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Sample records for abdominal wall hematoma

  1. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Mimicking Metastases.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Rakul; Anoop, T M; Mony, Rari P

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall lesions can be broadly divided into nontumorous and tumorous conditions. Nontumorous lesions include congenital lesion, abdominal wall hernia, inflammation and infection, vascular lesions, and miscellaneous conditions like hematoma. Tumorous lesions include benign and malignant neoplasms. Here, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall endometriosis mimicking metastases in a patient with breast carcinoma.

  2. An oblique muscle hematoma as a rare cause of severe abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, Masanori; Kitano, Tomohiro; Kibata, Minoru; Shirahata, Kumiko

    2013-01-18

    Abdominal wall hematomas are an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and are often misdiagnosed. They are more common in elderly individuals, particularly in those under anticoagulant therapy. Most abdominal wall hematomas occur in the rectus sheath, and hematomas within the oblique muscle are very rare and are poorly described in the literature. Here we report the case of an oblique muscle hematoma in a middle-aged patient who was not under anticoagulant therapy. A 42-year-old Japanese man presented with a painful, enlarging, lateral abdominal wall mass, which appeared after playing baseball. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a large soft tissue mass located in the patient's left internal oblique muscle. A diagnosis of a lateral oblique muscle hematoma was made and the patient was treated conservatively. Physicians should consider an oblique muscle hematoma during the initial differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral abdominal wall even in the absence of anticoagulant therapy or trauma.

  3. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  4. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  5. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  6. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  8. [Spontaneous hematoma of the atrial wall].

    PubMed

    Iglesias López, A; Rodríguez Pan, A; Pazos Silva, V

    2014-01-01

    The clinical signs of heart masses tend to be nonspecific, generally depending more on their repercussions on heart function caused by their location rather than on their type. Imaging techniques make it possible to limit the differential diagnosis of heart masses based on their location, morphology, and characteristics of echogenicity, density, or intensity, depending on the technique used to study them. We present the case of a woman with squeezing mid chest pain irradiating to her shoulder and positive cardiac markers in whom a left atrial mass was identified at echocardiography. This finding was confirmed at chest CT. The signs at chest CT were compatible with a mural hematoma and this diagnosis was confirmed after intraoperative biopsy. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  10. Temporary closure of the abdominal wall by use of silicone rubber sheets after operative repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Akers, D L; Fowl, R J; Kempczinski, R F; Davis, K; Hurst, J M; Uhl, S

    1991-07-01

    Management of patients after operative repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms can be further complicated if primary closure of the abdominal wall cannot be technically accomplished or is associated with profound increases in intraabdominal and peak inspiratory pressures. We recently treated five patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and one patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm whose abdominal incisions had to be closed with a Dacron reinforced, silicone sheet. All patients were hemodynamically unstable either at admission to the hospital or became so during operation. Four patients required the insertion of a silicone rubber sheet at the primary operation because of massive retroperitoneal hematoma or edema of the bowel wall or both. Incisions in two patients were closed primarily, but the patients required reexploration and secondary closure with silicone rubber sheets because of the development of marked increases in peak inspiratory pressures, intraabdominal pressures, and decreased urinary output. Four of the six patients subsequently underwent successful removal of the silicone rubber sheets with delayed primary closure of the abdominal wall, and two others died before removal. The patient with the ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm died on postoperative day 20 because of pulmonary sepsis but had a healed abdominal incision. The three surviving patients have been discharged. A silicone rubber sheet may be necessary for closure of the abdominal wall after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients where primary abdominal wall closure is impossible or where it results in compromise in respiratory or renal function.

  11. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  12. Retroperitoneal and rectus sheath hematomas.

    PubMed

    Kasotakis, George

    2014-02-01

    The retroperitoneum is rich in vascular structures and can harbor large hematomas, traumatic or spontaneous. The management of retroperitoneal hematomas depends on the mechanism of injury and whether they are pulsatile/expanding. Rectus sheath hematomas are uncommon abdominal wall hematomas secondary to trauma to the epigastric arteries of the rectus muscle. The common risk factors include anticoagulation, strenuous exercise, coughing, coagulation disorders, and invasive procedures on/through the abdominal wall. The management is largely supportive, with the reversal of anticoagulation and transfusions; angioembolization may be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Henriksen, L O; Medgyesi, S; Waever, E

    1994-02-07

    Four cases of muscle-aponeurotic fibroadenomatosis (desmoid) of the abdominal wall are reported. The etiological factors, the recurrence rate, the treatment and the pre- and postoperative examinations are discussed.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis . Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the ... covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) ...

  15. Rivaroxaban-induced chest wall spontaneous expanding hematoma.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2017-03-22

    Rivaroxaban is an oral direct Factor Xa inhibitor approved in the European Union and the United Sates for the single-drug treatment of several thromboembolic diseases in adults. Ιt has been evaluated in large phase III clinical trials and has been found to have similar efficacy and safety with standard therapy. Herein, is described a very rare case of a rivaroxaban-induced spontaneous expanding chest wall hematoma, that required surgical intervention, in a breast cancer patient. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 7) between the patient's development of hematoma and treatment with rivaroxaban. Physicians should be cautious when prescribing rivaroxaban in groups of patients associated with increased bleeding risk such as patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, patients with certain types of cancers and patients receiving concomitant medications which may alter the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodymamic parameters of rivaroxaban. Anticoagulant treatment should be tailored to each individual patient weighing the bleeding risk against the risk of recurrent thrombosis.

