey, D C; Singer, J; Lear, S A

    2015-01-01

    In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55) from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI). Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8-21.8 mL/kg/min), women in the highest tertile (25.0-27.7 mL/kg/min) had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05). We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women. PMID:26844150

  2. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  3. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women

  4. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ho Cheol; Hwang, Soon Young; Park, Soyeon; Ryu, Ja Young; Choi, Hae Yoon; Yoo, Hye Jin; Seo, Ji-A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored. Method and Results We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR), the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET) in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP), whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR) values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001), whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003). Conclusion This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles. PMID:26270050

  5. Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats: can resistance training re-establish angiogenesis in visceral adipose tissue?

    PubMed Central

    do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Camila; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats.

  6. Chromosome localization analysis of genes strongly expressed in human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Sheng; Song, Huai-Dong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Hu, Ren-Ming; Han, Ze-Guang; Chen, Jia-Lun

    2002-06-01

    To understand fully the physiologic functions of visceral adipose tissue and to provide a basis for the identification of novel genes related to obesity and insulin resistance, the gene expression profiling of human visceral adipose tissue was established by using cDNA array. The characterization and chromosome localization of 400 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue were analyzed by searching PubMed, UniGene, the Human Genome Draft Database, and Location Data Base. Two hundred eighty-nine clones were classified into known genes among the 400 ESTs strongly expressed in the tissue. Among them, <20% have been previously reported to be expressed in adipose tissue. The chromosome localization of 389 ESTs strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue showed that their relative abundance was significantly increased on chromosomes 1, 16, 19, 20, and 22 compared with the expected distribution of the same number of random genes. The intrachromosome distribution of the genes strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue was concentrated in certain regions, such as 1p36.2-1p36.3, 6p21.3-6p22.1, 19p13.3 and 19q13.1. Among them, the region of 1p36.2-1p36.3 appeared to be specific for visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, some genes playing an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin signal transduction and adipocyte differentiation, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors; CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteina; and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 2 (p85beta), were also localized in the concentrated regions, which may provide clues to identifying novel genes closely related to adipocyte function with potential pathophysiologic implications. PMID:12166625

  7. Visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related brain changes and ischemic brain damage in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin A; Jeong, Sae Im; Kim, Minsuk; Yoon, Joo Chun; Kim, Hee-Sun; Park, Eun-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Visceral adipose tissue is accumulated with aging. An increase in visceral fat accompanied by low-grade inflammation is associated with several adult-onset diseases. However, the effects of visceral adipose tissue inflammation on the normal and ischemic brains of aged are not clearly defined. To examine the role of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory cytokines in the serum, visceral adipose tissue, and brain as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in aged male mice (20 months) underwent sham or visceral fat removal surgery compared with the young mice (2.5 months). Additionally, ischemic brain injury was compared in young and aged mice with sham and visceral fat removal surgery. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in examined organs were increased in aged mice compared with the young mice, and these levels were reduced in the mice with visceral fat removal. Increased BBB permeability with reduced expression of tight junction proteins in aged sham mice were also decreased in mice with visceral fat removal. After focal ischemic injury, aged mice with visceral fat removal showed a reduction in infarct volumes, BBB permeability, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic brain compared with sham mice, although the neurological outcomes were not significantly improved. In addition, further upregulated visceral adipose tissue inflammation in response to ischemic brain injury was attenuated in mice with visceral fat removal. These results suggest that visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related changes in the brain and contributes to the ischemic brain damage in the aged mice. We suggest that visceral adiposity should be considered as a factor affecting brain health and ischemic brain damage in the aged population. PMID:26184082

  8. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), develops due not only to a single cardiovascular risk factor but to a variety of complex factors. The concept of the multiple cardiometabolic risk factor clustering syndrome has been proposed as a highly atherogenic state, independent of hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Body fat distribution, especially visceral fat accumulation, is a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome, with dysfunctional adipocytes and dysregulated production of adipocytokines (hypoadiponectinemia). Medical research has focused on visceral adiposity as an important component of the syndrome in Japanese subjects with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. For the prevention of ACVD at least in Japan, it might be practical to stratify subjects with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease based on visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat reduction through health promotion programs using risk factor-oriented approaches may be effective in reducing ACVD events, as well as producing improvement in risks and hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses visceral adiposity as a key player in the syndrome. Visceral fat reduction with life-style modification is a potentially useful strategy in the prevention of ACVD in patients with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21612331

  9. Visceral adiposity and its anatomical distribution as predictors of the metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factor levels

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W; Reed, Derek; Rogers, Nikki; Sun, Shumei S; Lee, Miryoung; Choh, Audrey C; Couch, William; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, W Cameron; Siervogel, Roger M; Towne, Bradford

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the recognition that central obesity plays a critical role in chronic disease, few large-scale imaging studies have documented human variation in abdominal adipose tissue patterning. Objective We aimed to compare the associations between abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and visceral abdominal tissue (VAT), which were measured at different locations across the abdomen, and the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS; National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Design This study included 713 non-Hispanic whites aged 18–86 y, in whom VAT and ASAT were assessed by using multiple-image magnetic resonance imaging. The anatomical position of the magnetic resonance image containing the maximum VAT area for each subject was used as a measure of VAT patterning. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relation of VAT, ASAT, and VAT patterning to cardiometabolic risk. Results VAT mass was a stronger predictor of the MS than was ASAT mass, but ASAT mass (and other measures of subcutaneous adiposity) had signification interactions with VAT mass, whereby elevated ASAT reduced the probability of MS among men with high VAT (P = 0.0008). There was variation across image locations in the association of VAT area with the MS in men, and magnetic resonance images located 4–8 cm above L4–L5 provided the strongest correlations between VAT area and cardiometabolic risk factors. Subjects whose maximum VAT area was higher in the abdomen had higher LDL-cholesterol concentrations (R2 = 0.07, P = 0.0001), independent of age and adiposity. Conclusion Further studies are needed to confirm the effects of VAT patterning on cardiometabolic risk. PMID:18996861

  10. Cellularity and Adipogenic Profile of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue From Obese Adolescents: Association With Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Eszlinger, Markus; Narayan, Deepak; Liu, Teresa; Bazuine, Merlijn; Cali, Anna M.G.; D'Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Shulman, Gerald I.; Cushman, Samuel W.; Sherman, Arthur; Caprio, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored whether the distribution of adipose cell size, the estimated total number of adipose cells, and the expression of adipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue are linked to the phenotype of high visceral and low subcutaneous fat depots in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 38 adolescents with similar degrees of obesity agreed to have a subcutaneous periumbilical adipose tissue biopsy, in addition to metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) and imaging studies (MRI, DEXA, 1H-NMR). Subcutaneous periumbilical adipose cell-size distribution and the estimated total number of subcutaneous adipose cells were obtained from tissue biopsy samples fixed in osmium tetroxide and analyzed by Beckman Coulter Multisizer. The adipogenic capacity was measured by Affymetrix GeneChip and quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS Subjects were divided into two groups: high versus low ratio of visceral to visceral + subcutaneous fat (VAT/[VAT+SAT]). The cell-size distribution curves were significantly different between the high and low VAT/(VAT+SAT) groups, even after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity (MANOVA P = 0.035). Surprisingly, the fraction of large adipocytes was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), along with the estimated total number of large adipose cells (P < 0.05), while the mean diameter was increased (P < 0.01). From the microarray analyses emerged a lower expression of lipogenesis/adipogenesis markers (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase) in the group with high VAT/(VAT+SAT), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents. PMID:20805387

  11. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Concepción M.; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Tofe, Inés; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Cañete, Ramón; Gil, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT) is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT) between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples). Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05), 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2), oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1), adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1) and inflammation (ANXA1); by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity. PMID:25856673

  12. Visceral adipose tissue: emerging role of gluco- and mineralocorticoid hormones in the setting of cardiometabolic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Boscaro, Marco; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Ronconi, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental lines of evidence have highlighted the detrimental effects of visceral adipose tissue excess on cardiometabolic parameters. Besides, recent findings have shown the effects of gluco-and mineralocorticoid hormones on adipose tissue and have also underscored the interplay existing between such adrenal steroids and their respective receptors in the modulation of adipose tissue biology. While the fundamental role played by glucocorticoids on adipocyte differentiation and storage was already well known, the relevance of the mineralocorticoids in the physiology of the adipose organ is of recent acquisition. The local and systemic renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) acting on adipose tissue seems to contribute to the development of the cardiometabolic phenotype so that its modulation can have deep impact on human health. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of the adipose organ is of crucial importance in order to identify possible therapeutic approaches that can avoid the development of such cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae. PMID:22804097

  13. Expression of clock genes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Zanquetta, Melissa Moreira; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Alonso, Paulino Alberto; Guimarães, Ligia Maria Martins Vaz; Meyer, Alberto; Villares, Sandra Mara Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythms are associated with obesity and metabolic alterations, but little is known about the participation of peripheral circadian clock machinery in these processes. The aim of the present study was to analyze RNA expression of clock genes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues of male and female subjects in AM (morning) and PM (afternoon) periods, and its interactions with body mass index (BMI). Ninety-one subjects (41 ± 11 yrs of age) presenting a wide range of BMI (21.4 to 48.6 kg/m(2)) were included. SAT and VAT biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing abdominal surgeries. Clock genes expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR. The only clock gene that showed higher expression (p < .0001) in SAT in comparison to VAT was PER1 of female (372%) and male (326%) subjects. Different patterns of expression between the AM and PM periods were observed, in particular REV-ERBα, which was reduced (p < .05) at the PM period in SAT and VAT of both women and men (women: ∼53% lower; men: ∼78% lower), whereas CLOCK expression was not altered. Relationships between clock genes were different in SAT vs. VAT. BMI was negatively correlated with SATPER1 (r = -.549; p = .001) and SATPER2 (r = -.613; p = .0001) and positively with VATCLOCK (r = .541; p = .001) and VATBMAL1 (r = .468; p = .007) only in women. These data suggest that the circadian clock machinery of adipose tissue depots differs between female and male subjects, with a sex-specific effect observed for some genes. BMI correlated with clock genes, but at this moment it is not possible to establish the cause-effect relationship. PMID:22390238

  14. Characterization of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and their function in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Andreas; Friemel, Alexandra; Fornoff, Friderike; Adjan, Mouhib; Solbach, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and thus considered useful for regenerative medicine. However, this differentiation feature seems to be associated with tumor initiation and metastasis raising safety concerns, which requires further investigation. In this study, we isolated adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous as well as from visceral adipose tissues of the same donor and systematically compared their features. Although being characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells tend to be spindle form-like and are more able to home to cancer cells, whereas visceral adipose-derived stem cells incline to be “epithelial”-like and more competent to differentiate. Moreover, compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells, visceral adipose-derived stem cells are more capable of promoting proliferation, inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by cell-cell contact and by secreting interleukins such as IL-6 and IL-8. Importantly, ASCs affect the low malignant breast cancer cells MCF-7 more than the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated by the activation of multiple pathways especially the PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer cells. BCL6, an important player in B-cell lymphoma and breast cancer progression, is crucial for this transition. Finally, this transition fuels malignant properties of breast cancer cells and render them resistant to ATP competitive Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors BI 2535 and BI 6727. PMID:26439686

  15. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice. PMID:26923434

  16. A Role of the Inflammasome in the Low Storage Capacity of the Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kursawe, Romy; Dixit, Vishwa D; Scherer, Philipp E; Santoro, Nicola; Narayan, Deepak; Gordillo, Ruth; Giannini, Cosimo; Lopez, Ximena; Pierpont, Bridget; Nouws, Jessica; Shulman, Gerald I; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the downregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipogenesis/lipogenesis in obese adolescents with altered abdominal fat partitioning. We performed abdominal SAT biopsies on 58 obese adolescents and grouped them by MRI-derived visceral fat to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plus SAT (VAT/VAT+SAT) ratio (cutoff 0.11). Adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT ratio showed higher SAT macrophage infiltration and higher expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (i.e., TLR4, NLRP3, IL1B, and CASP1). The increase in inflammation markers was paralleled by a decrease in genes related to insulin sensitivity (ADIPOQ, GLUT4, PPARG2, and SIRT1) and lipogenesis (SREBP1c, ACC, LPL, and FASN). Furthermore, SAT ceramide concentrations correlated with the expression of CASP1 and IL1B. Infiltration of macrophages and upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome together with the associated high ceramide content in the plasma and SAT of obese adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT may contribute to the limited expansion of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose depot and the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26718495

  17. Visceral adipose tissue is not increased in Pima Indians compared with equally obese Caucasians and is not related to insulin action or secretion.

    PubMed

    Gautier, J F; Milner, M R; Elam, E; Chen, K; Ravussin, E; Pratley, R E

    1999-01-01

    Pima Indians are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic compared with Caucasians. We investigated whether abdominal fat distribution was different between Pimas and Caucasians and whether differences in the amount of visceral fat explained metabolic differences between the groups. Total body fat (absorptiometry) and abdominal fat distribution at L4-L5 (magnetic resonance imaging) were compared in 20 Pima Indians (10 men/10 women) and 20 age-, sex- and BMI-matched Caucasians. Insulin action was measured as glucose disposal during a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic glucose clamp and insulin secretion was assessed in response to oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. By design, percent body fat was similar in Pimas and Caucasians. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were also similar in the two groups (151+/-16 vs 139+/-15 cm2 and 489+/-61 vs 441+/-7 cm2 respectively). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pimas than Caucasians in the fasting state (27+/-6 vs 11+/-2 mU/ml; p < 0.01) and after a 75-g oral glucose load (area under the curve 19975+/-2626 vs 9293+/-1847 mU x l(-1) x 180 min(-1); p < 0.005). Glucose disposal was lower in Pimas than Caucasians during both steps of the clamp and negatively correlated (after adjustment for percent body fat and sex) with visceral adipose tissue in Caucasians (partial r = -0.51, p = 0.03), but not in Pima Indians (r = -0.03, p = 0.92). Insulin secretion was not related to visceral fat independently of percent body fat in either group. We conclude that a relative increase in visceral fat does not explain insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in Pima Indians. PMID:10027574

  18. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA), modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years) underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p < 0.01) and mean volume of SAT (1,721 ± 803 cm3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p < 0.01) but significantly higher mean volume of VAT (884 ± 416 cm3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p < 0.01). Among women, a one standard deviation increment in VAT was inversely associated with adiponectin (β = − 0.13; p < 0.0001) after controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, education, pack-years of smoking and daily intake of alcohol. The statistically significant inverse association of VAT and adiponectin persisted after additionally adjusting for SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), suggesting that VAT provides significant information above and beyond BMI and WC. Among men, after the same multivariable adjustment, there was a direct association of SAT and adiponectin (β = 0.18; p = 0.002) that persisted when controlling for BMI and WC, supporting a beneficial effect of

  19. Surgical removal of visceral adipose tissue: effects on insulin action.

    PubMed

    Gabriely, Ilan; Barzilai, Nir

    2003-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that excess of visceral fat has deleterious effects on insulin action. Mainly, it has been shown to be associated with a decrease in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, which results in a clinical condition also known as insulin resistance. This report describes a novel experimental method that we employed in order to analyze the particular effects of visceral fat on insulin activity. By extracting visceral fat we were able to distinguish the specific role that it plays in insulin action, and to analyze its effects on the gene expression of a variety of fat-derived peptides, which may be considered to be (at least partially) mediators in the development of the metabolic syndrome and possibly diabetes mellitus. PMID:12762966

  20. Associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijin; Valentine, Rudy J; Shin, Yoonjung; Gong, Kyungmin

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean adults selected from the general population. We studied 160 Korean adults (aged 41.3 +/- 13.0 years; n = 38 men and n = 122 women) who volunteered in a health promotion program. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based upon spontaneous exercise participation for using a cross-sectional approach. We measured anthropometric factors (body mass index [BMI], percentage body fat, waist-hip ratio [WHR], and abdominal fat area by computed tomographic scanning), blood pressure (BP), blood levels of glucose, lipids, fibrinogen, CRP, leptin, hemoglobin A(1c), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT; via ultrasonography). Associations among the variables were assessed by Pearson partial correlation and linear regression, controlling for age and sex. Independent t tests were used to assess differences between exercise participants and nonparticipants. Significance was accepted at P < .05. As expected, the measures of adiposity (BMI, percentage body fat, WHR, abdominal fat area) were highly correlated with each other (r = .49-.86, P < .01). Blood levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), leptin, and HOMA were modestly correlated with all measures of adiposity. Visceral fat area was the most important predictor of hsCRP, explaining 19.6% of the variance using stepwise linear regression analysis (P < .01). As visceral fat area tertiles increased from low to high, a significant stepwise increment in blood levels of CRP (P < .001), HOMA (P = .005), and left carotid IMT (P = .035) was observed. However, hsCRP and HOMA were not significantly different when compared across whole-body fat tertiles. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, and left carotid IMT were modestly correlated with WHR and visceral fat area (P < .05); but systolic BP and diastolic BP were also

  1. Obesity reduces methionine sulfoxide reductase activity in visceral adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral obesity is linked to the development of comorbidities including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of oxidative stress are observed in obese individuals and in animal models of obesity, pointing to a mechanistic role of oxidative stress. A recent genetic study in...

  2. Identification of a novel peptide ligand targeting visceral adipose tissue via transdermal route by in vivo phage display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Hong Shin; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Bae; Cho, Chong Su; Kang, Sang Kee; Choi, Yun Jaie

    2011-11-01

    To find novel peptide ligands targeting visceral adipose tissue (visceral fat) via transdermal route, in vivo phage display screening was conducted by dermal administration of a phage-peptide library to rats and a peptide sequence, CGLHPAFQC (designated as TDA1), was identified as a targeting ligand to visceral adipose tissue through the consecutive transdermal biopannings. Adipocyte-specific affinity and transdermal activity of the TDA1 were validated in vitro and targeting ability of the dermally administered TDA1 to visceral adipose tissue was also confirmed in vivo. TDA1 was effectively translocated into systemic circulation after dermal administration and selectively targeted visceral adipose tissue without any preference to other organs tested. Fluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that the TDA1 could be specifically localized in the hair follicles of the skin, as well as in the visceral adipose tissue. Thus, we inferred that dermally administered TDA1 would first access systemic circulation via hair follicles as its transdermal route and then could target visceral fat effectively. The overall results suggest that the TDA1 peptide could be potentially applied as a homing moiety for delivery of anti-obesity therapeutics to visceral fat through the convenient transdermal pathway. PMID:21999821

  3. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  4. Interleukin-1β sensitizes abdominal visceral afferents of cats to ischaemia and histamine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    1999-01-01

    Activation of abdominal splanchnic visceral afferents during mesenteric ischaemia induces visceral pain and evokes excitatory cardiovascular responses. Previous studies have shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration is increased locally in tissues during ischaemia and reperfusion. Local administration of IL-1β sensitizes somatic afferents to mechanical, thermal and chemical stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-1β stimulates or sensitizes splanchnic visceral afferents to ischaemia and to the action of chemical stimuli such as histamine. The concentration of IL-1β in mesenteric lymph and portal venous plasma in anaesthetized cats was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, during and after 10 min of abdominal ischaemia. The level of IL-1β was significantly increased during ischaemia in lymph, but not in plasma. Discharge activity of single-unit abdominal visceral C fibre afferents was measured from the right thoracic sympathetic chain. Ischaemically sensitive C fibre afferents were identified according to their response to 5–10 min of abdominal ischaemia. Intra-arterial (i.a.) injection of a high dose of IL-1β (500 ng kg−1), but not of a lower dose (i.e. 15, 50 or 150 ng kg−1), stimulated most (six of seven) abdominal visceral afferents. IL-1β (15 ng kg−1, i.a.) significantly enhanced the increased activity of 11 of 13 C fibre afferents during 10 min of ischaemia. Conversely, an IL-1 type I receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, 1·5 μg kg−1, i.a.) significantly attenuated the increased activity in six of seven other C fibre afferents during ischaemia. IL-1β (15 ng kg−1, i.a.) significantly augmented the responses of 13 of 16 ischaemically sensitive abdominal afferents to histamine (5–10 μg kg−1, i.a.). Conversely, IL-1ra (1·5 μg kg−1, i.a.) significantly attenuated the responses of five of six other C fibre afferents to histamine. These data strongly suggest that stimulation of IL-1 type I receptors by IL-1

  5. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17999284

  6. Retinoic Acid Mediates Visceral-Specific Adipogenic Defects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosuke; Sriram, Sandhya; Chan, Xin Hui Derryn; Ong, Wee Kiat; Yeo, Chia Rou; Tan, Betty; Lee, Seung-Ah; Kong, Kien Voon; Hoon, Shawn; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yuen, Jason J; Perumal, Jayakumar; Agrawal, Madhur; Vaz, Candida; So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Blaner, William S; Olivo, Malini; Han, Weiping; Tanavde, Vivek; Toh, Sue-Anne; Sugii, Shigeki

    2016-05-01

    Increased visceral fat, rather than subcutaneous fat, during the onset of obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. The inherent adipogenic properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral depots are compromised compared with those of ASCs from subcutaneous depots, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Using ontological analysis of global gene expression studies, we demonstrate that many genes involved in retinoic acid (RA) synthesis or regulated by RA are differentially expressed in human tissues and ASCs from subcutaneous and visceral fat. The endogenous level of RA is higher in visceral ASCs; this is associated with upregulation of the RA synthesis gene through the visceral-specific developmental factor WT1. Excessive RA-mediated activity impedes the adipogenic capability of ASCs at early but not late stages of adipogenesis, which can be reversed by antagonism of RA receptors or knockdown of WT1. Our results reveal the developmental origin of adipocytic properties and the pathophysiological contributions of visceral fat depots. PMID:26936961

  7. PNPLA3 gene-by-visceral adipose tissue volume interaction and the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease: The NHLBI Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Graff, M.; North, K.E.; Franceschini, N.; Reiner, A.P.; Feitosa, M.; Carr, J.J.; Gordon-Larsen, P.; Wojczynski, M. K.; Borecki, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatty liver disease (FLD) is characterized by increased intrahepatic triglyceride content with or without inflammation and is associated with obesity, and features of the metabolic syndrome. Several recent GWAS have reported an association between SNP rs738409 in the PNPLA3 gene and FLD. Liver attenuation (Hounsfield Units, HU) by computed tomography is a non-invasive measure of liver fat, with lower values of HU indicating higher liver fat content. Clinically, a liver attenuation (LA) value of ≤ 40 HU indicates moderate-to-severe hepatic steatosis. Objective We investigated whether missense rs738409 PNPLA3 interacted with abdominal visceral adipose tissue volume (cm3) to reduce liver attenuation (i.e. increased liver fat) in 1,019 European American men and 1,238 European American women from the Family Heart Study. Methods We used linear regression to test the additive effect of genotype, abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and their multiplicative interaction on LA adjusted for age, BMI, HDL-cholesterol, insulin resistance, serum triglycerides, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and alcohol intake. Results In men and women combined, the interaction between each copy of the rs738409 variant allele (MAF 0.23) and 100cm3/150mm slice VAT decreased LA by 2.68±0.35 HU (p < 0.01). The interaction of 100cm3 VAT and the variant allele was associated with a greater decrease in LA in women than men (−4.8±0.6 and −2.2±0.5 HU, respectively). Conclusions The interaction between genotype and VAT volume suggest key differences in the role of PNPLA3 genotype in conjunction with abdominal VAT in liver fat accrual. The stronger association of the PNPLA3 genotype and liver fat in women suggests that women may be more sensitive to liver fat accumulation in the setting of increased visceral fat, compared to men. The presence of the PNPLA3 variant genotype, particularly in the context of high visceral adipose tissue content may play an important role in FLD

  8. Computerized Automated Quantification of Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue From Computed Tomography Scans: Development and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jae; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Jong Wan; Park, Chan-Soo; Gonzalez, John Paul S; Lee, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is often viewed as one of the most accurate methods for measuring visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, measuring VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from CT is a time-consuming and tedious process. Thus, evaluating patients’ obesity levels during clinical trials using CT scans is both cumbersome and limiting. Objective To describe an image-processing-based and automated method for measuring adipose tissue in the entire abdominal region. Methods The method detects SAT and VAT levels using a separation mask based on muscles of the human body. The separation mask is the region that minimizes the unnecessary space between a closed path and muscle area. In addition, a correction mask, based on bones, corrects the error in VAT. Results To validate the method, the volume of total adipose tissue (TAT), SAT, and VAT were measured for a total of 100 CTs using the automated method, and the results compared with those from manual measurements obtained by 2 experts. Dice’s similarity coefficients (DSCs) between the first manual measurement and the automated result for TAT, SAT, and VAT are 0.99, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. The DSCs between the second manual measurement and the automated result for TAT, SAT, and VAT are 0.98, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. Moreover, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the automated method and the results of the manual measurements indicate high reliability as the ICCs for the items are all .99 (P<.001). Conclusions The results described in this paper confirm the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The method is expected to be both convenient and useful in the clinical evaluation and study of obesity in patients who require SAT and VAT measurements. PMID:26846251

  9. Stromal Cells Derived from Visceral and Obese Adipose Tissue Promote Growth of Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Nowicka, Aleksandra; Solley, Travis N.; Wei, Caimiao; Parikh, Aaroh; Court, Laurence; Burks, Jared K.; Andreeff, Michael; Woodward, Wendy A.; Dadbin, Ali; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Lu, Karen H.; Klopp, Ann H.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, and in particular visceral obesity, has been associated with an increased risk of developing cancers as well as higher rates of mortality following diagnosis. The impact of obesity on adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC), which contribute to the formation of tumor stroma, is unknown. Here we hypothesized that visceral source and diet-induced obesity (DIO) changes the ASC phenotype, contributing to the tumor promoting effects of obesity. We found that ASC isolated from subcutaneous (SC-ASC) and visceral (V-ASC) white adipose tissue(WAT) of lean(Le) and obese(Ob) mice exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers expression, and had comparable effects on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration. Obese and visceral derived ASC proliferated slower and exhibited impaired differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro as compared to ASC derived from subcutaneous WAT of lean mice. Intraperitoneal co-injection of ovarian cancer cells with obese or visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased growth of intraperitoneal ID8 tumors as compared to controls. Obese and V-ASC increased stromal infiltration of inflammatory cells, including CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. Obese and visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased expression of chemotactic factors IL-6, MIP-2, and MCP-1 when cultured with tumor cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that obese and V-ASC have a unique phenotype, with more limited proliferation and differentiation capacity but enhanced expression of chemotactic factors in response to malignant cells which support infiltration of inflammatory cells and support tumor growth and dissemination. PMID:26317219

  10. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Aim Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. Materials and Methods This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Results Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm2 (males) and ≥203.46 cm2 (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Conclusion Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them. PMID:27190876

  11. The role of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition in liver pathophysiology associated with NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Gentile, C L; Weir, T L; Cox-York, K A; Wei, Y; Wang, D; Reese, L; Moran, G; Estrada, A; Mulligan, C; Pagliassotti, M J; Foster, M T

    2015-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is associated with type-2-diabetes, inflammation, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas subcutaneous adiposity is not. We hypothesized that the link between visceral adiposity and liver pathophysiology involves inherent or diet-derived differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue to store and mobilize saturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to characterize the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglyceride and portal vein fatty acids in relation to indices of liver dysregulation. For 8 weeks rats had free access to control (CON; 12.9% corn/safflower oil; 3.6 Kcal/g), high saturated fat (SAT; 45.2% cocoa butter; 4.5 Kcal/g) or high polyunsaturated fat (PUFA; 45.2% safflower oil; 4.5 Kcal/g) diets. Outcome measures included glucose tolerance, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue triglyceride, liver phospholipids and plasma (portal and systemic) free fatty acid composition, indices of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the liver and adipose tissue depots and circulating adipo/cytokines. Hepatic triglycerides were significantly increased in both high fat diet groups compared to control and were significantly higher in PUFA compared to SAT. Although glucose tolerance was not different among diet groups, SAT increased markers of inflammation and ER stress in the liver and both adipose tissue depots. Fatty acid composition did not differ among adipose depots or portal blood in any dietary group. Overall, these data suggest that diets enriched in saturated fatty acids are associated with liver inflammation, ER stress and injury, but that any link between visceral adipose tissue and these liver indices does not involve selective changes to fatty acid composition in this depot or the portal vein. PMID:26167414

  12. The role of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition in liver pathophysiology associated with NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, CL; Weir, TL; Cox-York, KA; Wei, Y; Wang, D; Reese, L; Moran, G; Estrada, A; Mulligan, C; Pagliassotti, MJ; Foster, MT

    2015-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is associated with type-2-diabetes, inflammation, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas subcutaneous adiposity is not. We hypothesized that the link between visceral adiposity and liver pathophysiology involves inherent or diet-derived differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue to store and mobilize saturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to characterize the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglyceride and portal vein fatty acids in relation to indices of liver dysregulation. For 8 weeks rats had free access to control (CON; 12.9% corn/safflower oil; 3.6 Kcal/g), high saturated fat (SAT; 45.2% cocoa butter; 4.5 Kcal/g) or high polyunsaturated fat (PUFA; 45.2% safflower oil; 4.5 Kcal/g) diets. Outcome measures included glucose tolerance, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue triglyceride, liver phospholipids and plasma (portal and systemic) free fatty acid composition, indices of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the liver and adipose tissue depots and circulating adipo/cytokines. Hepatic triglycerides were significantly increased in both high fat diet groups compared to control and were significantly higher in PUFA compared to SAT. Although glucose tolerance was not different among diet groups, SAT increased markers of inflammation and ER stress in the liver and both adipose tissue depots. Fatty acid composition did not differ among adipose depots or portal blood in any dietary group. Overall, these data suggest that diets enriched in saturated fatty acids are associated with liver inflammation, ER stress and injury, but that any link between visceral adipose tissue and these liver indices does not involve selective changes to fatty acid composition in this depot or the portal vein. PMID:26167414

  13. Computed tomography-defined abdominal adiposity is associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashaty, Michael G. S.; Kalkan, Esra; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Reilly, John P.; Holena, Daniel N.; Cummins, Kathleen; Lanken, Paul N.; Feldman, Harold I.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Christie, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after major trauma. Since BMI is non-specific, reflecting lean, fluid, and adipose mass, we evaluated the use of computed tomography (CT) to determine if abdominal adiposity underlies the BMI-AKI association. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Level I Trauma Center of a university hospital. Patients Patients older than 13 years with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 admitted to the trauma intensive care unit were followed for development of AKI over five days. Those with isolated severe head injury or on chronic dialysis were excluded. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Clinical, anthropometric, and demographic variables were collected prospectively. CT images at the level of the L4-5 intervertebral disc space were extracted from the medical record and used by two operators to quantitate visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) areas. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) creatinine and dialysis criteria. Of 400 subjects, 327 (81.8%) had CT scans suitable for analysis: 264/285 (92.6%) blunt trauma subjects, 63/115 (54.8%) penetrating trauma subjects. VAT and SAT areas were highly correlated between operators (ICC>0.999, p<0.001 for each) and within operator (ICC>0.999, p<0.001 for each). In multivariable analysis, the standardized risk of AKI was 15.1% (95% CI 10.6%,19.6%), 18.1% (14%,22.2%), and 23.1% (18.3%,27.9%) at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of VAT area, respectively (p=0.001), with similar findings when using SAT area as the adiposity measure. Conclusions Quantitation of abdominal adiposity using CT scans obtained for clinical reasons is feasible and highly reliable in critically ill trauma patients. Abdominal adiposity is independently associated with AKI in this population, confirming that excess adipose tissue contributes to the BMI-AKI association. Further studies of the potential

  14. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue1-3

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    2006-01-01

    Background The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. Objective The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and total-body skeletal muscle mass in healthy sedentary African American (AA), Asian, and white adults by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. IMAT is the AT between muscles and within the boundary of the muscle fascia. Design Analyses were conducted on 227 women [AA (n = 79): body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), 29.0 ± 5.5; age, 45.7 ± 16.9 y; Asian (n = 38): BMI, 21.7 ± 2.9; age, 47.2 ± 19.9 y; whites (n = 110): BMI, 24.9 ± 5.4; age, 43.7 ± 16.2 y]) and 111 men [AA (n = 39): BMI, 25.6 ± 3.2; age, 45.5 ± 18.8 y; Asian (n = 13): BMI, 24.9 ± 2.5; age, 45.6 ± 25.0 y; white (n = 59): BMI, 25.8 ± 3.8; age 44.5 ± 16.3 y]. Results IMAT depots were not significantly different in size between race groups at low levels of adiposity; however, with increasing adiposity, AAs had a significantly greater increment in the proportion of total AT (TAT) than did the whites and Asians (58, 46, and 44 g IMAT/kg TAT, respectively; P = 0.001). VAT depots were not significantly different in size at low levels of adiposity but, with increasing adiposity, VAT accumulation was greater than IMAT accumulation in the Asians and whites; no significant differences were observed in AAs. Conclusion Race differences in AT distribution extend to IMAT, a depot that may influence race-ethnicity differences in dysglycemia. PMID:15817870

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  16. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  17. RAAS Activation Is Associated With Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Among HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Suman; Fitch, Kathleen V.; Wong, Kimberly; Torriani, Martin; Mayhew, Caitlin; Stanley, Takara; Lo, Janet; Adler, Gail K.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Little is known about renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in relationship to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation in HIV-infected patients, a population at significant risk for insulin resistance and other metabolic disease. Design: Twenty HIV and 10 non-HIV-infected subjects consumed a standardized low sodium or liberal sodium diet to stimulate or suppress the RAAS, respectively. RAAS parameters were evaluated in response to each diet and a graded angiotensin II infusion. Further analyses were performed after groups were substratified by median VAT measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Aldosterone concentrations during the low-sodium diet were higher in HIV than non-HIV-infected subjects [13.8 (9.7, 30.9) vs 9.2 (7.6, 13.6) ng/dL, P = .03] and increased across groups stratified by visceral adipose tissue (VAT) [8.5 (7.1, 12.8), 9.2 (8.1, 21.5), 11.4 (9.4, 13.8), and 27.2 (13.0, 36.9) ng/dL in non-HIV-infected without increased VAT, non-HIV-infected with increased VAT, HIV-infected without increased VAT, HIV-infected with increased VAT, respectively, overall trend P = .02]. Under this condition, plasma renin activity [3.50 (2.58, 4.65) vs 1.45 (0.58, 2.33) ng/mL · h, P = .002] was higher among the HIV-infected subjects with vs without increased VAT. Differences in the suppressibility of plasma renin activity by graded angiotensin infusion were seen stratifying by VAT among the HIV-infected group (P < .02 at each dose). In addition, aldosterone (P = .007) was an independent predictor of insulin resistance in multivariate modeling, controlling for VAT and adiponectin. Conclusion: These data suggest excess RAAS activation in relationship to visceral adiposity in HIV-infected patients that may independently contribute to insulin resistance. Mineralocorticoid blockade may have therapeutic potential to reduce metabolic complications in HIV-infected patients with increased visceral adiposity. PMID:26086328

  18. The relationship between adiposity-associated inflammation and coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcium differs by strata of central adiposity: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hughes-Austin, Jan M; Wassel, Christina L; Jiménez, Jessica; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Budoff, Matthew J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A

    2014-06-01

    Adipokines regulate metabolic processes linked to coronary artery (CAC) and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC). Because adipokine and other adiposity-associated inflammatory marker (AAIM) secretions differ between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central adiposity modifies associations between AAIMs and CAC and AAC. We evaluated 1878 MESA participants with complete measures of AAIMs, anthropometry, CAC, and AAC. Associations of AAIMs with CAC and AAC prevalence and severity were analyzed per standard deviation of predictors (SD) using log binomial and linear regression models. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was dichotomized at median WHR values based on sex/ethnicity. CAC and AAC prevalence were defined as any calcium (Agatston score >0). Severity was defined as ln (Agatston score). Analyses examined interactions with WHR and were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Each SD higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen and CRP was associated with 5% higher CAC prevalence; and each SD higher IL-6 and fibrinogen was associated with 4% higher AAC prevalence. Associations of IL-6 and fibrinogen with CAC severity, but not CAC prevalence, were significantly different among WHR strata. Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher IL-6 was associated with 24.8% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.012). Median-and-above WHR: each SD higher fibrinogen was associated with 19.6% higher CAC severity. Below-median WHR: no association (p interaction=0.034). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not associated with CAC or AAC prevalence or severity. These results support findings that adiposity-associated inflammation is associated with arterial calcification, and further add that central adiposity may modify this association. PMID:24907349

  19. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  20. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion

    PubMed Central

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J. Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T.; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K.; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  1. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E; Czech, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  2. The Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Abdominal Visceral Artery Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Anna-Maria Markose, George; Morgan, Robert

    2012-04-15

    Abdominal visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) include true and false aneurysms. The majority are asymptomatic and are discovered on cross-sectional imaging performed for unrelated clinical indications. With the maturation of techniques and devices used for embolization procedures and the treatment of aneurysms in other locations, most VAAs are now suitable for treatment by minimally invasive transcatheter techniques. The choice of technique used greatly depends on the local anatomy of the VAA and the experience of the interventional radiologist in complex vascular interventional techniques.

  3. Effect of diet on microRNA expression in ovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Romao, J M; He, M L; Chaves, A V; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNA related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from 12 Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-Gold; Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to quantitative real time (qRT-) PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNA including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. MicroRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and miR-376d) in visceral and miR-142-5p, miR-92a, and miR-378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ≤ 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, miR-106, miR-136, miR-16b, miR-196a-1, miR-2368*, miR-2454, miR-296, miR-376d, miR-378, and miR-92a in both control and DHA-G diets and miR-478 in control; P ≤ 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and 3 genes of interest (ACSL1, PPARα, and C/EBPα) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all 3 genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, miR-106, and miR-136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBPα, PPARα, and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBPα. The variability in expression patterns of miRNA across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNA appear to be

  4. Visceral Adiposity and Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Older Adults: Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jun; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Laughlin, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Despite growing attention to central obesity as a predictor of clinical coronary heart disease (CHD), there are few reports about the association between directly measured visceral obesity and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in older adults. We examined this association in older community-dwelling adults without clinically recognized CHD. Research Methods and Procedures Older adults (190 men, BMI 27.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 220 women, BMI 25.8 ± 4.6) aged 55 to 88 years (median 69 years) with no history of CHD or coronary revascularization had an electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) to measure coronary-artery calcification score (CACS), an estimate of coronary-plaque burden. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were assessed by a triple-slice EBCT scan at the lumbar 4–5 disc level and height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured. Results In sex-specific ordinal logistic regression analyses, no measure of obesity or body fat distribution, including body mass index, waist-hip ratio, waist girth, visceral and subcutaneous fat by EBCT, was significantly associated with CACS before or after adjusting for multiple covariates of CACS (age, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, pulse pressure, LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and fasting plasma glucose). Discussion In older adults without clinically recognized CHD, body weight and fat distribution do not predict coronary artery plaque burden. These results raise questions about the value of weight reduction diets for preventing heart disease in elderly survivors without clinical heart disease. PMID:18356852

  5. Pregnancy in Obese Mice Protects Selectively against Visceral Adiposity and Is Associated with Increased Adipocyte Estrogen Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pedroni, Silvia M. A.; Turban, Sophie; Kipari, Tiina; Dunbar, Donald R.; McInnes, Kerry; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Morton, Nicholas M.; Norman, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is linked with increased adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. The metabolic impact of excessive fat within the context of pregnancy is not fully understood. We used a mouse model of high fat (HF) feeding to induce maternal obesity to identify adipose tissue-mediated mechanisms driving metabolic dysfunction in pregnant and non-pregnant obese mice. As expected, chronic HF-feeding for 12 weeks preceding pregnancy increased peripheral (subcutaneous) and visceral (mesenteric) fat mass. However, unexpectedly at late gestation (E18.5) HF-fed mice exhibited a remarkable normalization of visceral but not peripheral adiposity, with a 53% reduction in non-pregnant visceral fat mass expressed as a proportion of body weight (P<0.001). In contrast, in control animals, pregnancy had no effect on visceral fat mass proportion. Obesity exaggerated glucose intolerance at mid-pregnancy (E14.5). However by E18.5, there were no differences, in glucose tolerance between obese and control mice. Transcriptomic analysis of visceral fat from HF-fed dams at E18.5 revealed reduced expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 - Dgat2) and inflammation (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 - Ccl2) and upregulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) compared to HF non pregnant. Attenuation of adipose inflammation was functionally confirmed by a 45% reduction of CD11b+CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages (expressed as a proportion of all stromal vascular fraction cells) in HF pregnant compared to HF non pregnant animals (P<0.001). An ERα selective agonist suppressed both de novo lipogenesis and expression of lipogenic genes in adipocytes in vitro. These data show that, in a HF model of maternal obesity, late gestation is associated with amelioration of visceral fat hypertrophy, inflammation and glucose intolerance, and suggest that these effects are mediated in part by elevated visceral adipocyte ERα signaling. PMID:24732937

  6. Fyn Deficiency Promotes a Preferential Increase in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Mass and Decreased Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ting-Wen A.; Kwon, Hyokjoon; Zong, Haihong; Yamada, Eijiro; Vatish, Manu; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Bastie, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Fyn knockout (FynKO) mice on a standard chow diet display increased glucose clearance and whole-body insulin sensitivity associated with decreased adiposity resulting from increased fatty acid use and energy expenditure. Surprisingly, however, despite a similar extent of adipose tissue (AT) mass accumulation on a high-fat diet, the FynKO mice remained fully glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive. Physiologic analyses demonstrated that the FynKO mice had a combination of skewed AT expansion into the subcutaneous compartment rather than to the visceral depot, reduced AT inflammation associated with reduced T-cell and macrophage infiltration, and increased proportion of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. These data demonstrate that Fyn is an important regulator of whole-body integrative metabolism that coordinates AT expansion, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity in states of nutrient excess. These data further suggest that inhibition of Fyn function may provide a novel target to prevent AT inflammation, insulin resistance, and the dyslipidemia components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23321073

  7. S-Glutathionylation of Hepatic and Visceral Adipose Proteins Decreases in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Picklo, Matthew J.; Idso, Joseph P.; Jackson, Matthew I.