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome due to spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma with extension into the retroperitoneal space

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Jay; Kaplan, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an increasingly common clinical condition in our hospitals due to the increasing use of anticoagulant therapies for various purposes among our patients. Treatment of spontaneous RSH is generally conservative. For continued bleeding, interventional radiologic identification and subsequent embolization is an effective option. Surgery usually involves significant morbidity and is considered a technique of last resort. In this case report, we describe the case of middle aged female who developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) from a large RSH that had extended into the retroperitoneum. The patient underwent abdominal decompression with removal of the hematoma and subsequently fared very well. Patients with large RSHs extending into the retroperitoneum should undergo constant monitoring of their abdominal pressures for early detection and treatment of potentially deadly condition of ACS. PMID:29181148

  17. Posttraumatic gastric wall hematoma in a patient under anticoagulant therapy. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mânzat Saplacan, Roberta Maria; Catinean, Adrian; Manole, Simona; Valean, Simona Doina; Chira, Romeo Ioan; Mircea, Petru Adrian

    2011-06-01

    We report the clinical observation of a 58-year old patient who presented with upper abdominal pain and a small ecchymosis located in the umbilical area. Personal history of the patient revealed ischemic heart disease and chronic atrial fibrillation. He was under treatment with oral anticoagulants (coumarins). The clinical data and especially the imaging investigations led to a diagnosis of gastric wall hematoma, possibly occurring post-traumatically in a patient under anticoagulant treatment. A conservative therapeutic approach was adopted and ultrasound surveillance. After 6 months the gastric parietal collection manifested complete resorption, spontaneously. In relation to the case presentation, we also discuss some issues on the frequency, diagnosis and therapeutic attitude in this rare complication of anticoagulant therapy.

  18. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  19. Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, L. Ben; Ghariani, B.; Rabeh, A.; Dali, N.; Said, W.; Hendaoui, L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ewing sarcoma is most commonly a bone tumour which has usually extended into the soft tissues at the time of diagnosis. Exceptionally, this tumour can have an extraskeletal origin. Clinical or imaging findings are non-specific and diagnosis is based on histology. We report a case of an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma developed in the soft tissues of the abdominal wall in a 35-year-old woman who presented a painful abdominal wall tumefaction. Ultrasongraphy and computed tomography showed a large, well-defined soft tissue mass developed in the left anterolateral muscle group of the abdominal wall. Surgical biopsy was performed and an extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma was identified histologically. PMID:18818133

  20. Abdominal Wall Desmoid during Pregnancy: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Johnny; Hammoud, Nadine; Farra, Chantal; Fares, Farah; Abi Saad, George; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-01-01

    Background. Desmoids are benign tumors, with local invasive features and no metastatic potential, which have rarely been described to be pregnancy associated. Case. We described the rapid growth of an anterior abdominal wall mass in a 40-year-old pregnant woman. Due to its close proximity to the enlarged uterus, it was misdiagnosed to be a uterine leiomyoma by ultrasound examination. Final tissue diagnosis and radical resection were done at the time of abdominal delivery. Conclusion. Due to the diagnostic limitations of imaging techniques, desmoids should always be considered when the following manifestations are observed in combination: progressive growth of a solitary abdominal wall mass during pregnancy and well-delineated smooth tumor margins demonstrated by imaging techniques. This case emphasizes the importance of entertaining uncommon medical conditions in the differential diagnosis of seemingly common clinical manifestations. PMID:23346436

  1. An unanticipated diagnosis with bedside ultrasonography in patients with acute abdominal pain: rectus hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Kaykısız, Eylem Kuday

    2017-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a common presentation in emergency departments, rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is among the rarest diagnosis. Here we present 2 cases of RSH likely caused by coughing due to upper respiratory tract infection. The two described cases were diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography and confirmed as RSH by computed tomography. Review of patient history and use of ultrasonography are important to avoid misdiagnosisof RSH. PMID:28748020

  2. An unanticipated diagnosis with bedside ultrasonography in patients with acute abdominal pain: rectus hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Kaykısız, Eylem Kuday

    2017-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a common presentation in emergency departments, rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is among the rarest diagnosis. Here we present 2 cases of RSH likely caused by coughing due to upper respiratory tract infection. The two described cases were diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography and confirmed as RSH by computed tomography. Review of patient history and use of ultrasonography are important to avoid misdiagnosisof RSH.

  3. Abdominal wall desmoid tumors: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MA, JIN-HUI; MA, ZHEN-HAI; DONG, XUE-FENG; YIN, HANG; ZHAO, YONG-FU

    2013-01-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are rare lesions that do not possess any metastatic potential. However, they have a strong tendency to invade locally and recur. They constitute 3% of all soft tissue tumors and 0.03% of all neoplasms. Abdominal DTs occur sporadically or are associated with certain familial syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The single form of this neoplasm most frequently occurs in females of reproductive age and during pregnancy. A female patient with a DT of the abdominal wall who had no relevant family history was admitted to hospital. The patient, who presented with a painless mass in the left anterolateral abdomen, had no history of trauma, surgery or childbearing. According to the medical history, physical examination and CT report, the patient was diagnosed with DT. Radical resection of the affected abdominal wall musculature was performed, and the defect was replaced with a polypropylene mesh. The histological diagnosis was of DT. The patient remains in good health and complete remission without any other treatment following surgery. DTs exhibit aggressive growth and have a high rate of recurrence. Surgery is the optimal treatment, and subsequent radiotherapy may decrease the local recurrence rate. Further research into their aetiology is required combined with multicentre clinical trials of new treatments in order to improve management of this disease. This case report provides general knowledge of DT, and may be used as a guidance for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23833679

  4. [Posttraumatic retroperitoneal hematoma in injured persons with severe closed multiple and combined abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Rylov, A I; Kravets, N S

    2001-01-01

    The experience of treatment of 69 injured persons with posttraumatic retroperitoneal hematoma suffering severe multiple combined abdominal trauma was analyzed. Application of the classification proposed permits to formulate diagnosis and to choose the tactic of treatment correctly. The intraoperative tactics algorithm was elaborated. It promotes the correct analysis of intraoperative findings and reduction of the diagnostic mistakes frequency as well. In the presence of vast defect, making impossible to suture over the parietal peritoneum, extraperitonization using cerebral dura mater was done. Operative intervention was concluded by drainage with subsequent laserotherapy.

  5. Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

  6. Can computed tomography aid in diagnosis of intramural hematomas of the intestinal wall?

    PubMed

    Ulusan, Serife; Pekoz, Burcak; Sariturk, Cagla

    2015-12-01

    We sought to use computed tomography (CT) data to support the correct differential diagnosis of patients with spontaneous intramural hematomas of the gastrointestinal tract, to aid in the clinical management of those using oral anticoagulants. Patient data were retrospectively analyzed and patients were divided into two groups. The first group contained 10 patients (5 females, 5 males, median age 65 years [range 35-79 years]) who had been diagnosed with spontaneous intramural hematomas of the gastrointestinal tract. The second group contained nine patients (5 females, 4 males, median age 41 years [range 24-56 years]) who exhibited intestinal wall thickening on CT, and who had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, ameboma, and lymphoma. The enhancement patterns in the CT images of the two groups were compared by an experienced and inexperienced radiologist. The differences in values were subjected to ROC analysis. Inter-observer variability was excellent (0.84) when post-contrast CT images were evaluated, as were the subtraction values (0.89). The subtracted values differed significantly between the two groups (p=0.0001). A cutoff of +31.5 HU was optimal in determining whether a hematoma was or was not present. Contrast enhancement of an intestinal wall hematoma is less than that of other intestinal wall pathologies associated with increased wall thickness. If the post-contrast enhancement of a thickened intestinal wall is less than +31.5 HU, a wall hematoma is possible. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  7. Elasticity of the living abdominal wall in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengli; Alijani, Afshin; Frank, Tim; Hanna, George; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires inflation of the abdominal cavity and this offers a unique opportunity to measure the mechanical properties of the living abdominal wall. We used a motion analysis system to study the abdominal wall motion of 18 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and found that the mean Young's modulus was 27.7+/-4.5 and 21.0+/-3.7 kPa for male and female, respectively. During inflation, the abdominal wall changed from a cylinder to a dome shape. The average expansion in the abdominal wall surface was 20%, and a working space of 1.27 x 10(-3)m(3) was created by expansion, reshaping of the abdominal wall and diaphragmatic movement. For the first time, the elasticity of human abdominal wall was obtained from the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, and a 3D simulation model of human abdominal wall has been developed to analyse the motion pattern in laparoscopic surgery. Based on this study, a mechanical abdominal wall lift and a surgical simulator for safe/ergonomic port placements are under development.

  8. Compliance of the abdominal wall during laparoscopic insufflation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Chuck; Plymale, Margaret A; Wennergren, John; Totten, Crystal; Stigall, Kyle; Roth, J Scott

    2017-04-01

    To provide adequate workspace between the viscera and abdominal wall, insufflation with carbon dioxide is a common practice in laparoscopic surgeries. An insufflation pressure of 15 mmHg is considered to be safe in patients, but all insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative physiologic effects. As a composition of viscoelastic materials, the abdominal wall should distend in a predictable manner given the pressure of the pneumoperitoneum. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between degree of abdominal distention and the insufflation pressure, with the goal of determining factors which impact the compliance of the abdominal wall. A prospective, IRB-approved study was conducted to video record the abdomens of patients undergoing insufflation prior to a laparoscopic surgery. Photo samples were taken every 5 s, and the strain of the patient's abdomen in the sagittal plane was determined, as well as the insufflator pressure (stress) at bedside. Patients were insufflated to 15 mmHg. The relationship between the stress and strain was determined in each sample, and compliance of the patient's abdominal wall was calculated. Subcutaneous fat thickness and rectus abdominus muscle thickness were obtained from computed tomography scans. Correlations between abdominal wall compliances and subcutaneous fat and muscle content were determined. Twenty-five patients were evaluated. An increased fat thickness in the abdominal wall had a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance (R 2  = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between muscle and fat thickness. All insufflation pressures create perioperative and postoperative complications. The compliance of patients' abdominal body walls differs, and subcutaneous fat thickness has a direct exponential relationship with abdominal wall compliance. Thus, insufflation pressures can be better tailored per the patient. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the