    2012-01-01

    A number of clinical and biochemical studies demonstrate that obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increases in oxidative stress and inflammation. Paradoxically, insulin sensitivity can be enhanced by oxidative inactivation of cysteine residues of phosphatases, and inflammation can be reduced by S-glutathionylation with formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG). Although oxidation of protein-bound thiols (PSH) is increased in multiple diseases, it is not known whether there are changes in PSH oxidation species in obesity. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that obesity is associated with decreased levels of proteins containing oxidized protein thiols. We examined tissue levels of protein sulfenic acids (PSOH) and PSSG in liver, visceral adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle derived from glucose intolerant, obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats. Our data indicate that decreases in PSSG content occurred in liver (44%) and adipose (26%) but not skeletal muscle in obese rats fed a 45% fat-calorie diet versus lean rats fed a 10% fat-calorie diet. PSOH content did not change in the tissue between the two groups. The activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin (GLRX) responsible for reversal of PSSG formation did not change in muscle and liver between the two groups. However, levels of GLRX1 were elevated 70% in the adipose tissue of the obese, 45% fat calorie-fed rats. These are the first data to link changes in S-glutathionylation and GLRX1 to adipose tissue in the obese and demonstrate that redox changes in thiol status occur in adipose tissue as a result of obesity. PMID:23404913

  8. Dietary Cholesterol Promotes Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Visceral, But Not Subcutaneous, Fat in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soonkyu; Cuffe, Helen; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Ha, Jung-Heun; Kavanagh, Kylie; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Temel, Ryan E.; Parks, John S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excessive caloric intake is associated with obesity and adipose tissue dysfunction. However, the role of dietary cholesterol in this process is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing dietary cholesterol intake alters adipose tissue cholesterol content, adipocyte size, and endocrine function in nonhuman primates. Approach and Results Age-matched, male African Green monkeys (n=5 per group) were assigned to one of three diets containing 0.002 (Lo), 0.2 (Med) or 0.4 (Hi) mg cholesterol/Kcal. After 10 weeks of diet feeding, animals were euthanized for adipose tissue, liver, and plasma collection. With increasing dietary cholesterol, free cholesterol (FC) content and adipocyte size increased in a step-wise manner in visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, with a significant association between visceral adipocyte size and FC content (r2=0.298; n=15; p=0.035). In visceral fat, dietary cholesterol intake was associated with: 1) increased pro-inflammatory gene expression and macrophage recruitment, 2) decreased expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipoprotein uptake, and 3) increased expression of proteins involved in FC efflux. Conclusions Increasing dietary cholesterol selectively increases visceral fat adipocyte size, FC and macrophage content, and proinflammatory gene expression in nonhuman primates. Visceral fat cells appear to compensate for increased dietary cholesterol by limiting cholesterol uptake/synthesis and increasing FC efflux pathways. PMID:24969772

  9. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically explored. Here, we present comprehensive proteomic analysis of VATs in drug-naïve early T2DM patients and subjects with normal glucose tolerance. A total of 4,707 proteins were identified in LC-MS/MS experiments. Among them, 444 increased in abundance in T2DM and 328 decreased. They are involved in T2DM-related processes including inflammatory responses, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose metabolism. Of these proteins, we selected 11 VAT proteins that can represent alteration in early T2DM patients. Among them, up-regulation of FABP4, C1QA, S100A8, and SORBS1 and down-regulation of ACADL and PLIN4 were confirmed in VAT samples of independent early T2DM patients using Western blot. In summary, our profiling provided a comprehensive basis for understanding the link of a protein profile of VAT to early pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:24403596

  10. INFLUENCE OF RUMINAL AND POSTRUMINAL CARBOHYDRATE INFUSION ON VISCERAL ORGAN MASS AND ADIPOSE TISSUE ACCRETION IN GROWING BEEF STEERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty beef steers (243 ± 2 kg BW) with ruminal and abomasal infusion catheters were used to determine the effects of site of carbohydrate (CHO) digestion on visceral organ mass and adipose accretion. Treatments included a pelleted basal diet fed at 0.162 (LE) or 0.215 Mcal ME/kg BW.75/d, LE plus ru...

  11. Subsets of Visceral Adipose Tissue Nuclei with Distinct Levels of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Ji, Lexiang; Lee, Kevin J.; Yu, Miao; He, Chuan; Ambati, Suresh; McKinney, Elizabeth C.; Jackson, Crystal; Schmitz, Robert J.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    The reprogramming of cellular memory in specific cell types, and in visceral adipocytes in particular, appears to be a fundamental aspect of obesity and its related negative health outcomes. We explored the hypothesis that adipose tissue contains epigenetically distinct subpopulations of adipocytes that are differentially potentiated to record cellular memories of their environment. Adipocytes are large, fragile, and technically difficult to efficiently isolate and fractionate. We developed fluorescence nuclear cytometry (FNC) and fluorescence activated nuclear sorting (FANS) of cellular nuclei from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using the levels of the pan-adipocyte protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARg2), to distinguish classes of PPARg2-Positive (PPARg2-Pos) adipocyte nuclei from PPARg2-Negative (PPARg2-Neg) leukocyte and endothelial cell nuclei. PPARg2-Pos nuclei were 10-fold enriched for most adipocyte marker transcripts relative to PPARg2-Neg nuclei. PPARg2-Pos nuclei showed 2- to 50-fold higher levels of transcripts encoding most of the chromatin-remodeling factors assayed, which regulate the methylation of histones and DNA cytosine (e.g., DNMT1, TET1, TET2, KDM4A, KMT2C, SETDB1, PAXIP1, ARID1A, JMJD6, CARM1, and PRMT5). PPARg2-Pos nuclei were large with decondensed chromatin. TAB-seq demonstrated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels were remarkably dynamic in gene bodies of various classes of VAT nuclei, dropping 3.8-fold from the highest quintile of expressed genes to the lowest. In short, VAT-derived adipocytes appear to be more actively remodeling their chromatin than non-adipocytes. PMID:27171244

  12. Visceral Adiposity and Left Ventricular Remodeling: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Siddique A.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Bluemke, David A.; Blankstein, Ron; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Lima, Joao A.C.; Allison, Matthew A.; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Shah, Ravi V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Visceral fat (VF) is a source of pro-inflammatory adipokines implicated in cardiac remodeling. We sought to determine the impact of visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SQ) depots on left ventricular (LV) structure, function, and geometry in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods and Results We performed a post-hoc analysis on 1,151 participants from MESA with cardiac magnetic resonance quantification of LV mass and LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMV, an index of concentricity) and computed tomographic-derived SQ and VF area. Multivariable regression models to estimate association between height-indexed SQ and VF area (per cm2/m) with height-indexed LV mass (per height2.7) and LVMV were constructed, adjusted for clinical, biochemical, and demographic covariates. We found that both VF and SQ area were associated with height-indexed LV mass (ρ =0.36 and 0.12, P<0.0001, respectively), while only VF area was associated with LVMV (ρ =0.28, P<0.0001). Individuals with above-median VF had lower LV ejection fraction, greater indexed LV volumes and mass, and higher LVMV (all P < 0.001). In multivariable models adjusted for weight, VF (but not SQ) area was associated with LV concentricity and LV mass index, across both sexes. Conclusion Visceral adiposity is independently associated with LV concentricity, a precursor to heart failure. Further study into the role of VF in LV remodeling as a potential therapeutic target is warranted. PMID:26033394

  13. Moderate‐to‐Vigorous Physical Activity With Accelerometry is Associated With Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murabito, Joanne M.; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Esliger, Dale; Blease, Susan J.; Hoffman, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the relation between objectively measured physical activity with accelerometry and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community‐based sample. Methods and Results We evaluated 1249 participants of the Framingham Third Generation and Omni II cohorts (mean age 51.7 years, 47% women) who underwent assessment of moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with accelerometry over 5 to 7 days, and multi‐detector computed tomography for measurement of SAT and VAT volume; fat attenuation was estimated by SAT and VAT hounsfield units (HU). In women, higher levels of MVPA were associated with decreased SAT (P<0.0001) and VAT volume (P<0.0001). The average decrement in VAT per 30 minute/day increase in MVPA was −453 cm3 (95% CI −574, −331). The association was attenuated but persisted upon adjustment for BMI (−122 cm3, P=0.002). Higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher SAT HU (all P≤0.01), a marker of fat quality, even after adjustment for SAT volume. Similar findings were observed in men but the magnitude of the association was less. Sedentary time was not associated with SAT or VAT volume or quality in men or women. Conclusions MVPA was associated with less VAT and SAT and better fat quality. PMID:25736442

  14. The Associations between Various Ectopic Visceral Adiposity and Body Surface Electrocardiographic Alterations: Potential Differences between Local and Remote Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Po-Ching; Chang, Shun-Chuan; Yun, Chun-Ho; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Yang, Fei-Shih; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-01-01

    Background The associations between pericardial adiposity and altered atrial conduction had been demonstrated. However, data comparing differential effects of various body sites visceral adiposity on atrial and ventricular electrocardiographic alterations remains largely unknown. Methods and Results We assessed both peri-cardial fat (PCF) and peri-aortic visceral adiposity (TAT) using dedicated computed tomography (CT) software (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA), with anthropometrics including body mass index (BMI) and biochemical data obtained. We further related PCF and TAT data to standardized 12-leads electrocardiogram (ECG), including P and QRS wave morphologies. Among 3,087 study subjects (mean age, 49.6 years; 28% women), we observed a linear association among greater visceral adiposity burden, leftward deviation of P and QRS axes, longer PR interval and widened QRS duration (all p<0.001). These associations became attenuated after accounting for BMI and baseline clinical co-variates, with greater PCF remained independently associated with prolonged QRS duration (β = 0.91 [95% CI: 0.52, 1.31] per 1-SD increase in PCF, p<0.001). Finally, both PCF and TAT showed incremental value in identifying abnormally high PR interval (>200ms, likelihood-ratio: 33.17 to 41.4 & 39.03 for PCF and TAT) and widened QRS duration (>100ms, likelihood-ratio: 55.67 to 65.4 & 61.94 for PCF and TAT, all X2 p<0.05) when superimposed on age and BMI. Conclusion We show in our data greater visceral fat burden may have differential associations on several body surface electrocardiographic parameters. Compared to remote adiposity, those surrounding the heart tissue demonstrated greater influences on altered cardiac activation or conduction, indicating a possible local biological effect. PMID:27391045

  15. Usefulness of measuring both body mass index and waist circumference for the estimation of visceral adiposity and related cardiometabolic risk profile (from the INSPIRE ME IAA study).

    PubMed

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica; Borel, Anne-Laure; Aschner, Pablo; Barter, Phil; Van Gaal, Luc; Tan, Chee Eng; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ross, Robert; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Alméras, Natalie; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Despite its well-documented relation with visceral adiposity (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR), whether waist circumference (WC) should be measured in addition to body mass index (BMI) remains debated. This study tested the relevance of adding WC to BMI for the estimation of VAT and CMR. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship with Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4,504 patients (29 countries). Both BMI and WC were measured, whereas VAT and liver fat were assessed by computed tomography. A composite CMR score was calculated. From the 4,109 patients included in the present analyses (20 ≤ BMI < 40 kg/m(2), 47% women), about 30% displayed discordant values for WC and BMI quintiles, despite a strong correlation between the 2 anthropometric variables (r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for men and women, respectively, p <0.001). Within each single BMI unit, VAT and WC showed substantial variability between subjects (mean difference between 90th and 10th percentiles: 175 cm(2)/16 cm and 137 cm(2)/18 cm for VAT/WC in men and women, respectively). Within each BMI category, increasing gender-specific WC tertiles were associated with significantly higher VAT, liver fat, and with a more adverse CMR profile. In conclusion, this large international cardiometabolic study highlights the frequent discordance between BMI and WC, driven by the substantial variability in VAT for a given BMI. Within each BMI category, WC was cross-sectionally associated with VAT, liver fat, and CMR factors. Thus, WC allows a further refinement of the CMR related to any given BMI. PMID:25499404

  16. Neuropeptide Y is produced in visceral adipose tissue and promotes proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells via the Y1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiping; Guan, Haiyan; Arany, Edith; Hill, David J; Cao, Xiang

    2008-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is synthesized in neural tissue of the central and peripheral nervous systems and has a number of important functions besides regulating appetite and energy homeostasis. Here we identify a novel site of NPY biosynthesis and a role for NPY in promoting proliferation of adipocyte precursor cells. We show that NPY mRNA is not only expressed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but that its levels are up-regulated 6-fold in our early-life programmed rat model of increased visceral adiposity. This is accompanied by a parallel rise in NPY protein, demonstrating that VAT is a novel peripheral site of NPY biosynthesis. Furthermore, NPY mRNA expression is also elevated >2-fold in VAT of obese Zucker rats. Importantly, NPY stimulates proliferation of primary rat preadipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in vitro. This mitogenic effect appears to be mediated by the Y1 receptor and involves the activation of extracellular related kinase 1/2. In addition, insulin and glucocorticoid up-regulate VAT NPY expression in lean but not obese Zucker rats. Taken together, these results suggest that an enhanced local expression of NPY within VAT may be a common feature of and contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying increased visceral adiposity. PMID:18323405

  17. Altered Clock Gene Expression in Obese Visceral Adipose Tissue Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    C. Figueroa, Ana Lucia; Aranda, Gloria; Momblan, Dulce; Carmona, Francesc; Gomis, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Clock gene expression was associated with different components of metabolic syndrome (MS) in human adipose tissue. However, no study has been done to compare the expression of clock genes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from lean and obese subjects and its clinical implications. Therefore, we studied in lean and obese women the endogenous 24 h expression of clock genes in isolated adipocytes and its association with MS components. VAT was obtained from lean (BMI 21–25 kg/m2; n = 21) and morbidly obese women (BMI >40 kg/m2; n = 28). The 24 h pattern of clock genes was analyzed every 6 hours using RT-PCR. Correlation of clinical data was studied by Spearman analysis. The 24 h pattern of clock genes showed that obesity alters the expression of CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA in adipocytes with changes found in CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA throughout the 24 h period. The same results were confirmed in VAT and stromal cells (SC) showing an upregulation of CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA from obese women. A positive correlation was observed for REV-ERB ALPHA gene expression with BMI and waist circumference in the obese population. Expression of ROR ALPHA was correlated with HDL levels and CLOCK with LDL. Obese subjects with MS exhibited positive correlation in the PER2 gene with LDL cholesterol, whereas REV-ERB ALPHA was correlated with waist circumference. We identified CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA as the clock genes upregulated in obesity during the 24 h period and that REV-ERB ALPHA is an important gene associated with MS. PMID:25365257

  18. Subcutaneous adipose tissue macropage infiltration is associated with hepatic and visceral fat deposition, hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of NF-kB stress pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal was to examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), Beta-cell function, and SAT gene expression. SAT biopsies were obtained from...

  19. Circulating and visceral adipose miR-100 is down-regulated in patients with obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pek, Sharon Li Ting; Sum, Chee Fang; Lin, Michelle Xueqin; Cheng, Anton Kui Sing; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Lim, Su Chi; Tavintharan, Subramaniam

    2016-05-15

    Obesity is a major public health problem conferring substantial excess risk for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in obesity and adipose tissue is not clearly defined. We hypothesize that circulating miRNA expression profiles vary according to differences in body mass index (BMI) and T2D and circulating miRNAs may reflect adipose tissue expression. Compared to healthy, lean individuals, circulating miR-100 was significantly lower in obese normoglycemic subjects and subjects with T2D. In visceral adipose tissue, expression of miR-100 was lower from obese subjects with T2D compared to obese subjects without T2D. miR-100 expression was significantly lower after adipogenic induction in human visceral, subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. miR-100 reduced expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Insulin Growth Factor Receptor (IGFR) directly. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 was accelerated by inhibition of miR-100 and reduced by miR-100 mimic transfection. Our data provide the first evidence of an association of circulating miR-100 with obesity and diabetes. Additionally, our in-vitro findings, and the miR-100 expression patterns in site-specific adipose tissue suggest miR-100 to modulate IGFR, mTOR and mediate adipogenesis. PMID:26973292

  20. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T.; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R.; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss. PMID:26434764

  1. Racial differences in visceral adipose tissue but not anthropometric markers of health-related variables.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Applegate, E B; Jackson, M L; Deprima, S; Goldberg, R B; Ross, R; Kempner, L; Feldman, B B

    2000-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and/or its anthropometric surrogates could significantly predict health-related variables (HRV) in overweight Caucasian (CC) (n = 36) and African-American (AA) (n = 30) women. With the use of magnetic resonance imaging, findings showed significantly higher volume and area of VAT (P < 0.0001 for both) as well as higher triacylglycerol (P = 0.009) in CC compared with AA women. Furthermore, VAT volume, race, and VAT volume x race interaction could significantly predict triacylglycerol (P = 0.0094), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0057), insulin (P = 0.0002), and insulin resistance (P < 0. 0001). Additionally, the VAT volume x race interaction for insulin (P = 0.040) and insulin resistance (P = 0.003) was significant. In a separate analysis, waist circumference and race predicted the identical variables. Our results support the use of volume or area of VAT in predicting HRV in CC women; however, its use in AA women appears limited. In contrast, waist circumference can provide a suitable VAT alternative for both CC and AA women; however, VAT clearly represents the more powerful predictor. PMID:10926648

  2. Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue does not belong to the most favorite structures to be visualized by ultrasound. It is not, however, free from various pathologies. The aim of this paper is to make abdominal cavity examiners more familiar with non-cancerous lesions found in intra-abdominal fat. The main focus is lesions that are rarely discussed in the literature. Visceral adiposity is one of important pathogenetic factors contributing to cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and even certain neoplasms. That is why this article exposes sonographic features that are the most characteristic of these lesions. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this pathology is underestimated, and a number of US scan reports do not reflect its presence in any way. Moreover, the article discusses more and more common mesenteritis, the lack of knowledge of which could pose difficulties in explaining the nature of symptoms reported by patients. Furthermore, this review presents lesions referred to in the literature as focal infarction of intra-abdominal fat. This section focuses on infarction of the greater and lesser omentum, epiploic appendagitis, mesenteric volvulus and focal fat necrosis resulting from pancreatitis. These lesions should be assessed with respect to the clinical context, and appropriate techniques of ultrasonography should be employed to allow careful determination of the size, shape, acoustic nature and location of lesions in relation to the integuments and large bowel, as well as their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This

  3. Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue does not belong to the most favorite structures to be visualized by ultrasound. It is not, however, free from various pathologies. The aim of this paper is to make abdominal cavity examiners more familiar with non-cancerous lesions found in intra-abdominal fat. The main focus is lesions that are rarely discussed in the literature. Visceral adiposity is one of important pathogenetic factors contributing to cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome and even certain neoplasms. That is why this article exposes sonographic features that are the most characteristic of these lesions. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of this pathology is underestimated, and a number of US scan reports do not reflect its presence in any way. Moreover, the article discusses more and more common mesenteritis, the lack of knowledge of which could pose difficulties in explaining the nature of symptoms reported by patients. Furthermore, this review presents lesions referred to in the literature as focal infarction of intra-abdominal fat. This section focuses on infarction of the greater and lesser omentum, epiploic appendagitis, mesenteric volvulus and focal fat necrosis resulting from pancreatitis. These lesions should be assessed with respect to the clinical context, and appropriate techniques of ultrasonography should be employed to allow careful determination of the size, shape, acoustic nature and location of lesions in relation to the integuments and large bowel, as well as their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This

  4. Autocrine function of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 as a determinant of diet- and sex-specific differences in visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Rumana; Reichert, Barbara; Deiuliis, Jeffrey; Yang, Fangping; Lynch, Alisha; Meyers, Joseph; Sharlach, Molly; Shin, Sangsu; Volz, Katharina S; Green, Kari B; Lee, Kichoon; Alder, Hansjuerg; Duester, Gregg; Zechner, Rudolf; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms for sex- and depot-specific fat formation are unclear. We investigated the role of retinoic acid (RA) production by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, -a2, and -a3), the major RA-producing enzymes, on sex-specific fat depot formation. Female Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, but not males, were resistant to high-fat (HF) diet-induced visceral adipose formation, whereas subcutaneous fat was reduced similarly in both groups. Sexual dimorphism in visceral fat (VF) was attributable to elevated adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) protein expression localized in clusters of multilocular uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1)-positive cells in female Aldh1a1(-/-) mice compared with males. Estrogen decreased Aldh1a3 expression, limiting conversion of retinaldehyde (Rald) to RA. Rald effectively induced Atgl levels via nongenomic mechanisms, demonstrating indirect regulation by estrogen. Experiments in transgenic mice expressing an RA receptor response element (RARE-lacZ) revealed HF diet-induced RARE activation in VF of females but not males. In humans, stromal cells isolated from VF of obese subjects also expressed higher levels of Aldh1 enzymes compared with lean subjects. Our data suggest that an HF diet mediates VF formation through a sex-specific autocrine Aldh1 switch, in which Rald-mediated lipolysis in Ucp1-positive visceral adipocytes is replaced by RA-mediated lipid accumulation. Our data suggest that Aldh1 is a potential target for sex-specific antiobesity therapy. PMID:22933113

  5. High-fructose diet leads to visceral adiposity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rats--do glucocorticoids play a role?

    PubMed

    Bursać, Biljana N; Vasiljević, Ana D; Nestorović, Nataša M; Veličković, Nataša A; Vojnović Milutinović, Danijela D; Matić, Gordana M; Djordjevic, Ana D

    2014-04-01

    Fructose overconsumption has been involved in the genesis and progression of the metabolic syndrome. Hypothalamus and adipose tissue, major organs for control of food intake and energy metabolism, play crucial roles in metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid signaling mediates the effects of a fructose-enriched diet on visceral adiposity by acting on neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and altering adipogenic transcription factors in the visceral adipose tissue. We analyzed the effects of 9-week consumption of 60% fructose solution on dyslipidemia, insulin and leptin sensitivity, and adipose tissue histology in male Wistar rats. Glucocorticoid signaling was assessed in both hypothalamus and visceral adipose tissue, while the levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and lipin-1, together with the levels of their target genes expression, were analyzed in the visceral adipose tissue. The results showed that long-term consumption of highly concentrated liquid fructose led to the development of visceral adiposity, elevated triglycerides and hypothalamic leptin resistance accompanied by stimulated glucocorticoid signaling and NPY mRNA elevation. Results from adipose tissue implied that fructose consumption shifted the balance between glucocorticoid receptor and adipogenic transcriptional factors (PPARγ, SREBP-1 and lipin-1) in favor of adipogenesis judged by distinctly separated populations of small adipocytes observed in this tissue. In summary, we propose that high-fructose-diet-induced alterations of glucocorticoid signaling in both hypothalamus and adipose tissue result in enhanced adipogenesis, possibly serving as an adaptation to energy excess in order to limit deposition of fat in nonadipose tissues. PMID:24565674

  6. Unique profile of chicken adiponectin, a predominantly heavy molecular weight multimer, and relationship to visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gilbert L; Hadley, Jill A; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vasilatos-Younken, Regina; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2009-07-01

    Adiponectin, a 30-kDa adipokine hormone, circulates as heavy, medium, and light molecular weight isoforms in mammals. Plasma heavy molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin isoform levels are inversely correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in humans. The objectives of the present study were to characterize adiponectin protein and quantify plasma adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration column chromatography and Western blot analysis under nonreducing and non-heat-denaturing native conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform that is larger than 669 kDa mass. Under reducing conditions and heating to 70-100 C, however, a majority of the multimeric adiponectin in chicken plasma and adipose tissue was reduced to oligomeric and/or monomeric forms. Immunoprecipitation and elution under neutral pH preserved the HMW adiponectin multimer, whereas brief exposure to acidic pH led to dissociation of HMW multimer into multiple oligomers. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken adiponectin revealed the presence of hydroxyproline and differential glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the collagenous domain. An enzyme immunoassay was developed and validated for quantifying plasma adiponectin in chickens. Plasma adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in 8- compared with 4-wk-old male chickens and inversely related to abdominal fat pad mass. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that adiponectin in chicken plasma and tissues is predominantly a HMW multimer, suggesting the presence of unique multimerization and stabilization mechanisms in the chicken that favors preponderance of HMW adiponectin over other oligomers. PMID:19299452

  7. Inflammation- and lipid metabolism-related gene network expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of energy overfeeding on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a controlled energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or moderate energy-overfed group (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lactate signaling, hepatokine signaling, lipolysis, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and adipose depot was not significant for any gene analyzed except LPL, which indicated a consistent response to diet. Expression of ACACA and FASN was greater in SAT than MAT, whereas expression of SCD and ADFP were greatest in SAT, intermediate in OAT, and lowest in MAT. However, the 2 visceral depots had greater expression of THRSP, ACLY, LPL, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1 compared with SAT. The transcription factor SREBF1 was more highly expressed in MAT and SAT than in OAT. The expression of PNPLA2 was greater in visceral AT sites than in SAT, but other lipolysis-related genes were not differentially expressed among AT depots. Visceral AT depots had greater expression of LEP, ADIPOQ, and SAA3 compared with SAT. Moreover, MAT had greater expression than SAT of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1B and IL6), IL6 receptor (IL6R), and chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5). However, TNF expression was greatest in SAT, lowest in OAT, and intermediate in MAT. Overall, results indicated that visceral AT might be more active in uptake of preformed long-chain fatty acids than SAT, whereas de novo fatty acid synthesis could make a greater contribution to the intracellular pool of fatty acids in SAT than in visceral AT. The visceral AT compared

  8. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of software packages for assessment of abdominal adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, S; Ghosh, P; Crawford, S; Solga, SF; Horska, A; Brancati, FL; Diehl, AM; Smith, S; Clark, JM

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine five available software packages for the assessment of abdominal adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging, compare their features and assess the reliability of measurement results. Design Feature evaluation and test–retest reliability of softwares (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision) used in manual, semi-automated or automated segmentation of abdominal adipose tissue. Subjects A random sample of 15 obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Measurements Axial T1-weighted spin echo images centered at vertebral bodies of L2–L3 were acquired at 1.5 T. Five software packages were evaluated (NIHImage, SliceOmatic, Analyze, HippoFat and EasyVision), comparing manual, semi-automated and automated segmentation approaches. Images were segmented into cross-sectional area (CSA), and the areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Ease of learning and use and the design of the graphical user interface (GUI) were rated. Intra-observer accuracy and agreement between the software packages were calculated using intra-class correlation. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to obtain test–retest reliability. Results Three of the five evaluated programs offered a semi-automated technique to segment the images based on histogram values or a user-defined threshold. One software package allowed manual delineation only. One fully automated program demonstrated the drawbacks of uncritical automated processing. The semi-automated approaches reduced variability and measurement error, and improved reproducibility. There was no significant difference in the intra-observer agreement in SAT and CSA. The VAT measurements showed significantly lower test–retest reliability. There were some differences between the software packages in qualitative aspects, such as user friendliness. Conclusion Four out of five packages provided essentially the same results with respect to the inter- and intra-rater reproducibility. Our

  9. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Conclusions Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. PMID:25159728

  10. Differences in In Vivo Cellular Kinetics in Abdominal and Femoral Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Women.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula A; Fitch, Mark D; Beyl, Robbie A; Hellerstein, Marc K; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of fat in upper-body (abdominal) adipose tissue is associated with obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases, whereas lower-body (gluteal and femoral) fat may be protective. Studies suggest physiological and molecular differences between adipose depots and depot-specific cellular mechanisms of adipose expansion. We assessed in vivo cellular kinetics in subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) depots using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium ((2)H) from (2)H2O into the DNA of adipocytes and preadipocytes in 25 women with overweight or obesity. DNA synthesis rates denote new cell formation of preadipocytes and adipocytes in each depot. Formation of adipocytes was positively correlated to that of preadipocytes in the scABD and scFEM depots and was related to percent body fat in each depot. Notably, preadipocytes and adipocytes had higher formation rates in the scFEM depot relative to the scABD. This method to assess in vivo adipogenesis will be valuable to evaluate adipocyte kinetics in individuals with varying body fat distributions and degrees of metabolic health and in response to a variety of interventions, such as diet, exercise, or pharmacological treatment. PMID:26993068

  11. Tadalafil reduces visceral adipose tissue accumulation by promoting preadipocytes differentiation towards a metabolically healthy phenotype: Studies in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maneschi, Elena; Cellai, Ilaria; Aversa, Antonio; Mello, Tommaso; Filippi, Sandra; Comeglio, Paolo; Bani, Daniele; Guasti, Daniele; Sarchielli, Erica; Salvatore, Giulia; Morelli, Annamaria; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Corcetto, Francesca; Corno, Chiara; Francomano, Davide; Galli, Andrea; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Lenzi, Andrea; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Development of metabolically healthy adipocytes within dysfunctional adipose tissue may represent an attractive way to counteract metabolic syndrome (MetS). In an experimental animal model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS, in vivo, long- and short-term tadalafil treatments were able to reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia, and to induce the expression in VAT of the brown fat-specific marker, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). VAT preadipocytes (PAD), isolated from the tadalafil-treated HFD rabbits, showed: i) a multilocular morphology; ii) an increased expression of brown fat-specific genes (such as UCP1 and CIDEA); iii) improved mitochondrial structure and dynamic and reduced superoxide production; iv) improved insulin sensitivity. Similar effects were obtained after in vitro tadalafil treatment in HFD rPAD. In conclusion, tadalafil counteracted HFD-associated VAT alterations, by restoring insulin-sensitivity and prompting preadipocytes differentiation towards a metabolically healthy phenotype. PMID:26805634

  12. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, André; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Excess intra-abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, often termed visceral obesity, is part of a phenotype including dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride storage closely related to clustering cardiometabolic risk factors. Hypertriglyceridemia; increased free fatty acid availability; adipose tissue release of proinflammatory cytokines; liver insulin resistance and inflammation; increased liver VLDL synthesis and secretion; reduced clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; presence of small, dense LDL particles; and reduced HDL cholesterol levels are among the many metabolic alterations closely related to this condition. Age, gender, genetics, and ethnicity are broad etiological factors contributing to variation in visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Specific mechanisms responsible for proportionally increased visceral fat storage when facing positive energy balance and weight gain may involve sex hormones, local cortisol production in abdominal adipose tissues, endocannabinoids, growth hormone, and dietary fructose. Physiological characteristics of abdominal adipose tissues such as adipocyte size and number, lipolytic responsiveness, lipid storage capacity, and inflammatory cytokine production are significant correlates and even possible determinants of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with visceral obesity. Thiazolidinediones, estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women, and testosterone replacement in androgen-deficient men have been shown to favorably modulate body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk to various degrees. However, some of these therapies must now be considered in the context of their serious side effects. Lifestyle interventions leading to weight loss generally induce preferential mobilization of visceral fat. In clinical practice, measuring waist circumference in addition to the body mass index could be helpful for the identification and management of a subgroup of overweight or obese

  13. Altered subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid synthesis in obese, insulin-resistant humans

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chandalia, Manisha; Batbayar, Tumurbaatar; Saraf, Manish; Beysen, Carine; Murphy, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) dynamics in obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the correlation between these two metabolic measures. Ten obese (BMI 30–40 kg/m2) nondiabetic subjects with (n = 6) and without (n = 4) the metabolic syndrome were studied following a 12-wk 2H2O labeling period. Subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies were collected. Deuterium incorporation into triglyceride (TG)-glycerol and TG-palmitate were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the calculation of fractional TG synthesis (fTG) and fractional de novo lipogenesis (fDNL). Muscle IS and insulin-mediated nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) suppression (a measure for adipose IS) indexes were derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The ability of subcutaneous abdominal AT to synthesize lipids varied significantly in obese subjects (fTG range 7–28%, fDNL range 1.1–4.6%) with significantly lower values (>35% reduction) for both parameters in obese with the metabolic syndrome. fTG correlated positively with muscle IS (r = 0.64, P = 0.04) and inversely with NEFA suppression during the OGTT (r = −0.69, P = 0.03). These results demonstrate a large variability in subcutaneous abdominal AT lipid turnover in obesity. Moreover, a reduced capacity for subcutaneous abdominal AT fat storage is associated with muscle and adipose tissue insulin resistance as well as with the metabolic syndrome, thus identifying a form of obesity at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23982159

  14. The Visceral Adiposity Index: Relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese and overweight postmenopausal women--a MONET group study.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Belinda; Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony; Coderre, Lise; Bernard, Sophie; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2013-08-01

    A recent study suggested visceral adipose index (VAI) as an indicator of adipose tissue distribution and function associated with cardiometabolic risk. We aim to examine the association between VAI and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), insulin sensitivity, and a large panel of associated cardiometabolic risk factors, and to determine if changes in VAI after weight loss intervention will reflect changes in VAT. We performed a secondary analysis using the data of 99 overweight and postmenopausal women that completed a 6-month weight loss program (Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team Study). VAI was calculated according to the equation by Amato et al. (2010; Diabetes Care, 33(4):920-922). At baseline, VAI was associated with VAT (r = 0.284, p < 0.01) but not with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) while body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly related to both. BMI and WC demonstrated significantly stronger predictive value of VAT accumulation (area under the curve = 0.84 and 0.86, respectively) than VAI (area under the curve = 0.61; p < 0.01). However, VAT, BMI, WC, and VAI were similarly related to fasting insulin and glucose disposal rates. After a 6-month weight loss program, VAI decreased significantly and similarly in both intervention groups (p < 0.01). In addition, the percentage of change in VAI showed the significantly weakest correlation (r = 0.25) with the percentage of change in VAT than BMI (r = 0.56; p < 0.01 for r comparisons) and was not a significant predictor of interindividual percentage of change in VAT while BMI accounted for 33.7%. VAI is a weak indicator of VAT function and did not predict changes in VAT after weight loss. Furthermore, this index was not superior to BMI or WC. However, VAI is a good indicator of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23855278

  15. CILAIR-Based Secretome Analysis of Obese Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Reveals Distinctive ECM Remodeling and Inflammation Mediators.

    PubMed

    Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Bravo, Susana Belen; Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Alonso, Jana; Castro, Ana Isabel; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, María

    2015-01-01

    In the context of obesity, strong evidences support a distinctive pathological contribution of adipose tissue depending on its anatomical site of accumulation. Therefore, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) has been lately considered metabolically benign compared to visceral fat (VAT), whose location is associated to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and other associated comorbidities. Under the above situation, the chronic local inflammation that characterizes obese adipose tissue, has acquired a major role on the pathogenesis of obesity. In this work, we have analyzed for the first time human obese VAT and SAT secretomes using an improved quantitative proteomic approach for the study of tissue secretomes, Comparison of Isotope-Labeled Amino acid Incorporation Rates (CILAIR). The use of double isotope-labeling-CILAIR approach to analyze VAT and SAT secretomes allowed the identification of location-specific secreted proteins and its differential secretion. Additionally to the very high percentage of identified proteins previously implicated in obesity or in its comorbidities, this approach was revealed as a useful tool for the study of the obese adipose tissue microenvironment including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammatory status. The results herein presented reinforce the fact that VAT and SAT depots have distinct features and contribute differentially to metabolic disease. PMID:26198096

  16. Familial clustering of abdominal visceral fat and total fat mass: the Québec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    1996-05-01

    The evidence for common familial factors underlying total fat mass (estimated from underwater weighing) and abdominal visceral fat (assessed from CT scan) was examined in families participating in phase 2 of the Québec Family Study (QFS) using a bivariate familial correlation model. Previous QFS investigations suggest that both genetic (major and polygenic) and familial environmental factors influence each phenotype, accounting for between 55% to 71% of the phenotypic variance in fat mass, and between 55% to 72% for abdominal visceral fat. The current study suggests that the bivariate familial effect ranges from 29% to 50%. This pattern suggests that there may be common familial determinants for abdominal visceral fat and total fat mass, as well as additional familial factors which are specific to each. The relatively high spouse cross-trait correlations usually suggest that a large percent of the bivariate familial effect may be environmental in origin. However, if mating is not random, then the spouse resemblance may reflect either genetic or environmental causes, depending on the source [i.e., through similar genes or cohabitation (environmental) effects]. Finally, there are significant sex differences in the magnitude of the familial cross-trait correlations involving parents, but not offspring, suggesting complex generation (i.e., age) and sex effects. For example, genes may turn on or off as a function of age and sex, and/or there may be an accumulation over time of effects due to the environment which may vary by sex. Whether the common familial factors are genetic (major and/or polygenic), environmental, or some combination of both, and whether the familial expression depends on sex and/or age warrants further investigation using more complex models. PMID:8732959

  17. Identification of Specific Cell-Surface Markers of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wee Kiat; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chan, Kai Li; Goesantoso, Grace Gandi; Chan, Xin Hui Derryn; Chan, Edmund; Yin, Jocelyn; Yeo, Chia Rou; Khoo, Chin Meng; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Shabbir, Asim; Toh, Sue-Anne; Han, Weiping; Sugii, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) from the anatomically distinct subcutaneous and visceral depots of white adipose tissue (WAT) differ in their inherent properties. However, little is known about the molecular identity and definitive markers of ASCs from these depots. In this study, ASCs from subcutaneous fat (SC-ASCs) and visceral fat (VS-ASCs) of omental region were isolated and studied. High-content image screening of over 240 cell-surface markers identified several potential depot-specific markers of ASCs. Subsequent studies revealed consistent predominant expression of CD10 in SC-ASCs and CD200 in VS-ASCs across 12 human subjects and in mice. CD10-high-expressing cells sorted from SC-ASCs differentiated better than their CD10-low-expressing counterparts, whereas CD200-low VS-ASCs differentiated better than CD200-high VS-ASCs. The expression of CD10 and CD200 is thus depot-dependent and associates with adipogenic capacities. These markers will offer a valuable tool for tracking and screening of depot-specific stem cell populations. PMID:24527391

  18. Switch to Raltegravir From Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor Does not Reduce Visceral Fat In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women With Central Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jordan E; McComsey, Grace A; Hulgan, Todd; Wanke, Christine A; Mangili, Alexandra; Walmsley, Sharon L; Currier, Judith S

    2015-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with central adiposity switched to raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy immediately or after 24 weeks. No statistically significant changes in computed tomography-quantified visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or subcutaneous fat were observed, although 48 weeks of raltegravir was associated with a 6.4% VAT decline. Raltegravir for 24 weeks was associated with improvements in lipids. PMID:26380350

  19. Correlation of visceral adipose tissue measured by Lunar Prodigy dual X-ray absorptiometry with MRI and CT in older men.

    PubMed

    Cheung, A S; de Rooy, C; Hoermann, R; Gianatti, E J; Hamilton, E J; Roff, G; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is important to understand obesity-related comorbidities. We hypothesized that dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of VAT would correlate with traditional gold standards of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in older men. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between VAT measured simultaneously by DXA and MRI (n=95) in a cohort of older males participating in a randomized trial of testosterone replacement for diabetes. We also correlated DXA with single-slice CT (n=102) in a cohort of older males undergoing testosterone deprivation for prostate cancer. Lunar Prodigy DXA scanners using enCORE software was used to measure VAT. DXA VAT volume strongly correlated with MRI VAT volume (r=0.90, P<0.0001) and CT VAT area (r=0.83, P<0.0001). As DXA assesses VAT volume in a smaller compartment than MRI, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated DXA systematically underestimated VAT by an approximately 30% proportional bias. DXA VAT volume measured by Lunar Prodigy DXA scanners correlate well with gold standard MRI and CT quantification methods, and provides a low radiation, efficient, cost-effective option. Future clinical studies examining the effects of interventions on body composition and regional fat distribution may find DXA an appropriate volumetric method to quantify VAT. PMID:27003112

  20. Reduction in visceral adiposity is highly related to improvement in vascular endothelial dysfunction among obese women: an assessment of endothelial function by radial artery pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Hoon; Shim, Kyung-Won

    2005-08-31

    Because obesity is frequently complicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in obese patients is difficult to determine. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a reduction in visceral adiposity on VED in obese women. Thirty-six premenopausal obese women (BMI >/= 25 kg/m2) without complications were enrolled in the study. VED was evaluated by determining the augmentation index (AIx) from radial artery pulse waves obtained by applanation tonometry. Changes in AIx in response to nitroglycerin- induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation (DeltaAIx-NTG) and in response to salbutamol administration (DeltaAIx-Salb) were determined before and after weight reduction. After a 12-week weight reduction program, the average weight loss was 7.96 +/- 3.47 kg, with losses of 21.88 +/- 20.39 cm2 in visceral fat areas (p < 0.001). Pulse wave analysis combined with provocative pharmacological testing demonstrated preserved endothelium-independent vasodilation in healthy premenopausal obese women (DeltaAIx-NTG: 31.36 +/- 9.80% before weight reduction vs. 28.25 +/- 11.21% after weight reduction, p > 0.1) and an improvement in endothelial-dependent vasodilation following weight reduction (DeltaAIx-Salb: 10.03 +/- 6.49% before weight reduction vs. 19.33 +/- 9.28% after reduction, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adipose tissue was found to be most significantly related to an increase in DeltaAIx-Salb (beta=-0.57, p < 0.001). A reduction in visceral adiposity was significantly related to an improvement in VED. This finding suggests that reduction of visceral adiposity may be as important as the control of other major risk factors in the prevention of atherosclerosis in obese women. PMID:16127776

  1. Different Anti-Contractile Function and Nitric Oxide Production of Thoracic and Abdominal Perivascular Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Jamaira A.; Fontes, Milene T.; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Davel, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Divergent phenotypes between the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding the abdominal and the thoracic aorta might be implicated in regional aortic differences, such as susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Although PVAT of the thoracic aorta exhibits anti-contractile function, the role of PVAT in the regulation of the vascular tone of the abdominal aorta is not well defined. In the present study, we compared the anti-contractile function, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in PVAT and vessel walls of abdominal and thoracic aorta. Abdominal and thoracic aortic tissue from male Wistar rats were used to perform functional and molecular experiments. PVAT reduced the contraction evoked by phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium in the thoracic aorta, whereas this anti-contractile effect was not observed in the abdominal aorta. Abdominal PVAT exhibited a reduction in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression compared with thoracic PVAT, without differences in eNOS expression in the vessel walls. In agreement with this result, NO production evaluated in situ using 4,5-diaminofluorescein was less pronounced in abdominal compared with thoracic aortic PVAT, whereas no significant difference was observed for endothelial NO production. Moreover, NOS inhibition with L-NAME enhanced the phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelial-denuded rings with PVAT from thoracic but not abdominal aorta. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation products evaluated through the quantification of hydroethidine fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts, respectively, were similar between PVAT and vessel walls from the abdominal and thoracic aorta. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression was similar between the vessel walls and PVAT of the abdominal and thoracic aorta. However, Mn-SOD levels were reduced, while CuZn-SOD levels were increased in abdominal PVAT compared with thoracic aortic PVAT. In conclusion, our results

  2. Long-term abdominal adiposity activates several parameters of cardiac energy function.

    PubMed

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Abdominal obesity increases the incidence of cardiac events but reduces mortality when one of these events occurs. The phenomenon called obesity paradox might be related to myocardial energetics. This study was aimed at determining whether long-term abdominal adiposity alters cardiac energy function. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a Western-type (WD) diet for 8 months. The ex vivo coronary reactivity and mechanical function as well as the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and hydrogen peroxide release (mH2O2r) were determined. Abdominal adiposity was augmented by the WD. This was also the case for the coronary reactivity to acetylcholine, but the rate pressure product remained roughly stable despite a reduction of the left ventricle-developed pressure partly compensated by a slight increase in heart rate. The prolonged WD administration resulted in an improvement of mOxPhos, but the mH2O2r was exaggerated which was confirmed in the whole cell by a reduced aconitase to fumarase ratio. This did not modify the plasma oxidative stress due to an increased plasma antioxidant status. In conclusion, long-term WD administration improved the cardiac fitness and might predispose the organism to the obesity paradox. Conversely, the increased mitochondrial mH2O2r can precipitate the heart toward cardiomyopathy if the WD is maintained for a longer duration. PMID:26255304

  3. Low dietary protein intake during pregnancy differentially affects mitochondrial copy number in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the influence of protein intake during pregnancy on mitochondrial metabolism in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous (SVSu) and visceral (SVVi) adipose tissue of offspring fed a high fat diet. Obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 8% or 20% p...