  9. Medical evacuation for unrecognized abdominal wall pain: a case series.

    PubMed

    Msonda, Hapu T; Laczek, Jeffrey T

    2015-05-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a frequently encountered complaint in the primary care setting. The abdominal wall is the etiology of this pain in 10 to 30% of all cases of chronic abdominal pain. Abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of this pain. In the military health care system, patients with unexplained abdominal pain are often transferred to military treatment facilities via the Military Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) system. We present two cases of patients who transferred via MEDEVAC to our facility for evaluation and treatment of chronic abdominal pain. Both patients had previously undergone extensive laboratory evaluation, imaging, and invasive procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy before transfer. Upon arrival, history and physical examinations suggested an abdominal wall source to their pain, and both patients experienced alleviation of their abdominal wall pain with lidocaine and corticosteroid injection. This case series highlights the need for military physicians to be aware of abdominal wall pain. Early diagnosis of abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by eliciting Carnett's sign will limit symptom chronicity, avoid unnecessary testing, and even prevent medical evacuation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Venkata M; Karnam, Showri M.; Kaushik, Manu; Porter, Joann

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal wall pathology is a frequently overlooked cause of acute abdomen. Increasing use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies has led to an increase in the incidence of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (RSH). A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosis as it can closely mimic other causes of acute abdomen. Herein, we report a case of RSH presenting with abdominal pain in which there was a significant delay in diagnosis. We wish to highlight the need to increase awareness among primary and emergency physicians about considering RSH in the initial differential diagnoses of abdominal pain. PMID:20411082

  11. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis Eleven Years After Cesarean Section: Case Report

    PubMed

    Djaković, Ivka; Vuković, Ante; Bolanča, Ivan; Soljačić Vraneš, Hrvojka; Kuna, Krunoslav

    2017-03-01

    Endometriosis is a common chronic disease characterized by growth of the endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterus. Symptoms affect physical, mental and social well-being. Extrapelvic location of endometriosis is very rare. Abdominal wall endometriosis occurs in 0.03%-2% of women with a previous cesarean section or other abdominopelvic operation. The leading symptoms are abdominal nodular mass, pain and cyclic symptomatology. The number of cesarean sections is increasing and so is the incidence of abdominal wall endometriosis as a potential complication of the procedure. There are cases of malignant transformation of abdominal wall endometriosis. Therefore, it is important to recognize this condition and treat it surgically. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with abdominal wall endometriosis 11 years after cesarean section. She had low abdominal pain related to menstrual cycle, which intensified at the end of menstrual bleeding. A nodule painful to palpation was found in the medial part of previous Pfannenstiel incision. Ultrasound guided biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of endometriosis confirmed. Surgery is the treatment of choice for abdominal wall endometriosis. Excision with histologically proven free surgical margins of 1 cm is mandatory to prevent recurrence. A wide spectrum of mimicking conditions is the main reason for late diagnosis and treatment of abdominal wall endometriosis. In our case, the symptoms lasted for eight years and had intensified in the last six months prior to surgery.

  12. Management of complex abdominal wall defects associated with penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Arul, G Suren; Sonka, B J; Lundy, J B; Rickard, R F; Jeffery, S L A

    2015-03-01

    The paradigm of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) has radically improved the management of abdominal trauma, but less well described are the options for managing the abdominal wall itself in an austere environment. This article describes a series of patients with complex abdominal wall problems managed at the UK-led Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Contemporaneous review of a series of patients with complex abdominal wall injuries who presented to the Role 3 MTF between July and November 2012. Five patients with penetrating abdominal trauma associated with significant damage to the abdominal wall were included. All patients were managed using DCS principles, leaving the abdominal wall open at the end of the first procedure. Subsequent management of the abdominal wall was determined by a multidisciplinary team of general and plastic surgeons, intensivists and specialist nurses. The principles of management identified included minimising tissue loss on initial laparotomy by joining adjacent wounds and marginal debridement of dead tissue; contraction of the abdominal wall was minimised by using topical negative pressure dressing and dermal-holding sutures. Definitive closure was timed to allow oedema to settle and sepsis to be controlled. Closure techniques include delayed primary closure with traction sutures, components separation, and mesh closure with skin grafting. A daily multidisciplinary team discussion was invaluable for optimal decision making regarding the most appropriate means of abdominal closure. Dermal-holding sutures were particularly useful in preventing myostatic contraction of the abdominal wall. A simple flow chart was developed to aid decision making in these patients. This flow chart may prove especially useful in a resource-limited environment in which returning months or years later for closure of a large ventral hernia may not be possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. Desmoid Fibromatosis of the Lower Abdominal Wall in Irrua Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awe, Oluwafemi Olasupo; Eluehike, Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis (desmoid tumors) is rare tumors. It can occur as intra-abdominal, extraabdominal, or abdominal wall tumor depending on the site. The abdominal wall type is usually sporadic, but few have been associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. They are commonly seen in young females who are pregnant with a history of the previous cesarean section scar or within the 1st year of the last childbirth. There is an association between this tumor, presence of estrogen receptors, and abdominal trauma. We present a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with fungating lower abdominal wall tumor. This tumor is rare, a high index of suspicion will be very important in making the diagnosis. PMID:29643736