  4. Possible involvement of glucocorticoids in 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like metabolic disturbances in the rat visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Marina; Macut, Djuro; Djordjevic, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nestorović, Nataša; Bursać, Biljana; Antić, Ivana Božić; Macut, Jelica Bjekić; Matić, Gordana; Vojnović Milutinović, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, visceral obesity and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that changes in glucocorticoid metabolism and signaling in the visceral adipose tissue may contribute to disturbances of lipid metabolism in the rat model of PCOS obtained by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment of prepubertal female Wistar rats. The results confirmed that DHT treatment caused anovulation, obesity and dyslipidemia. Enhanced glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, assessed by elevated intracellular corticosterone and increased 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA and protein levels, was accompanied by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear accumulation. In concert with the increased expression of GR-regulated prolipogenic genes (lipin-1, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), histological analyses revealed hypertrophic adipocytes. The results suggest that glucocorticoids influence lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue in the way that may contribute to pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances associated with PCOS. PMID:25179821

  5. Predictive accuracy of single- and multi-slice MRI for the estimation of total visceral adipose tissue in overweight to severely obese patients.

    PubMed

    Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Kerlikowsky, Felix; Blüher, Matthias; Dietrich, Arne; Schütz, Tatjana; Karlas, Thomas; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is increasingly being considered for risk assessment and treatment monitoring in obese patients, but is generally time-consuming. The goals of this work were to semi-automatically segment and quantify VAT areas of MRI slices at previously proposed anatomical landmarks and to evaluate their predictive power for whole-abdominal VAT volumes on a relatively large number of patients. One-hundred and ninety-seven overweight to severely obese patients (65 males; body mass index, 33.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); 132 females; body mass index, 34.3 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) underwent MRI examination. Total VAT volumes (VVAT-T ) of the abdominopelvic cavity were quantified by retrospective analysis of two-point Dixon MRI data (active-contour segmentation, visual correction and histogram analysis). VVAT-T was then compared with VAT areas determined on one or five slices defined at seven anatomical landmarks (lumbar intervertebral spaces, umbilicus and femoral heads) and corresponding conversion factors were determined. Statistical measures were the coefficients of variation and standard deviations σ1 and σ5 of the difference between predicted and measured VAT volumes (Bland-Altman analysis). VVAT-T was 6.0 ± 2.0 L (2.5-11.2 L) for males and 3.2 ± 1.4 L (0.9-7.7 L) for females. The analysis of five slices yielded a better agreement than the analysis of single slices, required only a little extra time (4 min versus 2 min) and was substantially faster than whole-abdominal assessment (24 min). Best agreements were found at intervertebral spaces L3-L4 for females (σ5/1 = 523/608 mL) and L2-L3 for males (σ5/1 = 613/706 mL). Five-slice VAT volume estimates at the level of lumbar disc L3-L4 for females and L2-L3 for males can be obtained within 4 min and were a reliable predictor for abdominopelvic VAT volume in overweight to severely adipose patients. One-slice estimates took only 2 min and were slightly less accurate. These findings may contribute

  6. Abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Justin R; Vega-López, Sonia; Djedjos, Constantine S; Shaibi, Gabriel Q

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR) place youth at higher risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In adults, abdominal obesity and IR contribute to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Whether similar mechanisms are operational in Latino adolescents is unknown. Therefore, we determined whether IR and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher oxLDL concentrations in Latino adolescents. Data from 123 Latino adolescents (16.3 ± 2.5 years; female = 74) were used for the present analysis. Participants were assessed for waist circumference, fasting serum oxLDL, and insulin sensitivity by the whole body insulin sensitivity index. In separate linear regression models adjusting for age and sex, both waist circumference and insulin sensitivity were significant predictors of oxLDL (β = 1.9; p = 0.002; R2 = 0.13, β = -1.7; p = 0.006; R2 = 0.11, respectively). When insulin sensitivity and waist circumference were included in the same model, both remained independent predictors of oxLDL (β = 1.7; p = 0.016 and, β = -1.5; p = 0.055, respectively; R2 = 0.16). These results suggest that insulin resistance and abdominal adiposity are associated with higher levels of LDL oxidation which may be a mechanism contributing to increased CVD risk in Latino adolescents. PMID:24238302

  7. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  8. Intra-abdominal fat. Part III. Neoplasms lesions of the adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on various cancerous lesions that are found beyond organs in the intra-abdominal fat and can be visualized with ultrasonography. These lesions are divided into five groups. The first group includes primary benign tumors containing adipocytes, such as lipoma, lipoblastoma, hibernoma and other lesions with an adipose tissue component, such as myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma and teratoma. The second group comprises primary malignant adipocytecontaining tumors, including liposarcoma and immature teratoma. The third group contains primary benign tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. This is a numerous group of lesions represented by cystic and solid tumors. The fourth group encompasses primary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component that are located in intra-abdominal fat. These are rare lesions associated mainly with sarcomas: fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, hemangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma. An epithelioid tumor at this site is mesothelioma. The last but not least group includes secondary malignant tumors without an adipocyte component located in intra-abdominal fat. This is the most numerous group with prevailing carcinoma foci. For each of these groups, the authors present ultrasound features of individual lesions and discuss their differential diagnosis. In the vast majority of cases, the material for cytological and histological analysis can be obtained during ultrasound-guided procedures. This is the advantage of this imaging modality. PMID:27446599

  9. Characterization and Multilineage Differentiation of Domestic and Black-Footed Cat Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells from Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Qin, Qian; Biancardi, Monica N; Galiguis, Jason; Dumas, Cherie; MacLean, Robert A; Wang, Guoshun; Pope, C Earle

    2015-10-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue is emerging as a promising tool for cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine in domestic and endangered animal species. Defining the differentiation capability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) collected from different depot sites of adipose tissue will be essential for developing strategies for cell replacement therapy. In the present study, we compared the biological characteristics of domestic cat AMSCs isolated from visceral fat of the abdominal cavity (AB) with AMSCs from subcutaneous (SQ) tissue, and the functional capability of domestic and black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) AMSCs to differentiate into other cell types. Our results showed that both domestic and black-footed cat adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions contained AMSCs. Both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs showed important clonogenic ability and the minimal MSC immunophenotype as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy in humans. However, domestic cat AB-AMSCs had higher percentages of cells positive for MSCs-associated cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD90(+) and CD105(+) (92% and 80%, respectively) than those of SQ-AMSCs (77% and 58%, respectively). Although these results may suggest that AB-AMSCs may be more multipotent than SQ-AMSCs, both types of cells showed similar expression of pluripotent genes Oct-4 and Klf4, except for higher expression of Nanog than in AB-AMSCs, and equivalent in vitro multilineage differentiation. Under appropriate stimuli, the black-footed cat and both domestic cat AB- and SQ-AMSCs differentiated not only toward mesoderm cell lineages but also toward ectoderm cell lineage, such as neuron cell-like cells. Black-footed cat AMSCs had more capability to differentiate toward chondrocytes. These results suggest that the defined AMSC population (regardless of site of collection) could potentially be employed as a

  10. ANTIGEN- AND CYTOKINE-DRIVEN ACCUMULATION OF REGULATORY T CELLS IN VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE OF LEAN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Kolodin, Dmitriy; van Panhuys, Nicolas; Li, Chaoran; Magnuson, Angela M.; Cipolletta, Daniela; Miller, Christine M.; Wagers, Amy; Germain, Ronald N.; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY A unique population of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, with a distinct transcriptome and antigen-receptor repertoire, resides in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of lean individuals. These cells regulate local inflammation and both local and systemic metabolic indices. Here we focus on expansion of the VAT Treg compartment in aging lean mice – assessing these cells’ phenotypic conversion from conventional CD4+ T cells, influx from lymphoid organs, and local population dynamics. Our findings establish that the VAT Treg compartment is seeded from thymocytes generated during the first weeks of life, and expands beyond 10 weeks of age due to indolent proliferation, of certain clones in particular, coupled with enhanced survival. Accumulation of VAT Tregs depends on antigen(s) presented by MHC class-II molecules and soluble mediators, notably interleukin(IL)-33. Addressing such factors therapeutically promises novel approaches for harnessing Tregs to stem the growing epidemic of obesity and consequent metabolic abnormalities. PMID:25863247

  11. Intrinsic Features in MicroRNA Transcriptomes Link Porcine Visceral Rather than Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues to Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingkai; Chen, Lei; Long, Keren; Jin, Long; Jiang, An'an; Zhu, Li; Wang, Jinyong; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNA ∼22 nucleotides in length that can regulate the expression of a wide range of coding genes at the post-transcriptional level. Visceral adipose tissues (VATs) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SATs), the two main fat compartments in mammals, are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically, and clinically distinct. Various studies of adipose tissues have focused mainly on DNA methylation, and mRNA and protein expression, nonetheless little research sheds directly light on the miRNA transcriptome differences between these two distinct adipose tissue types. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of miRNA transcriptomes across six variant porcine adipose tissues by small RNA-sequencing. We identified 219 known porcine miRNAs, 97 novel miRNA*s, and 124 miRNAs that are conserved to other mammals. A set of universally abundant miRNAs (i.e., miR-148a-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-let-7a-1-5p, and miR-let-7f-5p) across the distinct adipose tissues was found. This set of miRNAs may play important housekeeping roles that are involved in adipogenesis. Clustering analysis indicated significant variations in miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs, and highlighted the role of the greater omentum in responding to potential metabolic risk because of the observed enrichment in this tissue of the immune- and inflammation-related miRNAs, such as the members of miR-17-92 cluster and miR-181 family. Differential expression of the miRNAs between the VATs and SATs, and miRNA target prediction analysis revealed that the VATs-specific enriched miRNAs were associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. In summary, the differences of miRNA expression between the VATs and SATs revealed some of their intrinsic differences and indicated that the VATs might be closely associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. PMID:24223210

  12. Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Bredlau, Carl; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Mueller, Manfred; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Maeda, Yuna; McDougall, Andrew; Peterson, Courtney M.; Ravussin, Eric; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Design and Methods Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict % body fat and % VAT. Results A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of % body fat and % VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. Conclusions Body roundness index, a new shape measure, is a predictor of % body fat and % VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. PMID:23519954

  13. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    There are likely many scenarios and pathways that can lead to metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews mechanisms by which the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may contribute to the metabolic syndrome, and explores the paradigm of a critical VAT threshold (CVATT). Exceeding the CVATT may result in a number of metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance to glucose uptake by cells. Metabolic profiles of patients with visceral obesity may substantially improve after only modest weight loss. This could reflect a significant reduction in the amount of VAT relative to peripheral or subcutaneous fat depots, thereby maintaining VAT below the CVATT. The CVATT may be unique for each individual. This may help explain the phenomena of apparently lean individuals with metabolic syndrome, the so-called metabolically normal weight (MONW), as well as the obese with normal metabolic profiles, i.e., metabolically normal obese (MNO), and those who are "fit and fat." The concept of CVATT may have implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, which may include controlling dietary carbohydrates. The identification of the CVATT is admittedly difficult and its anatomical boundaries are not well-defined. Thus, the CVATT will continue to be a work in progress. PMID:15530168

  14. Dietary Stearic Acid Leads to a Reduction of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Gene P.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  15. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Che; Zhao, Xiangmin; Siegal, Gene P; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  16. Visceral adipose tissue influences on coronary artery calcification at young and middle-age groups using computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Abazid, Rami M.; Kattea, M. Obadah; Sayed, Sawsan; Saqqah, Hanaa; Qintar, Mohammed; Smettei, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of excessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) in young and middle-age groups using multislice computed tomography. Methods: This study is a single center, cross-sectional study. Eligible patients (n = 159), who under the age of 61 years, with chest pain and mild to moderate probability to have coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. Coronary calcium score and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were measured at the level of the left main coronary artery while VAT was measured at the level of the iliac crest. Results: The average age was (48 ± 8 years). The mean VAT was (38 ± 21 cm2) with no significant difference between men and women (38 ± 22 vs. 37 ± 19 P = 0.8) respectively. Student's t-test analysis showed significantly higher VAT in patients with detectable CAC than patients with no CAC (48 ± 24 vs. 33 ± 18 P = 0.00002), respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that VAT and EAT, are strong predictor for CAC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.016–1.052]. P <0.001 and [HR] 1.344, 95% CI: [1.129–1.601] P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Excessive VAT is significantly associated with positive CAC. VAT can strongly predict subclinical CAD in individuals at young and middle-age groups. PMID:26229760

  17. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E. N.; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J.; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  18. Visceral adipose tissue is prognostic for survival of diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with frontline R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Areumnuri; Byun, Byung Hyun; Moon, Hansol; Kim, Soyeun; Ko, Young-Jin; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Hyo-Rak; Kang, Hye-Jin; Na, Im Il; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung Sook; Yang, Sung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The potential role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with frontline rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy was explored. Total adipose tissue and VAT were measured by analyzing positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images obtained during the initial staging of patients with DLBCL. The VAT ratio was calculated as follows: VAT ratio = VAT area/total adipose tissue area. Body mass index (BMI), sex, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) were also incorporated as co-variates in the final model of multivariate Cox regression analysis for survival. A total of 156 patients with DLBCL, who were treated with frontline R-CHOP, were enrolled in our study. The median patient age was 61 years, and 81 patients were male (51.9 %). The median cycle of R-CHOP was six. The IPI risk group was a strong prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Obese BMIs were an independent prognostic factor for PFS, but not for OS in multivariate analyses, compared to patients with normal BMIs (HR = 0.43, 95 % CI = 0.19-0.98, and p = 0.046 for PFS). A high VAT ratio (third tertile) was an independent adverse prognostic factor for PFS and OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 2.87 and 2.66, 95 % CI = 1.30-6.32 and 1.30-5.44, and p = 0.009 and 0.007 for PFS and OS, respectively). VAT ratio was an independent prognostic factor for patients with DLBCL treated with first-line R-CHOP; thus, additional large prospective studies are warranted. PMID:26658607

  19. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  20. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  1. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  2. Meta-analyses of the Association of Sleep Apnea with Insulin Resistance, and the Effects of CPAP on HOMA-IR, Adiponectin, and Visceral Adipose Fat

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Imran H.; Hoyos, Camilla M.; Phillips, Craig L.; Magalang, Ulysses J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to conduct an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on insulin resistance, as measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), visceral abdominal fat (VAF), and adiponectin. Additionally, we performed a separate meta-analysis and meta-regression of studies on the association of insulin resistance and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: All included studies were searched from PubMed (from conception to March 15, 2014). Data were pooled across all included RCTs as the mean difference in HOMA-IR and VAF, and as the standardized mean difference in the case of adiponectin analysis. From the included case-control studies, data on the difference of HOMA-IR between cases and controls were pooled across all studies, as the standardized mean difference (SMD). Results: There was a significant difference in HOMA-IR (−0.43 [95% CIs: −0.75 to −0.11], p = 0.008) between CPAP treated and non CPAP treated participants. However, there was no significant difference in VAF or adiponectin; (−47.93 [95% CI: −112.58 to 16.72], p = 0.14) and (−0.06 [95% CI: −0.28 to 0.15], p = 0.56), respectively. Meta-analysis of 16 case-control studies showed a pooled SMD in HOMA-IR of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.28 to 0.75), p ≤ 0.001, between cases and controls. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analyses show that CPAP has a favorable effect on insulin resistance. This effect is not associated with any significant changes in total adiponectin levels or amount of VAF. Our findings also confirm a significant association between OSA and insulin resistance. Citation: Iftikhar IH, Hoyos CM, Phillips CL, Magalang UJ. Meta-analyses of the association of sleep apnea with insulin resistance, and the effects of CPAP on HOMA-IR, adiponectin, and visceral adipose fat. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):475–485. PMID:25700870

  3. Abdominal Adiposity Correlates with Adenotonsillectomy Outcome in Obese Adolescents with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nino, Gustavo; Gutierrez, Maria J.; Ravindra, Anjani; Nino, Cesar L.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Obese adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) have a unique pathophysiology that combines adenotonsillar hypertrophy and increased visceral fat distribution. We hypothesized that in this population waist circumference (WC), as a clinical marker of abdominal fat distribution, correlates with the likelihood of response to AT. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 97th percentile) that underwent AT for therapy of severe OSA (n = 21). We contrasted WC and covariates in a group of subjects that had complete resolution of severe OSA after AT (n = 7) with those obtained in subjects with residual OSA after AT (n = 14). Multivariate linear and logistic models were built to control possible confounders. Results. WC correlated negatively with a positive AT response in young adolescents and the percentage of improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) after AT (P ≤ 0.01). Extended multivariate analysis demonstrated that the link between WC and AT response was independent of demographic variables, OSA severity, clinical upper airway assessment, obesity severity (BMI), and neck circumference (NC). Conclusion. The results suggest that in obese adolescents, abdominal fat distribution determined by WC may be a useful clinical predictor for residual OSA after AT. PMID:23251797

  4. Changes of Regulatory T Cells in the Early Stage of Obesity Mice and Their Modulation on Macrophage Subtypes in Visceral Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Tang, Xiao-Han; Tang, Li-Li; Yu, Hai-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Zhou, Zhi-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and whether Tregs can modulate the distribution of macrophage subtypes in visceral adipose tissue in the early stage of obesity.Methods After C57BL/6 mice obesity models were successfully established,metabolic parameters and numbers of Tregs and M1/M2 macrophage were measured at 4,10,and 20 weeks.The changes of metabolic parameters and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity mice after rapamycin intervention were evaluated. Results The early-stage obesity models were successfully established.Compared with normal diet mice,high fat diet mice had significantly higher epididymal adipose tissue mass and serum leptin levels(P<0.05).However,there was no statistical difference in blood glucose and insulin levels between these two groups(All P>0.05). Macrophages infiltration in adipose tissue in high fat diet mice gradually increased with time,coincident with decrease in Treg numbers. Increased numbers of Treg,improved metabolic parameters,and decreased ratio of M1/M2 can be seen after rapamycin intervention in mice.Conclusion The decrease of Tregs in the early stage of obesity may contribute to abnormal distribution of macrophage subtypes in visceral adipose. PMID:27594151

  5. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) Is Predictive of an Altered Adipokine Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Marco C.; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Torregrossa, Vittoria; Misiano, Gabriella; Milano, Salvatore; Giordano, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although there is still no clear definition of “adipose tissue dysfunction” or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC), Hip Circumference (HC), Waist/Hip ratio (WHR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI)] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R), Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Materials and Methods Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25±6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women) in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5–2 g/day) were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. Results At the Pearson’s correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001); Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010); Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05)]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD). At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66–0.84)] of all the indices. Conclusions Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an

  6. Periadventitial adipose-derived stem cell treatment halts elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm progression

    PubMed Central

    Blose, Kory J; Ennis, Terri L; Arif, Batool; Weinbaum, Justin S; Curci, John A; Vorp, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aim Demonstrate that periadventitial delivery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) slows aneurysm progression in an established murine elastase-perfusion model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Materials & methods AAAs were induced in C57BL/6 mice using porcine elastase. During elastase perfusion, a delivery device consisting of a subcutaneous port, tubing and porous scaffold was implanted. Five days after elastase perfusion, 100,000 ADMSCs were delivered through the port to the aorta. After sacrifice at day 14, analyzed metrics included aortic diameter and structure of aortic elastin. Results ADMSC treated aneurysms had a smaller diameter and less fragmented elastin versus saline controls. Conclusion Periadventitial stem cell delivery prevented the expansion of an established aneurysm between days 5 and 14 after elastase perfusion. PMID:25431910

  7. Indirect measure of visceral adiposity ‘A Body Shape Index’ (ABSI) is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bouchi, Ryotaro; Asakawa, Masahiro; Ohara, Norihiko; Nakano, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Takato; Murakami, Masanori; Sasahara, Yuriko; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Minami, Isao; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Among indirect measures of visceral adiposity, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), which is defined as waist circumference (WC)/(body mass index (BMI)2/3×height1/2), is unique in that ABSI is positively correlated with visceral adiposity and is supposed to be independent of BMI. ABSI has been also shown to be linearly and positively associated with visceral fat mass and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. It is, however, uncertain whether ABSI could be associated with arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 607 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 64±12 years; 40.0% female). Visceral fat area (VFA, cm2) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA, cm2) were assessed with a dual-impedance analyzer. In order to estimate the risk for CVD, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, cm) was used for the assessment of arterial stiffness. Results ABSI was significantly and positively correlated with VFA (r=0.138, p=0.001) and negatively associated with BMI (r=−0.085, p=0.037). The correlation of z-score for ABSI with VFA remained significant (r=0.170, p<0.001) but not with BMI (r=0.009, p=0.820). ABSI (standardized β 0.095, p=0.043) but not WC (standardized β −0.060, p=0.200) was significantly and positively correlated with baPWV in the multivariate model including BMI as a covariate. Conclusions ABSI appears to reflect visceral adiposity independently of BMI and to be a substantial marker of arterial stiffening in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27026809

  8. Angiotensin II Reduces Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue via Phospholipase C β4 Depending on Feeding but Increases Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue via c-Src.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Shoichi; Sato, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, high triglyceride (TG)- and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-levels, hypertension, and diabetes-all of which often cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It remains unclear, however, why visceral adiposity but not subcutaneous adiposity causes insulin resistance and other pathological situations. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalyzes hydrolysis of TG in plasma lipoproteins. In the present study, we investigated whether the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on TG metabolism are mediated through an effect on LPL expression. Adipose tissues were divided into visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for comparison. AngII accelerated LPL expression in SAT but, on the contrary, suppressed its expression in VAT. In both SAT and VAT, AngII signaled through the same type 1 receptor. In SAT, AngII increased LPL expression via c-Src and p38 MAPK signaling. In VAT, however, AngII reduced LPL expression via the Gq class of G proteins and the subsequent phospholipase C β4 (PLCβ4), protein kinase C β1, nuclear factor κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways. PLCβ4 small interfering RNA experiments showed that PLCβ4 expression is important for the AngII-induced LPL reduction in VAT, in which PLCβ4 expression increases in the evening and falls at night. Interestingly, PLCβ4 expression in VAT decreased with fasting, while AngII did not decrease LPL expression in VAT in a fasting state. In conclusion, AngII reduces LPL expression through PLCβ4, the expression of which is regulated by feeding in VAT, whereas AngII increases LPL expression in SAT. The different effects of AngII on LPL expression and, hence, TG metabolism in VAT and SAT may partly explain their different contributions to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26447765

  9. Angiotensin II Reduces Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue via Phospholipase C β4 Depending on Feeding but Increases Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue via c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tomono, Shoichi; Sato, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, high triglyceride (TG)- and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-levels, hypertension, and diabetes—all of which often cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It remains unclear, however, why visceral adiposity but not subcutaneous adiposity causes insulin resistance and other pathological situations. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalyzes hydrolysis of TG in plasma lipoproteins. In the present study, we investigated whether the effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on TG metabolism are mediated through an effect on LPL expression. Adipose tissues were divided into visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) for comparison. AngII accelerated LPL expression in SAT but, on the contrary, suppressed its expression in VAT. In both SAT and VAT, AngII signaled through the same type 1 receptor. In SAT, AngII increased LPL expression via c-Src and p38 MAPK signaling. In VAT, however, AngII reduced LPL expression via the Gq class of G proteins and the subsequent phospholipase C β4 (PLCβ4), protein kinase C β1, nuclear factor κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways. PLCβ4 small interfering RNA experiments showed that PLCβ4 expression is important for the AngII-induced LPL reduction in VAT, in which PLCβ4 expression increases in the evening and falls at night. Interestingly, PLCβ4 expression in VAT decreased with fasting, while AngII did not decrease LPL expression in VAT in a fasting state. In conclusion, AngII reduces LPL expression through PLCβ4, the expression of which is regulated by feeding in VAT, whereas AngII increases LPL expression in SAT. The different effects of AngII on LPL expression and, hence, TG metabolism in VAT and SAT may partly explain their different contributions to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26447765

  10. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development.

    PubMed

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Kelley, Gary; Kimathi, Boniface; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K V; Donkor, Joseph; Darris, Carl; Tyus, James; Payne, Ashley; Byers, Shannon; Hui, Dafeng; Nahashon, Samuel; Chen, Fur-Chi; Ivy, Michael; Wang, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  11. Expression of Potential Regulatory Genes in Abdominal Adipose Tissue of Broiler Chickens during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Bohannon-Stewart, Ann; Subramanya, Sri Harsha K. V.; Donkor, Joseph; Tyus, James; Hui, Dafeng; Ivy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identities of genes that underlie population variation in adipose tissue development in farm animals are poorly understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have suggested that increased fat tissue involves the expression modulation of an array of genes in broiler chickens. Of special interest are eight genes, FGFR3, EPHB2, IGFBP2, GREM1, TNC, COL3A1, ACBD7, and SCD. To understand their expression regulation and response to dietary manipulation, we investigated their mRNA levels after dietary manipulation during early development. Chickens were fed either a recommended standard or a high caloric diet from hatch to eight weeks of age (WOA). The high caloric diet markedly affected bodyweight of the broiler birds. mRNA levels of the eight genes in the abdominal adipose tissue were assayed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 WOA using RT-qPCR. Results indicate that (1) FGFR3 mRNA level was affected significantly by diet, age, and diet:age interaction; (2) COL3A mRNA level was repressed by high caloric diet; (3) mRNA levels of EPHB2, ACBD7, and SCD were affected by age; (4) mRNA level of TNC was modulated by age:diet interaction; (5) changes in GREM1 and IGFBP2 mRNA levels were not statistically different. PMID:24551454

  12. Plasma leptin in non-diabetic Asian Indians: association with abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A; Snehalatha, C; Vijay, V; Satyavani, K; Latha, E; Haffner, S M

    1997-11-01

    Plasma leptin concentrations were measured in 144 non-diabetic men and women (age 21-73 years, BMI 14.8-37.7 kg m(-2)), in fasting samples collected during a population survey for diabetes mellitus. Leptin, fasting and 2-h post-glucose load plasma concentrations of glucose and immunoreactive insulin were measured. In a subset of 50 normoglycaemic individuals, subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) areas at L4-L5 level were also measured by CT. As in other populations, women had significantly higher plasma leptin concentrations than men (p < 0.001) but the values were similar in normal (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Geometric mean concentrations of leptin in men and women with NGT were 4.8 and 17.7 ng ml(-1), respectively, and the corresponding values in IGT were 6.2 and 19.0 ng ml(-1). Multiple regression analysis in the total group showed that the leptin concentration (log-transformed) was strongly dependent on sex (R2 = 53.4%), BMI (R2 = 17.4%), and to a lesser degree on the 2-h plasma insulin (R2 = 2.4%) and the WHR (R2 = 0.8%). In men, the total abdominal fat showed a strong association with leptin (R2 = 49.3%) and in women the subcutaneous fat area showed a similar effect (R2 = 39.5%). It is likely that subcutaneous and not visceral fat may be a determinant of plasma leptin in Asian Indians, and the correlation between leptin and insulin resistance may be less strong than in other ethnic groups. PMID:9400917

  13. Effect of Pioglitazone on the Fructose-Induced Abdominal Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; García, María E.; Rebolledo, Oscar R.; Gagliardino, Juan J.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To test the potential role of PPARγ in the endocrine abdominal tissue dysfunction induced by feeding normal rats with a fructose rich diet (FRD) during three weeks. Methodology. Adult normal male rats received a standard commercial diet (CD) or FRD, (10% in drinking water) without or with pioglitazone (PIO) (i.p. 0.25 mg/Kg BW/day; CD-PIO and FRD-PIO). Thereafter, we measured circulating metabolic, endocrine, and oxidative stress (OS) markers, abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) mass, leptin (LEP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) tissue content/expression, and leptin release by isolated adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of insulin. Results. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, TBARS, LEP, and PAI-1 levels were higher in FRD rats; PIO coadministration fully prevented all these increments. AAT adipocytes from FRD rats were larger, secreted a higher amount of LEP, and displayed decreased sensitivity to insulin stimulation; these effects were significantly ameliorated by PIO. Whereas AAT LEP and PAI-1 (mRNA) concentrations increased significantly in FRD rats, those of insulin-receptor-substrate- (IRS-) 1 and IRS-2 were reduced. PIO coadministration prevented FRD effects on LEP, PAI-1, and IRS-2 (fully) and IRS-1 (partially) mRNAs in AAT. Conclusion. PPARγ would play a relevant role in the development of the FRD-induced metabolic-endocrine dysfunction. PMID:23091482

  14. Total and Abdominal Adiposity and Hypertension in Indigenous Women in Midwest Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rosangela Costa; de Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, and abdominal fat in particular has been more strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence has increased in Brazilian indigenous populations. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among indigenous women and its association with total and abdominal obesity after adjustment for confounding factors. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated indigenous non-pregnant women aged 20–59 years living in two villages of the indigenous reserve of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Households were visited and were selected by simple random sampling using SPSS software version 21. The casting of lots was performed from a list of households located on a map of villages. To locate the selected households, a Global Positioning System device was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables and to obtain anthropometric data on weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Blood pressure was measured twice during home visits. Results Data were collected between June and October 2013 with 362 women. Most of them were aged <40 years (66.3%) and had low educational level (≤4 years of schooling, 82.0%), had overweight/obesity (74.0%), WC ≥80 cm (83.7%), and family history of hypertension (60.5%). The prevalence of hypertension was 42.0% (CI 95%: 37.0–47.2). In the multivariable analysis, respondents with WC 80–87 cm and ≥88 cm showed approximately 2 times higher prevalence rates of hypertension compared with those with WC <80 cm after adjusting for confounding factors. There was no association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in this study. Conclusions The overall prevalence of hypertension was high and associated only with abdominal adiposity but not with BMI. PMID:27294870

  15. Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas

    2007-04-15

    Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis.

  16. Constant light induces alterations in melatonin levels, food intake, feed efficiency, visceral adiposity, and circadian rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Cyrilla H; Murphy, Helen M

    2009-10-01

    Melatonin levels, metabolic parameters, circadian rhythm activity patterns, and behavior were observed in rats subjected to a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle (LD) compared to animals exposed to continuous dark (DD) or continuous light (LL). LD and DD animals were similar in melatonin levels, food intake, relative food intake, feed efficiency, water intake, circadian activity levels, and behavior. LL animals had lower melatonin levels in the subjective dark compared to LD and DD animals. Food intake, relative food intake, and water intake values were lower and feed efficiency was more positive in LL animals compared to LD and DD animals. In addition, LL animals exhibited greater visceral adiposity than the other two groups. The circadian rhythmicity of activity became free-running in LL animals and there was a decrease in overall activity. Notable behavioral changes in LL animals were an increase in irritability and excitability. Results indicate that a decrease in melatonin levels and concomitant changes in metabolism, circadian rhythms, and behavior are consequences of exposure to constant light. PMID:19761654

  17. Long-Term Risperidone Treatment Induces Visceral Adiposity Associated with Hepatic Steatosis in Mice: A Magnetic Resonance Approach

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Florent; Duriez, Patrick; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Durieux, Nicolas; Bordet, Régis; Pétrault, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have led to significant advances in the treatment of psychotic disorders, they still induce metabolic disturbances. We aimed at characterizing the metabolic consequences of a risperidone treatment and at establishing a link with noninvasive MR markers, in order to develop a tool for predicting symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Fat deposition and liver morphometry were assessed by T1-weighted imaging. Fatty acid composition and fat accumulations in tissues were determined using MR spectroscopy with and without water suppression, respectively. Risperidone treatment induced a weight gain accompanied with metabolic disturbances such as hyperglycemic status, an increase in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver fat depositions. Correlations using Methylene-Water Ratio (MWR) and Polyunsaturated Index (PUI) demonstrated a concomitant increase in the weight gain, VAT and liver fat depositions, and a decrease in the quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results were consistent with a hepatic steatosis state. We evaluated the ability of MR techniques to detect subtle metabolic disorders induced by APDs. Thus, our model and methodology offer the possibility to investigate APDs side effects in order to improve the health conditions of schizophrenic patients. PMID:24876962

  18. Supranutritional selenium induces alterations in molecular targets related to energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue of pigs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Juniper, Darren T; Sanil, Mert; Morgan, Linda; Clark, Lynne; Sies, Helmut; Rayman, Margaret P; Steinbrenner, Holger

    2012-09-01

    While selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, epidemiological studies have raised concern that supranutritional Se intake may increase the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the impact of Se at a dose and source frequently ingested by humans on markers of insulin sensitivity and signalling. Male pigs were fed either a Se-adequate (0.17 mg Se/kg) or a Se-supranutritional (0.50 mg Se/kg; high-Se) diet. After 16 weeks of intervention, fasting plasma insulin and cholesterol levels were non-significantly increased in the high-Se pigs, whereas fasting glucose concentrations did not differ between the two groups. In skeletal muscle of high-Se pigs, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased, gene expression of forkhead box O1 transcription factor and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α were increased and gene expression of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was decreased. In visceral adipose tissue of high-Se pigs, mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 were increased, and the phosphorylation of Akt, AMP-activated kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases was affected. In conclusion, dietary Se oversupply may affect expression and activity of proteins involved in energy metabolism in major insulin target tissues, though this is probably not sufficient to induce diabetes. PMID:22694857

  19. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana; and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  20. Involvement of multiple signaling pathways in the post-bariatric induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA and release in human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fain, John N; Bahouth, Suleiman W; Madan, Atul K

    2005-05-01

    The present studies were designed to determine the site of and the mechanism for the rapid increase in IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA observed in human visceral adipose tissue after removal during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA as well as their release were seen within 3h whether one intact piece of tissue or minced pieces of adipose tissue were incubated in vitro. Most of the IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA content of visceral adipose tissue after 3h of incubation was in the non-fat cells. Actinomcyin D markedly reduced the upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA. Incubation of adipose tissue explants with a soluble TNFalpha receptor (etanercept) plus a blocking antibody against IL-lbeta reduced by 55% the increase in IL-6 mRNA and by 42% that of IL-8 mRNA seen between 1 and 5h of incubation. The upregulation of IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA accumulation as well as their release over a 2 or 4h incubation was reduced by around 50% in the presence of an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK or an inhibitor of the NFkappaB pathway and by 85% in the presence of both inhibitors. The data suggest that the relative trauma and/or hypoxia that occurs when adipose tissue is removed results in the release of TNFalpha and IL-1beta. These cytokines, and probably other factors as well, enhance IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA accumulation in human adipose tissue explants through mechanisms involving the p38 MAPK and NFkappaB pathways. PMID:15826602

  1. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Zhang, J J; Li, S F; Liang, Z; Wen, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  2. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in abdominal adipose tissues in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. Y.; Liu, R. R.; Zhao, G. P.; Li, Q.H.; Zheng, M. Q.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, S. F.; Liang, Z.; Wen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive fat accretion is a crucial problem during broiler production. Abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AbFP) are major phenotypic indices of fat traits. The present study used F2 females derived from a cross between Beijing-You and Cobb-Vantress chickens. Cohorts with extreme AbFP and AbFW phenotypes were chosen to construct high- and low-abdominal fat libraries (HAbF and LAbF, respectively) to investigate the expression profiles by RNA-sequencing and microRNA (miRNA)-sequencing. Compared with the LAbF library, 62 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the HAbF birds. Integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs showed that a total of 106 DEGs were identified as target genes for the 62 DEMs. These genes were designated as intersection genes, and 11 of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. The miRNA gga-miR-19b-3p accelerated the proliferation of preadipocytes, as well as adipocyte differentiation, by down- regulating ACSL1. These findings suggest that some strong candidate miRNAs and genes, important in relation to abdominal adipose deposition, were identified by the integrated analysis of DEMs and DEGs. These findings add to our current understanding of the molecular genetic controls underlying abdominal adipose accumulation in chickens. PMID:26531148

  3. Epigenomic profiling in visceral white adipose tissue of offspring of mice exposed to late gestational sleep fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Rene; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Bao, Riyue; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep fragmentation during late gestation (LG-SF) is one of the major perturbations associated with sleep apnea and other sleep disorders during pregnancy. We have previously shown that LG-SF induces metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice during adulthood. Objectives To investigate the effects of late LG-SF on metabolic homeostasis in offspring and to determine the effects of LG-SF on the epigenome of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) in the offspring. Methods Time-pregnant mice were exposed to LG-SF or control sleep (LG-SC) conditions during the last 6 days of gestation. At 24 weeks of age, lipid profiles and metabolic parameters were assessed in the offspring. We performed large-scale DNA methylation analyses using MeDIP coupled to microarrays (MeDIP-chip) in VWAT of 24-week-old LG-SF and LG-SC offspring (n=8 mice/group). Univariate multiple-testing adjusted statistical analyses were applied to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the groups. DMRs were mapped to their corresponding genes, and tested for potential overlaps with biological pathways and gene networks. Results We detected significant increases in body weight (31.7 vs. 28.8 g; p=0.001), visceral (642.1 vs. 497.0 mg; p=0.002) and subcutaneous (293.1 vs. 250.1 mg; p=0.001) fat mass, plasma cholesterol (110.6 vs. 87.6 mg/dL; p=0.001), triglycerides (87.3 vs. 84.1 mg/dL; p=0.003) and HOMA-IR values (8.1 vs. 6.1; p=0.007) in the LG-SF group. MeDIP analyses revealed that 2148 DMRs (LG-SF vs. LG-SC; p< 0.0001, MAT algorithm). A large proportion of the DMR-associated genes have reported functions that are altered in obesity and metabolic syndrome, such as Cartpt, Akt2, Apoe, Insr1, etc. Overrepresented pathways and gene networks were related to metabolic regulation and inflammatory response. Conclusions Our findings show a major role for epigenomic regulation of pathways associated with metabolic processes and inflammatory response in VWAT. LG-SF-induced epigenetic

  4. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  5. General and abdominal adiposity in a representative sample of Portuguese adults: dependency of measures and socio-demographic factors' influence.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Poínhos, Rui; Franchini, Bela; Afonso, Cláudia; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Rodrigues, Sara

    2016-01-14

    The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m²) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8%) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1% had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0%) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country. PMID:26489926

  6. The expression of ob gene is not acutely regulated by insulin and fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vidal, H; Auboeuf, D; De Vos, P; Staels, B; Riou, J P; Auwerx, J; Laville, M

    1996-07-15

    The regulation of ob gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was investigated using a reverse transcription-competitive PCR method to quantify the mRNA level of leptin. Leptin mRNA level was highly correlated with the body mass index of 26 subjects (12 lean, 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic, and 7 obese patients). The effect of fasting on ob gene expression was investigated in 10 subjects maintained on a hypocaloric diet (1045 KJ/d) for 5 d. While their metabolic parameters significantly changed (decrease in insulinemia, glycemia, and resting metabolic rate and increase in plasma ketone bodies), the caloric restriction did not modify the leptin mRNA level in the adipose tissue. To verify whether insulin regulates ob gene expression, six lean subjects underwent a 3-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (846 +/- 138 pmol/liter) clamp. Leptin and Glut 4 mRNA levels were quantified in adipose tissue biopsies taken before and at the end of the clamp. Insulin infusion produced a significant threefold increase in Glut 4 mRNA while leptin mRNA was not affected. It is concluded that ob gene expression is not acutely regulated by insulin or by metabolic factors related to fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:8755631

  7. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines. PMID:24833780

  8. Age and gender specific estimation of visceral adipose tissue amounts from radiological images in morbidly obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Nicolas; Schaudinn, Alexander; Garnov, Nikita; Blüher, Matthias; Dietrich, Arne; Schütz, Tatjana; Lehmann, Stefanie; Retschlag, Ulf; Karlas, Thomas; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Image-based quantifications of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes from segmented VAT areas are increasingly considered for risk assessment in obese patients. The goal of this study was to determine the power of partial VAT areas to predict total VAT volume in morbidly obese patients (BMI > 40 kg/m2) as a function of gender, age and anatomical landmarks. 130 morbidly obese patients (mean BMI 46.5 kg/m2; 94 females) underwent IRB-approved MRI. Total VAT volumes were predicted from segmented VAT areas (of single or five adjacent slices) at common axial landmark levels and compared with the measured ones (VVAT-T, about 40 slices between diaphragm and pelvic floor). Standard deviations σ1 and σ5 of the respective VAT volume differences served as measures of agreement. Mean VVAT-T was 4.9 L for females and 8.1 L for males. Best predictions were found at intervertebral spaces L3-L4 for females (σ5 = 688 ml, σ1 = 832 ml) and L1-L2 for males (σ5 = 846 ml, σ1 = 992 ml), irrespective of age. In conclusion, VAT volumes in morbidly obese patients can be reliably predicted by multiplying the segmented VAT area at a gender-specific lumbar reference level with a fixed scaling factor and effective slice thickness. PMID:27009353

  9. DEXA MEASURED VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE PREDICTS IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN OBESE CAUCASIAN AND AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bi, X; Seabolt, L; Shibao, C; Buchowski, M; Kang, H; Keil, CD; Tyree, R; Silver, HJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims New methods to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by DEXA may help discern sex, race and phenotype differences in the role of VAT in cardiometabolic risk. This study was designed to: a) compare relationships between cardiometabolic risk factors and DEXA-VAT, anthropometric and body composition measures; b) determine thresholds for DEXA-VAT by race; and c) determine the most robust predictors of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and metabolic syndrome (MetSx) in obese women. Methods VAT area (cm2) was measured using Lunar iDXA scanner in 229 obese (BMI 30-49.9) women age 21–69 years of European American (EA = 123) and African American (AA = 106) descent. Linear regression modeling and areas under the curve (AUC) compared relationships with cardiometabolic risk. Bootstrapping with LASSO regression modeling determined thresholds and predictors of IGT and MetSx. Results DEXA-VAT explained more of the variance in triglycerides, blood pressure, glucose and HOMA-IR compared to anthropometric and body composition variables. DEXA-VAT had the highest AUC for IGT (0.767) and MetSx (0.749). Including race and interactionXrace terms in modeling did not significantly change results. Thresholds at which probability was ≥ 50% for IGT or MetSx were lower in AA women (IGT: 2120cm2 AA vs 2550cm2 EA; MetSx: 1320cm2 AA vs 1713cm2 EA). The odds for IGT or MetSx was 3-fold greater with each standard deviation increase in DEXA-VAT. Conclusion DEXA-VAT provides robust clinical information regarding cardiometabolic risk in AA and EA women and has great potential in risk reduction efforts. PMID:25335442

  10. Resveratrol attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced macrophage migration to visceral white adipose tissue and insulin resistance in male mice.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Alba; Zhang, Shelley X L; Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Peris, Eduard; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Gozal, David

    2015-02-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), as occurs in sleep apnea, promotes systemic insulin resistance. Resveratrol (Resv) has been reported to ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of Resv on IH-induced metabolic dysfunction, male mice were subjected to IH or room air conditions for 8 weeks and treated with either Resv or vehicle (Veh). Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin were obtained, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index levels were calculated, and insulin sensitivity tests (phosphorylated AKT [also known as protein kinase B]/total AKT) were performed in 2 visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) depots (epididymal [Epi] and mesenteric [Mes]) along with flow cytometry assessments for VWAT macrophages and phenotypes (M1 and M2). IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice showed initial reductions in food intake with later recovery, with resultant lower body weights after 8 weeks but with IH-Resv showing better increases in body weight vs IH-Veh. IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, but only IH-Veh had increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index vs all 3 other groups. Leptin levels were preserved in IH-Veh but were significantly lower in IH-Resv. Reduced VWAT phosphorylated-AKT/AKT responses to insulin emerged in both Mes and Epi in IH-Veh but normalized in IH-Resv. Increases total macrophage counts and in M1 to M2 ratios occurred in IH-Veh Mes and Epi compared all other 3 groups. Thus, Resv ameliorates food intake and weight gain during IH exposures and markedly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance, thereby providing a potentially useful adjunctive therapy for metabolic morbidity in the context of sleep apnea. PMID:25406018

  11. Differential association of visceral adipose tissue with coronary plaque characteristics in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is closely associated with the presence of coronary artery plaques that are vulnerable to rupture. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have more VAT than patients without DM, but the extent to which VAT contributes to the characteristics of coronary plaques before and after the development of DM is not fully understood. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 456 patients (60% male, age 64 ± 16 years) who were suspected to have cardiovascular disease and underwent 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA). Seventy-one (16%) patients had vulnerable plaques (CT density < 50 Hounsfield Units, positive remodeling index > 1.05, and adjacent spotty areas of calcification). Results Patients were divided into tertiles according to the VAT area. There were stepwise increases in noncalcified and vulnerable plaques with increasing tertiles of VAT area in patients without DM, but not in patients with DM. Multivariate analysis showed that a larger VAT area was significantly associated with a higher risk of vulnerable plaque in patients without DM (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.08–9.31, p = 0.04), but not in patients with DM. Conclusions The VAT area is associated with the characteristics of coronary plaques on CTA in patients without DM, but not in patients with DM. VAT may be a significant cardiometabolic risk factor that is associated with plaque vulnerability before the development of DM. CTA findings may help to improve risk stratification in such patients. PMID:24624968

  12. Increased Visceral Adipose Tissue as a Potential Risk Factor in Patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (ESUS)

    PubMed Central

    Muuronen, Antti T.; Taina, Mikko; Hedman, Marja; Marttila, Jarkko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Onatsu, Juha; Vanninen, Ritva; Jäkälä, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Mustonen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The etiology of an ischemic stroke remains undetermined in 20–35% of cases and many patients do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a suggested new risk factor for both carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA) and atrial fibrillation (AF), but its role in the remaining stroke population is unknown. We assessed the amount of VAT in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) after excluding major-risk cardioembolic sources, occlusive atherosclerosis, and lacunar stroke. Methods Altogether 58 patients (mean age 57.7±10.2 years, 44 men) with ischemic stroke of unknown etiology but without CAA, known AF or small vessel disease underwent computed tomography angiography and assessment of VAT. For comparison VAT values from three different reference populations were used. Conventional risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, increased total and LDL-cholesterol, decreased HDL-cholesterol) were also registered. Results Mean VAT area was significantly higher in stroke patients (205±103 cm2 for men and 168±99 cm2 for women) compared to all reference populations (P<0.01). 50% of male and 57% of female patients had an increased VAT area. In male patients, VAT was significantly higher despite similar body mass index (BMI). Increased VAT was more common than any of the conventional risk factors. Conclusion Increased VAT was found in over half of our patients with ESUS suggesting it may have a role in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism in this selected group of patients. PMID:25756793

  13. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity. PMID:26863933

  14. Sleep Fragmentation in Mice Induces Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase 2-Dependent Mobilization, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Adipocyte Progenitors in Visceral White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shelley X.; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Abdelkarim, Amal; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) without sleep curtailment induces increased adiposity. However, it remains unclear whether mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation of adipocyte progenitors (APs) occurs in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT), and whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (Nox2) activity plays a role. Methods: Changes in VWAT depot cell size and AP proliferation were assessed in wild-type and Nox2 null male mice exposed to SF and control sleep (SC). To assess mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC), Sca-1+ bone marrow progenitors were isolated from GFP+ or RFP+ mice, and injected intravenously to adult male mice (C57BL/6) previously exposed to SF or SC. Results: In comparison with SC, SF was associated with increased weight accrual at 3 w and thereafter, larger subcutaneous and visceral fat depots, and overall adipocyte size at 8 w. Increased global AP numbers in VWAT along with enhanced AP BrDU labeling in vitro and in vivo emerged in SF. Systemic injections of GFP+ BM-MSC resulted in increased AP in VWAT, as well as in enhanced differentiation into adipocytes in SF-exposed mice. No differences occurred between SF and SC in Nox2 null mice for any of these measurements. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) induces obesity in mice and increased proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte progenitors (AP) in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) that are mediated by increased Nox2 activity. In addition, enhanced migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from the systemic circulation into VWAT, along with AP differentiation, proliferation, and adipocyte formation occur in SF-exposed wild-type but not in oxidase 2 (Nox2) null mice. Thus, Nox2 may provide a therapeutic target to prevent obesity in the context of sleep disorders. Citation: Khalyfa A, Wang Y, Zhang SX, Qiao Z, Abdelkarim A, Gozal D. Sleep fragmentation in mice induces

  15. Increased Tenascin C And Toll-Like Receptor 4 Levels in Visceral Adipose Tissue as a Link between Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J.; Salvador, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context: Obesity is associated with an altered inflammatory and extracellular matrix (ECM) profile. Tenascin C (TNC) is an ECM glycoprotein with proinflammatory effects. Objective: We aimed to explore the expression levels of TNC in adipose tissue analyzing the contribution of adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFC) as well as its impact on inflammation and ECM regulation. We also analyzed the effect of the stimulation with TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both SVFC and adipocytes. Patients and Methods: Samples obtained from 75 subjects were used in the study. Expression levels of TNC, TLR4, MMP2, and MMP9 were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as well as in both adipocytes and SVFC. In addition, Tnc expression was measured in two mice models of obesity. Results: We show, for the first time, that VAT expression levels of TNC are increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (P < 0.01) as well as in obese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression levels of Tnc in epididymal adipose tissue from two different mice models of obesity were significantly increased (P < 0.01). TNC and TLR4 were mainly expressed by SVFC, and its expression was significantly enhanced (P < 0.01) by TNF-α treatment. LPS treatment also increased mRNA levels of TNC. Moreover, the addition of exogenous TNC induced (P < 0.05) TLR4 and CCL2 mRNA expression in human adipocyte cultures. Conclusions: These findings indicate that TNC is involved in the etiopathology of obesity via visceral adipose tissue inflammation representing a link with ECM remodeling. PMID:22851489

  16. Abdominal adiposity and obstructive airway disease: testing insulin resistance and sleep disordered breathing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined associations of abdominal adiposity with lung function, asthma symptoms and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and mediation by insulin resistance (IR) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Methods A random sample of 2500 households was drawn from the community of Whyalla, South Australia (The Whyalla Intergenerational Study of Health, WISH February 2008 - July 2009). Seven-hundred twenty-two randomly selected adults (≥18 years) completed clinical protocols (32.2% response rate). Lung function was measured by spirometry. Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was used to measure airway obstruction and reversibility of FEV1 was calculated. Current asthma was defined by self-reported doctor-diagnosis and evidence of currently active asthma. Symptom scores for asthma (CASS) and SDB were calculated. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). IR was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results The prevalence of current doctor-diagnosed asthma was 19.9% (95% CI 16.7 – 23.5%). The ratio of observed to expected cases given the age and sex distribution of the population was 2.4 (95%CI 2.1, 2.9). IAF was not associated with current doctor-diagnosed asthma, FEV1/FVC or FEV1 reversibility in men or women but was positively associated with CASS independent of IR and SDB in women. A 1% increase in IAF was associated with decreases of 12 mL and 20 mL in FEV1 and FVC respectively in men, and 4 mL and 7 mL respectively in women. SDB mediated 12% and 26% of these associations respectively in men but had minimal effects in women. Conclusions In this population with an excess of doctor-diagnosed asthma, IAF was not a major factor in airway obstruction or doctor-diagnosed asthma, although women with higher IAF perceived more severe asthma symptoms which did not correlate with lower FEV1. Higher IAF was significantly associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and in men SDB mechanisms may

  17. Antioxidant treatment prevents the development of fructose-induced abdominal adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Juan Pablo; García, María Elisa; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Marra, Carlos Alberto; Spinedi, Eduardo; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we tested the effect of OS (oxidative stress) inhibition in rats fed on an FRD [fructose-rich diet; 10% (w/v) in drinking water] for 3 weeks. Normal adult male rats received a standard CD (commercial diet) or an FRD without or with an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, APO (apocynin; 5 mM in drinking water; CD-APO and FRD-APO). We thereafter measured plasma OS and metabolic-endocrine markers, AAT (abdominal adipose tissue) mass and cell size, FA (fatty acid) composition (content and release), OS status, LEP (leptin) and IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1/IRS-2 mRNAs, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, NADPH oxidase activity and LEP release by isolated AAT adipocytes. FRD-fed rats had larger AAT mass without changes in body weight, and higher plasma levels of TAG (triacylglycerol), FAs, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) and LEP. Although no significant changes in glucose and insulin plasma levels were observed in these animals, their HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) values were significantly higher than those of CD. The AAT from FRD-fed rats had larger adipocytes, higher saturated FA content, higher NADPH oxidase activity, greater ROS production, a distorted FA content/release pattern, lower insulin sensitivity together with higher and lower mRNA content of LEP and IRS-1-/2 respectively, and released a larger amount of LEP. The development of all the clinical, OS, metabolic, endocrine and molecular changes induced by the FRD were significantly prevented by APO co-administration. The fact that APO treatment prevented both changes in NADPH oxidase activity and the development of all the FRD-induced AAT dysfunctions in normal rats strongly suggests that OS plays an important role in the FRD-induced MS (metabolic syndrome) phenotype. PMID:23384123

  18. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Nazanin; Ehsani, Behnaz; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hojjat, Parvane; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ΔVAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ΔVAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ΔVAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ΔVAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ΔVAI and risk of VAD. PMID:26516906

  19. Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kusunoki, Masataka; Seino, Narumi; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2015-01-01

    It is known that black soybean (BS) extract, rich in polyphenols, has beneficial effects against obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, detailed effects of BS on lipid metabolism have not been documented well. In the present study, we compared fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of high-fat fed (HFF) rats and BS administered HFF rats. Black soybean administration for 6 weeks influenced neither body nor adipose tissue weights, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, or insulin sensitivity. However, BS reduced several saturated (C14:0 and C16:0), monounsaturated (C14:1n-5 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 polyunsaturated (C18:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6) fatty acid contents in subcutaneous fat without any change in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. No such effect was observed in fatty acid composition in visceral fat. Long-chain fatty acids are involved in regulation of inflammation. Therefore, those reduced fatty acids may be linked to the effects on suppressing inflammation. PMID:25830948

  20. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Fukuhara, Ikuo; Noro, Akira; Kozai, Yoshimichi; Sato, Hisao; Matsuura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent anti-obesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01) after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05). In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion These results suggest that rosehip extract may be a good candidate food material for preventing obesity. PMID:25834460

  1. Naturally-occurring compensated insulin resistance selectively alters glucose transporters in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue without change in AS160 activation

    PubMed Central

    Waller, AP; Kohler, K; Burns, TA; Mudge, MC; Belknap, JK; Lacombe, VA

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of adipose tissue (AT) glucose transport in regulating whole-body insulin sensitivity is becoming increasingly evident and insulin resistance (IR) has been widely recognized, the underlying mechanisms of IR are still not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the early pathological changes in glucose transport by characterizing the alterations in glucose transporters (GLUT) in multiple visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots in a large animal model of naturally-occurring compensated IR. AT biopsies were collected from horses, which were classified as insulin-sensitive (IS) or compensated IR based on the results of an insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Protein expression of GLUT4 (major isoform) and GLUT12 (one of the most recently discovered isoforms) were measured by Western blotting in multiple AT depots, as well as AS160 (a potential key player in GLUT trafficking pathway). Using a biotinylated bis-mannose photolabeled technique, active cell surface GLUT content was quantified. Omental AT had the highest total GLUT content compared to other sites during the IS state. IR was associated with a significantly reduced total GLUT4 content in omental AT, without a change in content in other visceral or subcutaneous adipose sites. In addition, active cell surface GLUT-4, but not -12, was significantly lower in AT of IR compared to IS horses, without change in AS160 phosphorylation between groups. Our data suggest that GLUT4, but not GLUT12, is a pathogenic factor in AT during naturally-occurring compensated IR, despite normal AS160 activation. PMID:21352908

  2. ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE (SAT) AND VICERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE (VAT) MEASUREMENTS IN HIV+ ADULTS: INFLUENCES OF MEASUREMENT SITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of SAT and an increase in VAT are common with HIV lipodystrophy. Excess abdominal VAT is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Computerized axial tomography (CT) can be used to measure SAT and VAT areas in cross-sectional images of the abdomen. The ideal site(s) and number of abdomina...

  3. Characterization of differentiated subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from children: the influences of TNF-alpha and IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Sabin, Matthew; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Crowne, Elizabeth; Stewart, Claire

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between subcutaneous and visceral adipocyte metabolism and development has been extensively studied in adult but not in pediatric tissue. Our aim was to isolate, develop, characterize, and compare primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes from 16 normal prepubertal children (10 male and 6 female). Subculture techniques were developed to increase cell number and allow differentiation using a chemically defined serum-free medium. Removal of insulin from the differentiation medium prevented adipogenesis in both subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes, whereas coincubation with rosiglitazone markedly enhanced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression, and triglyceride accumulation in cells from both fat depots. Adiponectin secretion increased with differentiation from undetectable levels at day 0. Histological analyses demonstrated significant differences in lipid droplet number and size, with subcutaneous cells having fewer but larger vesicles compared with visceral cells. Downregulation and reorganization of the cytoskeleton appeared comparable. We further demonstrate regional differences in adipogenesis manipulation. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was more effective at inhibiting differentiation in subcutaneous cells, whereas insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated differentiation more effectively in visceral cells. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 enhanced differentiation equally. These observations may have important physiological and pharmacological implications for the development of obesity in later life. PMID:15489542

  4. Epidemiology, assessment, and management of excess abdominal fat in persons with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Graeme; Moutschen, Michel; Martínez, Esteban; Domingo, Pere; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raffi, François; Behrens, Georg; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice. PMID:20216906

  5. Effects of sexual maturation and feeding level on fatty acid metabolism gene expression in muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue of diploid and triploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Manor, Meghan L; Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M; Kenney, P Brett

    2015-01-01

    In many cultured fish species, such as salmonids, gonadal development occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids. However, mechanisms regulating nutrient repartitioning during sexual maturation are not well understood. This study compared sexually maturing diploid (2N) and sterile triploid (3N) female rainbow trout to investigate effects of sexual maturation on expression of 35 genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, including genes within fatty acid synthesis, β-oxidation, and cofactors of the mTOR and PPAR signaling pathways, in liver, white muscle, and visceral adipose tissue. Diploid fish were fed at different rations (0.25% and 0.50% tank biomass, and satiation) to determine effects of ration on gene expression. Gene expression was affected by ration level only in white muscle; erk and acat2 had higher expression in fish fed higher rations. On the other hand, sexual maturation affected gene expression across all three tissue types. Data indicate 2N fish have higher expression of β-oxidation genes within white muscle and within visceral adipose tissue. These findings support enhanced fatty acid mobilization within these tissues during sexual maturation. Higher expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in 3N female liver is associated with higher expression of mTOR cofactors and pparγ, which reflects continued deposition of lipids in these fish. Furthermore, greater expression of genes involved in β-oxidation pathways across ration levels in 2N females suggests that sexual maturation and the associated maturation-related signals are stronger regulators of lipid metabolism-related genes rather the rations applied in the current study. PMID:25242626

  6. Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity is a major background of life style-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the extent of whole body fat accumulation does not necessarily the determinant for the occurrence of these diseases. We developed the method for body fat analysis using CT scan and established the concept of visceral fat obesity, in other word metabolic syndrome in which intra-abdominal visceral fat accumulation has an important role in the development of diabetes, lipid disorder, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In order to clarify the mechanism that visceral fat accumulation causes metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, we have analyzed gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. From the analysis, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue expressed abundantly the genes encoding bioactive substances such as cytokines, growth factors and complements. In addition to known bioactive substances, we found a novel collagen-like protein which we named adiponectin. Adiponectin is present in plasma at a very high concentration and is inversely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherogenic properties and recent studies revealed that this protein has an anti-inflammatory and anti-oncogenic function. Therefore hypoadiponectinemia induced by visceral fat accumulation should become a strong risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and also some kinds of cancers. In this review article, I would like to discuss the mechanism of life style-related diseases by focusing on the dysregulation of adiponectin related to obesity, especially visceral obesity. PMID:20154470

  7. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  8. Infrequent Breakfast Consumption Is Associated with Higher Body Adiposity and Abdominal Obesity in Malaysian School-Aged Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth. PMID:23520556

  9. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Transplantation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Attenuates Metabolic Dysregulation While Removal Exacerbates It.

    PubMed

    Foster, M T; Softic, S; Caldwell, J; Kohli, R; de Kloet, A D; Seeley, R J

    2013-08-01

    Adipose tissue distribution is an important determinant of obesity-related comorbidities. It is well established that central obesity (visceral adipose tissue accumulation) is a risk factor for many adverse health consequences such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type-2-diabetes. We hypothesize that the metabolic dysregulation that occurs following high fat diet-induced increases in adiposity are due to alterations in visceral adipose tissue function which influence lipid flux to the liver via the portal vein. This metabolic pathology is not exclusively due to increases in visceral adipose tissue mass but also driven by intrinsic characteristics of this particular depot. In Experiment 1, high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese control (abdominal incision, but no fat manipulation) or autologous (excision and subsequent relocation of adipose tissue) subcutaneous tissue transplantation to the visceral cavity. In Experiment 2 mice received control surgery, subcutaneous fat removal or hetero-transplantation (tissue from obese donor) to the visceral cavity. Body composition analysis and glucose tolerance tests were performed 4 weeks post-surgery. Adipose mass and portal adipokines, cytokines, lipids and insulin were measured from samples collected at 5 weeks post-surgery. Auto- and hetero- transplantation in obese mice improved glucose tolerance, decreased systemic insulin concentration and reduced portal lipids and hepatic triglycerides compared with HFD controls. Hetero-transplantation of subcutaneous adipose tissue to the visceral cavity in obese mice restored hepatic insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin and leptin concentrations to chow control levels. Fat removal, however, as an independent procedure exacerbated obesity-induced increases in leptin and insulin concentrations. Overall subcutaneous adipose tissue protects against aspects of metabolic dysregulation in obese mice. Transplantation-induced improvements do not occur via enhanced storage of lipid in

  10. GQ-16, a TZD-Derived Partial PPARγ Agonist, Induces the Expression of Thermogenesis-Related Genes in Brown Fat and Visceral White Fat and Decreases Visceral Adiposity in Obese and Hyperglycemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Michella S.; de Lima, Caroline L.; Royer, Carine; Silva, Janaina B.; Oliveira, Fernanda C. B.; Christ, Camila G.; Pereira, Sidney A.; Bao, Sonia N.; Lima, Maria C. A.; Pitta, Marina G. R.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Amato, Angélica A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Beige adipocytes comprise a unique thermogenic cell type in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of rodents and humans, and play a critical role in energy homeostasis. In this scenario, recruitment of beige cells has been an important focus of interest for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat obesity. PPARγ activation by full agonists (thiazolidinediones, TZDs) drives the appearance of beige cells, a process so-called browning of WAT. However, this does not translate into increased energy expenditure, and TZDs are associated with weight gain. Partial PPARγ agonists, on the other hand, do not induce weight gain, but have not been shown to drive WAT browning. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of GQ-16 on BAT and on browning of WAT in obese mice. Methods Male Swiss mice with obesity and hyperglycemia induced by high fat diet were treated with vehicle, rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/d) or the TZD-derived partial PPARγ agonist GQ-16 (40 mg/kg/d) for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lipid profile were measured. WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots were excised for determination of adiposity, relative expression of Ucp-1, Cidea, Prdm16, Cd40 and Tmem26 by RT-qPCR, histological analysis, and UCP-1 protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry. Liver samples were also removed for histological analysis and determination of hepatic triglyceride content. Results GQ-16 treatment reduced high fat diet-induced weight gain in mice despite increasing energy intake. This was accompanied by reduced epididymal fat mass, reduced liver triglyceride content, morphological signs of increased BAT activity, increased expression of thermogenesis-related genes in interscapular BAT and epididymal WAT, and increased UCP-1 protein expression in interscapular BAT and in epididymal and inguinal WAT. Conclusion This study suggests for the first time that a partial PPARγ agonist may

  11. Decreased Transcription of ChREBP-α/β Isoforms in Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adolescents With Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Giannini, Cosimo; Narayan, Deepak; Lin, Aiping; D’Adamo, Ebe; Shaw, Melissa; Pierpont, Bridget; Cushman, Samuel W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance associated with altered fat partitioning in liver and adipose tissues is a prediabetic condition in obese adolescents. We investigated interactions between glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the expression of lipogenic genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue in 53 obese adolescents. Based on their 2-h glucose tests they were stratified in the following groups: group 1, 2-h glucose level <120 mg/dL; group 2, 2-h glucose level between 120 and 140 mg/dL; and group 3, 2-h glucose level >140 mg/dL. Liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity were greater in group 1 than in group 2 and group 3, and muscle insulin sensitivity progressively decreased from group 1 to group 3. The expression of the carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was decreased in adipose tissue but increased in the liver (eight subjects) in adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. The expression of adipose ChREBPα and ChREBPβ was inversely related to 2-h glucose level and positively correlated to insulin sensitivity. Improvement of glucose tolerance in four subjects was associated with an increase of ChREBP/GLUT4 expression in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, early in the development of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes in youth, ChREBPβ expression in adipose tissue predicts insulin resistance and, therefore, might play a role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. PMID:23209190

  12. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Hepatic and Visceral Fat Deposition, Hyperinsulinemia, and Stimulation of NF-κB Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Kim-Anne; Mahurkar, Swapna; Alderete, Tanya L.; Hasson, Rebecca E.; Adam, Tanja C.; Kim, Joon Sung; Beale, Elizabeth; Xie, Chen; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Allayee, Hooman; Goran, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine in obese young adults the influence of ethnicity and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation on hepatic fat fraction (HFF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, insulin sensitivity (SI), β-cell function, and SAT gene expression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SAT biopsies were obtained from 36 obese young adults (20 Hispanics, 16 African Americans) to measure crown-like structures (CLS), reflecting SAT inflammation. SAT, VAT, and HFF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and SI and β-cell function (disposition index [DI]) were measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test. SAT gene expression was assessed using Illumina microarrays. RESULTS Participants with CLS in SAT (n = 16) were similar to those without CLS in terms of ethnicity, sex, and total body fat. Individuals with CLS had greater VAT (3.7 ± 1.3 vs. 2.6 ± 1.6 L; P = 0.04), HFF (9.9 ± 7.3 vs. 5.8 ± 4.4%; P = 0.03), tumor necrosis factor-α (20.8 ± 4.8 vs. 16.2 ± 5.8 pg/mL; P = 0.01), fasting insulin (20.9 ± 10.6 vs. 9.7 ± 6.6 mU/mL; P < 0.001) and glucose (94.4 ± 9.3 vs. 86.8 ± 5.3 mg/dL; P = 0.005), and lower DI (1,559 ± 984 vs. 2,024 ± 829 ×10−4 min−1; P = 0.03). Individuals with CLS in SAT exhibited upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and monocyte antigen CD14 genes, as well as several other genes belonging to the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) stress pathway. CONCLUSIONS Adipose tissue inflammation was equally distributed between sexes and ethnicities. It was associated with partitioning of fat toward VAT and the liver and altered β-cell function, independent of total adiposity. Several genes belonging to the NF-κB stress pathway were upregulated, suggesting stimulation of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:22025778

  13. Influence of high-normal serum TSH levels on major cardiovascular risk factors and Visceral Adiposity Index in euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Giandalia, A; Russo, G T; Romeo, E L; Alibrandi, A; Villari, P; Mirto, A A; Armentano, G; Benvenga, S; Cucinotta, D

    2014-09-01

    Although several observations indicate that serum TSH levels in the high normal range are related to cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in the general population, similar data are limited in diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations between TSH serum levels within the normal range and major metabolic and non-metabolic CVD risk factors in a cohort of euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects. Thyroid hormones, TSH levels, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose control, and blood pressure were measured in 490 euthyroid type 2 diabetic subjects, consecutively attending two outpatient diabetic units in Southern Italy. In all subjects, we also calculated the Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), an obesity-related index associated with CVD risk. Diabetic women showed higher mean serum TSH levels and lower FT4 concentration than diabetic men, while FT3 levels were comparable in the two genders. Stratifying the study population according to quartiles of TSH levels, subjects in the highest TSH quartile were more likely to be female and younger, with higher values of BMI and waist circumference (P = 0.05 both), higher triglycerides (P = 0.002) and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01), higher VAI values (P = 0.02), and lower FT4 levels (P = 0.05), when compared to those in the lowest quartile. At multivariate analysis, a younger age, female gender, triglycerides levels, and waist circumference were independently associated with higher TSH levels. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic subjects with no evidence of thyroid disease, higher TSH concentrations within the normal range were more frequent in women and in younger subjects, and they were associated with visceral obesity and higher triglycerides concentrations, two well-known CVD risk factors. PMID:24385267

  14. Successful treatment of burn and visceral injury combined with full-thickness loss of the abdominal wall after blast injury.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Ozgür; Karaarslan, Pelin; Sakalloğlu, A Ebru; Kesik, Emine; Karakayalý, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old man was admitted to our institution 10 days after he had undergone an urgent exploratory laparotomy at a local army hospital after a terrorist bombing attack. On admission, deep second-degree and third-degree burns involving 25% of the upper and lower extremities were present, together with a 25 x 10-cm abdominal full-thickness blast injury defect on the left side, an infected eviscerated midline incision, and a colostomy on the right side of the abdomen. The patient underwent a second laparotomy, at which time the intraabdominal abscess was drained, and the abdominal cavity was irrigated with saline. A jejunal perforation was found and sutured. The abdominal cavity was left open and covered with a Bogota bag for temporary closure. On postburn day 18, the patient underwent débridment and grafting of the third-degree burns to the left and right arm and right lower extremities. After several débridment sessions (postburn days 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24), an abdominal skin release and reapproximation were performed (postburn day 26). On postburn day 36, split-thickness skin grafts were placed directly on the granulated tissue of the intestines and on a defect in the left flank and iliac regions. Postoperatively, the patient did well. He was discharged on postburn day 78 with all wounds well healed. In our opinion, temporary closure followed by direct application of meshed split-thickness skin grafts to exposed abdominal viscera represents a simple method of reconstruction that can be safely performed, with minimal risk, on critically ill patients. PMID:16998411

  15. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  16. Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal abdominal adiposity: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study1-4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V.; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant body composition has been associated with later metabolic risk, but few studies have examined the association between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal body composition. Furthermore, most of those studies have used proxy measures of body composition that may not reflect body fat distribution, particularly abdominal internal adiposity. Objective We investigated the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and neonatal abdominal adiposity measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort. Methods Macronutrient intakes of mothers were ascertained using a 24-h dietary recall at 26-28 weeks gestation. Neonatal abdominal adiposity was assessed using MRI in the second week of life. Mother-offspring dyads with complete macronutrient intake and adiposity information (n= 320) were included in the analysis. Associations were assessed by both substitution and addition models using multivariable linear regressions. Results Mothers [mean age: 30 y; 44% Chinese, 38% Malay, 18% Indians] consumed 15.5 ± 4.3% (mean ± SD) of their energy intakes from protein, 32.4 ± 7.7% from fat, and 52.1 ± 9.0% from carbohydrate. A higher protein, lower carbohydrate/fat diet during pregnancy was associated with lower abdominal internal adipose tissue (IAT) in the neonates [β (95% CI): -0.18 (-0.35, -0.001) mL per 1% protein to carbohydrate substitution and -0.25 (-0.46, -0.04) mL per 1% protein to fat substitution]. These associations were stronger in boys than in girls (P-interactions <0.05). Higher maternal intake of animal protein [-0.26 (-0.47, -0.05) mL for fat substitution], but not plant protein, was associated with lower offspring IAT. In contrast, maternal macronutrient intake was not consistently associated with infant anthropometric measurements, including abdominal circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Conclusions Higher maternal protein intake (at the expense of carbohydrate or fat intake

  17. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Marta Izabela; Kurylowicz, Alina; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Lisik, Wojciech; Jonas, Maurycy; Wierzbicki, Zbigniew; Chmura, Andrzej; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT) or visceral (VAT) adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL): 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2) controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively), while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047). What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively). Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003). In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26516848

  18. Total body fat and abdominal visceral fat response to exercise training in the HERITAGE Family Study: evidence for major locus but no multifactorial effects.

    PubMed

    Rice, T; Hong, Y; Pérusse, L; Després, J P; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    1999-10-01

    The familial etiology of the response in total fat mass (FM) and abdominal visceral fat (AVF) to 20 weeks of exercise training was investigated in families participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. AVF (measured by computed tomographic scanning) and FM (measured by underwater weighing techniques) were assessed at baseline (in a sedentary state) and after 20 weeks of exercise training. The response AVF (AVFdelta) and response FM (FMdelta) were computed as the simple delta values (posttraining - baseline) and adjusted for the effects of sex, generation, and a polynomial in age using multiple regression analysis. To index the AVF response independently of the response in FM and the initial level of visceral fat, the AVFdelta was also adjusted for age and baseline AVF (AVFB) and FMdelta. Familial correlation analysis was used to investigate the multifactorial familial effects (polygenic and/or familial environmental), and segregation analysis was used to search for major gene effects. For the age-adjusted AVFdelta, a putative recessive locus accounting for 18% of the variance (q2 = 1%) was detected. Adjusting AVFdelta for AVFB and FMdelta slightly increased the percentage of variance accounted for (to 26%, q2 = 3%) but did not radically alter the pattern of the parameter estimates. For FMdelta, a putative dominant locus accounting for 31% of the variance (q2 = 49%) was noted. In conclusion, the results were consistent across methods in suggesting that there is little evidence of a multifactorial heritability for either AVFdelta or FMdelta. Rather, the familial etiology of the response to exercise training appears to be primarily due to putative major genes (a recessive locus for AVFdelta and a dominant locus for FMdelta). In addition, a pleiotropic/oligogenic system underlying these variables was inferred. That is, the putative loci for FMdelta and/or AVFB also may impact the AVFdelta, with an additional independent major locus effect on AVFdelta after the former

  19. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation. PMID:26844473

  20. The Heme Oxygenase System Suppresses Perirenal Visceral Adiposity, Abates Renal Inflammation and Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Jadhav, Ashok; Mishra, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO) is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs) remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α), endothelin (ET-1), 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less-pronounced in Zucker

  1. Common SIRT1 variants modify the effect of abdominal adipose tissue on aging-related lung function decline.

    PubMed

    Curjuric, Ivan; Imboden, Medea; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Gerbase, Margaret W; Haun, Margot; Keidel, Dirk; Kumar, Ashish; Pons, Marco; Rochat, Thierry; Schikowski, Tamara; Schindler, Christian; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kronenberg, Florian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Lung function is an independent predictor of mortality and serves as an aging marker in never smokers. The protein sirtuin-1 of gene SIRT1 has profound anti-inflammatory effects and regulates metabolic pathways. Its suggested longevity effects on lower organisms remain poorly studied in humans. In 1132 never smokers of the population-based SAPALDIA cohort, we investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs730821, rs10997868, rs10823116) of SIRT1 and aging-related lung function decline over 11 years in terms of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 % of FVC (FEF25-75) using multiple linear regression models. Interactions between the SIRT1 SNPs and adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI), its change and weight gain) were tested by including multiplicative interaction terms into the models. SIRT1 polymorphisms exhibited no main effects, but modified the association between obesity measures and FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 decline (p = 0.009-0.046). Per risk allele, FEV1/FVC decline was accelerated up to -0.5 % (95 % CI -1.0 to 0 %) and -0.7 % (-1.3 to -0.2 %) over interquartile range increases in BMI (2.4 kg/m(2)) or weight (6.5 kg), respectively. For FEF25-75 decline, corresponding estimates were -57 mL/s (-117 to 4 mL/s) and -76 mL/s (-1429 to -9 mL/s). Interactions were not present in participants with genetically lowered C-reactive protein concentrations. Genetic variation in SIRT1 might therefore affect lung function and human longevity by modifying subclinical inflammation arising from abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:27125385

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P < 0.0001). When comparing diet versus training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P < 0.001), and a modest correlation after exercise (R(2)  = 0.451, P < 0.001). In the absence of weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. PMID:27213481

  3. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women. PMID:24319483

  4. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor inhibits interleukin-1β-induced catabolic and inflammatory responses in murine chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jia-Peng; Jiang, Li-Feng; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei-Ping; Hu, Peng-Fei; Wu, Li-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a newly identified member of the adipocytokine family, whose precise role in chondrocyte metabolism remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vaspin on chondrocytes. The cell viability and the cytotoxicity of vaspin in chondrocytes were examined. Furthermore, the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5 and cathepsin D was also examined, as well as the protein production of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and inducible nitrous oxide synthase following treatment with different concentrations of vaspin in the absence or presence of interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β). In addition, the protein levels of the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB-α) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF‑κB) were investigated. Vaspin was not able to stimulate the proliferation of chondrocytes and demonstrated no significant cytotoxic effect at concentrations of 10-500 ng/ml following coincubation for 24 and 48 h. However, vaspin inhibited IL-1β‑induced production of catabolic factors and inflammatory mediators in chondrocytes, and also suppressed the phosphorylation of NF‑κB and the degradation of IκB‑α. The data from the present study suggested that vaspin has a protective effect in chondrocyte metabolism and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. PMID:25118941

  5. Visceral Adiposity in the First Half of Pregnancy in Association with Glucose, Lipid and Insulin Profiles in Later Pregnancy: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pontual, Andrea Cardoso; Figueiroa, José Natal; De Souza, Leanne R; Ray, Joel G; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra

    2016-08-01

    Background Obesity is the most common risk factor in pregnancy but few studies have assessed the association of between visceral adiposity (VAT) depth in early to mild pregnancy and insulin resistance (IR), dysglycemia and dyslipidemia in later pregnancy. Objective To assess the association between VAT depth in early to mid pregnancy and IR [homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR)], dysglycemia and dyslipidemia in later pregnancy. Methods We completed a prospective cohort study of 344 pregnant women at a single large hospital in Recife, Brazil. VAT depth was measured by ultrasound at 15-20 weeks gestation. Serum glucose, insulin and lipids were evaluated at 32-37 weeks gestation. Results In contrast to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), VAT depth at 15-20 weeks was generally inferior in explaining the variation in the biochemical measures at 32-37 weeks gestation. This was the case for fasting HOMA-IR (adjusted r(2): 0.21 vs. 0.11, respectively), fasting insulin (adjusted r(2): 0.27 vs. 0.09, respectively), and lipids. Only for fasting glucose was the opposite true, but marginally (adjusted r(2) 0.03 vs. 0.06, respectively). Conclusion VAT depth measured in the first half of pregnancy is not better than pre-pregnancy BMI in predicting IR and related biochemical measures in later pregnancy. PMID:26987856

  6. Lower "awake and fed thermogenesis" predicts future weight gain in subjects with abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Piaggi, Paolo; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Thearle, Marie S

    2013-12-01

    Awake and fed thermogenesis (AFT) is the energy expenditure (EE) of the nonactive fed condition above the minimum metabolic requirement during sleep and is composed of the thermic effect of food and the cost of being awake. AFT was estimated from whole-room 24-h EE measures in 509 healthy subjects (368 Native Americans and 141 whites) while subjects consumed a eucaloric diet. Follow-up data were available for 290 Native Americans (median follow-up time: 6.6 years). AFT accounted for ~10% of 24-h EE and explained a significant portion of deviations from expected energy requirements. Energy intake was the major determinant of AFT. AFT, normalized as a percentage of intake, was inversely related to age and fasting glucose concentration and showed a nonlinear relationship with waist circumference and BMI. Spline analysis demonstrated that AFT becomes inversely related to BMI at an inflection point of 29 kg/m(2). The residual variance of AFT, after accounting for covariates, predicted future weight change only in subjects with a BMI >29 kg/m(2). AFT may influence daily energy balance, is reduced in obese individuals, and predicts future weight gain in these subjects. Once central adiposity develops, a blunting of AFT may occur that then contributes to further weight gain. PMID:23974925

  7. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Methods: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day−1) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg−1 min−1) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic–hyperglycemic clamp. Results: After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min−1 100 g tissue)−1; however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min−1 100 g tissue−1) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, P<0.001. During the clamp period, FFA and glycerol output declined significantly, P<0.05, with no differences before and after weight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, P<0.05. Conclusions: In obese subjects, weight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism. PMID:27136446