  14. Desmoid tumors of the abdominal wall: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Overhaus, Marcus; Decker, Pan; Fischer, Hans Peter; Textor, Hans Jochen; Hirner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential. Case Presentation We report on two female patients with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. Both patients had a history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The histology in both cases revealed a desmoid tumor. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is the first line management of this tumor entity. PMID:12890284

  15. Use of human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses in complex abdominal wall reconstructions: a literature review and case report.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Daniel R; Stawicki, S Peter; Eustance, Nicole; Warsaw, David; Desai, Darius

    2007-05-01

    The goal of abdominal wall reconstruction is to restore and maintain abdominal domain. A PubMed(R) review of the literature (including "old" MEDLINE through February 2007) suggests that bioprosthetic materials are increasingly used to facilitate complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Reported results (eight case reports/series involving 137 patients) are encouraging. The most commonly reported complications are wound seroma (18 patients, 13%), skin dehiscence with graft exposure without herniation (six, 4.4%), superficial and deep wound infections (five, 3.6%), hernia recurrence (four, 2.9%), graft failure with dehiscence (two), hematoma (two), enterocutaneous fistula (one), and flap necrosis (one). Two recent cases are reported herein. In one, a 46-year-old woman required open abdominal management after gastric remnant perforation following a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. Porcine dermal collagen combined with cutaneous flaps was used for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient's condition improved postoperatively and she was well 5 months after discharge from the hospital. In the second, a 54-year-old woman underwent repair of an abdominal wall defect following resection of a large leiomyosarcoma. Human acellular dermis combined with myocutaneous flaps was used to reconstruct the abdominal wall defect. The patient's recovery was uncomplicated and 20 weeks following surgery she was doing well with no evidence of recurrence or hernia. The results reported to date and the outcomes presented here suggest that bioprosthetic materials are safe and effective for repair of large abdominal wall defects. Prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to compare the safety and efficacy of other reconstructive techniques as well as human and porcine dermal-derived bioprostheses.

  16. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A; Parray, Fazl Q; Ahangar, Abdul G; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S

    2013-06-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12(th) postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  17. Wandering Ascaris Coming Out Through the Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192

  18. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  19. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. PMID:24289453

  20. [Abdominal wall actinomycosis. A report of a case].

    PubMed

    Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, Beatriz; Guardia-Dodorico, Lorena; Arribas-Marco, Teresa; Ania-Lahuerta, Aldonza; González Ballano, Isabel; Chipana-Salinas, Margot; Carazo-Hernández, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall Actinomycosis is a rare disease associated with the use of intrauterine device and as a complication of abdominal surgery. Diagnosis is difficult because it is unusual and behaves like a malignant neoplasm. A case report is presented of a patient who had used an intrauterine device for four years and developed a stony tumour in the abdominal wall associated with a set of symptoms that, clinically and radiologically, was simulating a peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, even in the course of an exploratory laparotomy. The patient attended our hospital with a two-month history of abdominal pain and symptoms that mimic a paraneoplastic syndrome. The diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis was suspected by the finding of the microorganism in cervical cytology together with other cultures and Actinomyces negative in pathological studies, confirming the suspicion of a complete cure with empirical treatment with penicillin. Actinomycosis should be considered in patients with pelvic mass or abdominal wall mass that mimics a malignancy. Antibiotic therapy is the first treatment choice and makes a more invasive surgical management unnecessary. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Takedown of enterocutaneous fistula and complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Slade, Dominic Alexander James; Carlson, Gordon Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    Key steps in managing patients with enterocutaneous fistulation and an abdominal wall defect include dealing effectively with abdominal sepsis and providing safe and effective nutritional support and skin care, then assessing intestinal and abdominal anatomy, before undertaking reconstructive surgery. The complexity, cost, and morbidity associated with such cases justifies creation of specialized centers in which gastroenterologic, hernia, and plastic surgical expertise, as well as experienced wound and stoma nursing and nutritional and psychological support, can be made available for patients with these challenging problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise-induced bilateral rectus sheath hematomas presenting as acute abdominal pain with scrotal swelling and pressure: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Auten, Jonathan D; Schofer, Joel M; Banks, Steven L; Rooney, Timothy B

    2010-04-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an uncommon but significant cause of acute abdominal pain in patients presenting to the Emergency Department. RSHs are often misdiagnosed as other more common causes of abdominal pain. This case describes a 23-year-old male presenting with acute abdominal pain, scrotal swelling, and associated scrotal pressure. The case highlights the uniqueness of this particular presentation and the clinical features, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of RSH. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Chronic abdominal wall pain and ultrasound-guided abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kanakarajan, Saravanakumar; High, Kristina; Nagaraja, Ravi