  8. Relationship between the Bertin index to estimate visceral adipose tissue from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cardiometabolic risk factors before and after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Pompilus, Roseline; Messier, Virginie; Strychar, Irene; Brochu, Martin; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), estimated with the Bertin index obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), with cardiometabolic risk factors before and after a weight loss program and compare it with VAT measured with computed tomography (CT) scan. The study population for this analysis included 92 nondiabetic overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age: 58.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI: 31.8 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) participating in a weight loss intervention that consisted of a caloric restricted diet with and without resistance training (RT). We measured (i) VAT using CT scan, (ii) body composition (using DXA) from which the Bertin index was calculated, (iii) cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin sensitivity (using the hyperinsulinenic-euglycemic clamp technique), peak oxygen consumption, blood pressure, plasma lipids, C-reactive protein as well as fasting glucose and insulin. VAT levels for both methods significantly decreased after the weight loss intervention. Furthermore, no differences in VAT levels between both methods were observed before (88.0 ± 25.5 vs. 83.8 ± 22.0 cm(2)) and after (76.8 ± 27.8 vs. 73.6 ± 23.2 cm(2)) the weight loss intervention. In addition, the percent change in VAT levels after the weight loss intervention was similar between both methods (-13.0 ± 16.5 vs. -12.5 ± 12.6%). Moreover, similar relationships were observed between both measures of VAT with cardiometabolic risk factors before and after the weight loss intervention. Finally, results from the logistic regression analysis consistently showed that fat mass and lean body mass were independent predictors of pre- and post-VAT levels for both methods in our cohort. In conclusion, estimated visceral fat levels using the Bertin index may be able to trace variations of VAT after weight loss. This index also shows comparable relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors when compared to VAT

  9. Dietary xenosterols lead to infertility and loss of abdominal adipose tissue in sterolin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Solca, Curzio; Tint, G Stephen; Patel, Shailendra B

    2013-02-01

    The investigation of the human disease sitosterolemia (MIM 210250) has shed light not only on the pathways by which dietary sterols may traffic but also on how the mammalian body rids itself of cholesterol and defends against xenosterols. Two genes, ABCG5 and ABCG8, located at the sitosterolemia locus, each encodes a membrane-bound ABC half-transporter and constitutes a functional unit whose activity has now been shown to account for biliary and intestinal sterol excretion. Knockout mice deficient in Abcg5 or Abcg8 recapitulate many of the phenotypic features of sitosterolemia. During the course of our studies to characterize these knockout mice, we noted that these mice, raised on normal rodent chow, exhibited infertility as well as loss of abdominal fat. We show that, although sitosterolemia does not lead to any structural defects or to any overt endocrine defects, fertility could be restored if xenosterols are specifically blocked from entry and that the loss of fat is also reversed by a variety of maneuvers that limit xenosterol accumulation. These studies show that xenosterols may have a significant biological impact on normal mammalian physiology and that the Abcg5 or Abcg8 knockout mouse model may prove useful in investigating the role of xenosterols on mammalian physiology. PMID:23180829

  10. Differential effects of aging and exercise on intra-abdominal adipose arteriolar function and blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert T.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT), which typically comprises an increased percentage of body mass with advancing age, receives a large proportion of resting cardiac output. During exercise, an old age-associated inability to increase vascular resistance within the intra-abdominal AT may compromise the ability of the cardiovascular system to redistribute blood flow to the active musculature, contributing to the decline in exercise capacity observed in this population. We tested the hypotheses that 1) there would be an elevated perfusion of AT during exercise with old age that was associated with diminished vasoconstrictor responses of adipose-resistance arteries, and 2) chronic exercise training would mitigate the age-associated alterations in AT blood flow and vascular function. Young (6 mo; n = 40) and old (24 mo; n = 28) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (YSed), old sedentary (OSed), young exercise trained (YET), or old exercise trained (OET) groups, where training consisted of 10-12 wk of treadmill exercise. In vivo blood flow at rest and during exercise and in vitro α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstrictor responses in resistance arteries from AT were measured in all groups. In response to exercise, there was a directionally opposite change in AT blood flow in the OSed group (∼150% increase) and YSed (∼55% decrease) vs. resting values. Both α-adrenergic and myogenic vasoconstriction were diminished in OSed vs. YSed AT-resistance arteries. Exercise training resulted in a similar AT hyperemic response between age groups during exercise (YET, 9.9 ± 0.5 ml·min−1·100−1 g; OET, 8.1 ± 0.9 ml·min−1·100−1 g) and was associated with enhanced myogenic and α-adrenergic vasoconstriction of AT-resistance arteries from the OET group relative to OSed. These results indicate that there is an inability to increase vascular resistance in AT during exercise with old age, due, in part, to a diminished vasoconstriction of AT arteries. Furthermore, the

  11. Coexpression Network Analysis in Abdominal and Gluteal Adipose Tissue Reveals Regulatory Genetic Loci for Metabolic Syndrome and Related Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Halgrimsdottir, Ingileif; Almstrup, Kristian; Petri, Andreas; Barrett, Amy; Travers, Mary; Rayner, Nigel W.; Mägi, Reedik; Pettersson, Fredrik H.; Broxholme, John; Neville, Matt J.; Wills, Quin F.; Cheeseman, Jane; Allen, Maxine; Holmes, Chris C.; Spector, Tim D.; Fleckner, Jan; McCarthy, Mark I.; Karpe, Fredrik; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and has considerable public health impact, but its underlying genetic factors remain elusive. To identify gene networks involved in MetS, we conducted whole-genome expression and genotype profiling on abdominal (ABD) and gluteal (GLU) adipose tissue, and whole blood (WB), from 29 MetS cases and 44 controls. Co-expression network analysis for each tissue independently identified nine, six, and zero MetS–associated modules of coexpressed genes in ABD, GLU, and WB, respectively. Of 8,992 probesets expressed in ABD or GLU, 685 (7.6%) were expressed in ABD and 51 (0.6%) in GLU only. Differential eigengene network analysis of 8,256 shared probesets detected 22 shared modules with high preservation across adipose depots (DABD-GLU = 0.89), seven of which were associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01). The strongest associated module, significantly enriched for immune response–related processes, contained 94/620 (15%) genes with inter-depot differences. In an independent cohort of 145/141 twins with ABD and WB longitudinal expression data, median variability in ABD due to familiality was greater for MetS–associated versus un-associated modules (ABD: 0.48 versus 0.18, P = 0.08; GLU: 0.54 versus 0.20, P = 7.8×10−4). Cis-eQTL analysis of probesets associated with MetS (FDR P<0.01) and/or inter-depot differences (FDR P<0.01) provided evidence for 32 eQTLs. Corresponding eSNPs were tested for association with MetS–related phenotypes in two GWAS of >100,000 individuals; rs10282458, affecting expression of RARRES2 (encoding chemerin), was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 6.0×10−4); and rs2395185, affecting inter-depot differences of HLA-DRB1 expression, was associated with high-density lipoprotein (P = 8.7×10−4) and BMI–adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (P = 2.4×10−4). Since many genes and their interactions influence complex traits such as MetS, integrated analysis of genotypes and

  12. The Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin Treatment on PPAR Mediated Uncoupling Protein (UCP-) 1, 2, and 3 Expression in Visceral White Adipose Tissue from Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    PubMed

    Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily involved in the control of body temperature and energy balance regulation. They are currently proposed as therapeutic targets for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the gene expression regulation of UCP1, -2, and -3 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) from control and MetS rats treated with two doses of a commercial mixture of resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC). We found that UCP2 was the predominantly expressed isoform, UCP3 was present at very low levels, and UCP1 was undetectable. The treatment with RSV + QRC did not modify UCP3 levels; however, it significantly increased UCP2 mRNA in control and MetS rats in association with an increase in oleic and linoleic fatty acids. WAT from MetS rats showed a significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ when compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPAR-α protein levels were increased by the highest dose of RSV + QRC in the control and MetS groups. PPAR-γ expression was only increased in the control group. We conclude that the RSV + QRC treatment leads to overexpression of UCP2, which is associated with an increase in MUFA and PUFA, which might increase PPAR-α expression. PMID:27399675

  13. The Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin Treatment on PPAR Mediated Uncoupling Protein (UCP-) 1, 2, and 3 Expression in Visceral White Adipose Tissue from Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castrejón-Tellez, Vicente; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily involved in the control of body temperature and energy balance regulation. They are currently proposed as therapeutic targets for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the gene expression regulation of UCP1, -2, and -3 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) from control and MetS rats treated with two doses of a commercial mixture of resveratrol (RSV) and quercetin (QRC). We found that UCP2 was the predominantly expressed isoform, UCP3 was present at very low levels, and UCP1 was undetectable. The treatment with RSV + QRC did not modify UCP3 levels; however, it significantly increased UCP2 mRNA in control and MetS rats in association with an increase in oleic and linoleic fatty acids. WAT from MetS rats showed a significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ when compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPAR-α protein levels were increased by the highest dose of RSV + QRC in the control and MetS groups. PPAR-γ expression was only increased in the control group. We conclude that the RSV + QRC treatment leads to overexpression of UCP2, which is associated with an increase in MUFA and PUFA, which might increase PPAR-α expression. PMID:27399675

  14. Positive Association Between Adipose Tissue and Bone Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Berg, R M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Rettig, R; Markus, M R P; Laqua, R; Friedrich, N; Hannemann, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is often considered to have a protective effect against osteoporosis. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may have detrimental effects on bone quality. We therefore aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and bone stiffness. The study involved 2685 German adults aged 20-79 years, who participated in either the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. VAT and abdominal SAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Bone stiffness was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel (Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare). The individual risk for osteoporotic fractures was determined based on the QUS-derived stiffness index and classified in low, medium, and high risk. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, physical activity, smoking status, risky alcohol consumption, diabetes, and height (in models with VAT or abdominal SAT as exposure), revealed positive associations between BMI, WC, VAT or abdominal SAT, and the QUS variables broadband-ultrasound attenuation or stiffness index. Moreover, BMI was positively associated with speed of sound. Our study shows that all anthropometric measures including BMI and, WC as well as abdominal fat volume are positively associated with bone stiffness in the general population. As potential predictors of bone stiffness, VAT and abdominal SAT are not superior to easily available measures like BMI or WC. PMID:25929703

  15. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pecht, Tal; Haim, Yulia; Bashan, Nava; Shapiro, Hagit; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Clément, Karine; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient. Methods We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Results Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05) and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05). Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men. Conclusions Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs. PMID:27442250

  16. Association of Breakfast Skipping With Visceral Fat and Insulin Indices in Overweight Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Katharine E.; Ventura, Emily E.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10–17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-h recalls, IAAT, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Participants were divided into three breakfast consumption categories: those who reported not eating breakfast on either day (breakfast skippers; n = 20), those who reported eating breakfast on one of two days (occasional breakfast eaters; n = 39) and those who ate breakfast on both days (breakfast eaters; n = 34). Using analyses of covariance, breakfast omission was associated with increased IAAT (P = 0.003) independent of age, Tanner, sex, total body fat, total body lean tissue mass, and daily energy intake. There were no significant differences in any other adiposity measure or in insulin dynamics between breakfast categories. Eating breakfast is associated with lower visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Interventions focused on increasing breakfast consumption are warranted. PMID:19424166

  17. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  18. The Great Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros armiger) as a Good Model for Cold-Induced Browning of Intra-Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Shanshan; Fang, Na; Irwin, David M.; Lei, Ming; Zhang, Junpeng; Shi, Huizhen; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT) is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT) is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT) that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. Methods Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti), and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a) was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue). Results Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. Conclusions The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans. PMID:25393240

  19. Effects of Visceral Fat Accumulation Awareness on a Web-Based Weight-Loss Program: Japanese Study of Visceral Adiposity and Lifestyle Information—Utilization and Evaluation (J-VALUE)

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro; Sakata, Koichi; Hagiwara, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Takanobu; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Yasumasu, Takeshi; Study Group, J-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    A reduction of visceral fat is important for improvement of metabolic risk. This study was designed to compare the effects of a web-based program alone or together with measurement and self-awareness of accumulated visceral fat in Japanese workers. A new noninvasive device to measure visceral fat accumulation was introduced, and efficacy on weight-loss and improvement of healthy behaviors were examined. This study was conducted according to Helsinki declaration and approved by the ethical committee of Japan Hospital Organization, National Kyoto Hospital. Two-hundred and sixteen overweight and obese males with BMI of more than 23 participated from 8 healthcare offices of 3 Japanese private companies. Subjects were randomly allocated into control group, Web-based weight-loss program (Web), or Web + Visceral fat measurement group (Web + VFA). Eighty-one percent of participants completed the study. Reductions of body weight, waist circumference, and BMI were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences between groups were significant by ANOVA. Improvements of healthy behaviors were the largest in Web + VFA group, and the differences of healthy eating improvement scores between Web + VFA and control groups were significant. Our findings suggest that measurement and awareness of visceral fat are effective in weight reduction in overweight and obese males in the workplace. PMID:24555144

  20. Chronic sub-clinical inflammation in the abdominal adipose tissue – Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and their link with insulin resistance in metabolically obese South Indians: A cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Premanath, M.; Basavanagowdappa, H.; Mahesh, M.; Babu, M. Suresh; Devananda, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (AN) in obese South Indian subjects and to ascertain whether or not a causal role could be ascribed to these cytokines in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Forty obese and forty nonobese volunteers of both genders were recruited. Parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP, and AN levels were measured. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment-IR method. Abdominal adiposity was measured by ultrasonography. The results were statistically evaluated by appropriate tests. Results: BMI, WC, and visceral fat were high in the obese group. Females had higher subcutaneous fat in both groups. HbA1C was marginally high in the obese group (P = 0.014). IR was high in all the groups, obese males showing higher values (not significant[NS]). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were high in the obese group (P = 0.028, P = 0.003). TNF-α was high in obese males (NS), IL-6 was high in both groups, higher in nonobese females (NS), hs-CRP was high in both groups, higher in females of both groups (NS). AN was high in females of both groups (P = 0.002). Conclusions: In this study on South Indian subjects, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and hs-CRP, despite being high, did not show any causal correlation either with abdominal obesity or with IR. TNF-α being normal showed some correlation which was inconsistent. Even the anti-inflammatory adipokine, AN did not show any correlation with IR. Cytokines had an inconsistent correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome hence were not useful. PMID:26904474

  1. The Pharmacology of Visceral Pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony C; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Visceral pain describes pain emanating from the internal thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal organs. Unlike somatic pain, visceral pain is generally vague, poorly localized, and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. While current therapeutics provides some relief from somatic pain, drugs used for treatment of chronic visceral pain are typically less efficacious and limited by multiple adverse side effects. Thus, the treatment of visceral pain represents a major unmet medical need. Further, more basic research into the physiology and pathophysiology of visceral pain is needed to provide novel targets for future drug development. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. However, persistent stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders. We will focus on stress-induced exacerbation of chronic visceral pain and provide supporting evidence that centrally acting drugs targeting the pain and stress-responsive brain regions may represent a valid target for the development of novel and effective therapeutics. PMID:26920016

  2. Covariation of Change in Bioavailable Testosterone and Adiposity in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether menopause-related changes in reproductive hormones are associated with change in adiposity and whether these relationships are independent of important covariates. Design and Methods Annual assessments of adiposity measures [CT-assessed visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT), and DXA-assessed total body fat (TBF)] over 4 years from an ancillary study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were paired with reproductive hormones collected by SWAN. Included were 243 women (44% African American, 56% Caucasian), who were eligible participants in a population-based cohort with a 72% participation rate. Results VAT increased by 3.8% annually, and SAT increased by 1.8% per year. Change in bioavailable testosterone was significantly positively associated with changes both inVAT and in SAT but was not related to change in total body fat. The associations were independent of age, race, physical activity, smoking, baseline TBF, baseline bioavailable testosterone, and change in TBF. Change in estradiol were unrelated to changes in any adiposity measure. Conclusion Bioavailable testosterone may play an important role in menopause-related redistribution of visceral and subcutaneous fat in the central abdominal region. PMID:25557490

  3. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25187247

  4. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  5. Ultrasound measurement of pediatric visceral fat thickness: correlations with metabolic and liver profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hwa; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Kwon, Ah Reum; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal obesity is a fundamental factor underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Because of radiation exposure and cost, computed tomography or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate abdominal adiposity are not appropriate in children. Authors evaluated whether ultrasound results could be an indicator of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods We enrolled 73 subjects (aged 6–16 years) who were evaluated abdominal adiposity by ultrasound. Subcutaneous fat thickness was defined as the measurement from the skin-fat interface to the linea alba, and visceral fat thickness (VFT) was defined as the thickness from the linea alba to the aorta. Anthropometric and biochemical metabolic parameters were also collected and compared. The subjects who met 2 criteria, radiologic confirmed fatty liver and alanine aminotransferase >40, were diagnosed with NAFLD. Results There was a strong positive correlation between VFT and obesity. VFT was highly correlated with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance score (r=0.403, P<0.001). The area under the curve for VFT as a predictor of NAFLD was 0.875 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.787–0.964). VFT of 34.3 mm was found to be the discriminating cutoff for NAFLD (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 71.2%, respectively). Conclusion Ultrasound could be useful in measuring VFT and assessing abdominal adiposity in children. Moreover, increased VFT might be an appropriate prognostic factor for insulin resistance and NAFLD. PMID:27462583

  6. Combined therapy of NPWT and bipedicled flap as an alternative approach for giant abdominal wall defect with significant visceral edema: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Go; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Warabi, Takehiro; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Open abdomen management is commonly used for the critically injured patients to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. But it usually continues for days to weeks and finally results in abdominal wall defect that is too wide to close at once. This article presents an alternative approach to close the giant abdominal wall defect by using the combination of bipedicled flaps with the components separation technique and V.A.C.® system.

  7. The effect of abdominal fat parameters on percutaneous nephrolithotomy success

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cimen, Sertac; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Oztekin, Ozgur; Can, Ertan; Suelozgen, Tufan; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity has been suggested to lower the success of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, the relationship between abdominal fat parameters, such as visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and PCNL success remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of abdominal fat parameters on PCNL success. Methods: A total of 150 patients who underwent PCNL were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who had no residual stones or residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter while group 2 included patients with residual stone fragments ≥3 mm. PCNL procedure was defined as successful if all stones were eliminated or if there were residual stone fragments <3 mm in diameter confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) performed postoperatively. Preoperative NCCT was used to determine abdominal fat parameters. Results: Group 1 consisted of 117 (78.0%) patients while group 2 included 33 (22.0%) patients. On univariate analysis, stone number, stone surface area (SSA), visceral fat area (VFA), abdominal circumference on computerized tomography (ACCT), and duration of procedure were found to be predictive factors affecting PCNL success. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ACCT and SSA were independent prognostic factors for PCNL success. Conclusions: PCNL success was not affected by VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and body mass index (BMI) in our series. However, ACCT and SSA had negative associations with PCNL success. We conclude that both ACCT and SSA can be used as tools for predicting PCNL outcomes. PMID:27330587

  8. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visceral fat mass in the upper 10th percentile had a higher odds ratio (OR) for diabetes and prediabetes than the upper 10th percentile of other adiposity indices [men, OR=15.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4–39.2; women, OR=6.9, 95% CI=3.5–13.7]. Visceral fat mass also had the highest area under the curve with diabetes and prediabetes in both men (0.69, 95% CI=0.64–0.73) and women (0.70, 95% CI=0.67–0.74) compared to other anthropometric measurements of obesity. Conclusion Visceral fat mass measured using DXA is an indicator of diabetes or prediabetes, due to its ability to differentiate between abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat. PMID:26996568

  9. Quantification of hepatic and visceral fat by CT and MR imaging: relevance to the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Graffy, Peter M; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2016-06-01

    Trends in obesity have continued to increase in the developed world over the past few decades, along with related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, which is strongly associated with this epidemic. Novel and innovative methods to assess relevant obesity-related biomarkers are needed to determine the clinical significance, allow for surveillance and intervene if appropriate. Aggregations of specific types of fat, specifically hepatic and visceral adiposity, are now known to be correlated with these conditions, and there are a variety of imaging techniques to identify and quantify their distributions and provide diagnostic information. These methods are particularly salient for metabolic syndrome, which is related to both hepatic and visceral adiposity but currently not defined by it. Simpler non-specific fat measurements, such as body weight, abdominal circumference and body mass index are more frequently used but lack the ability to characterize fat location. In addition, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a related condition that carries relevance not only for obesity-related diseases but also for the progression of the liver-specific disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, albeit at a much lower frequency. Recent CT and MRI techniques have emerged to potentially optimize diagnosing metabolic syndrome and NAFLD through non-invasive quantification of visceral fat and hepatic steatosis with high accuracy. These imaging modalities should aid us in further understanding the relationship of hepatic and visceral fat to the obesity-related conditions such as metabolic syndrome, NAFLD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26876880

  10. Combination of deep sea water and Sesamum indicum leaf extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity through AMPK activation in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, HAIDAN; CHUNG, SUNGHYUN; MA, QIANQIAN; YE, LI; PIAO, GUANGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of a combination of deep sea water (DSW) and Sesamum indicum leaf extract (SIE) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and investigate its molecular mechanisms in adipose tissue. ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: HFD control (HFC), DSW and DSW + 125 mg/kg SIE (DSS) groups. The mice in the HFC group had free access to drinking water while those in the DSW and DSS groups had free access to DSW. The mice in the DSS group were treated with SIE once per day for 8 weeks. The mice in all three groups were allowed to freely access a HFD. Compared with the HFC group, the DSS group showed lower body weight gain and serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin. Histological analyses of the epididymal white, retroperitoneal white and scapular brown adipose tissue of mice in the DSS group revealed that the adipocytes were markedly decreased in size compared with those in the HFC group. Moreover, DSS significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in mice epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, DSS upregulated the expression levels of lipolysis-associated mRNA, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and energy expenditure-associated mRNA, namely uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) in the epididymal adipose tissues. By contrast, DSS suppressed the expression of the lipogenesis-related gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) at the mRNA level. These results suggest that DSS is effective for suppressing body weight gain and enhancing the lipid profile. PMID:26889265

  11. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  12. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue is related to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome: a new indicator of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Gianluca; Ribaudo, Maria Cristina; Assael, Filippo; Vecci, Elio; Tiberti, Claudio; Zappaterreno, Alessandra; Di Mario, Umberto; Leonetti, Frida

    2003-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is related to multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays a key role in metabolic syndrome. Easy detection of VAT could be an important tool to increase knowledge of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to study the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. We selected 72 consecutive subjects, 46.5 +/- 17.4 yr of age, with a body mass index between 22 and 47 kg/m(2). Each subject underwent transthoracic echocardiogram to measure epicardial fat thickness on right ventricle and magnetic resonance imaging to calculate visceral adipose tissue. Anthropometric, metabolic, and cardiac parameters were also evaluated. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue showed a very good correlation with magnetic resonance imaging abdominal VAT and epicardial fat measurement (Bland-Altman plot and linear regression). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference (r(2) = 0.428; P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (r(2) = 0. 387; P = 0.02), and fasting insulin (r(2) = 0.387; P = 0.03) were the strongest independent variables correlated with epicardial adipose tissue. Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue could be applied as an easy and reliable imaging indicator of VAT and cardiovascular risk. PMID:14602744

  13. Resistance training, visceral obesity and inflammatory response: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Strasser, B; Arvandi, M; Siebert, U

    2012-07-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for low-grade inflammation, which is associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For the most part, recommendations to treat or prevent overweight and obesity via physical activity have focused on aerobic endurance training as it is clear that aerobic training is associated with much greater energy expenditure during the exercise session than resistance training. However, due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal ageing and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Whether resistance training alters visceral fat and the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines produced in adipose tissue has not been addressed in earlier reviews. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to a better metabolic control. Considering the benefits of resistance training on visceral fat and inflammatory response, an important question is: how much resistance training is needed to confer such benefits? Therefore, the purpose of this review was to address the importance of resistance training on abdominal obesity, visceral fat and inflammatory response. PMID:22385646

  14. Does Visceral Fat Estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Independently Predict Cardiometabolic Risks in Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Hiroyuki; Brychta, Robert J.; Wood, Rachel P.; Rothney, Megan P.; Zhao, Xiongce; Skarulis, Monica C.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal visceral fat, typically measured by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been shown to correlate with cardiometabolic risks. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a newly developed and validated visceral fat measurement from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides added predictive value to the cross-sectional differences of cardiometabolic parameters beyond the traditional anthropometric and DXA adiposity parameters. Method: A heterogeneous cohort of 194 adults (81 males and 113 females) with a BMI of 19 to 54 kg/m2 participated in this cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured with a DXA densitometer. Visceral fat was then computed with a proprietary algorithm. Insulin sensitivity index (SI, measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test), blood pressures, and lipid profiles, and peak oxygen uptake were also measured as cardiometabolic risk parameters. Results: DXA-estimated visceral fat mass was associated with HDL cholesterol (regression coefficient [β] = −5.15, P < .01, adjusted R2 = .21), triglyceride (β = 26.01, P < .01, adjusted R2 = .14), and peak oxygen uptake (β = −3.15, P < .01, adjusted R2 = .57) after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. A subanalysis stratifying gender-specific BMI tertiles showed visceral fat, together with ethnicity, was independently associated with SI in overweight men and moderately obese women (second tertile). Conclusions: Without requiring additional CT or MRI-based measurements, visceral fat detected by DXA might offer certain advantages over the traditional DXA adiposity parameters as means of assessing cardiometabolic risks. PMID:25802470

  15. Botulinum toxin injections to reduce adiposity: possibility, or fat chance?

    PubMed

    Lim, Erle C H; Seet, Raymond C S

    2006-01-01

    Obese individuals often suffer from negative self-image. Many, even those with a normal body mass index, resort to pharmacotherapy (lipase inhibitors or appetite suppressants), mesotherapy and surgery (gastric volume reduction, liposuction or apronectomy) in a bid to remove excess adipose tissue. These treatments are associated with inherent morbidity and even mortality, and hence should not be undertaken lightly. The observation that denervation of adipose tissue results in lipoatrophy leads us to postulate that chemodenervation using botulinum toxin may achieve the same result, i.e. fat loss, and we explore the methods by which selective fat loss may be achieved. We concede that removal of subcutaneous fat does not, however, reduce the risks associated with the metabolic syndrome, as visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is not reduced by the removal of subcutaneous fat. PMID:16716533

  16. Free Fatty Acids, Lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α Induce Adipocyte Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Which Is Increased in Visceral Adipose Tissues of Obese Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Hader, Yvonne; Buettner, Roland; Schmid, Peter M.; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Buechler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD) and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity. PMID:24475187

  17. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  18. [Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Following Axillo-femoral Bypass in a Patient with Stanford B Acute Aortic Dissection Accompanied by Abdominal Visceral Ischemia;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takayuki; Bonkohara, Yukihiro; Azuma, Takashi; Iijima, Masaki; Higashidate, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was transfer-red to the emergency department of our medical center with worsening chest and back pain. Computed tomography revealed Stanford type B aortic dissection. There was a false lumen from the distal arch to the abdominal aorta just above the celiac artery. Although she was at 1st treated conservatively, she abruptly developed acute renal failure and lower limb ischemia because of an enlarged false lumen, and emergency axillo-femoral bypass surgery was performed with an 8 mm tube graft. However, renal failure gradually worsened, which necessitated continuous hemodiafiltration was performed. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair was then performed, and her renal function recovered. PMID:27586321

  19. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]). We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women. PMID:21526992

  20. Characterization of 75:25 poly(l-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) thin films for the endoluminal delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Burks, Chris A; Bundy, Kirk; Fotuhi, Parwis; Alt, Eckhard

    2006-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur in 5-7% of men over the age of 60 and their incidence is rising. Current therapies remove the affected tissue or prevent blood flow through the aneurysm, but do not repair the underlying structural changes of the vascular wall. Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) seeded on a biodegradable thin film and delivered endoluminally to the aneurysm site could potentially repair the vessel wall, preventing growth and rupture of the aneurysm. In this study, the mechanical and degradation properties of a novel 75:25 poly(l-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLCL) thin film, as well as, the effects of different surface structures on stem cell adherence and resistance to shear stress was investigated. It was possible to reproducibly create films of consistent physical properties. These films degraded approximately 50% in 6 month, which would be a sufficient time to allow cells to engraft in the aortic wall. Ethylene oxide treatment significantly increased the stiffness and yield stress of the films, which exhibit >700% elongation. Treatment of the films with NaOH and HCl induced the formation of surface texture on the films; however, this texture did not affect stem cell adherence or resistance to delamination by shear stress when compared to nontreated or fibronectin-coated films. These results indicate that PLCL thin films have a sufficient degradation time and mechanical strength to serve as a scaffold in vivo for ADSCs, and that ADSCs seeded on the thin film can withstand a range of physiologic shear stresses. PMID:16995792

  1. Visceral fat in prepubertal children: Influence of obesity, anthropometry, ethnicity, gender, diet, and growth.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I.

    1999-01-01

    Visceral fat, or intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) lies deep within the abdominal cavity and can only be directly quantified with imaging techniques. IAAT has been detected in children as young as 5 years of age. IAAT generally increases in proportion with general fatness, but the relationship between IAAT and total body fat is complex; in children, a major portion of the variance in IAAT is independent of total body fat. The waist-to-hip ratio and the trunk:extremity skinfold ratio are not good indices of IAAT in children, and central skinfolds and waist circumference alone are highly correlated with IAAT as well as subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (r = 0.85-0.92). African-American children have less IAAT than Caucasian children, and gender differences in IAAT become more apparent after adolescence. Preliminary evidence in children suggests that IAAT may have a stronger influence on cardiovascular risk factors than dietary fat intake. Preliminary evidence in children also suggests that acquisition of IAAT during growth is a linear process that occurs in proportion to general increases in body fat. The study of the regulation of IAAT acquisition during childhood development and its relationship with long-term disease risk is in its early infancy and further studies are required. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:201-207, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11533944

  2. Citrus aurantium and Rhodiola rosea in combination reduce visceral white adipose tissue and increase hypothalamic norepinephrine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Verpeut, Jessica L; Walters, Amy L; Bello, Nicholas T

    2013-06-01

    Extracts from the immature fruit of Citrus aurantium are often used for weight loss but are reported to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. Root extracts of Rhodiola rosea have notable antistress properties. The hypothesis of these studies was that C aurantium (6% synephrine) and R rosea (3% rosavins, 1% salidroside) in combination would improve diet-induced obesity alterations in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal-weight animals fed standard chow, acute administration of C aurantium (1-10 mg/kg) or R rosea (2-20 mg/kg) alone did not reduce deprivation-induced food intake, but C aurantium (5.6 mg/kg) + R rosea (20 mg/kg) produced a 10.5% feeding suppression. Animals maintained (13 weeks) on a high-fat diet (60% fat) were exposed to 10-day treatments of C aurantium (5.6 mg/kg) or R rosea (20 mg/kg) alone or in combination. Additional groups received vehicle (2% ethanol) or were pair fed to the C aurantium + R rosea group. Although high-fat diet intake and weight loss were not influenced, C aurantium + R rosea had a 30% decrease in visceral fat weight compared with the other treatments. Only the C aurantium group had an increased heart rate (+7%) compared with vehicle. In addition, C aurantium + R rosea administration resulted in an elevation (+15%) in hypothalamic norepinephrine and an elevation (+150%) in frontal cortex dopamine compared with the pair-fed group. These initial findings suggest that treatments of C aurantium + R rosea have actions on central monoamine pathways and have the potential to be beneficial for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23746567

  3. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    PubMed

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source. PMID:24361924

  4. Lipolysis, lipogenesis, and adiposity are reduced while fatty acid oxidation is increased in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes of endurance-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Pistor, Kathryn E; Sepa-Kishi, Diane M; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the alterations in triglyceride (TG) breakdown and storage in subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) and epididymal (Epid) fat depots following chronic endurance training. Male Wistar rats were either kept sedentary (Sed) or subjected to endurance training (Ex) at 70–85% peak VO2 for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 3, and 6 blood was collected at rest and immediately after a bout of submaximal exercise of similar relative intensity to assess whole-body lipolysis. At week 6, adipocytes were isolated from Epid and SC Ing fat pads for the determination of lipolysis under basal or isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated conditions, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Body weight, fat pad mass, and insulin were reduced by endurance training. Also, circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were 33% lower in Ex than Sed rats when exercising at the same relative intensity. This coincided with reduced isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the Epid (27%) and SC Ing (25%) adipocytes in Ex rats. Similarly, forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was reduced in Epid (51%) and SC Ing (49%) adipocytes from Ex rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes from both fat depots from Ex rats was also lower (∼43%) than Sed controls. Conversely, FAO was increased in Epid (1.71-fold) and SC Ing (1.82-fold) adipocytes of Ex rats. In conclusion, chronic endurance exercise reduced lipolysis and lipogenesis while increasing FAO in Epid and SC Ing adipocytes. These are compatible with an energy-sparing adaptive response to reduced adiposity under chronic endurance training conditions. PMID:26167399

  5. Salsalate Treatment Improves Glycemia Without Altering Adipose Tissue in Non-Diabetic Obese Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Tanya L.; Sattler, Fred R; Richey, Joyce M.; Allayee, Hooman; Mittelman, Steven D.; Sheng, Xia; Tucci, Jonathan; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Grant, Edward G.; Goran, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Salsalate treatment has well-known effects on improving glycemia and the objective of this study was to examine whether the mechanism of this effect is related to changes in adipose tissue. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled trial in obese Hispanics (18-35 years). The intervention consisted of 4 g/day of salsalate (n=11) versus placebo (n=13) for 4 weeks. Outcome measures included glycemia, adiposity, ectopic fat, and adipose tissue gene expression and inflammation. Results In those receiving salsalate, plasma fasting glucose decreased by 3.4% (P<0.01), free fatty acids decreased by 42.5% (P=0.06) and adiponectin increased by 27.7% (P<0.01). Salsalate increased insulin AUC by 38% (P=0.01) and HOMA-B by 47.2% (P<0.01) while estimates of insulin sensitivity/resistance were unaffected. These metabolic improvements occurred without changes in total, abdominal, visceral, or liver fat. Plasma markers of inflammation/immune activation were unchanged following salsalate. Salsalate had no effects on adipose tissue including adipocyte size, presence of crown-like structures, or gene expression of adipokines, immune cell markers, or cytokines downstream of NF-κB with the exception of downregulation of IL-1β (P<0.01). Conclusions Our findings suggest that metabolic improvements in response to salsalate occurred without alterations in adiposity, ectopic fat, or adipose tissue gene expression and inflammation. PMID:25644856

  6. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Damouche, Abderaouf; Huot, Nicolas; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Mélard, Adeline; David, Ludivine; Gommet, Céline; Ghosn, Jade; Noel, Nicolas; Pourcher, Guillaume; Martinez, Valérie; Benoist, Stéphane; Béréziat, Véronique; Cosma, Antonio; Favier, Benoit; Vaslin, Bruno; Rouzioux, Christine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Lambotte, Olivier; Bourgeois, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are (i) viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication) and (ii) chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-controlled HIV-infected patients). The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF); the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV). The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART). Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART) are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells) are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low-grade chronic

  7. Effects of Daily Almond Consumption on Cardiometabolic Risk and Abdominal Adiposity in Healthy Adults With Elevated LDL‐Cholesterol: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Claire E.; West, Sheila G.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Bordi, Peter L.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled‐feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie‐matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods and Results In a randomized, 2‐period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled‐feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL‐C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol‐lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non‐HDL‐C (−6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL‐C (−5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL‐C (−1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (−0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (−0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight. Conclusions Almonds reduced non‐HDL‐C, LDL‐C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL‐C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high‐carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01101230. PMID:25559009

  8. A comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess visceral fat in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weikun; Ren, Huilong; Tong, Hongzhang; Shen, Xiaoyin; Luo, Jianping; Chen, Shuting; Lai, Jingbo; Chen, Xinyi; Chen, Hongwei; Yu, Wanjun

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Easy detection of VAT could be an important tool to increase understanding of the metabolic syndrome. To study the relationship between the area of the inferior part of the perirenal fat (AIPPF) and anthropometric, imaging and cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome, seventy two subjects with metabolic syndrome were recruited including 44 men and 28 women (age: 26-68 yr). Each subject underwent ultrasound detection of AIPPF, intraabdominal fat thickness and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate abdominal VAT (MRI VAT). Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were also evaluated. AIPPF measured by ultrasonography demonstrated excellent reproducibility. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that AIPPF has the best sensitivity for women, specificity for men and accuracy of the various measures to predict visceral obesity (MRI VAT value > or = 110 cm2) for both genders. AIPPF was related to MRI VAT, ultrasound measured intraabdominal fat, waist circumference, the ratio of waist and hip circumferences (of men), body mass index and the main cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis suggested that MRI VAT affected AIPPF independent of other investigated obesity indices. This study showed that AIPPF could be applied as an easy and reliable imaging indicator of visceral obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17392130

  9. Contribution of adipose tissue to health span and longevity.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue accounts for approximately 20% (lean) to >50% (in extreme obesity) of body mass and is biologically active through its secretion of numerous peptides and release and storage of nutrients such as free fatty acids. Studies in rodents and humans have revealed that body fat distribution, including visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous (SC) fat and ectopic fat are critical for determining the risk posed by obesity. Specific depletion or expansion of the VF depot using genetic or surgical strategies in animal models has proven to have direct effects on metabolic characteristics and disease risk. In humans, there is compelling evidence that abdominal obesity most strongly predicts mortality risk, while in rats, surgical removal of VF improves mean and maximum life span. There is also growing evidence that fat deposition in ectopic depots such as skeletal muscle and liver can cause lipotoxicity and impair insulin action. Conversely, expansion of SC adipose tissue may confer protection from metabolic derangements by serving as a 'metabolic sink' to limit both systemic lipids and the accrual of visceral and ectopic fat. Treatments targeting the prevention of fat accrual in these harmful depots should be considered as a primary target for improving human health span and longevity. PMID:20703052

  10. Commonality versus specificity among adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Raja, GK; Sarzynski, MA; Katzmarzyk, PT; Johnson, WD; Tchoukalova, Y; Smith, SR; Bouchard, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many adiposity traits have been related to health complications and premature death. These adiposity traits are intercorrelated but their underlying structure has not been extensively investigated. We report on the degree of commonality and specificity among multiple adiposity traits in normal-weight and moderately overweight adult males and females (mean body mass index (BMI) = 22.9 kg m−2, s.d. = 2.4). METHODS A total of 75 healthy participants were assessed for a panel of adiposity traits including leg, arm, trunk, total fat masses and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) derived from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hepatic and muscle lipids from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, fat cell volume from an abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy (n = 36) and conventional anthropometry (BMI and waist girth). Spearman’s correlations were calculated and were subjected to factor analysis. RESULTS Arm, leg, trunk and total fat masses correlated positively (r = 0.78–0.95) with each other. VAT correlated weakly with fat mass indicators (r = 0.24–0.31). Intrahepatic lipids (IHL) correlated weakly with all fat mass traits (r = 0.09–0.34), whereas correlations between DXA depots and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were inconsequential. The four DXA fat mass measures, VAT, IHL and IMCL depots segregated as four independent factors that accounted for 96% of the overall adiposity variance. BMI and waist girth were moderately correlated with the arm, leg, trunk and total fat and weakly with VAT, IHL and IMCL. CONCLUSION Adiposity traits share a substantial degree of commonality, but there is considerable specificity across the adiposity variance space. For instance, VAT, IHL and IMCL are typically poorly correlated with each other and are poorly to weakly associated with the other adiposity traits. The same is true for BMI and waist girth, commonly used anthropometric indicators of adiposity. These results do not support the view that it will be

  11. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  12. Effect of resistance training on muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in postmenopausal women: controlled and randomized clinical trial of efficacy of training volume.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Barcelos, Larissa Corrêa; Oliveira, Anselmo Alves; Furlanetto Júnior, Roberto; Martins, Fernanda Maria; Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Orsatti, Fábio Lera

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of resistance training (RT) volume on muscular strength and on indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in post-menopausal women (PW). Thirty-two volunteers were randomly allocated into the following three groups: control (CT, no exercise, n = 11), low-volume RT (LV, three sets/exercise, n = 10), and high-volume RT (HV, six sets/exercise, n = 11). The LV and HV groups performed eight exercises at 70 % of one maximal repetition, three times a week, for 16 weeks. Muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. No differences were found in baseline measures between the groups. The PW showed excess weight and fat percentage (F%), large waist circumference (WC), high waist-hip ratio (WHR), and hypercholesterolemia and borderline values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%). Following the RT, a similar increase in muscle strength and reduction in F% from baseline were found in both trained groups. In HV, a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-c, WC, and WHR was noted. Moreover, the HV showed a lower change (delta%) of interleukin-6 (IL-6) when compared to CT (HV = 11.2 %, P 25-75 = -7.6-28.4 % vs. CT = 99.55 %, P 25-75 = 18.5-377.0 %, p = 0.049). In LV, a decrease was noted for HbA1c%. There were positive correlations (delta%) between WHR and IL-6 and between IL-6 and TC. These results suggest that while a low-volume RT improves HbA1c%, F%, and muscular strength, a high-volume RT is necessary to improve indicators of abdominal adiposity and lipid metabolism and also prevent IL-6 increases in PW. PMID:26984105

  13. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  14. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  15. Reduced alpha(2)-adrenergic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes as a modulator of fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels in men.