    2011-03-01

    Chronic abdominal wall pain occurs in about 10-30% of patients presenting with chronic abdominal pain. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle has been attributed as a cause of abdominal wall pain. We report our experience of treating such patients using ultrasound-guided abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration. We conducted a retrospective audit of abdominal cutaneous nerve infiltration performed in the period between September 2008 to August 2009 in our center. All patients had received local anesthetic and steroid injection under ultrasound guidance. The response to the infiltration was evaluated in the post-procedure telephone review as well as in the follow-up clinic. Brief pain inventory (BPI) and numerical rating scale pain scores were collated from two points: the initial outpatient clinic and the follow up clinic up to 5 months following the injection. Nine patients had abdominal cutaneous nerve injections under ultrasound guidance in the period under review. Six patients reported 50% pain relief or more (responders) while three patients did not. Pain and BPI scores showed a decreasing trend in responders. The median duration of follow-up was 12 weeks. Ultrasound can reliably be used for infiltration of the abdominal cutaneous nerves. This will improve the safety as well as diagnostic utility of the procedure. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Abdominal traumatic evisceration: reconstruction abdominal wall with biologic mesh and negative pressure therapy].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Gómez, M; Betancor Rivera, N; Lima Sánchez, J; Hernández Hernández, J R

    2016-04-10

    Abdominal traumatic evisceration as a result of high energy trauma is uncommon. Once repaired the possible internal damage, an abdominal wall defect of high complexity may exist, whose reconstruction represents a surgical challenge. Politraumatized male with important abdominal muculocutaneous avulsion and evisceration. After initial repair, the patient developed a big eventration in which we use a porcine dermis-derived mesh (Permacol TM ), a safe and effective alternative in abdominal wall repair, thanks to its seamless integration with other tissues, even when exposed. Negative pressure therapy has been used for the management of wound complications after surgical implantation of PermacolTM mesh. We describe our experience with the use of PermacolTM mesh and negative pressure therapy to aid the wound closure after skin necrosis and exposed mesh.

  5. Rare Abdominal Wall Malformation: Case Report of Umbilical Cord Hernia.

    PubMed

    Gliha, Andro; Car, Andrija; Višnjić, Stjepan; Zupancic, Bozidar; Kondza, Karmen; Petracic, Ivan

    The umbilical cord hernia is the rarest form of abdominal wall malformations, anatomically completely different from gastroschisis and omphalocele. It occurs due to the permanent physiological evisceration of abdominal organs into umbilical celom and persistence of a patent umbilical ring. The umbilical cord hernia is often mistaken for omphalocele and called "small omphalocele". Here we present a case of a female newborn with umbilical cord hernia treated in our Hospital. After preoperative examinations surgery was done on the second day of life. The abdominal wall was closed without tension. The aim of this article is to present the importance of the proper diagnose of these three entities and to stimulate academic community for the answer, is this umbilical cord hernia or small omphalocele.

  6. A rare case of severe third degree friction burns and large Morel-Lavallee lesion of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Brown, Darnell J; Lu, Kuo Jung G; Chang, Kristina; Levin, Jennifer; Schulz, John T; Goverman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLLs) are rare internal degloving injuries typically caused by blunt traumatic injuries and most commonly occur around the hips and in association with pelvic or acetabular fractures. MLL is often overlooked in the setting of poly-trauma; therefore, clinicians must maintain a high degree of suspicion and be familiar with the management of such injuries, especially in obese poly-trauma patients. We present a 30-year-old female pedestrian struck by a motor vehicle who sustained multiple long bone fractures, a mesenteric hematoma, and full-thickness abdominal skin friction burn which masked a significant underlying abdominal MLL. The internal degloving caused significant devascularization of the overlying soft tissue and skin which required surgical drainage of hematoma, abdominal wall reconstruction with tangential excision, allografting, negative pressure wound therapy, and ultimately autografting. MLL is a rare, often overlooked, internal degloving injury. Surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion when dealing with third degree friction burns as they may mask underlying injuries such as MLL, and a delay in diagnosis can lead to increased morbidity.