    PubMed

    Imbeault, P; Couillard, C; Tremblay, A; Després, J P; Mauriège, P

    2000-09-01

    such as body weight, percent body fat, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue accumulation measured by CT, as well as subcutaneous abdominal fat cell alpha(2)-adrenoceptor sensitivity. Taken together, these results indicate that a reduced antilipolytic sensitivity of subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes to catecholamines may increase fasting TG levels, which in turn play a role in the etiology of an impaired postprandial TRL clearance in men. PMID:10974043

  16. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women1234

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Khan, Unab I; Thurston, Rebecca; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El Khoudary, Samar R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that the effects of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) on cardiovascular disease risk may depend on accompanying amounts of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Objective: The objective was to examine whether abdominal VAT area modifies the effects of abdominal SAT area on subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in both whites and African Americans. Design: Computed tomographic measures of abdominal SAT and VAT were examined in relation to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiometabolic risk factor levels in 500 African American and white women in midlife. A VAT × SAT interaction term was evaluated. Results: The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 51.0 ± 2.9 y, and 37% were African American. Higher amounts of SAT and VAT were associated with higher cIMT, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin and with lower concentrations of HDL cholesterol. However, in African Americans, but not in whites, higher amounts of VAT significantly attenuated associations between higher amounts of SAT and higher insulin concentrations (P for interaction = 0.032) and HOMA-IR (P for interaction = 0.011) and reversed associations with cIMT (P for interaction = 0.005) and glucose (P for interaction = 0.044). Conclusions: These results suggest that in midlife African American but not white women, adverse associations between abdominal SAT and cardiometabolic risk factors are attenuated and, in the case of subclinical atherosclerosis, are reversed as VAT amounts increase. Given that African American women suffer disproportionately from obesity and cardiovascular disease, further research into the role of this effect modification on obesity-associated vascular disease in African American women is warranted. PMID:21346089

  17. Unique transcriptomic signature of omental adipose tissue in Ossabaw swine: a model of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Roberts, Michael D.; Wells, Kevin D.; Company, Joseph M.; Kanosky, Kayla M.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Perfield, James W.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Booth, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and Western diet-induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat content, and a 60% increase in OMAT adipocyte area (all P < 0.05) compared with lean pigs. RNA-seq revealed a 37% increase in the total transcript number in the OMAT of obese pigs. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed transcripts in obese OMAT were primarily enriched in the following categories: 1) development, 2) cellular function and maintenance, and 3) connective tissue development and function, while transcripts associated with RNA posttranslational modification, lipid metabolism, and small molecule biochemistry were reduced. DAVID and Gene Ontology analyses showed that many of the classically recognized gene pathways associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in obese adults including hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis were not altered in OMAT in our model. The current study indicates that obesity in juvenile Ossabaw swine is characterized by increases in overall OMAT transcript number and provides novel data describing early transcriptomic alterations that occur in response to excess caloric intake in visceral adipose tissue in a pig model of childhood obesity. PMID:24642759

  18. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomoya Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  19. Adiposity and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Wells, Kathryn M; Austin, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    The drastic changes in body composition following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to play a significant role in cardiovascular and metabolic health. The pattern of storage and distribution of different types of adipose tissue may impact metabolic health variables similar to carbohydrate, lipid and bone metabolism. The use of magnetic resonance imaging provides insights on the interplay among different regional adipose tissue compartments and their role in developing chronic diseases. Regional adipose tissue can be either distributed centrally or peripherally into subcutaneous and ectopic sites. The primary ectopic adipose tissue sites are visceral, intramuscular and bone marrow. Dysfunction in the central nervous system following SCI impacts the pattern of distribution of adiposity especially between tetraplegia and paraplegia. The current editorial is focused primarily on introducing different types of adipose tissue and establishing scientific basis to develop appropriate dietary, rehabilitation or pharmaceutical interventions to manage the negative consequences of increasing adiposity after SCI. We have also summarized the clinical implications and future recommendations relevant to study adiposity after SCI. PMID:26396933

  20. Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Without Caloric Restriction on Abdominal Fat, Intrahepatic Lipid, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SoJung; Bacha, Fida; Hannon, Tamara; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Boesch, Chris; Arslanian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and secretion in youth. Forty-five obese adolescent boys were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month interventions: AE, RE, or a nonexercising control. Abdominal fat was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and intrahepatic lipid and intramyocellular lipid were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were evaluated by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. Both AE and RE prevented the significant weight gain that was observed in controls. Compared with controls, significant reductions in total and visceral fat and intrahepatic lipid were observed in both exercise groups. Compared with controls, a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (27%) was observed in the RE group. Collapsed across groups, changes in visceral fat were associated with changes in intrahepatic lipid (r = 0.72) and insulin sensitivity (r = −0.47). Both AE and RE alone are effective for reducing abdominal fat and intrahepatic lipid in obese adolescent boys. RE but not AE is also associated with significant improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:22751691

  1. Novel nervous system mechanisms in visceral pain.

    PubMed

    De Winter, B Y; Deiteren, A; De Man, J G

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important factor underlying abdominal pain in functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and can result from aberrant signaling from the gut to the brain or vice versa. Over the last two decades, research has identified several selective, intertwining pathways that underlie IBS-related visceral nociception, including specific receptors on afferent and efferent nerve fibers such as transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Gil et al. demonstrate that in an animal model with reduced descending inhibitory control, the sympathetic nervous system outflow is enhanced, contributing to visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. They also provide evidence that interfering with the activation of adrenergic receptors on sensory nerves can be an interesting new strategy to treat visceral pain in IBS. This mini-review places these findings in a broader perspective by providing an overview of promising novel mechanisms to alter the nervous control of visceral pain interfering with afferent or efferent neuronal signaling. PMID:26891060

  2. Fascia Origin of Adipose Cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Xueying; Lyu, Ying; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Danhua; Wei, Suning; Du, Congkuo; Geng, Bin; Sztalryd, Carole; Xu, Guoheng

    2016-05-01

    Adipocytes might arise from vascular stromal cells, pericytes and endothelia within adipose tissue or from bone marrow cells resident in nonadipose tissue. Here, we identified adipose precursor cells resident in fascia, an uninterrupted sheet of connective tissue that extends throughout the body. The cells and fragments of superficial fascia from the rat hindlimb were highly capable of spontaneous and induced adipogenic differentiation but not myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Fascial preadipocytes expressed multiple markers of adipogenic progenitors, similar to subcutaneous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) but discriminative from visceral ASCs. Such preadipocytes resided in fascial vasculature and were physiologically active in vivo. In growing rats, adipocytes dynamically arose from the adventitia to form a thin adipose layer in the fascia. Later, some adipocytes appeared to overlay on top of other adipocytes, an early sign for the formation of three-dimensional adipose tissue in fascia. The primitive adipose lobules extended invariably along blood vessels toward the distal fascia areas. At the lobule front, nascent capillaries wrapped and passed ahead of mature adipocytes to form the distal neovasculature niche, which might replenish the pool of preadipocytes and supply nutrients and hormones necessary for continuous adipogenesis. Our findings suggest a novel model for the origin of adipocytes from the fascia, which explains both neogenesis and expansion of adipose tissue. Fascial preadipocytes generate adipose cells to form primitive adipose lobules in superficial fascia, a subcutaneous nonadipose tissue. With continuous adipogenesis, these primitive adipose lobules newly formed in superficial fascia may be the rudiment of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2016;34:1407-1419. PMID:26867029

  3. IL-6 gene expression in adipose tissue of postmenopausal women and its association with metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sadashiv; Tiwari, Sunita; Gupta, Vani; Paul, Bhola Nath; Kumar, Sandeep; Chandra, Abhijit; Dhananjai, S; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Ghatak, Ashim

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes various kinds of adipokines that controls the glucose and lipid metabolism in humans. The abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) both are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. IL-6 is one of the adipokines, which promotes insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in humans. The association of adipokines with metabolic syndrome at protein levels are well documented. However, their association at gene expression level are lacking. The present study was design to investigate IL-6 mRNA expression in adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) and its correlation with metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance (HOMA) in post menopausal women. A total of 108 Asian North Indian post menopausal women, 54 without metabolic syndrome (controls) and 54 with metabolic syndrome (cases) were recruited and evaluated. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected at admission and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected during open abdomen surgery. The results showed significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) higher mean SBP, glucose, insulin, HOMA, TG, VLDL and serum IL-6 while significantly (p < 0.001) lower HDL and estrogen in cases as compared to controls. In cases, the relative mean SAT IL-6 expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher as compared to VAT. Further, in cases, the VAT IL-6 expression showed significant (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001) and negative correlation with WC, WHR, glucose, HOMA, TC, LDL and estrogen while SAT IL-6 expression also showed significant (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) and negative correlation with WC, WHR and estrogen. The Cox regression analysis found VAT IL-6 mRNA expression the significant (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) an independent predictor of WC, HOMA, TC, LDL and estrogen while SAT IL-6 mRNA expression the significant (p < 0.01) an independent predictor of TG and VLDL. The study concluded

  4. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    PubMed

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  5. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Azuma, Koichiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Saitoh, Yoshino; Torii, Sayuki; Miyazawa, Itsuko; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-12-01

    Studies from Western countries suggest that smokers tend to display greater abdominal obesity than non-smokers, despite showing lower weight. Whether this holds true in a leaner population requires clarification. Using indices of abdominal obesity including visceral adipose tissue, we examined whether lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with unfavorable fat distribution among Japanese men. From 2006 to 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional investigation of a community-based sample of Japanese men at 40-64 years old, free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Areas of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were calculated using computed tomography. We divided participants into four groups: never-smokers; and tertiles of pack-years of smoking among ever-smokers. Using multivariable linear regression, we calculated adjusted means of obesity indices (VAT, SAT, VAT-SAT ratio [VSR], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) for each group, and mean differences between consecutive groups. We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%). Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (median, 23.5 kg/m(2)). Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = 0.005) and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009-0.073; P = 0.012) after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated. PMID:27413686

  6. Expression of Innate Immune Response Genes in Liver and Three Types of Adipose Tissue in Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The pig has been proposed as a relevant model for human obesity-induced inflammation, and cloning may improve the applicability of this model. We tested the assumptions that cloning would reduce interindividual variation in gene expression of innate immune factors and that their expression would remain unaffected by the cloning process. We investigated the expression of 40 innate immune factors by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR in samples from liver, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and neck SAT in cloned pigs compared to normal outbred pigs. The variation in gene expression was found to be similar for the two groups, and the expression of a small number of genes was significantly affected by cloning. In the VAT and abdominal SAT, six out of seven significantly differentially expressed genes were downregulated in the clones. In contrast, most differently expressed genes in both liver and neck SAT were upregulated (seven out of eight). Remarkably, acute phase proteins (APPs) dominated the upregulated genes in the liver, whereas APP expression was either unchanged or downregulated in abdominal SAT and VAT. The general conclusion from this work is that cloning leads to subtle changes in specific subsets of innate immune genes. Such changes, even if minor, may have phenotypic effects over time, e.g., in models of long-term inflammation related to obesity. PMID:22928970

  7. Association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis: a protocol of a cross-sectional autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Aline; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Farias, Daniela Souza; Campos, Fernanda Marinho; da Silva, Karen Cristina Souza; Cuelho, Anderson; Leite, Renata Elaine Paraízo; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adiposity has been associated with atherosclerosis in clinical studies. However, few autopsy studies have investigated this association, and they had only examined the coronary artery disease. Moreover, most studies had small sample sizes and were limited to middle-aged or young adults. Our aim is to investigate the association between adiposity and systemic atherosclerosis in an autopsy study. Methods and analysis A sample of 240 deceased with 30 years or more will be evaluated. The sample size was calculated using the lowest correlation coefficient found in previous studies (r=0.109), assuming a power of 90% and α=0.05. We will collect information about sociodemographics, frequency of previous contact of the deceased's next of kin and cardiovascular risk factors. We will measure neck, waist and hip circumferences, weight, height and abdominal subcutaneous tissue thickness, and then we will calculate the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body shape index. We will also weigh the pericardial and abdominal visceral fat, the heart, and we will measure the left ventricular wall thickness. We will evaluate the presence of myocardial infarction, the degree of atherosclerosis in the aorta, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries and plaque composition in carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. For each individual, we will fix arterial and adipose tissue samples in 10% formalin and freeze another adipose tissue sample at −80°C for future studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Brazil. Results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27621828

  8. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  9. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source

    PubMed Central

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem/progenitor cells from which it arises. While increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are 6 visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric and it is a subject of much debate whether these have common developmental origins and whether this differs from subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all 6 visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue (BAT) arises from Wt1 expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1 expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1 expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results: reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT; pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT; support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous; and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes. PMID:24609269

  10. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  12. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  13. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Company, Joseph M; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Christian K; Roberts, Michael D; Booth, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life. PMID:26678390

  14. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running

    PubMed Central

    Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Roberts, Christian K.; Roberts, Michael D.; Booth, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex ‘omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10–11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life. PMID:26678390

  15. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  16. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  17. A new approach to measuring vitamin D in human adipose tissue using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Per; Karlsson, Therese; Svensson, Henrik; Lönn, Malin; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Jennische, Eva; Osmancevic, Amra; Holmäng, Agneta

    2014-09-01

    Circulating concentrations of vitamin D, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D are lower in obese than lean individuals, but little is known about the adipose tissue content of these molecules. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility to use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to measure vitamin D and its metabolites in fat tissue in obese and lean subjects. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were obtained from three lean and three obese women, and paired biopsies SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were obtained from three obese subjects during gastric bypass surgery. TOF-SIMS was used to measure vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, and 1,25(OH)2D3 in adipose tissue. We found that vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, and 1,25(OH)2D3 in adipose tissue can be measured with TOF-SIMS. In adipose tissue, vitamin D3 and its metabolites were located in adipocyte lipid droplets. The content of vitamin D3 (P=0.006) and 25(OH)D3 (P=0.018) were lower in SAT in obese compared with lean women. TOF-SIMS has the potential to semi-quantitatively measure vitamin D metabolites in adipose tissue, and offers a possibility to compare vitamin D levels in different depots and groups of individuals. It also gives the opportunity to explore the localization of vitamin D metabolites at a cellular level. PMID:25010290

  18. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  19. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  20. Measuring abdominal circumference and skeletal muscle from a single cross-sectional CT image: a step-by-step guide for clinicians using National Institutes of Health ImageJ

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral and intermuscular) and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, however this tutorial utilizes ImageJ, a free public domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). PMID:26392166

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E.; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T.; Jacques, Paul F.; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

  2. Subcutaneous adipose tissue plays a beneficial effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in young survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; de Martino Lee, Maria Lucia; de Castro Monteiro, Carlos Manoel; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Calixto, Antonio Ramos; Geloneze, Bruno; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition, metabolic profile, adipokines, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in young survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Patients and methods This cross-sectional study compared 55 ALL survivors, of chronological age between 15 years and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiation therapy (CRT; 25 irradiated and 30 nonirradiated) with 24 leukemia-free controls, and assessed body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), adipokines, and cIMT by a multiple regression analysis. Results Treatment with CRT had an effect on all of the variables derived from the computed tomography scan: visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (P<0.050). In a multiple linear regression model, cIMT positively correlated with exposure to CRT (P=0.029), diastolic BP (P=0.016), and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P=0.048), while negatively related to SAT (P=0.007). Conclusion In young survivors of childhood ALL, CRT modified the distribution of fat and played a critical role in determining cIMT. Leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, a biomarker of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, and diastolic BP also influenced cIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Nonetheless, adiposity-associated vascular disease might be attenuated by SAT. Changes in body fat must be evaluated in this group of patients in the early course of survivorship in order to avoid premature cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, further research as regards the possible protective effect of SAT on vascular disease is warranted. PMID:26316772

  3. The adipose organ: morphological perspectives of adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Cinti, S

    2001-08-01

    Anatomically, an organ is defined as a series of tissues which jointly perform one or more interconnected functions. The adipose organ qualifies for this definition as it is made up of two tissue types, the white and brown adipose tissues, which collaborate in partitioning the energy contained in lipids between thermogenesis and the other metabolic functions. In rats and mice the adipose organ consists of several subcutaneous and visceral depots. Some areas of these depots are brown and correspond to brown adipose tissue, while many are white and correspond to white adipose tissue. The number of brown adipocytes found in white areas varies with age, strain of animal and environmental conditions. Brown and white adipocyte precursors are morphologically dissimilar. Together with a rich vascular supply, brown areas receive abundant noradrenergic parenchymal innervation. The gross anatomy and histology of the organ vary considerably in different physiological (cold acclimation, warm acclimation, fasting) and pathological conditions such as obesity; many important genes, such as leptin and uncoupling protein-1, are also expressed very differently in the two cell types. These basic mechanisms should be taken into account when addressing the physiopathology of obesity and its treatment. PMID:11681806

  4. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  5. Proline oxidase–adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Aquilano, K; Baldelli, S; Cannata, S M; Bernardini, S; Rotilio, G; Ciriolo, M R

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing lipolytic enzyme adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) has a key role in adipose tissue function, and alterations in its activity have been implicated in many age-related metabolic disorders. In adipose tissue reduced blood vessel density is related to hypoxia state, cell death and inflammation. Here we demonstrate that adipocytes of poorly vascularized enlarged visceral adipose tissue (i.e. adipose tissue of old mice) suffer from limited nutrient delivery. In particular, nutrient starvation elicits increased activity of mitochondrial proline oxidase/dehydrogenase (POX/PRODH) that is causal in triggering a ROS-dependent induction of ATGL. We demonstrate that ATGL promotes the expression of genes related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α), thus setting a metabolic switch towards fat utilization that supplies energy to starved adipocytes and prevents cell death, as well as adipose tissue inflammation. Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders. PMID:24096872

  6. Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Christopher J; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2003-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, including hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. Several adipokines are preferentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue, and the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines is elevated with increasing adiposity. Not surprisingly, approaches that reduce adipose tissue depots, including surgical fat removal, exercise, and reduced caloric intake, improve proinflammatory adipokine levels and reduce the severity of their resultant pathologies. Systemic adipokine levels can also be favorably altered by treatment with several of the existing drug classes used to treat insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Greater understanding of adipokine regulation, however, should result in the design of improved treatment strategies to control disease states associated with increase adiposity, an important outcome in view of the growing worldwide epidemic of obesity. PMID:12746274

  7. Overfeeding energy upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-controlled adipogenic and lipolytic gene networks but does not affect proinflammatory markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Drackley, J K; Khan, M J; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of overfeeding energy on gene expression in mesenteric (MAT), omental (OAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue (AT) from nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were randomly assigned to either a low energy [LE, net energy for lactation (NE(L)) = 1.35 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or high energy (HE, NE(L) = 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets for 8 wk. Cows were then euthanized and subsamples of MAT, OAT, and SAT were harvested for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of 34 genes involved in lipogenesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, lipolysis, lactate signaling, transcription regulation, and inflammation. The interaction of dietary energy and AT depot was only significant for LPL, which indicated a consistent response among the 3 sites. The expression of key genes related to de novo fatty acid synthesis (FASN) and desaturation (SCD) was upregulated by HE compared with LE. Other genes associated with those processes, such as ACLY, ACACA, ELOVL6, FABP4, GPAM, and LPIN1, were numerically upregulated by HE. The expression of lipolytic (PNPLA2 and ABHD5) genes was upregulated and the antilypolytic lactate receptor HCAR1 was downregulated with HE compared with LE. The putative transcription regulator THRSP was upregulated and the transcription regulator PPARG tended to be upregulated by HE, whereas SREBF1 was downregulated. Among adipocytokines, HE tended to upregulate the expression of CCL2, whereas IL6R was downregulated. Overall, results indicated that overfeeding energy may increase AT mass at least in part by stimulating transcription of the network encompassing key genes associated with de novo synthesis. In response to energy overfeeding, the expression of PPARG rather than SREBF1 was closely associated with most adipogenic or lipogenic genes. However, the transcriptional activity of these regulators needs to be verified to confirm their role in the regulation of adipogenesis or lipogenesis in bovine

  8. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Abdominal Lipectomy on Weight and Fat Mass in Females: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Seretis, Konstantinos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Koliakos, Georgios; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue is considered as an endocrine organ, which is developed in specific depots, distinguished either as subcutaneous or visceral. Lipectomy, by means of liposuction or abdominoplasty, is a common plastic surgery procedure, which can remove substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat. This systematic review aims to evaluate the impact of surgical removal of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue on body weight and fat mass in females in the short- and long-term. A systematic review was conducted using a predetermined protocol established according to the Cochrane Handbook's recommendations. PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to December 2014. Eligible studies were prospective studies with ≥1 month of follow-up that included female only individuals who underwent lipectomy of the abdominal region and reported on body weight, body mass index (BMI), or fat mass. Ten studies were included in this systematic review with a total of 231 individuals. A significant weight loss and BMI improvement were reported in 4 out of 5 studies with a mean follow-up of 1-2 months, but in none of the 5 studies with a longer follow-up (3-20 months). Fat mass showed a similar to weight change. The risk of bias was low for the two clinical trials but high for the observational studies included in the review. This systematic review revealed only a transient effect of abdominal lipectomy in body fat and weight in women, which fades a few months after the operation. These results corroborate the evidence from experimental and clinical studies, which support fat redistribution and compensatory fat growth, as a result of feedback mechanisms, triggered by fat removal. Additional clinical studies, with adequate follow-up, may further elucidate the long-term effects of abdominal lipectomy in body weight and composition. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42015017564 ( www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ). PMID:26210190

  9. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Christensen, D L; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Faerch, K; Mwaniki, D L; Boit, M K; Kilonzo, B; Tetens, I; Friis, H; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic differences in insulin indices. The Maasai had 32 and 17% higher insulin resistance than the Luo and Kamba, respectively (p < 0.001). Early phase insulin secretion was 16% higher in the Maasai compared to the Luo (p < 0.001). DI was 12% (p = 0.002) and 10% (p = 0.015) lower in the Maasai compared to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1-7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5-14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution. PMID:23563691

  10. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, A. E.; Broyles, S. T.; Gupta, A. K.; Katzmarzyk, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated ethnic and sex differences in the distribution of fat during childhood and adolescence. Design and Methods A cross-sectional sample (n=382), aged 5 to 18 years, included African American males (n=84), White males (n=96), African American females (n=118), and White females (n=84). Measures for total body fat (TBF) mass and abdominal adipose tissue (total volume and L4–L5 cross-sectional area) for both subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) depots were assessed by DXA and MRI, respectively. ANCOVAs were used to determine ethnic and sex differences in TBF (adjusted for age) and ethnic and sex differences in SAT and VAT (adjusted for both age and TBF). Results Age-adjusted TBF was greater in African Americans (p=0.017) and females (p<0.0001) compared to Whites and males, respectively. In age- and TBF-adjusted ANCOVAs, no differences were found in the SAT. The VAT volume was, however, greater in Whites (p<0.0001) and males (p<0.0001) compared to African Americans and females, respectively. Similar patterns were observed in SAT and VAT area at L4–L5. Conclusions The demonstrated ethnic and sex differences are important confounders in the prevalence of obesity and in the assignment of disease risk in children and adolescents. PMID:23670982

  11. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2014-07-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  12. Enzymatic intracrine regulation of white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    DiSilvestro, David; Petrosino, Jennifer; Aldoori, Ayat; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Wells, Alexandra; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat formation has become a permanent risk factor for metabolic syndrome and various cancers in one-third of the world's population of obese and even lean patients. Formation of abdominal fat involves additional mechanisms beyond an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure, which explains systemic obesity. In this review, we briefly summarized autonomous regulatory circuits that locally produce hormones from inactive precursors or nutrients for intra-/auto-/paracrine signaling in white adipose depots. Enzymatic pathways activating steroid and thyroid hormones in adipose depots were compared with enzymatic production of retinoic acid from vitamin A. We discussed the role of intracrine circuits in fat-depot functions and strategies to reduce abdominal adiposity through thermogenic adipocytes with interrupted generation of retinoic acid. PMID:25390015

  13. Adipose Depots, not Disease Related Factors, Account for Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Established and Treated Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    AbouAssi, Hiba; Tune, K. Noelle; Gilmore, Brian; Bateman, Lori A.; McDaniel, Gary; Muehlbauer, Michael; Huebner, Janet L.; Hoenig, Helen M.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Clair, E. William St.; Kraus, William E.; Huffman, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In prior reports, individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibited increased insulin resistance. However, these studies were limited by either suboptimal assessment methods for insulin sensitivity or a failure to account for important determinants, adiposity and physical activity. Our objectives were to carefully assess, compare and determine predictors of skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (SI) in RA, accounting for adiposity and physical activity. Methods Thirty-nine individuals with established (seropositive or erosions) and treated RA and 39 age, gender, race, BMI, and physical activity-matched controls underwent a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to determine SI. Inflammation, body composition, and physical activity were assessed with systemic cytokine measurements, CT scans, and accelerometry, respectively. Exclusions were diabetes, cardiovascular disease, medication changes within three months, and prednisone use over 5 mg/d. This investigation was powered to detect a clinically significant, moderate effect size for SI difference. Results Despite elevated systemic inflammation (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; P<0.05 for all), persons with RA were not less insulin sensitive (SI geometric mean (SD): RA 4.0 (2.4) versus Control 4.9 (2.1)*10−5 min−1/[pmol/l]; P=0.39). Except for visceral adiposity being slightly greater in controls (P=0.03), there were no differences in body composition or physical activity. Lower SI was independently associated with increased abdominal and thigh adiposity, but not with cytokines, disease activity, duration, disability, or disease modifying medication use. Conclusions In established and treated RA, traditional risk factors, specifically excess adiposity, play more of a role in predicting skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity than systemic inflammation or other disease-related factors. PMID:24986846

  14. Visceral manifestations of hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Helen; Beighton, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Autopsy of a stillborn neonate with hypochondrogenesis revealed severe cardiac abnormalities and extensive diverticulosis of the proximal region of the small intestine. Visceral ramifications are unusual in hypochondrogenesis; they may reflect heterogeneity of the intramolecular defect in the COL2A1 gene that codes for the achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis spectrum of disorders. PMID:18642028

  15. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-08-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  16. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 3A gene expression and methylation in adipose tissue is related to adipose tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Susanne; Krüger, Jacqueline; Maierhofer, Anna; Böttcher, Yvonne; Klöting, Nora; El Hajj, Nady; Schleinitz, Dorit; Schön, Michael R; Dietrich, Arne; Fasshauer, Mathias; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Haaf, Thomas; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a genome-wide analysis identified DNA methylation of the HIF3A (hypoxia-inducible factor 3A) as strongest correlate of BMI. Here we tested the hypothesis that HIF3A mRNA expression and CpG-sites methylation in adipose tissue (AT) and genetic variants in HIF3A are related to parameters of AT distribution and function. In paired samples of subcutaneous AT (SAT) and visceral AT (VAT) from 603 individuals, we measured HIF3A mRNA expression and analyzed its correlation with obesity and related traits. In subgroups of individuals, we investigated the effects on HIF3A genetic variants on its AT expression (N = 603) and methylation of CpG-sites (N = 87). HIF3A expression was significantly higher in SAT compared to VAT and correlated with obesity and parameters of AT dysfunction (including CRP and leucocytes count). HIF3A methylation at cg22891070 was significantly higher in VAT compared to SAT and correlated with BMI, abdominal SAT and VAT area. Rs8102595 showed a nominal significant association with AT HIF3A methylation levels as well as with obesity and fat distribution. HIF3A expression and methylation in AT are fat depot specific, related to obesity and AT dysfunction. Our data support the hypothesis that HIF pathways may play an important role in the development of AT dysfunction in obesity. PMID:27346320

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor 3A gene expression and methylation in adipose tissue is related to adipose tissue dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Susanne; Krüger, Jacqueline; Maierhofer, Anna; Böttcher, Yvonne; Klöting, Nora; El Hajj, Nady; Schleinitz, Dorit; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Fasshauer, Mathias; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Haaf, Thomas; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a genome-wide analysis identified DNA methylation of the HIF3A (hypoxia-inducible factor 3A) as strongest correlate of BMI. Here we tested the hypothesis that HIF3A mRNA expression and CpG-sites methylation in adipose tissue (AT) and genetic variants in HIF3A are related to parameters of AT distribution and function. In paired samples of subcutaneous AT (SAT) and visceral AT (VAT) from 603 individuals, we measured HIF3A mRNA expression and analyzed its correlation with obesity and related traits. In subgroups of individuals, we investigated the effects on HIF3A genetic variants on its AT expression (N = 603) and methylation of CpG-sites (N = 87). HIF3A expression was significantly higher in SAT compared to VAT and correlated with obesity and parameters of AT dysfunction (including CRP and leucocytes count). HIF3A methylation at cg22891070 was significantly higher in VAT compared to SAT and correlated with BMI, abdominal SAT and VAT area. Rs8102595 showed a nominal significant association with AT HIF3A methylation levels as well as with obesity and fat distribution. HIF3A expression and methylation in AT are fat depot specific, related to obesity and AT dysfunction. Our data support the hypothesis that HIF pathways may play an important role in the development of AT dysfunction in obesity. PMID:27346320

  19. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  20. Fasting insulin levels influence plasma leptin levels independently from the contribution of adiposity: evidence from both a cross-sectional and an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Doucet, E; St-Pierre, S; Alméras, N; Mauriège, P; Després, J P; Richard, D; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether leptinemia is only a reflection of the status of fat stores or if insulinemia has a significant influence over leptin levels. Study 1 focused on the association between fasting plasma insulin and leptin in subjects of the Quebec Family Study who were first classified as either high- or low-insulin individuals and were then individually matched on the basis of fat mass (FM). In Study 2, 19 men and 23 women took part in a 15-week weight loss program that consisted of drug therapy (fenfluramine, 60 mg/day) or placebo coupled to an energy-restricted diet (-2930 kJ/day). Body weight, FM, and fat-free mass (assessed by underwater weighing) as well as visceral and sc abdominal and mid-thigh adipose tissue measured by computed tomography were assessed before and after weight loss. Blood samples were drawn and analyzed for fasting plasma insulin and leptin before and after weight loss. In Study 1, significant positive associations were noted between log10 transformed fasting insulin and leptin in both men (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001) and women (r = 0.48, P < 0.0001). Moreover, after having carefully matched high-insulin to low-insulin individuals on the basis of FM, significantly lower leptin levels were observed in the low-insulin groups, in men (5.5 vs. 8.1 ng/mL, P < 0.05) as well as in women (18.7 vs. 24 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Results from Study 2 showed significant reductions of body weight, FM, fat-free mass, visceral abdominal tissue, sc abdominal tissue, and mid-thigh adipose tissue levels in men and women in response to the weight loss protocol. Moreover, the decrease in fasting plasma insulin was the only significant correlate of changes in fasting plasma leptin levels during weight loss, even after corrections for changes in FM in both men (r = 0.50, P < 0.05) and women (r = 0.46, P < 0.05). These results suggest that in a population characterized by a wide range of adiposity hyperinsulinemia has the potential to

  1. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  2. Familial Abdominal and Intestinal Lipomatosis Presenting with Upper GI Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Altinsoy, Hasan Baki; Yildirim, Nezahat; Alatas, Ozkan; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Sahin, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Although lipomas are encapsulated benign tumors, systemic lipomatosis defines infiltrative nonencapsulated tumors resembling normal adipose tissue. Abdominal lipomatosis and intestinal lipomatosis are different clinicopathological entities with similar clinical symptoms. We describe here a case presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from eroded submucosal lipoma at duodenum secondary to intestinal lipomatosis and abdominal lipomatosis. PMID:26146574

  3. Association of resistin with visceral fat and muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Conover, Christine F; Bagby, Gregory J

    2005-10-01

    Maturing Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats develop obesity and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. To investigate the relationship between fat mass and insulin responses, we performed surgical removal of the epididymal and retroperitoneal depots of visceral adipose tissue (VF) or sham surgery (SHAM) in male rats aged 4 months. At sacrifice, 30 days later, the mass of visceral fat was 48% lower (p<0.05) in VF- compared to SHAM, while subcutaneous fat was essentially unchanged. VF- animals displayed increased insulin responses in isolated strips of skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was increased 28% in soleus muscle (p<0.05), with a trend toward a 31% increase in extensor digitorum longus muscle (p=0.058). Glucose tolerance was not significantly affected by surgical fat removal. In VF- animals, serum resistin was reduced 26% (p<0.05) and serum adiponectin was reduced 30% (p<0.05), with trends for reductions in IL-4 (58% reduction, p=0.084) and IL-6 (56% reduction, p=0.123). TNF-alpha, leptin and free fatty acids (NEFAs) were unchanged. We conclude that in maturing S-D rats, increased visceral adiposity leads to an increase in systemic release in resistin and possibly interleukins. Elevation of circulating cytokines may play a role in the development of muscle insulin resistance. PMID:16154759

  4. Muscle mass, visceral fat, and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide in healthy individuals (from the J-SHIPP Study).

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taiji; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ochi, Masayuki; Nagai, Tokihisa; Okada, Yoko; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-08-15

    A paradoxical negative association between obesity and the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been firmly established. An individual's fat mass increases and muscle mass decreases with aging. Because aging is a potent determinant of plasma BNP levels, BNP may be related not only to fat mass but also to muscle mass. However, no studies have evaluated the associations between body composition and plasma levels of BNP. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate these associations in 1,431 apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. The abdominal visceral fat area and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were quantified by computed tomography. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were measured as possible confounding parameters. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured as an index of arterial stiffness, and the pulse pressure (PP) of the second peak of the radial systolic blood pressure waveform (PP2) was used as an estimate of the central PP. Plasma BNP levels were significantly and negatively associated with the visceral fat area (r = -0.13, p <0.0001) and thigh muscle CSA (r = -0.25, p <0.0001). Corrections with possible confounding parameters including age, gender, heart rate, mean blood pressure, body weight, body height, adiponectin, leptin, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and PP2 eliminated the association of BNP with visceral fat area but not with thigh muscle CSA (β = -0.27, p <0.0001). These findings indicate that along with adiposity, muscle mass is an independent determinant of plasma BNP. PMID:25001150

  5. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during sleep. They also occur normally for a short time after the use of certain medicines and after abdominal surgery. Decreased or absent bowel sounds often indicate constipation. Increased ( hyperactive ) bowel sounds ...

  6. Abdominal MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you have: Artificial heart valves Brain aneurysm clips Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) ... which the test may be performed: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Carcinoma of the renal pelvis ...

  7. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening conditions, such as colon cancer or early appendicitis , may only cause mild pain or no pain. ... Food poisoning Stomach flu Other possible causes include: Appendicitis Abdominal aortic aneurysm (bulging and weakening of the ...

  8. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ... related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, ...

  9. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  10. Lifestyle and socioeconomic-status modify the effects of ADRB2 and NOS3 on adiposity in European-American and African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S; Gutin, Bernard; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of and interaction between lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity (PA)) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-candidate genes (ADRB2, APOB and NOS3) on general and central adiposity. Six-hundred-and-twenty-one European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) youths aged 13-19 years were classified by ethnicity (49% AA), gender (45% male), and socioeconomic status (SES). PA and dietary intake with up to seven 24-h recalls were reported for all subjects. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Reported energy intake (EI) and vigorous PA (VPA) were negative predictors of %BF and SAAT. Carriers of the NOS3 Asp298 allele had higher %BF only in the presence of an adverse environment (low SES). Compared to the most common NOS3 haplotype, homozygotes for haplotype A-non4r-Asp had 6.1% higher %BF. Significant interactions were revealed between the ADRB2 Arg16Gly SNP and VPA on VAT, SAAT and waist circumference (WC) such that Gly16 homozygotes may benefit less from increased VPA to reduce their weight. Genetic susceptibility to increased general and central adiposity is dependent on several factors, such as SES and vigorous exercise. Improved understanding of the joint effect of genes and lifestyle on adiposity will offer new insights into obesity and may provide new avenues for personalized prevention and treatment. PMID:20930716

  11. Adipose tissue infiltration in normal-weight subjects and its impact on metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Omiste, Antonio; Castellano-Castillo, Daniel; Lhamyani, Said; Camargo, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Discordant phenotypes, metabolically healthy obese and unhealthy normal-weight individuals, are always interesting to provide important insights into the mechanistic link between adipose tissue dysfunction and associated metabolic alterations. Macrophages can release factors that impair the proper activity of the adipose tissue. Thus, studying subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, we investigated for the first time the differences in monocyte/macrophage infiltration, inflammation, and adipogenesis of normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome. The study included 92 normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. RNA from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues was isolated, and mRNA expression of monocyte/macrophage infiltration (CD68, CD33, ITGAM, CD163, EMR-1, CD206, MerTK, CD64, ITGAX), inflammation (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], IL-10, IL-1b, CCL2, CCL3), and adipogenic and lipogenic capacity markers (PPARgamma, FABP4) were measured. Taken together, our data provide evidence of a different degree of macrophage infiltration between the adipose tissues, with a higher monocyte/macrophage infiltration in subcutaneous adipose tissue in metabolically unhealthy normal-weight subjects, whereas visceral adipose tissue remained almost unaffected. An increased macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and its consequences, such as a decrease in adipogenesis function, may explain why both the obese and normal-weight subjects can develop metabolic diseases or remain healthy. PMID:26829067

  12. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy. PMID:27363829

  13. Main ion channels and receptors associated with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Rocha, Heraldo Arcela; Dantas, Bruna Priscilla Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thaísa Leite; Costa, Bagnólia Araújo; de Medeiros, Arnaldo Correia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and alteration of bowel habits. The IBS physiopathology is extremely complex. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in both in vitro and in vivo models of this functional disorder. In order to obtain a general view of the participation of the main ion channels and receptors regarding the visceral hypersensitivity in the IBS and to describe their chemical structure, a literature review was carried out. A bibliographical research in the following electronic databases: Pubmed and Virtual Library in Health (BVS) was fulfilled by using the search terms “ion channels” “or” “receptors” “and” “visceral hypersensitivity” “or” “visceral nociception” “and” “irritable bowel syndrome”. Original and review articles were considered for data acquisition. The activation of the ATP ion-gated channels, voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and calcium (Cav) channels, as well as the activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR2), transient receptor potential vanilloide-1, serotonin, cannabinoids and cholecystokinin are involved in the genesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The involvement of ion channels and receptors concerning visceral hypersensitivity is noteworthy in IBS models. PMID:24976114

  14. Adiponectin and Interleukin-6, But Not Adipose Tissue, Are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Function in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jordan E.; Vo, Quynh T.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Sacktor, Ned; Miller, Eric N.; Post, Wendy S.; Becker, James T.; Palella, Frank J.; Ragin, Ann; Martin, Eileen; Munro, Cynthia A.; Brown, Todd T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Generalized obesity has been associated with cognitive decline, a process potentially mediated by adipocytokines. The effects of regional adipose tissue (AT) on cognition, however, are not well understood. We explored cross-sectional relationships between regional AT, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers and neuropsychological (NP) test scores among HIV+ and HIV− men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal and subcutaneous thigh AT areas were quantified by computed tomography (CT). NP tests (Trail Making Test parts A and B and Symbol Digit Modalities) obtained within two years of CT screened for psychomotor speed and executive function. Adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Results Of 509 HIV+ and 271 HIV− participants, HIV+ men (98% on ART, 81% HIV-1 RNA <50copies/mL) had lower median subcutaneous AT and adiponectin levels and higher hs-CRP levels, but visceral AT, BMI, IL-6 and NP scores did not vary by HIV serostatus. In multivariable analysis, older age, ≤high school education and African American race, but not AT area or site, were associated with worse NP test scores among all participants. In HIV+ only, higher adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with worse cognitive function independent of AT area. No HIV-specific factors were associated with NP test scores. Conclusions Demographic factors were associated with NP test performance, but regional adiposity was not. In HIV+ only, higher adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with worse NP test scores, supporting a role for chronic inflammation and adipocytokine imbalance in neurocognitive decline in HIV+ persons. PMID:25810377

  15. Adipose tissue distribution and risk of metabolic disease: does thiazolidinedione-induced adipose tissue redistribution provide a clue to the answer?