  7. Towards the mechanical characterization of abdominal wall by inverse analysis.

    PubMed

    Simón-Allué, R; Calvo, B; Oberai, A A; Barbone, P E

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the passive mechanical behaviour of abdominal wall in vivo in an animal model using only external cameras and numerical analysis. The main objective lies in defining a methodology that provides in vivo information of a specific patient without altering mechanical properties. It is demonstrated in the mechanical study of abdomen for hernia purposes. Mechanical tests consisted on pneumoperitoneum tests performed on New Zealand rabbits, where inner pressure was varied from 0mmHg to 12mmHg. Changes in the external abdominal surface were recorded and several points were tracked. Based on their coordinates we reconstructed a 3D finite element model of the abdominal wall, considering an incompressible hyperelastic material model defined by two parameters. The spatial distributions of these parameters (shear modulus and non linear parameter) were calculated by inverse analysis, using two different types of regularization: Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) and Tikhonov (H 1 ). After solving the inverse problem, the distribution of the material parameters were obtained along the abdominal surface. Accuracy of the results was evaluated for the last level of pressure. Results revealed a higher value of the shear modulus in a wide stripe along the craneo-caudal direction, associated with the presence of linea alba in conjunction with fascias and rectus abdominis. Non linear parameter distribution was smoother and the location of higher values varied with the regularization type. Both regularizations proved to yield in an accurate predicted displacement field, but H 1 obtained a smoother material parameter distribution while TVD included some discontinuities. The methodology here presented was able to characterize in vivo the passive non linear mechanical response of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Abdominal wall reconstruction with collagen membrane in an animal model of abdominal hernia. A preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Aleksander; Drewa, Tomasz; Skopińska-Wiśniewska, Joanna; Molski, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical procedures. Current data indicate that the best treatment results are achieved with use of synthetic material to reinforce weakened abdominal wall. Prosthetic materials utilized for hernia repair induce adhesions with underlying viscera. They should be therefore separated from them by a layer of peritoneum otherwise adhesions may cause to serious complications such as bowel-skin fistulas. The aim of our work was to determine if implantation of our collagen membrane into abdominal wall defect induce adhesions in rat model of ventral hernia. The collagen film was obtained by acetic acid extraction of rat tail tendons and than casting the soluble fraction onto polyethylene shits. Abdominal wall defect was created in 10 Wistar male rats. Collagen membranes were implanted into the defect using interrupted polypropylene stitches. After 3 months of observation all animals were sacrificed. No adhesions between path structure and bowel developed. In one often rats (10%) adhesion between fixating stitch and omentum was observed. Complete mesothelium lining and vascular ingrowth were microscopically observed within implanted structure. Promising result requires further confirmation in a larger series of animals.

  9. Intracranial Hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematoma — subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma and intraparenchymal hematoma. Subdural hematoma This occurs when blood vessels — usually veins — rupture ... brain damage can be prevented. The risk of subdural hematoma increases as you age. The risk is also ...

  10. Bioprosthetic tissue matrices in complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Justin M; Abt, Nicholas B; Sacks, Justin M; Butler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    Complex abdominal defects are difficult problems encountered by surgeons in multiple specialties. Although current evidence supports the primary repair of these defects with mesh reinforcement, it is unclear which mesh is superior for any given clinical scenario. The purpose of this review was to explore the characteristics of and clinical relevance behind bioprosthetic tissue matrices in an effort to better clarify their role in abdominal wall reconstruction. We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature on the use of bioprosthetic mesh in human subjects. Basic science articles and large retrospective and prospective reviews were included in author's analysis. The clinical performance and characteristics of 13 bioprosthetic tissue matrices were evaluated. The majority of the products evaluated perform well in contaminated fields, where the risk of wound-healing difficulties is high. Clinical outcomes, which included infection, reherniation, and bulge formation, were variable, and the majority of the studies had a mean follow-up of less than 24 months. Although bioprosthetic matrix has a multitude of indications within the growing field of abdominal wall reconstruction, the functionality, regenerative capacity, and long-term fate of these products have yet to be fully established. Furthermore, the clinical performance, indications, and contraindications for each type of matrix need to be fully evaluated in long-term outcome studies.

  11. Bioprosthetic Tissue Matrices in Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, Justin M.; Abt, Nicholas B.; Sacks, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex abdominal defects are difficult problems encountered by surgeons in multiple specialties. Although current evidence supports the primary repair of these defects with mesh reinforcement, it is unclear which mesh is superior for any given clinical scenario. The purpose of this review was to explore the characteristics of and clinical relevance behind bioprosthetic tissue matrices in an effort to better clarify their role in abdominal wall reconstruction. Methods: We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature on the use of bioprosthetic mesh in human subjects. Basic science articles and large retrospective and prospective reviews were included in author’s analysis. The clinical performance and characteristics of 13 bioprosthetic tissue matrices were evaluated. Results: The majority of the products evaluated perform well in contaminated fields, where the risk of wound-healing difficulties is high. Clinical outcomes, which included infection, reherniation, and bulge formation, were variable, and the majority of the studies had a mean follow-up of less than 24 months. Conclusions: Although bioprosthetic matrix has a multitude of indications within the growing field of abdominal wall reconstruction, the functionality, regenerative capacity, and long-term fate of these products have yet to be fully established. Furthermore, the clinical performance, indications, and contraindications for each type of matrix need to be fully evaluated in long-term outcome studies. PMID:25289285