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Smith, U

    2007-06-01

    The relative effect of visceral and subcutaneous obesity on the risk of chronic metabolic disease has been a matter of long-term dispute. While ample data support either of the fat depots being causative or associative, valid argument for one depot often automatically belittles the other. Paradigms such as the visceral/portal hypothesis and the acquired lipodystrophy/ectopic fat storage and endocrine hypothesis have been proposed. Nevertheless, neither hypothesis alone explains the entire pathophysiological setting. Treatment of diabetes with thiazolidinediones selectively increases fat partitioning to the subcutaneous adipose depot but does not change visceral fat accumulation. This is in contrast to the preferential visceral fat mobilisation by diet and exercise. Surgical removal of visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue yields relatively long-lasting metabolic improvement only when combined with procedures that ameliorate adipose tissue cell composition. These studies illustrate that human adipose tissue in different anatomic locations does not work in isolation, and that there is a best-fit relationship in terms of volume and function among different fat depots that needs to be met to maintain the systemic energy balance and to prevent the complications related to obesity. PMID:17393135

  16. Surgical injury induces local and distant adipose tissue browning.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, Alban; Tao, Ming; Bartelt, Alexander; Ding, Kui; Lynch, Lydia; Hine, Christopher; Corpataux, Jean-Marc; Kristal, Bruce S; Mitchell, James R; Ozaki, C Keith

    2016-01-01

    The adipose organ, which comprises brown, white and beige adipocytes, possesses remarkable plasticity in response to feeding and cold exposure. The development of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process called browning, represents a promising route to treat metabolic disorders. While surgical procedures constantly traumatize adipose tissue, its impact on adipocyte phenotype remains to be established. Herein, we studied the effect of trauma on adipocyte phenotype one day after sham, incision control, or surgical injury to the left inguinal adipose compartment. Caloric restriction was used to control for surgery-associated body temperature changes and weight loss. We characterized the trauma-induced cellular and molecular changes in subcutaneous, visceral, interscapular, and perivascular adipose tissue using histology, immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and flow cytometry analysis. After one day, surgical trauma stimulated adipose tissue browning at the site of injury and, importantly, in the contralateral inguinal depot. Browning was not present after incision only, and was largely independent of surgery-associated body temperature and weight loss. Adipose trauma rapidly recruited monocytes to the injured site and promoted alternatively activated macrophages. Conversely, PDGF receptor-positive beige progenitors were reduced. In this study, we identify adipose trauma as an unexpected driver of selected local and remote adipose tissue browning, holding important implications for the biologic response to surgical injury. PMID:27386152

  17. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  18. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  19. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  20. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  1. Fasting induces a subcutaneous-to-visceral fat switch mediated by microRNA-149-3p and suppression of PRDM16.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hanying; Zheng, Shasha; Garcia-Ruiz, Daniel; Hou, Dongxia; Wei, Zhe; Liao, Zhicong; Li, Limin; Zhang, Yujing; Han, Xiao; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Li, Jing; Jiang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with metabolic disease risk, whereas subcutaneous adiposity is comparatively benign. However, their relative physiological importance in energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that after 24-h fasting, the subcutaneous adipose tissue of mice acquires key properties of visceral fat. During this fast-induced 'visceralization', upregulation of miR-149-3p directly targets PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a key coregulatory protein required for the 'browning' of white fat. In cultured inguinal preadipocytes, overexpression of miR-149-3p promotes a visceral-like switch during cell differentiation. Mice deficient in miR-149-3p display an increase in whole-body energy expenditure, with enhanced thermogenesis of inguinal fat. However, a visceral-like adipose phenotype is observed in inguinal depots overexpressing miR-149-3p. These results indicate that in addition to the capacity of 'browning' to defend against hypothermia during cold exposure, the subcutaneous adipose depot is also capable of 'whitening' to preserve energy during fasting, presumably to maintain energy balance, via miR-149-3p-mediated regulation of PRDM16. PMID:27240637

  2. Fasting induces a subcutaneous-to-visceral fat switch mediated by microRNA-149-3p and suppression of PRDM16

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hanying; Zheng, Shasha; Garcia-Ruiz, Daniel; Hou, Dongxia; Wei, Zhe; Liao, Zhicong; Li, Limin; Zhang, Yujing; Han, Xiao; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Li, Jing; Jiang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with metabolic disease risk, whereas subcutaneous adiposity is comparatively benign. However, their relative physiological importance in energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that after 24-h fasting, the subcutaneous adipose tissue of mice acquires key properties of visceral fat. During this fast-induced ‘visceralization', upregulation of miR-149-3p directly targets PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a key coregulatory protein required for the ‘browning' of white fat. In cultured inguinal preadipocytes, overexpression of miR-149-3p promotes a visceral-like switch during cell differentiation. Mice deficient in miR-149-3p display an increase in whole-body energy expenditure, with enhanced thermogenesis of inguinal fat. However, a visceral-like adipose phenotype is observed in inguinal depots overexpressing miR-149-3p. These results indicate that in addition to the capacity of ‘browning' to defend against hypothermia during cold exposure, the subcutaneous adipose depot is also capable of ‘whitening' to preserve energy during fasting, presumably to maintain energy balance, via miR-149-3p-mediated regulation of PRDM16. PMID:27240637

  3. Metabolic alterations following visceral fat removal and expansion: Beyond anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Pagliassotti, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Increased visceral adiposity is a risk factor for metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, whereas peripheral (subcutaneous) obesity is not. Though the specific mechanisms which contribute to these adipose depot differences are unknown, visceral fat accumulation is proposed to result in metabolic dysregulation because of increased effluent, e.g., fatty acids and/or adipokines/cytokines, to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Pathological significance of visceral fat accumulation is also attributed to adipose depot/adipocyte-specific characteristics, specifically differences in structural, physiologic and metabolic characteristics compared with subcutaneous fat. Fat manipulations, such as removal or transplantation, have been utilized to identify location dependent or independent factors that play a role in metabolic dysregulation. Obesity-induced alterations in adipose tissue function/intrinsic characteristics, but not mass, appear to be responsible for obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation, thus "quality" is more important than "quantity." This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction as it relates to anatomic site and inherent adipocyte characteristics. PMID:23700533

  4. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Masternak, Michal M.; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Salmon, Adam B.; Hughes, Larry F.; Liberati, Teresa; Boparai, Ravneet; Kopchick, John J.; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are GH resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal animals from the same strain revealed disparate effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin and glucose tolerance, adiponectin levels, accumulation of ectopic fat, phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates, body temperature and respiratory quotient (RQ). Overall, VFR produced the expected improvements in insulin sensitivity and reduced body temperature and RQ in normal mice and had opposite effects in GHRKO mice. Some of the examined parameters were altered by VFR in opposite directions in GHRKO and normal mice, others were affected in only one genotype or exhibited significant genotype × treatment interactions. Functional differences between visceral fat of GHRKO and normal mice were confirmed by measurements of adipokine secretion, lipolysis and expression of genes related to fat metabolism. We conclude that in the absence of GH signaling the secretory activity of visceral fat is profoundly altered and unexpectedly promotes enhanced insulin sensitivity. The apparent beneficial effects of visceral fat in GHRKO mice may also explain why reducing adiposity by calorie restriction fails to improve insulin signaling or further extend longevity in these animals. PMID:22040032

  5. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice.

    PubMed

    Masternak, Michal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Salmon, Adam B; Hughes, Larry F; Liberati, Teresa; Boparai, Ravneet; Kopchick, John J; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2012-02-01

    Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are growth hormone (GH) resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal animals from the same strain revealed disparate effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin and glucose tolerance, adiponectin levels, accumulation of ectopic fat, phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates, body temperature, and respiratory quotient (RQ). Overall, VFR produced the expected improvements in insulin sensitivity and reduced body temperature and RQ in normal mice and had opposite effects in GHRKO mice. Some of the examined parameters were altered by VFR in opposite directions in GHRKO and normal mice, and others were affected in only one genotype or exhibited significant genotype × treatment interactions. Functional differences between visceral fat of GHRKO and normal mice were confirmed by measurements of adipokine secretion, lipolysis, and expression of genes related to fat metabolism. We conclude that in the absence of GH signaling, the secretory activity of visceral fat is profoundly altered and unexpectedly promotes enhanced insulin sensitivity. The apparent beneficial effects of visceral fat in GHRKO mice may also explain why reducing adiposity by calorie restriction fails to improve insulin signaling or further extend longevity in these animals. PMID:22040032

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  7. Sexual dimorphism in clock genes expression in human adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate whether sex-related differences exist in the adipocyte expression of clock genes from subcutaneous abdominal and visceral fat depots in severely obese patients. METHODS: We investigated 16 morbidly obese patients, eight men and eight women (mean age 45 +/- 2...

  8. Differential Patterns of Serum Concentration and Adipose Tissue Expression of Chemerin in Obesity: Adipose Depot Specificity and Gender Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-01-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity. PMID:22544171

  9. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain responses. There are critical sensitive periods that can impact visceral pain responses in adulthood. In this review we provide a brief background of the intestinal microbiome and emerging concepts of the bidirectional interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain. We also discuss recent work in animal models, and human clinical trials using prebiotics and probiotics that alter the microbiome with resultant alterations in visceral pain responses. PMID:25829337

  10. Clustering of the Metabolic Syndrome Components in Adolescence: Role of Visceral Fat

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Melkaye G.; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T.; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat (VF) promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which emerges as early as in adolescence. The clustering of MetS components suggests shared etiologies, but these are largely unknown and may vary between males and females. Here, we investigated the latent structure of pre-clinical MetS in a community-based sample of 286 male and 312 female adolescents, assessing their abdominal adiposity (VF) directly with magnetic resonance imaging. Principal component analysis of the five MetS-defining variables (VF, blood pressure [BP], fasting serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and glucose) identified two independent components in both males and females. The first component was sex-similar; it explained >30% of variance and was loaded by all but BP variables. The second component explained >20% of variance; it was loaded by BP similarly in both sexes but additional loading by metabolic variables was sex-specific. This sex-specificity was not detected in analyses that used waist circumference instead of VF. In adolescence, MetS-defining variables cluster into at least two sub-syndromes: (1) sex-similar metabolic abnormalities of obesity-induced insulin resistance and (2) sex-specific metabolic abnormalities associated with BP elevation. These results suggest that the etiology of MetS may involve more than one pathway and that some of the pathways may differ between males and females. Further, the sex-specific metabolic abnormalities associated with BP elevation suggest the need for sex-specific prevention and treatment strategies of MetS. PMID:24376531

  11. The Role of Bone Marrow and Visceral Fat on Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect of total fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) has been challenged with studies showing no or negative association after adjusting for weight. Subsequently, more studies have evaluated the relationship of regional adiposity with BMD, and findings were inconsistent for central obesity. Advancements in imaging techniques enable us to directly and noninvasively study the role of adiposity on skeletal health. Visceral adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) has consistently been shown to have negative effects on bone. Availability of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) also allows us to noninvasively quantify bone marrow fat (BMF), which has been known to be associated with osteoporosis from histomorphometric studies. Using MRS along with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, studies have reported a detrimental role of BMF on BMD. With the increase in aging and obesity of the population, it is important to continue this effort in identifying the contribution of adipose tissues to bone quality and fracture. PMID:21374105

  12. TRPV1 sensitization mediates postinflammatory visceral pain following acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Tamia K; Basso, Lilian; Iftinca, Mircea C; Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Dietrich, Gilles; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Altier, Christophe

    2015-07-15

    Quiescent phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often accompanied by chronic abdominal pain. Although the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel has been postulated as an important mediator of visceral hypersensitivity, its functional role in postinflammatory pain remains elusive. This study aimed at establishing the role of TRPV1 in the peripheral sensitization underlying chronic visceral pain in the context of colitis. Wild-type and TRPV1-deficient mice were separated into three groups (control, acute colitis, and recovery), and experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Recovery mice showed increased chemically and mechanically evoked visceral hypersensitivity 5 wk post-DSS discontinuation, at which point inflammation had completely resolved. Significant changes in nonevoked pain-related behaviors could also be observed in these animals, indicative of persistent discomfort. These behavioral changes correlated with elevated colonic levels of substance P (SP) and TRPV1 in recovery mice, thus leading to the hypothesis that SP could sensitize TRPV1 function. In vitro experiments revealed that prolonged exposure to SP could indeed sensitize capsaicin-evoked currents in both cultured neurons and TRPV1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, a mechanism that involved TRPV1 ubiquitination and subsequent accumulation at the plasma membrane. Importantly, although TRPV1-deficient animals experienced similar disease severity and pain as wild-type mice in the acute phase of colitis, TRPV1 deletion prevented the development of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity and pain-associated behaviors. Collectively, our results suggest that chronic exposure of colon-innervating primary afferents to SP could sensitize TRPV1 and thus participate in the establishment of persistent abdominal pain following acute inflammation. PMID:26021808

  13. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. PMID:26067555

  14. Co-methylated genes in different adipose depots of pig are associated with metabolic, inflammatory and immune processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingzhou; Wu, Honglong; Wang, Tao; Xia, Yudong; Jin, Long; Jiang, Anan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Lei; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Xuewei

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral adipose tissues and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, are primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses. This study presents epigenetic evidence for functionally relevant methylation differences between different adipose depots. PMID:22719223

  15. Gene expression of different adipose tissues of severely obese women with or without a dysmetabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Mauriège, P; Joanisse, D R; CasparBauguil, S; Cartier, A; Lemieux, I; Bergeron, J; Biron, S; Marceau, P; Richard, D

    2015-12-01

    Despite well-established variations in the health risks posed by visceral vs. subcutaneous abdominal (SCABD) fat depots, surprisingly little is known on the differences within a given adipose tissue (AT) among severely obese patients displaying varying metabolic dysfunction. We thus compared, by quantitative PCR, the expression profile of a number of genes in the SCABD, omental (OME), and mesenteric (MES) depots of severely obese women with (DYS; n = 25) or without (NDYS; n = 23) a dysmetabolic profile. Fasting insulinemia and HOmeostasis Model Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher and plasma adiponectin level lower in DYS women (p < 0.05). Among enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and local cortisol production, phosphodiesterase-3B expression was lower in SCABD and MES fat, while 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA levels were higher in visceral depots of DYS women (p < 0.05). Regarding vascular homeostasis and inflammation, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and interleukin-6 mRNA levels were higher in OME fat, while adiponectin expression was lower in SCABD and OME ATs of DYS women (p < 0.05). Finally, HOMA-IR was positively associated with SCABD AT IL6 mRNA, only in DYS women (r = 0.47; p < 0.05). In conclusion, although metabolic and secretory characteristics of all depots vary with subjects' metabolic profile, we find little evidence for a protective role of SCABD AT and no evidence for a further deleterious role of MES fat in DYS vs. NDYS severely obese women. Regional variation in the overall gene expression revealed that OME and MES fat were more closely related to each other in DYS women, while SCABD and MES depots showed greater resemblance in NDYS women. PMID:26452503

  16. Quantitative measurement of adiposity using CT images to predict the benefit of bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUNZHI; THAI, THERESA; MOORE, KATHLEEN; DING, KAI; MCMEEKIN, SCOTT; LIU, HONG; ZHENG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to quantitatively measure adiposity-related image features and to test the feasibility of applying multivariate statistical data analysis-based prediction models to generate a novel clinical marker and predict the benefit of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with and without maintenance bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. A dataset involving computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 59 patients diagnosed with advanced EOC was retrospectively collected. Among them, 32 patients received maintenance bevacizumab following primary chemotherapy, while 27 did not. A computer-aided detection scheme was developed to automatically segment visceral and subcutaneous fat areas depicted on CT images of abdominal sections, and 7 adiposity-related image features were computed. Upon combining these features with the measured body mass index, multivariate data analyses were performed using three statistical models (multiple linear, logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions) to analyze the association between the model-generated prediction results and the treatment outcome, including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients. The results demonstrated that applying all three prediction models yielded a significant association between the adiposity-related image features and patients' PFS or OS in the group of the patients who received maintenance bevacizumab (P<0.010), while there was no significant difference when these prediction models were applied to predict both PFS and OS in the group of patients that did not receive maintenance bevacizumab. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the use of a quantitative adiposity-related image feature-based statistical model may generate a novel clinical marker to predict who will benefit among EOC patients receiving maintenance bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. PMID:27347200

  17. Age and gender related effects on adipose tissue compartments of subjects with increased risk for type 2 diabetes: a whole body MRI/MRS study.

    PubMed

    Machann, J; Thamer, C; Schnoedt, B; Stefan, N; Stumvoll, M; Haring, H-U; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Schick, F

    2005-07-01

    Quantitative measurement of adipose tissue (AT) compartments in the entire body and of lipids in muscle and liver cells by means of MRI and MRS. Assessment of age and gender related differences in AT compartments and determination of cross-correlations between AT compartments in a heterogeneous cohort at increased risk for metabolic diseases. One hundred and fifty healthy volunteers with increased risk to type 2 diabetes were examined. T1-weighted MRI was applied for whole-body adipose tissue quantification. Adipose tissue compartments were subdivided in lower extremities, trunk (abdominal subcutaneous (SCAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue), and upper extremities. Intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) in tibialis anterior and soleus muscle were determined by volume selective MRS. Females are characterized by lower %VAT (2.8+/-1.3% vs. 4.6+/-1.4%, p<0.001) and higher %SCAT (14.7+/-3.9% vs. 9.3+/-2.9%, p<0.001). There is a strong correlation between %VAT and age (r=0.64/0.60 for females/males), whereas %SCAT remained virtually unchanged in males (r=-0.09) and was only slightly increaseding in females (r =0.30, p<0.01). For IHCL, age related differences were observed in females with significantly increased IHCL in the older women, but not in males. IMCL contents in both muscles were found almost independent of age in both, males and females. Furthermore, VAT and IHCL show significant correlations in both groups. Assessed age and gender related differences, especially the age related significant increase of VAT and IHCL, as well as cross-correlations between different lipid compartments might contribute to a better understanding of the lipid metabolism under normal and pathologic metabolic conditions in humans. PMID:16001284

  18. Segmentation and quantification of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Houchun Harry; Chen, Jun; Shen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this brief review, introductory concepts in animal and human adipose tissue segmentation using proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are summarized in the context of obesity research. Adipose tissue segmentation and quantification using spin relaxation-based (e.g., T1-weighted, T2-weighted), relaxometry-based (e.g., T1-, T2-, T2*-mapping), chemical-shift selective, and chemical-shift encoded water-fat MRI pulse sequences are briefly discussed. The continuing interest to classify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots into smaller sub-depot compartments is mentioned. The use of a single slice, a stack of slices across a limited anatomical region, or a whole body protocol is considered. Common image post-processing steps and emerging atlas-based automated segmentation techniques are noted. Finally, the article identifies some directions of future research, including a discussion on the growing topic of brown adipose tissue and related segmentation considerations. PMID:26336839

  19. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health. PMID:26392166

  20. Using a 3D Culture System to Differentiate Visceral Adipocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Emont, Margo P; Yu, Hui; Jun, Heejin; Hong, Xiaowei; Maganti, Nenita; Stegemann, Jan P; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    It has long been recognized that body fat distribution and regional adiposity play a major role in the control of metabolic homeostasis. However, the ability to study and compare the cell autonomous regulation and response of adipocytes from different fat depots has been hampered by the difficulty of inducing preadipocytes isolated from the visceral depot to differentiate into mature adipocytes in culture. Here, we present an easily created 3-dimensional (3D) culture system that can be used to differentiate preadipocytes from the visceral depot as robustly as those from the sc depot. The cells differentiated in these 3D collagen gels are mature adipocytes that retain depot-specific characteristics, as determined by imaging, gene expression, and functional assays. This 3D culture system therefore allows for study of the development and function of adipocytes from both depots in vitro and may ultimately lead to a greater understanding of site-specific functional differences of adipose tissues to metabolic dysregulation. PMID:26425808

  1. Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renjia; Zhao, Jimeng; Wu, Luyi; Dou, Chuanzi; Liu, Huirong; Weng, Zhijun; Shi, Yin; Zhou, Cili; Wu, Huangan

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral) pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical treatment of visceral pain in IBS. In recent years, it has played an irreplaceable role in alternative medicine. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated that moxibustion for treatment of visceral pain is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and it is being accepted by an increasing number of patients. There have not been many studies investigating the analgesic mechanisms of moxibustion. Studies exploring the analgesic mechanisms have mainly focused on visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut axis neuroendocrine system, and immune system. This paper reviews the latest developments in moxibustion use for treatment of visceral pain in IBS from these perspectives. It also evaluates potential problems in relevant studies on the mechanisms of moxibustion therapy to promote the application of moxibustion in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25093032

  2. Adipocyte inflammation is essential for healthy adipose tissue expansion and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Tao, Caroline; Morley, Thomas S; Wang, Qiong A; Delgado-Lopez, Fernando; Wang, Zhao V; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-07-01

    Chronic inflammation constitutes an important link between obesity and its pathophysiological sequelae. In contrast to the belief that inflammatory signals exert a fundamentally negative impact on metabolism, we show that proinflammatory signaling in the adipocyte is in fact required for proper adipose tissue remodeling and expansion. Three mouse models with an adipose tissue-specific reduction in proinflammatory potential were generated that display a reduced capacity for adipogenesis in vivo, while the differentiation potential is unaltered in vitro. Upon high-fat-diet exposure, the expansion of visceral adipose tissue is prominently affected. This is associated with decreased intestinal barrier function, increased hepatic steatosis, and metabolic dysfunction. An impaired local proinflammatory response in the adipocyte leads to increased ectopic lipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is therefore an adaptive response that enables safe storage of excess nutrients and contributes to a visceral depot barrier that effectively filters gut-derived endotoxin. PMID:24930973

  3. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Anthropometric Clinical Indicators of Visceral Fat in Adults and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; de Oliveira, Carolina Cunha; Eickemberg, Michaela; Moreira, Pricilla de Almeida; Sampaio, Lílian Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is associated with higher occurrence of cardiovascular events. There are few studies about the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators, using Computed Tomography (CT) as the gold standard. We aimed to determine the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators for discrimination of visceral obesity. Methods Cross-sectional study with 191 adults and elderly of both sexes. Variables: area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) identified by CT, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Conicity index (C index), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI). ROC analyzes. Results There were a strong correlation between adiposity indicators and VAT area. Higher accuracy of C index and WHtR (AUC≥0.81) than the LAP and the VAI was observed. The higher AUC of LAP and VAI were observed among elderly with areas of 0.88 (CI: 0.766–0.944) and 0.83 (CI: 0.705–0.955) in men and 0.80 (CI: 0.672–0.930) and 0.71 (CI: 0.566–0.856) in women, respectively. The cutoffs of C index were 1.30 in elderly, in both sexes, with sensitivity ≥92%, the LAP ranged from 26.4 to 37.4 in men and from 40.6 to 44.0 in women and the VAI was 1.24 to 1.45 (sens≥76.9%) in men and 1.46 to 1.84 in women. Conclusion Both the anthropometric indicators, C Index and WHtR, as well as LAP and VAI had high accuracy in visceral obesity discrimination. So, they are effective in cardiovascular risk assessment and in the follow-up for individual and collective clinical practice. PMID:25078454

  4. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be

  5. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be

  6. Familial visceral myopathy diagnosed by exome sequencing of a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Holla, Oystein L; Bock, Gunter; Busk, Oyvind L; Isfoss, Björn Logi

    2014-06-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of bowel dysmotility presented with abdominal distension and peritonitis. Family history included premature deaths with intestinal symptomatology, suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. Computed tomography showed a distended small bowel. Symptoms were alleviated by enterocutaneous stomas. Initial ileal biopsy suggested neuropathy; however, exome sequencing revealed an Arg148Ser mutation in the enteric smooth muscle actin gamma 2 (ACTG2) gene. Histological reassessment showed abnormal muscularis propria and smooth muscle actin, with the same findings in sibling, confirming familial visceral myopathy. Thus, noninvasive genomic analysis can provide early and specific diagnosis of familial visceral myopathy, which may help to avoid inappropriate surgery. PMID:24777424

  7. The contribution of visceral fat to improved insulin signaling in Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Hossain, Tanvir; Bartke, Andrzej; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-06-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1(df), df/df) mice are characterized by growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyrotropin deficiency, remarkable extension of longevity and increased insulin sensitivity with low levels of fasting insulin and glucose. Plasma levels of anti-inflammatory adiponectin are increased in df/df mice, while pro-inflammatory IL-6 is decreased in plasma and epididymal fat. This represents an important shift in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in adipose tissue, which was not exposed to GH signals during development or adult life. To determine the role of adipose tissue in the control of insulin signaling in these long-living mutants, we examined the effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) adipose tissue. Comparison of the results obtained in df/df mice and their normal (N) siblings indicated different effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. The analysis of the expression of genes related to insulin signaling indicated that VFR improved insulin action in skeletal muscle in N mice. Interestingly, this surgical intervention did not improve insulin signaling in df/df mice skeletal muscle but caused suppression of the signal in subcutaneous fat. We conclude that altered profile of adipokines secreted by visceral fat of Ames dwarf mice may act as a key contributor to increased insulin sensitivity and extended longevity of these animals. PMID:24690289

  8. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  9. Truncal and abdominal fat as determinants of high triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tresaco, Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Bueno, Gloria; González-Gross, Marcela; Wärnberg, Julia; Gutiérrez, Angel; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel J; Bueno, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    We examined whether abdominal and truncal adiposity, assessed with simple anthropometric indices, determines serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels independently of total adiposity amount in adolescents. A total of 547 Spanish adolescents (284 males and 263 females) aged 13-18.5 years were included in this study. Measures of truncal adiposity included subscapular to triceps ratio, and trunk-to-total skinfolds ratio (TTS%). Waist circumference was used as a surrogate of abdominal adiposity, and BMI was used as a measure of total adiposity. The results of the regression models indicated that levels of triglycerides were positively associated with waist circumference and TTS% after controlling for age and Tanner stage in both sexes. Once BMI was entered in the model, these associations remained significant for waist circumference in females. HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively associated with waist circumference in both sexes, and with subscapular to triceps ratio and TTS% in males, after controlling for age and Tanner stage. Once BMI was entered in the model, these associations remained significant for subscapular to triceps ratio and for TTS% in males. The results of this study suggest that in male adolescents, truncal adiposity is negatively associated with levels of HDL-cholesterol, whereas in females, abdominal adiposity is positively associated with levels of triglycerides independently of total adiposity. These findings highlight the deleterious effect of both truncal and abdominal fat depots on the lipid profile already from the first decades of life. PMID:19180070

  10. Visceral Pain: The Neurophysiological Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of visceral pain is still less understood compared with that of somatic pain. This is primarily due to the diverse nature of visceral pain compounded by multiple factors such as sexual dimorphism, psychological stress, genetic trait, and the nature of predisposed disease. Due to multiple contributing factors there is an enormous challenge to develop animal models that ideally mimic the exact disease condition. In spite of that, it is well recognized that visceral hypersensitivity can occur due to (1) sensitization of primary sensory afferents innervating the viscera, (2) hyperexcitability of spinal ascending neurons (central sensitization) receiving synaptic input from the viscera, and (3) dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate spinal nociceptive transmission. Depending on the type of stimulus condition, different neural pathways are involved in chronic pain. In early-life psychological stress such as maternal separation, chronic pain occurs later in life due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and significant increase in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) secretion. In contrast, in early-life inflammatory conditions such as colitis and cystitis, there is dysregulation of the descending opioidergic system that results excessive pain perception (i.e., visceral hyperalgesia). Functional bowel disorders and chronic pelvic pain represent unexplained pain that is not associated with identifiable organic diseases. Often pain overlaps between two organs and approximately 35% of patients with chronic pelvic pain showed significant improvement when treated for functional bowel disorders. Animal studies have documented that two main components such as (1) dichotomy of primary afferent fibers innervating two pelvic organs and (2) common convergence of two afferent fibers onto a spinal dorsal horn are contributing factors for organ-to-organ pain overlap. With reports emerging about the varieties of peptide molecules

  11. Drug-induced visceral angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Thalanayar, Prashanth M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Lubin, Fritz; Karnik, Reena; Bhasin, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema. PMID:25317271

  12. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, H; O'Rourke, R W; Lumeng, C N; Sandoval, D A; Seeley, R J

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27272117

  13. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  14. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  15. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 4. Read More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open Abscess Acute cholecystitis ...

  16. Peripheral and visceral fat changes following a treatment switch to a non-thymidine analogue or a nucleoside-sparing regimen in HIV-infected subjects with peripheral lipoatrophy: results of ACTG A5110

    PubMed Central

    Tebas, P.; Zhang, J.; Hafner, R.; Tashima, K.; Shevitz, A.; Yarasheski, K.; Berzins, B.; Owens, S.; Forand, J.; Evans, S.; Murphy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Switching a thymidine analogue to a non-thymidine analogue or changing to a nucleoside-sparing regimen has been shown to partially reverse peripheral lipoatrophy. The current study evaluated both approaches. Methods Subjects at 15 AIDS Clinical Trial Group sites receiving thymidine analogue stavudine- or zidovudine-containing regimens with plasma HIV RNA ≤500 copies/mL and lipoatrophy were prospectively randomized to: (i) switch the thymidine analogue to abacavir; (ii) discontinue all antiretrovirals and switch to lopinavir/ritonavir plus nevirapine (LPV/r+NVP); or (iii) delay switching for 24 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00028314). Single-slice computer tomography of mid-thigh and abdominal fat and metabolic and virological/immunological parameters were measured at baseline and weeks 24 and 48. Results Among the 101 patients enrolled, there were significant subcutaneous thigh fat and subcutaneous abdominal tissue (SAT) increases over time and decreases in visceral adipose tissue to total adipose tissue (VAT:TAT) ratios for both interventions, and a decrease in VAT for abacavir. CD4 increased in the LPV/r+NVP arm. LPV/r+NVP had a significantly shorter time to grade 3 or higher toxicity (P = 0.007), but discontinuation rates were similar. Glucose levels did not change, but insulin decreased in the LPV/r+NVP arm. Lipids tended to increase in the LPV/r+NVP arm. Conclusions Switching stavudine or zidovudine to a non-thymidine analogue or changing to a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen is associated with qualitatively similar improvements in thigh fat, SAT and VAT:TAT ratio at 48 weeks. Abacavir also resulted in VAT reductions and LPV/r+NVP resulted in CD4 count increases. PMID:19299471

  17. Transdifferentiation properties of adipocytes in the adipose organ.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Saverio

    2009-11-01

    Mammals have two types of adipocytes, white and brown, but their anatomy and physiology is different. White adipocytes store lipids, and brown adipocytes burn them to produce heat. Previous descriptions implied their localization in distinct sites, but we demonstrated that they are mixed in many depots, raising the concept of adipose organ. We explain the reason for their cohabitation with the hypothesis of reversible physiological transdifferentiation; they are able to convert one into each other. If needed, the brown component of the organ could increase at the expense of the white component and vice versa. This plasticity is important because the brown phenotype of the organ associates with resistance to obesity and related disorders. Another example of physiological transdifferetiation of adipocytes is offered by the mammary gland; the pregnancy hormonal stimuli seems to trigger a reversible transdifferentiation of adipocytes into milk-secreting epithelial glands. The obese adipose organ is infiltrated by macrophages inducing chronic inflamation that is widely considered as a causative factor for insulin resistance. We showed that the vast majority of macrophages infiltrating the obese organ are arranged around dead adipocytes, forming characteristic crown-like structures. We recently found that visceral fat is more infiltrated than the subcutaneous fat despite a smaller size of visceral adipocytes. This suggests a different susceptibility of visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes to death, raising the concept of smaller critical death size that could be important to explain the key role of visceral fat for the metabolic disorders associated with obesity. PMID:19458063

  18. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A.; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  19. Descending influence from the nucleus locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus on visceral nociceptive transmission in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, M; Wang, D; Tamaki, J; Inoue, T

    2010-02-17

    Visceral nociceptive signals are the subject of descending modulation from the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus (LC/SC). We have recently found dorsal horn neurons whose visceral nociceptive responses are not inhibited by the descending LC/SC system (LC/SC-unaffected neurons) in the rat. The aim of the present study was to estimate a possible role of LC/SC-unaffected neurons for pain processing and pain-related responses. We focused on the fact that nociceptive signals from a visceral organ produce not only visceral pain but also visceromotor reflexes (muscular defense). Different effects of LC/SC stimulation can be expected between visceral pain and visceromotor reflexes. To accomplish our objective, the descending colon was electrically stimulated, and both the evoked discharge (ED) in the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus and the electromyogram (EMG) of the abdominal muscle were simultaneously recorded under halothane anesthesia. The ED recorded from the VPL was completely inhibited with the increase of LC/SC stimulus intensity, while the EMG of the abdominal muscle still remained even after the ED disappeared. This result suggests that the minimum visceromotor reflex responses are maintained by the presence of LC/SC-unaffected neurons, which play the important role of protecting the visceral organs. Considering a role of muscular defense, the presence of the LC/SC-unaffected neurons may be advantageous for the individual under an abnormal pain state, such as inflammation. PMID:19958815

  20. Visceral Infarction Following Aortic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Willard C.; Nabseth, Donald C.

    1974-01-01

    An experience with aortic surgery is reported which reveals that visceral ischemia is more frequent than expected and significantly contributes to operative mortality. Two of five deaths among 84 patients who had aorto-iliac occlusive disease and four of 40 deaths among 103 aneurysmectomies (both ruptured and elective) were related to visceral ischemia. A review of the literature reveals 99 cases of colonic ischemia in more than 6,100 cases of aortic surgery, an incidence of 1.5%. Only 10 cases of small bowel ischemia were recorded. The present experience with 9 cases of colon ischemia and one of small bowel ischemia is presented particularly with reference to pathophysiology and prevention. It is concluded that patients should be identified by appropriate angiography if considered a risk for visceral infarction, and, if present, visceral arterial reconstruction should be performed in addition to aortic reconstructive surgery. Colon infarction following aortic aneurysmal surgery is directly related to ligation of a patent IMA. Thus re-implantation of the patent IMA should be considered. ImagesFig. 1a. PMID:4277757

  1. Natural Killer T Cells in Adipose Tissue Are Activated in Lean Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or high-fat diets. NKT cells comprised a larger portion of lymphocytes in adipose tissues compared with the spleen and peripheral blood, with epididymal adipose tissue having the highest number of NKT cells. Furthermore, some NKT cells in adipose tissues expressed higher levels of CD69 and intracellular interferon-γ, whereas the Vβ repertoires of NKT cells in adipose tissues were similar to other cells. In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, adipose tissue inflammation had little effect on the Vβ repertoire of NKT cells in epididymal adipose tissues. We speculate that the NKT cells in adipose tissues may form an equivalent subset in other tissues and that these subsets are likely to participate in adipose tissue inflammation. Additionally, the high expression level of CD69 and intracellular IFN-γ raises the possibility that NKT cells in adipose tissue may be stimulated by some physiological mechanism. PMID:24172196

  2. Associations between prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Loy, See-Ling; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations among prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat among women exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). The study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia, from April 2010 to December 2012. Blood samples were collected in the second and third trimesters from 135 healthy pregnant women who were followed-up at delivery, 2 months, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Maternal hair nicotine and oxidative stress markers during pregnancy were measured. Visceral fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that maternal hair nicotine concentration was associated with increased DNA damage (tail moment: β=0.580, p=0.001) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (β=-12.100; p=0.009) in the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased DNA damage, protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity in the second trimester were associated with 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum visceral fat. No direct association was found between prenatal hair nicotine level and postpartum visceral fat; however, these results suggest that any relation of SHS to visceral adiposity may be indirect, mediated via enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:24329183

  3. Differential gene expression between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.

    PubMed

    Atzmon, G; Yang, X M; Muzumdar, R; Ma, X H; Gabriely, I; Barzilai, N

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in a variety of rodent models, we prevented insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, establishing a cause-effect relationship between VF and the metabolic syndrome. To characterize the biological differences between visceral and peripheral fat depots, we obtained perirenal visceral (VF) and subcutaneous (SC) fat from 5 young rats. We extracted mRNA from the fat tissue and performed gene array hybridization using Affymetrix technology with a platform containing 9 000 genes. Out of the 1 660 genes that were expressed in fat tissue, 297 (17.9 %) genes show a two-fold or higher difference in their expression between the two tissues. We present the 20 genes whose expression is higher in VF fat (by 3 - 7 fold) and the 20 genes whose expression is higher in SC fat (by 3 - 150 fold), many of which are predominantly involved in glucose homeostasis, insulin action, and lipid metabolism. We confirmed the findings of gene array expression and quantified the changes in expression in VF of genes involved in insulin resistance (PPARgamma leptin) and its syndrome (angiotensinogen and plasminogen activating inhibitor-1, PAI-1) by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Finally, we demonstrated increased expression of resistin in VF by around 12-fold and adiponectin by around 4-fold, peptides that were not part of the gene expression platform. These results indicate that visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are biologically distinct. PMID:12660871

  4. [Ultrasound measurement of visceral fat in obese patients (changes in certain parameters during an outpatient reducing program)].

    PubMed

    Urbánek, R; Simek, J

    2000-01-01

    Abdominal type of obesity is linked to risk factors of metabolic diseases. The determination of visceral fat with the ultrasound assessment by Armellini is a very simple method. 55 obese patients were such examined including other parameters during the weight reduction. The results of our small experimental group are shown in the Tab. 1 and 2. PMID:10953641

  5. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock ...

  6. Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. PMID:21969901

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient.

    PubMed

    Jawhar, Nazar M T

    2011-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. PMID:21969901

  8. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  9. Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms of Physiological Variations between Bovine Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots under Different Nutritional Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  10. Human periprostatic white adipose tissue is rich in stromal progenitor cells and a potential source of prostate tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cátia; Silvestre, Ricardo; Castela, Angela; Coutinho, Helena; Fraga, Avelino; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Costa, Carla; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Lopes, José Manuel; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui

    2012-10-01

    A body of growing evidence now implicates white adipose tissue as a relevant source of stromal progenitor cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment to form supportive tumor stroma. While the role of periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue in prostate cancer progression has been barely appreciated, we sought to determine the progenitor cell population in PP adipose tissue and the association with prostate cancer. We isolated and characterized CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD146(-) progenitor cells (adipose-derived stem cells [ASC]) in paired samples of PP and preperitoneal visceral adipose tissue from prostate tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer and nodular prostatic hyperplasia patients. ASC were quantified by flow cytometry and confirmed through target gene expression. Here we show a significantly higher amount of ASC in PP than in visceral adipose tissue, independent of body mass index and prostatic disease. In the prostate, ASC are increased in cancer compared with prostatic nodular hyperplasia patients. Concordantly, adipsin gene (CFD) expression, which is known to be up-regulated in adipose stem cells, was overexpressed in PP adipose tissue, in the prostate of cancer patients and in prostate CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD146(-) sorted cells. ASC were found at higher levels in the blood of prostate cancer patients simultaneously overweight/obese. Present findings indicate that PP adipose tissue is a reservoir of progenitor cells with the potential to migrate towards prostate tumors, although its clinical significance merits further evaluation. PMID:23038706

  11. Relationship of Adipocyte Size with Adiposity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Ved Prakash; Seenu, V.; Sharma, M. C.; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Nandita; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Luthra, Kalpana; Vikram, Naval K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enlargement of adipocyte is associated with their dysfunction and alterations in metabolic functions. Objectives We evaluated the association of adipocyte size of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians. Methodology Eighty (40 males and 40 females) non-diabetic adult subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery were included. Pre-surgery evaluation included anthropometric measurements, % body fat by bioimpedance, abdominal fat area at L2–3 level (computed tomography) and biochemical investigations (fasting blood glucose and insulin, lipids and hsCRP). During surgery, about 5 grams each of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained for adipocyte size determination. Results Females had higher BMI, % body fat, skinfold thickness, total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area as compared to males. Overweight was present in 42.5% and 67.5%, and abdominal obesity in 5% and 52.5% males and females, respectively. Subcutaneous adipocyte size was significantly higher than omental adipocyte size. Omental adipocyte size correlated more strongly than subcutaneous adipocyte size with measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, %BF), total and subcutaneous abdominal fat area and biochemical measures (fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HOMA-IR), the correlations being stronger in females. The correlation of adipocyte size with metabolic parameters was attenuated after adjusting for measures of adiposity. Conclusion Omental adipocyte size, though smaller than the subcutaneous adipocyte size, was more closely related to measures of adiposity and metabolic parameters. However, the relationship was not independent of measures of adiposity. PMID:25251402

  12. Hypoxia Promotes the Inflammatory Response and Stemness Features in Visceral Fat Stem Cells From Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Petrangeli, Elisa; Coroniti, Giuseppe; Brini, Anna T; de Girolamo, Laura; Stanco, Deborah; Niada, Stefania; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Morgante, Emanuela; Lubrano, Carla; Russo, Matteo A; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is a salient feature of obesity and many associated disorders. This condition frequently occurs in central obesity and is connected to alterations of the visceral adipose tissue (AT) microenvironment. Understanding how obesity is related to inflammation may allow the development of therapeutics aimed at improving metabolic parameters in obese patients. To achieve this aim, we compared the features of two subpopulations of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral AT of obese patients with the features of two subpopulations of ASC from the same isolation sites of non-obese individuals. In particular, the behavior of ASC of obese versus non-obese subjects during hypoxia, which occurs in obese AT and is an inducer of the inflammatory response, was evaluated. Obesity deeply influenced ASC from visceral AT (obV-ASC); these cells appeared to exhibit clearly distinguishable morphology and ultrastructure as well as reduced proliferation, clonogenicity and expression of stemness, differentiation and inflammation-related genes. These cells also exhibited a deregulated response to hypoxia, which induced strong tissue-specific NF-kB activation and an NF-kB-mediated increase in inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Moreover, obV-ASC, which showed a less stem-like phenotype, recovered stemness features after hypoxia. Our findings demonstrated the peculiar behavior of obV-ASC, their influence on the obese visceral AT microenvironment and the therapeutic potential of NF-kB inhibitors. These novel findings suggest that the deregulated hyper-responsiveness to hypoxic stimulus of ASC from visceral AT of obese subjects may contribute via paracrine mechanisms to low-grade chronic inflammation, which has been implicated in obesity-related morbidity. PMID:26224080

  13. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S N; Welter, B H; Mantzke, K A; Price, T M

    1998-02-01

    Sex steroids are postulated to play a role in adipose tissue regulation and distribution, because the amount and location of adipose tissue changes during puberty and menopause. Because of the nature of adipose tissue, receptors for the female sex steroids have been difficult to demonstrate. To date, estrogen receptor messenger RNA and protein have been identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue, but the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate PR message by Northern blot analysis in RNA isolated from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of premenopausal women. These preliminary studies revealed that PR messenger RNA levels are higher in the stromal-vascular fraction as opposed to the adipocyte fraction. Western blot analysis demonstrates both PR protein isoforms (human PR-A and human PR-B) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total PR could be quantitated. These studies substantiate that sex steroid receptors are present in human adipose tissue, thereby providing a direct route for regulation of adipose tissue by female sex steroids. PMID:9467566

  14. Efficient Targeting of Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity with Polysaccharide Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Wallig, Matthew A; Dobrucki, Iwona T; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Nelson, Erik R; Swanson, Kelly S; Smith, Andrew M

    2016-07-26

    Obesity leads to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancer. The causal link between obesity and these pathologies has recently been identified as chronic low-grade systemic inflammation initiated by pro-inflammatory macrophages in visceral adipose tissue. Current medications based on small-molecule drugs yield significant off-target side effects with long-term use, and therefore there is a major need for targeted therapies. Here we report that nanoscale polysaccharides based on biocompatible glucose polymers can efficiently target adipose macrophages in obese mice. We synthesized a series of dextran conjugates with tunable size linked to contrast agents for positron emission tomography, fluorophores for optical microscopy, and anti-inflammatory drugs for therapeutic modulation of macrophage phenotype. We observed that larger conjugates efficiently distribute to visceral adipose tissue and selectively associate with macrophages after regional peritoneal administration. Up to 63% of the injected dose remained in visceral adipose tissue 24 h after administration, resulting in >2-fold higher local concentration compared to liver, the dominant site of uptake for most nanomedicines. Furthermore, a single-dose treatment of anti-inflammatory conjugates significantly reduced pro-inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of obese mice. Importantly, all components of these therapeutic agents are approved for clinical use. This work provides a promising nanomaterials-based delivery strategy to inhibit critical factors leading to obesity comorbidities and demonstrates a unique transport mechanism for drug delivery to visceral tissues. This approach may be further applied for high-efficiency targeting of other inflammatory diseases of visceral organs. PMID:27281538

  15. Contribution of body fatness and adipose tissue distribution to the age variation in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C; Gagnon, J; Bergeron, J; Leon, A S; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2000-03-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations in men. Older men present an altered steroid hormone profile compared to younger individuals, and an increase in body fatness and changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution are noted with advancing age. Thus, there is a need to examine the relative importance of increased body fatness and changes in AT distribution with advancing age to plasma steroid hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in men. We, therefore, investigated the relationships among age, body fatness, AT distribution, and the plasma steroid hormone profile in a group of 217 Caucasian men (mean age +/- SD, 36.2 +/- 14.9 yr) who covered a wide age range (17-64 yr). Compared to young adult men, older men were characterized by increased adiposity (P < 0.0001) expressed either as body mass index or total body fat mass assessed by underwater weighing. Differences in AT distribution were also noted with a preferential accumulation of abdominal fat as indicated by a larger waist girth (P < 0.0001) and higher visceral AT accumulation (P < 0.0001), measured by computed tomography, in older subjects. Age was associated with decreases (P < 0.0001) in C19 adrenal steroid levels, namely reduced dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA fatty acid ester, DHEA sulfate, as well as androstenedione levels. Androgens, i.e. dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, were also affected by age, with lower levels of both steroids being found in older individuals (P < 0.0005). When statistical adjustment for body fatness and AT distribution was performed, differences in C19 adrenal steroids between the age groups remained significant, whereas differences in androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were no longer significant. The present study suggests that age-related differences in plasma steroid hormone levels, especially androgens, are partly mediated by concomitant variation in adiposity in men. PMID:10720034

  16. Diagnosis of human visceral pentastomiasis.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Büttner, Dietrich W

    2009-01-01

    Visceral pentastomiasis in humans is caused by the larval stages (nymphs) of the arthropod-related tongue worms Linguatula serrata, Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis, A. grandis, and Porocephalus crotali. The majority of cases has been reported from Africa, Malaysia, and the Middle East, where visceral pentastomiasis may be an incidental finding in autopsies, and less often from China and Latin America. In Europe and North America, the disease is only rarely encountered in immigrants and long-term travelers, and the parasitic lesions may be confused with malignancies, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Since clinical symptoms are variable and serological tests are not readily available, the diagnosis often relies on histopathological examinations. This laboratory symposium focuses on the diagnosis of this unusual parasitic disease and presents its risk factors and epidemiology. PMID:19238218

  17. Saturation of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and accumulation of ectopic fat associated with metabolic dysfunction during late and post-pubertal growth

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Puberty is a period defined by large changes in adipose tissue accumulation and distribution, however longitudinal patterns of ectopic fat development have not been shown. We have previously shown significant declines in beta-cell function (BCF) across puberty and hypothesize that accumulation of ectopic fat deposition, particularly hepatic fat, will predict this fall. Subject/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study and examined 2-year change in abdominal fat distribution and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 76 Hispanic children and young adults (16.1 ±0.5 years, 66% obese, 52% male, 51% post-pubertal). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) were measured by 3-Tesla MRI, and markers of type 2 diabetes risk were collected at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results Baseline pubertal status significantly moderated 2-year change in ectopic fat deposition, such that VAT, HFF and PFF increased in individuals during late and post-pubertal growth whereas children earlier in their pubertal development decreased ectopic accumulation and had less VAT accumulation (VAT: pTanner*time =0.044, 0.31±0.08L vs. 0.03±0.10L; HFF: pTanner*time=0.007, 1.34±0.87% vs. −2.61±1.11%; PFF: pTanner*time<0.001, 1.61±0.39% vs. −0.96±0.50%). Independent of pubertal status, two-year increase in HFF and VAT significantly associated with a decline in BCF (β=−1.04, p=0.038; β=−1.81, p=0.020) and metabolic function, while accumulation of SAAT significantly associated with BCF (β=1.36, p=0.012) and metabolic improvement. HFF accumulation was the only depot to significantly predict clinical markers of type 2 diabetes risk, fasting glucose and HbA1c, and circulating free fatty acid levels (β=1.00, p=0.034; β=1.00, p=0.015; β=01.01, p=0.024). Conclusions The accumulation of SAAT defends against type 2 diabetes risk and potentially ectopic

  18. The Adipose Tissue Microenvironment Regulates Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Elise; Wing, Allison; Holtrup, Brandon; Sebo, Zachary; Kaplan, Jennifer L; Saavedra-Peña, Rocio; Church, Christopher D; Colman, Laura; Berry, Ryan; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2016-07-12

    The sexually dimorphic distribution of adipose tissue influences the development of obesity-associated pathologies. The accumulation of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) that occurs in males is detrimental to metabolic health, while accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SWAT) seen in females may be protective. Here, we show that adipocyte hyperplasia contributes directly to the differential fat distribution between the sexes. In male mice, high-fat diet (HFD) induces adipogenesis specifically in VWAT, while in females HFD induces adipogenesis in both VWAT and SWAT in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We also show that the activation of adipocyte precursors (APs), which drives adipocyte hyperplasia in obesity, is regulated by the adipose depot microenvironment and not by cell-intrinsic mechanisms. These findings indicate that APs are plastic cells, which respond to both local and systemic signals that influence their differentiation potential independent of depot origin. Therefore, depot-specific AP niches coordinate adipose tissue growth and distribution. PMID:27320063

  19. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

  20. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1989-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

  1. A report of three cases and review of the literature on rectal disruption following abdominal seatbelt trauma.

    PubMed

    El Kafsi, J; Kraus, R; Guy, R

    2016-02-01

    Seatbelt associated blunt trauma to the rectum is a rare but well recognised injury. The exact mechanism of hollow visceral injury in blunt trauma is unclear. Stress and shear waves generated by abdominal compression may in part account for injury to gas containing structures. A 'seatbelt sign' (linear ecchymosis across the abdomen in the distribution of the lap belt) should raise the suspicion of hollow visceral injuries and can be more severe with disruption of the abdominal wall musculature. Three consecutive cases of rectal injury following blunt abdominal trauma, requiring emergency laparotomy and resection, are described. Lumbar spine injury occurred in one case and in the other two cases, there was injury to the iliac wing of the pelvis; all three cases sustained significant abdominal wall contusion or muscle disruption. Abdominal wall reconstruction and closure posed a particular challenge, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The literature on this topic is reviewed and potential mechanisms of injury are discussed. PMID:26741660

  2. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Thereby adipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglycerides are stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes and hypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration and activation which further aggravates adipose tissue fibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissue fibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction, both in rodent models and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin both reduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulin resistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibrotic drugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1 antagonists will improve adipose tissue function and thereby ameliorate metabolic diseases. PMID:25987952

  3. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  4. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal pain Acute cholecystitis Acute kidney failure Addison disease Adenomyosis Annular pancreas Aplastic anemia Appendicitis Ascariasis Atheroembolic renal disease Biliary atresia Blind loop syndrome Cholangitis Chronic ...

  7. Regulation of adipose branched-chain amino acid catabolism enzyme expression and cross-adipose amino acid flux in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Denise E.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Olson, Kristine C.; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed; Smith, William H.; Karpe, Fredrik; Humphreys, Sandy; Bedinger, Daniel H.; Dunn, Tamara N.; Thomas, Anthony P.; Oort, Pieter J.; Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Amin, Rajesh; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Haj, Fawaz G.; Permana, Paska; Anthony, Tracy G.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metabolism. We tested if expression of the mitochondrial BCAA oxidation checkpoint, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, is reduced in obese WAT and regulated by metabolic signals. WAT BCKD protein (E1α subunit) was significantly reduced by 35–50% in various obesity models (fa/fa rats, db/db mice, diet-induced obese mice), and BCKD component transcripts significantly lower in subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes from obese vs. lean Pima Indians. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes or mice with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists increased WAT BCAA catabolism enzyme mRNAs, whereas the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose had the opposite effect. The results support the hypothesis that suboptimal insulin action and/or perturbed metabolic signals in WAT, as would be seen with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, could impair WAT BCAA utilization. However, cross-tissue flux studies comparing lean vs. insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant obese subjects revealed an unexpected negligible uptake of BCAA from human abdominal SC WAT. This suggests that SC WAT may not be an important contributor to blood BCAA phenotypes associated with insulin resistance in the overnight-fasted state. mRNA abundances for BCAA catabolic enzymes were markedly reduced in omental (but not SC) WAT of obese persons with metabolic syndrome compared with weight-matched healthy obese subjects, raising the possibility that visceral WAT contributes to the BCAA metabolic phenotype of metabolically compromised individuals. PMID:23512805

  8. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  9. Prognostic Impact of Changes in Adipose Tissue Areas after Colectomy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo; Ryoo, Seung Bum; Moon, Sang Hui; Oh, Heung Kwon; Han, Eon Chul

    2016-10-01

    There have been few studies assessing the changes in the body components of patients after colectomy in colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to verify the trends in the adipose tissue areas of CRC patients before and after surgery and to determine their clinical relevance. Computed tomography (CT)-assessed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas were recorded before and after curative resection in stage I to III CRC patients. Changes in the adipose tissue were assessed by calculating the difference in the adipose tissue area between preoperative CT and the most recent postoperative CT, which is disease-free state. Regarding obesity before surgery, there were no prognostic effect of body mass index (BMI), VAT and SAT, and 47.3% of patients had increases in VAT after colectomy. By multivariate analysis, adjusting sex, age, stage, differentiation, VAT change was the only obesity related factor to predict the prognosis, that patients who had increase in VAT after colectomy had better overall survival (HR, 0.557; 95% CI, 0.317-0.880) and disease-free survival (HR, 0.602; 95% CI, 0.391-0.927). BMI and SAT change had no significant association. In subgroup analysis of stage III CRC patients, VAT change had significance for prognosis only in patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy but not in those who did not receive postoperative chemotherapy. Increase in visceral adipose tissue after surgery is a favorable predictor of prognosis for CRC patients. PMID:27550485

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis with Roth spots

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jagdish; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra; Vats, Pallavi; Pawaria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of infected sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. The protozoa is obliged intracellularly and causes a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes: VL (‘kala azar’), cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia). Kala azar is the most aggressive form and if untreated causes high mortality. Here, we describe a case of VL that presented to us with high-grade fever and found to have Roth spots that were resolved after 15 days of therapy. PMID:25988048

  11. Dialysis-related amyloidosis: visceral involvement and protein constituents.

    PubMed

    Campistol, J M; Argilés, A

    1996-01-01

    beta 2-M amyloidosis mainly concerns dialysis patients and typically presents with osteoarticular symptoms. In order to precise the incidence and gravity of visceral involvement, subcutaneous abdominal fat aspirates, skin and rectal biopsies, as well as echocardiograms were performed in 26 patients with severe beta 2-M amyloidosis. Visceral amyloidosis was confirmed in 58% and the numbers were even higher when including heart abnormalities suggestive of amyloidosis (81%). Clinical manifestations of visceral involvement were usually not severe and include odynophagia, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, kidney stones, myocardial dysfunction and subcutaneous tumours. The removal and synthesis rates of beta 2-M were assessed during dialysis. Serum 131I-beta 2-M levels decreased by 5-10% with cuprophane and by 40-45% with polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile membranes. These reduction rates were higher than those found with unlabelled beta 2-M suggesting an increased synthesis or release during dialysis. The protein constituents of amyloid deposits were studied. Two different preparative methods to extract the proteins from amyloid deposits were used. TCA precipitation showed the presence of several proteins which were not observed with PBS homogenizing and resuspending in guanidine. The protein constituents of amyloid fibrils were studied by both, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel) as well as protein sequencing after gel filtration. Similarly, the technical approach used for protein analysis greatly influenced the results. It was observed that 2D-gel displayed the presence of proteins which were missed by the gel filtration technique. Some of the proteins contained in amyloid deposits in addition to beta 2-M, were identified as globin chains, kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulins, and alpha 2 macroglobulin. A putative participation of these other protein constituents on the pathogenesis of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis is

  12. Visceral basidiobolomycosis: An overlooked infection in immunocompetent children

    PubMed Central

    Mandhan, Parkash; Hassan, Kamal Osman; Samaan, Sandra Moustafa; Ali, Mansour J

    2015-01-01

    Visceral basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal infection of viscera caused by saprophyte Basidiobolus ranarum. It is very rare in healthy children and poses a diagnostic challenge due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the absence of predisposing factors. We report a case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a 4-year-old healthy girl who presented with a short history of abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, fever, and weight loss. The diagnosis was based on high eosinophilic count, classical histopathology findings of fungal hyphae (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon), and positive fungal culture from a tissue biopsy. Fungal infection was successfully eradicated with a combined approach of surgical resection of the infected tissue and a well-monitored course of antifungal therapy. The atypical clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, and the role of surgery in the management of a rare and lethal fungal disease in an immunocompetent child are discussed. PMID:26612126

  13. Abdominal obesity and hypertension: a double burden to the heart.

    PubMed

    Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Zyczkowska, Beata; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Visceral adipose tissue has an important part in water retention, the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, which may influence central and systemic hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between AO and the hemodynamic profile of patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The clinical evaluation of 144 hypertensives included the following: (1) echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSS) and diastolic function (E/A-phase ratio of mitral flow early (E) and late (A) and E/e'-ratio of early mitral flow and mitral septal annulus early diastolic velocity (e')); (2) the applanation tonometry including the central pulse pressure (CPP) and augmentation index (AI); and (3) the impedance cardiography, acceleration index (ACI), velocity index (VI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and total artery compliance (TAC). Obese hypertensives in comparison with non-obese ones were characterized with the following values: (1) lower echocardiographic (GLSS: -17.2±2.5% vs. -19.0±2.8%, P=0.0002) and impedance indices of left ventricular performance (VI: 44.8±12.4 vs. 51.6±14.2 × 1000*Ω* s(-1), P=0.006; ACI: 66.7±27.8 vs. 79.1±31.2 100*Ω* s(-)(2), P=0.003) and (2) worse diastolic function (e': 9.08±2.69 vs. 10.39±2.34 cm*s(-1), P=0.003; E/e': 7.54±1.81 vs. 6.74±1.40, P=0.007; E/A: 1.02±0.34 vs. 1.15±0.33, P=0.008). No relevant differences for gender, age, blood pressure, heart rate, LVEF, SVRI, TAC, CPP and AI were identified. AH and AO have overlapping effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics. At the early asymptomatic stage, this overlap is exhibited in the impaired cardiac function. PMID:26791010

  14. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors. PMID:26263851

  15. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  16. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  17. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  18. Do Patients with Penetrating Abdominal Stab Wounds Require Laparotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Behnam; Mahmoudieh, Mohsen; Talebzadeh, Hamid; Shahabi Shahmiri, Shahab; Aghaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal management of hemodynamically stable asymptomatic patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASWs) remains controversial. The goal is to identify and treat injuries in a safe cost-effective manner. Common evaluation strategies are local wound exploration (LWE), diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), serial clinical assessment (SCAs) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Making a decision about the right time to operate on a patient with a penetrating abdominal stab wound, especially those who have visceral evisceration, is a continuing challenge. Objectives Until the year 2010, our strategy was emergency laparotomy in patients with penetrating anterior fascia and those with visceral evisceration. This survey was conducted towards evaluating the results of emergency laparotomy. So, better management can be done in patients with penetrating abdominal stab wounds. Patients and Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on patients with abdominal penetrating trauma who referred to Al- Zahra hospital in Isfahan, Iran from October 2000 to October 2010. It should be noted that patients with abdominal blunt trauma, patients under 14 years old, those with lateral abdomen penetrating trauma and patients who had unstable hemodynamic status were excluded from the study. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic and clinical data were collected for all patients including: age, sex, mechanism of trauma and the results of LWE and laparotomy. Data were analyzed with PASW v.20 software. All data were expressed as mean ± SD. The distribution of nominal variables was compared using the Chi-squared test. Also, diagnostic index for LWE were calculated. A two-sided P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results During the 10 year period of the study, 1100 consecutive patients with stab wounds were admitted to Al-Zahra hospital Isfahan, Iran. In total, about 150 cases had penetrating traumas in

  19. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  20. The effect of chemically induced colitis, psychological stress and their combination on visceral pain in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Deiteren, Annemie; Vermeulen, Wim; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-09-01

    Visceral sensitivity is of pathophysiological importance in abdominal pain disorders and can be modulated by inflammation and stress. However, it is unclear whether inflammation and stress alter visceral perception independently of each other or in conjunction through neuroendocrine interactions. Therefore, we compared the short- and long-term effects of experimental colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS), alone or in combination, on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and colonoscopically confirmed. During WAS, rats were placed on a platform surrounded by water for 1 h. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor responses (VMRs) to colorectal distension. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was determined by measuring serum corticosterone in a separate protocol. TNBS instillation resulted in overt colitis, associated with significant visceral hypersensitivity during the acute inflammatory phase (3 days post-TNBS; n = 8/group); after colitis had subsided (28 days post-TNBS), hypersensitivity was resolved (n = 4-8/group). Single WAS was associated with increased VMRs of a magnitude comparable to acute TNBS-induced hypersensitivity (n = 8/group). However, after repetitive WAS no significant hypersensitivity was present (n = 8/group). No additive effect of colitis and stress was seen on visceral pain perception (n = 6-8/group). Corticosterone levels were only increased in acute TNBS-colitis, acute WAS and their combination. To conclude, both colitis and stress successfully induced short-term visceral hypersensitivity and activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but long-term effects were absent. In addition, our current findings do not support an additive effect of colitis and stress on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. PMID:25089934

  1. Visceral Fat Accumulation, Insulin Resistance, and Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Matsushita, Yumi; Nakagawa, Toru; Honda, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate visceral fat accumulation and markers of insulin resistance in relation to elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Methods Participants were 4,333 male employees (mean age, 49.3 years) who underwent abdominal computed tomography scanning, measured fasting insulin, and did not self-report diabetes and mental disorders under treatment and history of cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of EDS with abdominal fat deposition and markers of insulin resistance. Results Visceral fat area (VFA) and fasting insulin were significantly, positively associated with EDS. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of high VFA for the lowest through highest quartile of depression score were 1 (reference), 1.18 (0.97–1.42), 1.25 (1.02–1.54), 1.23 (1.01–1.51), respectively, and corresponding figures for high fasting insulin were 1 (reference), 0.98 (0.80–1.19), 1.12 (0.91–1.38), and 1.29 (1.06–1.57), respectively. Subcutaneous fat area was not associated with EDS. Conclusions Results suggest that EDS is related to visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:26891344

  2. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  3. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  4. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  5. Association Between Sex Hormones and Adiposity: Qualitative Differences in Women and Men in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ouyang, Pamela; Szklo, Moyses; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Woodward, Mark; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex hormones may influence adipose tissue deposition, possibly contributing to sex disparities in cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We hypothesized that associations of sex hormone levels with visceral and subcutaneous fat differ by sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with sex hormone levels at baseline and visceral and subcutaneous fat measurements from computed tomography at visit 2 or 3 (n = 1835). Main Outcome Measures: Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the relationships between sex hormones and adiposity. Testing for interaction by sex, race/ethnicity, and age was conducted. Results: In adjusted models, there was a modest significant positive association between estradiol and visceral fat in both sexes (percent difference in visceral fat for 1% difference in hormone [95% confidence interval] in women, 5.44 [1.82, 9.09]; and in men, 8.22 [0.61, 16.18]). Higher bioavailable T was significantly associated with higher visceral and subcutaneous fat in women and with the reverse in men (women, 14.38 [10.23, 18.69]; men, −7.69 [−13.06, −1.00]). Higher dehydroepiandrosterone was associated with higher visceral fat in women (7.57 [1.71, 13.88]), but not in men (−2.47 [−8.88, 4.29]). Higher SHBG was associated with significantly lower levels of adiposity in both sexes (women, −24.42 [−28.11, −20.55]; men, −27.39 [−32.97, −21.34]). There was no significant interaction by race/ethnicity or age. Conclusion: Sex hormones are significantly associated with adiposity, and the associations of androgens differ qualitatively by sex. This heterogeneity may help explain the complexity of the contribution of sex hormones to sex differences in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25636047

  6. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  7. Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  8. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Petithory, Jean-Claude

    2007-11-30

    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common racoon ascarid in the U.S.A. can also cause serious diseases in human. Digestive and respiratory clinical symptoms are usually moderate, however severe disease resulting from invasion of the myocardium or the brain has been reported. A blood hypereosinophilia is usually present the first few years after infection. Diagnosis uses serological methods, among them the ELISA test. Ocular larva is also possible with in that case, immunological modifications of the aqueous. Cutaneous larva migrans characterized by a linear, progressing, serpigenous eruption and intense itching is easy to diagnose. Larva migrans is due to dogs, cats and horses helminths. Dogs and cats (referred here as pets) now receive antihelmintitic treatments and parasites are now in decrease. PMID:18326429

  9. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  10. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  11. CD40 promotes MHC class II expression on adipose tissue macrophages and regulates adipose tissue CD4+ T cells with obesity.

    PubMed

    Morris, David L; Oatmen, Kelsie E; Mergian, Taleen A; Cho, Kae Won; DelProposto, Jennifer L; Singer, Kanakadurga; Evans-Molina, Carmella; O'Rourke, Robert W; Lumeng, Carey N

    2016-06-01

    Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue, but the mechanisms critical for regulating these responses remain unknown. CD40/CD40L signaling provides bidirectional costimulatory signals between antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T cells, and CD40L expression is increased in obese humans. Therefore, we examined the contribution of CD40 to the progression of obesity-induced inflammation in mice. CD40 was highly expressed on adipose tissue macrophages in mice, and CD40/CD40L signaling promoted the expression of antigen-presenting cell markers in adipose tissue macrophages. When fed a high fat diet, Cd40-deficient mice had reduced accumulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconv: CD3(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(-)) in visceral fat compared with wild-type mice. By contrast, the number of regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Treg: CD3(+)CD4(+)Foxp3(+)) in lean and obese fat was similar between wild-type and knockout mice. Adipose tissue macrophage content and inflammatory gene expression in fat did not differ between obese wild-type and knockout mice; however, major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 expression on adipose tissue macrophages was reduced in visceral fat from knockout mice. Similar results were observed in chimeric mice with hematopoietic Cd40-deficiency. Nonetheless, neither whole body nor hematopoietic disruption of CD40 ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice. In human adipose tissue, CD40 expression was positively correlated with CD80 and CD86 expression in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. These findings indicate that CD40 signaling in adipose tissue macrophages regulates major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 expression to control the expansion of CD4(+) T cells; however, this is largely dispensable for the development of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:26658005

  12. Effects of developmental and adult androgens on male abdominal adiposity.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Matthew H; Lipson, Susan F; Ellison, Peter T

    2003-01-01

    We present results from 42 gay men who completed a survey including self-measurement of waist circumference, height, and weight, in addition to providing saliva samples for the assay of testosterone, and a photocopy of the right hand for the measure of second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D), proposed as a means of approximating androgenic effects during development. The analyses were conducted as a test of the recent hypothesis, proposed by Abbott et al. ([2002] J Endocrinol 174:1-5), that high prenatal androgen exposure causes greater deposition of fat on the abdomen relative to other depots. We found support for this hypothesis in men, albeit in a limited sample and with self-reported and self-collected data. PMID:12953178

  13. Decreased miR-199 augments visceral pain in patients with IBS through translational upregulation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Yang, Liuqing; Larson, Scott; Basra, Sapreet; Merwat, Shehzad; Tan, Alai; Croce, Carlo; Verne, G Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome IBS not only have abdominal pain but also may suffer from visceral hypersensitivity and heighted visceral nociception. Moreover, IBS has few effective therapeutic agents and mechanisms of disease are unclear. Our goals were to (i) identify microRNA (miRNA) expression, signalling and targets in human colon (controls; patients with IBS); (ii) verify in vitro, IBS-associated changes in miRNAs, especially miR-199, which is complementary to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) gene; and (iii) determine whether modulating the expression of miRNAs in vivo, especially miR-199, reverses associated changes and pathological hallmarks of visceral hypersensitivity via TRPV1 signalling. Design We evaluated 45 patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and 40 controls with (1) visceral pain severity score and (2) colonoscopy with biopsies. miRNA expression was evaluated in human colon following miRNA array analysis. Luciferase assays were done to confirm relationships between miR-199 and TRPV1 expression. A rat model of visceral hypersensitivity was used to study miR-199 and its target gene (TRPV1) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and colon in vivo. Results Gut miR-199a/b expression in IBS-D was significantly decreased, which correlated directly with both increased visceral pain scores and TRPV1 expression. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a by intraperitoneal injection of lenti-miR-199a precursors decreased visceral hypersensitivity via diminished TRPV1 signalling. Conclusions Decreased colonic miR-199a/b correlates with visceral pain in patients with IBS-D. Similarly, reduced miR-199a expression in rat DRG and colon tissue is associated with heightened visceral hypersensitivity. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a decreases visceral pain via inhibition of TRPV1 signalling. Thus, miR-199 precursors may be promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment in patients with visceral pain. PMID

  14. Role of adipose tissue in haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, D R; de Groot, Ph G; Visseren, F L J

    2009-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases could partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue induces thrombocyte activation by the production of adipose tissue-derived hormones, often called adipokines, of which some such as leptin and adiponectin have been shown to directly interfere with platelet function. Increased adipose tissue mass induces IR and systemic low-grade inflammation, also affecting platelet function. It has been demonstrated that adipose tissue directly impairs fibrinolysis by the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and possibly thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. Adipose tissue may contribute to enhanced coagulation by direct tissue factor production, but hypercoagulability is likely to be primarily caused by affecting hepatic synthesis of the coagulation factors fibrinogen, factor VII, factor VIII and tissue factor, by releasing free fatty acids and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6) into the portal circulation and by inducing hepatic IR. Adipose tissue dysfunction could thus play a causal role in the prothrombotic state observed in obesity, by directly and indirectly affecting haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. PMID:19460118

  15. Abdominal Obesity and Association With Atherosclerosis Risk Factors: The Uberlândia Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Roever, Leonardo S; Resende, Elmiro S; Diniz, Angélica L D; Penha-Silva, Nilson; Veloso, Fernando C; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo M M; Chagas, Antonio C P

    2016-03-01

    Ectopic visceral fat (VF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Gender differences in the correlations of cardiovascular disease risk factors and ectopic fat in the Brazilian population still lacking. Cross-sectional study with 101 volunteers (50.49% men; mean age 56.5 ± 18, range 19-74 years) drawn from the Uberlândia Heart Study underwent ultrasonography assessment of abdominal visceral adipose tissue with convex transducer of 3.5 MHz of frequency. The thickness of VF was ultrasonographically measured by the distance between the inner face of the abdominal muscle and the posterior face of abdominal aorta, 1 cm above the umbilicus. The SCF thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. The exams were always performed by the same examiner. Ectopic fat volumes were examined in relation to waist circumference, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors. The VF was significantly associated with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01, r = 0.10), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.005, r = 0.15), total cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = 0.10), waist circumference (P < 0.0001, r = 0.43), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.41), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.32) in women, and with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.002, r = 0,14), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.032, r = 0.07), glucose (P < 0.001, r = 0.15), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P < 0.008, r = 0.12), gamma-GT (P < 0.001, r = 0.30), waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.52), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.32), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001, r = 0.26) in men. SCF was significantly associated with the levels of triglycerides (P < 0.01, r = 0.34), LDL cholesterol (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, r = 0.36), waist circumference (P

  16. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors, including cancer Infections or injury Kidney stones Appendicitis ... also be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abscesses Appendicitis Bowel wall thickening Retroperitoneal fibrosis Renal artery stenosis ...

  17. Putative population of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from mediastinal tissue during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit N; Yockman, James; Vargas, Vanessa; Bull, David A

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been isolated from various adult human tissues and are valuable for not only therapeutic applications but for the study of tissue homeostasis and disease progression. Subcutaneous adipose depots have been shown to contain large amounts of stem cells. There is little information that has been reported to date describing the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from visceral adipose tissue. In this study, we describe a mesenchymal stem cell population isolated from mediastinal adipose depots. The cells express CD44, CD105, CD166, and CD90 and are negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. In addition, the cells have a multilineage potential, with the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cell types. The biological function of visceral adipose tissue remains largely unknown and uncharacterized. However, the proximity of adipose tissue to the heart suggests a potential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obesity. In addition, with the ability of fat to regulate metabolic activity in humans, this novel stem cell source may be useful to further study the mechanisms involved in metabolic disorders. PMID:22490339

  18. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species. PMID:26317048

  19. The PPAR{gamma} coding region and its role in visceral obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Boon Yin, Khoo Najimudin, Nazalan; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku

    2008-06-27

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) is a ligand activated transcription factor, plays many essential roles of biological function in higher organisms. The PPAR{gamma} is mainly expressed in adipose tissue. It regulates the transcriptional activity of genes by binding with other transcription factor. The PPAR{gamma} coding region has been found to be closest to that of monkey in ours and other research groups. Thus, monkey is a more suitable animal model for future PPAR{gamma} studying, although mice and rat are frequently being used. The PPAR{gamma} is involved in regulating alterations of adipose tissue masses result from changes in mature adipocyte size and/or number through a complex interplay process called adipogenesis. However, the role of PPAR{gamma} in negatively regulating the process of adipogenesis remains unclear. This review may help we investigate the differential expression of key transcription factor in adipose tissue in response to visceral obesity-induced diet in vivo. The study may also provide valuable information to define a more appropriate physiological condition in adipogenesis which may help to prevent diseases cause by negative regulation of the transcription factors in adipose tissue.

  20. Adipose tissue is a regulated source of interleukin-10.

    PubMed

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Pernin, Agnès; Alizadeh, Navid; Giusti, Vittorio; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-03-21

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and we have recently shown that this tissue is a major source of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). We now aimed at identifying additional adipose-derived cytokines, which might serve as regulators of IL-1Ra. We demonstrate here for the first time that the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 is secreted by human WAT explants and that it is up-regulated by LPS and TNF-alpha in vitro, as well as in obesity in humans (2- and 6-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral WAT, respectively) and rodents (4-fold increase). PMID:15749027

  1. Adipose tissue extracts plasma ammonia after sprint exercise in women and men.

    PubMed

    Esbjörnsson, Mona; Bülow, Jens; Norman, Barbara; Simonsen, Lene; Nowak, Jacek; Rooyackers, Olav; Kaijser, Lennart; Jansson, Eva

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates a possible contribution of adipose tissue to the elimination of plasma ammonia (NH(3)) after high-intensity sprint exercise. In 14 healthy men and women, repeated blood samples for plasma NH(3) analyses were obtained from brachial artery and from a subcutaneous abdominal vein before and after three repeated 30-s cycle sprints separated by 20 min of recovery. Biopsies from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained and analyzed for glutamine and glutamate content. After exercise, both arterial and abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentrations were lower in women than in men (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). All postexercise measurements showed sex-independent positive arterio-subcutaneous abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentration differences (a-v(abd)), indicating a net uptake of NH(3) from blood to adipose tissue. However, the fractional extraction (a-v(abd)/a) of NH(3) was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). The glutamine-to-glutamate ratio in adipose tissue was increased after the second and third bout of sprint exercise (2.2 +/- 0.7 and 1.6 +/- 0.8, respectively) compared with the value at rest (1.2 +/- 0.6), suggesting a reaction of the extracted NH(3) with glutamate resulting in its conversion to glutamine. Adipose tissue may thus play an important physiological role in eliminating plasma NH(3) and thereby reducing the risk of NH(3) intoxication after high-intensity exercise. PMID:16282425

  2. Adipose tissue remodeling in a novel domestic porcine model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Aditya S.; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Eirin, Alfonso; Tang, Hui; Jordan, Kyra L.; Woollard, John R.; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish and characterize a novel domestic porcine model of obesity. Design and Methods Fourteen domestic pigs were fed normal (lean, n=7) or high-fat/high-fructose diet (obese, n=7) for 16 weeks. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies were obtained after 8, 12 and 16 weeks of diet, and pericardial adipose tissue after 16 weeks, for assessments of adipocyte size, fibrosis, and inflammation. Adipose tissue volume and cardiac function were studied with multi-detector computed-tomography, and oxygenation with magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma lipids profiles, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation were evaluated. Results Compared with lean, obese pigs had elevated cholesterol and triglycerides levels, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. Both abdominal and pericardial fat volume increased after 16 weeks of obese. In abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipocyte size and both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression progressively increased. Macrophage infiltration showed in both abdominal and pericardial adipose tissues. Circulating TNF-α increased in obese only at 16 weeks. Compared with Lean, obese pigs had similar global cardiac function, but myocardial perfusion and oxygenation were significantly impaired. Conclusion A high-fat/high-fructose diet induces in domestic pigs many characteristics of metabolic syndrome, which is useful to investigate the effects of the obesity. PMID:25627626

  3. [Abdominal ischemia and lesions of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Myshanych, T V; Moskal', O M; Arkhiĭ, E Ĭ; Sozoniuk, O V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the results of 50 patients with diseases of coronary heart disease (25 pers.) And chronic pancreatitis (25 people) are submitted. Along with the standard test from these patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. Conclusions: A characteristic feature of Doppler indices in AIC is to reduce Vps and Ved, and PI BbA, increase Vps, Ved, IR and PI after exercise in chBA, chC and BbA. At patients with CP with IHD feature is the increase in Ved and IR in the chC, and Ved and PI in BbA under act of loading Bleed a feature at CP with IHD must be taken into account for optimization of treatment of IHD at CP. PMID:25796868

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  5. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  6. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  7. Adipose Cell Size and Regional Fat Deposition as Predictors of Metabolic Response to Overfeeding in Insulin-Resistant and Insulin-Sensitive Humans.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Tracey; Craig, Colleen; Liu, Li-Fen; Perelman, Dalia; Allister, Candice; Spielman, Daniel; Cushman, Samuel W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, but significant variability exists between similarly obese individuals, pointing to qualitative characteristics of body fat as potential mediators. To test the hypothesis that obese, insulin-sensitive (IS) individuals possess adaptive adipose cell/tissue responses, we measured subcutaneous adipose cell size, insulin suppression of lipolysis, and regional fat responses to short-term overfeeding in BMI-matched overweight/obese individuals classified as IS or insulin resistant (IR). At baseline, IR subjects exhibited significantly greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid (IHL), plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell diameter, and percentage of small adipose cells. With weight gain (3.1 ± 1.4 kg), IR subjects demonstrated no significant change in adipose cell size, VAT, or insulin suppression of lipolysis and only 8% worsening of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Alternatively, IS subjects demonstrated significant adipose cell enlargement; decrease in the percentage of small adipose cells; increase in VAT, IHL, and lipolysis; 45% worsening of IMGU; and decreased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Smaller baseline adipose cell size and greater enlargement with weight gain predicted decline in IMGU, as did increase in IHL and VAT and decrease in insulin suppression of lipolysis. Weight gain in IS humans causes maladaptive changes in adipose cells, regional fat distribution, and insulin resistance. The correlation between development of insulin resistance and changes in adipose cell size, VAT, IHL, and insulin suppression of lipolysis highlight these factors as potential mediators between obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26884438

  8. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bao; Li, Hui; Wang, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1), apolipoprotein B(ApoB) and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2), were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens. PMID

  9. TRPV1-mediated presynaptic transmission in basolateral amygdala contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying; Chen, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Ping-An; Xu, Qiya; Zheng, Hang; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The central mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. It’s reported that there are highest densities of TRPV1 labeled neurons within basolateral amygdala (BLA). The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanisms of TRPV1 in BLA in development of visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral hypersensitivity was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) and was quantified by abdominal withdrawal reflex. Expression of TRPV1 was determined by Western blot. The synaptic transmission of neurons in BLA was recorded by patch clamping. It was found that the expression of TRPV1 in BLA was significantly upregulated in NMD rats; glutamatergic synaptic activities in BLA were increased in NMD rats; application of capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) decreased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in NMD slices through a presynaptic mechanism; application of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) increased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in control slices through presynaptic mechanism without affecting GABAergic synaptic activities; microinjecting capsazepine into BLA significantly increased colonic distension threshold both in control and NMD rats. Our data suggested that upregulation of TRPV1 in BLA contributes to visceral hypersensitivity of NMD rats through enhancing excitation of BLA, thus identifying a potential target for treatment of chronic visceral pain. PMID:27364923

  10. P2X₇ receptor of rat dorsal root ganglia is involved in the effect of moxibustion on visceral hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangmei; Shi, Qingming; Zhu, Qicheng; Zou, Ting; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Qin; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; Xie, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong; Lv, Qiulan; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Ying, Mofeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease often display visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral nociceptors after inflammatory stimulation generate afferent nerve impulses through dorsal root ganglia (DRG) transmitting to the central nervous system. ATP and its activated-purinergic 2X7 (P2X7) receptor play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal. Purinergic signaling is involved in the sensory transmission of visceral pain. Moxibustion is a therapy applying ignited mugwort directly or indirectly at acupuncture points or other specific parts of the body to treat diseases. Heat-sensitive acupoints are the corresponding points extremely sensitive to moxa heat in disease conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the analgesic effect of moxibustion on a heat-sensitive acupoint "Dachangshu" and the expression levels of P2X7 receptor in rat DRG after chronic inflammatory stimulation of colorectal distension. Heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint inhibited the nociceptive signal transmission by decreasing the upregulated expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG induced by visceral pain, and reversed the abnormal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of satellite glial cells) in DRG. Consequently, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score in a visceral pain model was reduced, and the pain threshold was elevated. Therefore, heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint can produce a therapeutic effect on IBS via inhibiting the nociceptive transmission mediated by upregulated P2X7 receptor. PMID:25527178

  11. TRPV1-mediated presynaptic transmission in basolateral amygdala contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Chen, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Ping-An; Xu, Qiya; Zheng, Hang; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The central mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. It's reported that there are highest densities of TRPV1 labeled neurons within basolateral amygdala (BLA). The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanisms of TRPV1 in BLA in development of visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral hypersensitivity was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD) and was quantified by abdominal withdrawal reflex. Expression of TRPV1 was determined by Western blot. The synaptic transmission of neurons in BLA was recorded by patch clamping. It was found that the expression of TRPV1 in BLA was significantly upregulated in NMD rats; glutamatergic synaptic activities in BLA were increased in NMD rats; application of capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) decreased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in NMD slices through a presynaptic mechanism; application of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) increased glutamatergic synaptic activities of BLA neurons in control slices through presynaptic mechanism without affecting GABAergic synaptic activities; microinjecting capsazepine into BLA significantly increased colonic distension threshold both in control and NMD rats. Our data suggested that upregulation of TRPV1 in BLA contributes to visceral hypersensitivity of NMD rats through enhancing excitation of BLA, thus identifying a potential target for treatment of chronic visceral pain. PMID:27364923

  12. Quantification of Abdominal Fat Depots in Rats and Mice during Obesity and Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    KN, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. Materials and Methods High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Results Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01) were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, −17.33±3.07%, −15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, −3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background–image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including

  13. Visceral fat dysfunction is positively associated with hypogonadism in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Lin, Dongping; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) well mirrors visceral fat dysfunction. No study explored the association between low androgen and VAI. We aimed to determine whether VAI was associated with hypogonadism and sex hormones, and also whether it better predicted hypogonadism than other obesity indices. Our data were collected from 16 sites in East China. 2,759 men were enrolled. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone < 11.3 nmol/L. VAI was calculated in male: (waist circumference/(39.68 + (1.88 × BMI))) × (triglycerides/1.03) × (1.31/HDL). 484 (17.5%) hypogonadal men had significantly higher VAI. After adjusting for age, smoking, neck and hip circumference, diabetes and hypertension, VAI was inversely associated with total testosterone, estradiol and SHBG (P < 0.01). Higher quartiles of VAI were associated with significantly increasing odds of hypogonadism (P for trend < 0.01). The fully adjusted odds ratio was 5.88 (95 CI% 4.09, 8.46) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of VAI. Among all the indices investigated, VAI showed the largest area under the curve (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the VAI was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hypogonadism in Chinese men. VAI also best predicted hypogonadism among obesity indices (waist, hip and neck circumference, BMI, waist-hip ratio and body adiposity index). PMID:26796865

  14. VEGF induces sensory and motor peripheral plasticity, alters bladder function, and promotes visceral sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity. In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of sensory nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and cholinergic nerves (ChAT) was studied one week after one or two intravesical instillations of the growth factor. To study the effects of VEGF on bladder function, mice were intravesically instilled with VEGF and urodynamic evaluation was assessed. VEGF-induced alteration in bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was performed on retrogradly labeled urinary bladder afferents by patch-clamp recording of voltage gated Na+ currents. Determination of VEGF-induced changes in sensitivity to abdominal mechanostimulation was performed by application of von Frey filaments. Results In addition to an overwhelming increase in TRPV1 immunoreactivity, VEGF instillation resulted in an increase in ChAT-directed expression of a fluorescent protein in several layers of the urinary bladder. Intravesical VEGF caused a profound change in the function of the urinary bladder: acute VEGF (1 week post VEGF treatment) reduced micturition pressure and longer treatment (2 weeks post-VEGF instillation) caused a substantial reduction in inter-micturition interval. In addition, intravesical VEGF resulted in an up-regulation of voltage gated Na+ channels (VGSC) in bladder DRG neurons and enhanced abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Conclusions For the first time, evidence is presented indicating that VEGF instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density together with alterations in bladder function and visceral sensitivity. The VEGF pathway is being proposed as a key modulator of

  15. Numerous Genes in Loci Associated With Body Fat Distribution Are Linked to Adipose Function.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Rydén, Mikael; Brodin, David; Grallert, Harald; Strawbridge, Rona J; Arner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Central fat accumulation is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci associated with body fat distribution. The objectives of the current study are to examine whether genes in genetic loci linked to fat distribution can be linked to fat cell size and number (morphology) and/or adipose tissue function. We show, in a cohort of 114 women, that almost half of the 96 genes in these loci are indeed associated with abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue parameters. Thus, adipose mRNA expression of the genes is strongly related to adipose morphology, catecholamine-induce