  12. Resterilized mesh in repair of abdominal wall defects in rats.

    PubMed

    Sucullu, Ilker; Akin, Mehmet Levhi; Yitgin, Selahattin; Filiz, Ali Ilker; Kurt, Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of negative opinions about repeated usage of relatively expensive resterilized synthetic meshes have been considered. It had been stated that resterilized polypropylene meshes inhibits fibroblastic activity, decreases proliferative activity, and increases apoptosis in human fibroblast culture, in vitro. The purpose of this study is the in vivo evaluation of the resterilized mesh repairs of abdominal hernia defects in rat models of incisional hernia by comparing primer repair and original mesh repairs. The rats (n = 22) were separated into three groups. While the abdominal defect was repaired by primary suture in the control group (CG), the defects were repaired by original mesh (OG) or resterilized mesh (RG) in mesh-repaired groups. After 21 days, the rats were evaluated for tissue tensile strengths, tissue hydroxyproline levels, tissue inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Although the tensile strengths in OG and RG were significantly higher than those of CG (p < .05 and p < .05), there was no significant difference between two groups. The tissue hydroxyproline levels in OG and RG were also higher than those of CG. The difference was not significant between the two groups. The inflammation and fibrosis indexes in OG and RG were significantly higher than those of CG (p < .0001 for both), but there was no difference between groups. While the apoptosis index in OG and RG was also higher than that of CG (p < .0001 for both), there was no significant difference between OG and RG. The usage of resterilized mesh in abdominal wall repair did not reduce the tissue tensile strength, did not affect the tissue hydroxyproline levels, did not decrease the fibrosis, and did not increase the tissue inflammation and apoptosis. In conclusion, usage of resterilized meshes in abdominal wall defects was as safe as sterilized meshes.

  13. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans pneumonia with chest and abdominal wall involvement.

    PubMed

    Storms, Iris; van den Brand, Marre; Schneeberger, Peter; van 't Hullenaar, Nico

    2017-04-21

    A 54-year-old man presented with a productive cough, chest pain, fever and weight loss. Initial analysis revealed a palpable chest wall mass and consolidation in the left lower lobe and pleural abnormalities on imaging. At that point no infectious cause or malignancy was identified. Microbiological analysis of a needle biopsy from a newly developed abdominal wall mass revealed growth of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy for 1 year. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative coccobacillus and is part of the normal oral flora. It is capable of causing infections in humans including periodontitis, soft tissue abscesses and systemic invasive infections, most commonly endocarditis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall Caused by Serratia Marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Lakhani, Naheed A.; Narsinghani, Umesh; Kumar, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the first case of necrotizing fasciitis affecting the abdominal wall caused by Serratia marcescens and share results of a focused review of S. marcescens induced necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient underwent aorto-femoral bypass grafting for advanced peripheral vascular disease and presented 3 weeks postoperatively with pain, erythema and discharge from the incision site in the left lower abdominal wall and underwent multiple debridement of the affected area. Pathology of debrided tissue indicated extensive necrosis involving the adipose tissue, fascia and skeletal muscle. Wound cultures were positive for Serratia marcescens. She was successfully treated with antibiotics and multiple surgical debridements. Since necrotizing fasciitis is a medical and surgical emergency, it is critical to examine infectivity trends, clinical characteristics in its causative spectrum. Using PubMed we found 17 published cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens, and then analyzed patterns among those cases. Serratia marcescens is prominent in the community and hospital settings, and information on infection presentations, risk factors, characteristics, treatment, course, and complications as provided through this study can help identify cases earlier and mitigate poor outcomes. Patients with positive blood cultures and those patients where surgical intervention was not provided or delayed had a higher mortality. Surgical intervention is a definite way to establish the diagnosis of necrotizing infection and differentiate it from other entities. PMID:26294949

  15. [The cutaneous groin flap for coverage of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect].

    PubMed

    Doebler, O; Spierer, R

    2010-08-01

    A full-thickness defect of the abdominal wall is rare and may occur as a complication of extended abdominal surgery procedures. We report about a 69-year-old patient who was presented to our department with a full-thickness abdominal wall defect and a fully exposed collagen-mesh for reconstructive wound closure. 13 operations with resections of necrotic parts of the abdominal wall were performed following a complicated intraabdominal infection. After debridement and mesh explantation, closure of the remaining defect of the lower abdominal region was achieved by a cutaneous groin flap. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  16. Abdominal Wall Transplantation: Skin as a Sentinel Marker for Rejection.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, U A; Vrakas, G; Sawitzki, B; Macedo, R; Reddy, S; Friend, P J; Giele, H; Vaidya, A

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal wall transplantation (AWTX) has revolutionized difficult abdominal closure after intestinal transplantation (ITX). More important, the skin of the transplanted abdominal wall (AW) may serve as an immunological tool for differential diagnosis of bowel dysfunction after transplant. Between August 2008 and October 2014, 29 small bowel transplantations were performed in 28 patients (16 male, 12 female; aged 41 ± 13 years). Two groups were identified: the solid organ transplant (SOT) group (n = 15; 12 ITX and 3 modified multivisceral transplantation [MMVTX]) and the SOT-AWTX group (n = 14; 12 ITX and 2 MMVTX), with the latter including one ITX-AWTX retransplantation. Two doses of alemtuzumab were used for induction (30 mg, 6 and 24 h after reperfusion), and tacrolimus (trough levels 8-12 ng/mL) was used for maintenance immunosuppression. Patient survival was similar in both groups (67% vs. 61%); however, the SOT-AWTX group showed faster posttransplant recovery, better intestinal graft survival (79% vs. 60%), a lower intestinal rejection rate (7% vs. 27%) and a lower rate of misdiagnoses in which viral infection was mistaken and treated as rejection (14% vs. 33%). The skin component of the AW may serve as an immune modulator and sentinel marker for immunological activity in the host. This can be a vital tool for timely prevention of intestinal graft rejection and, more important, avoidance of overimmunosuppression in cases of bowel dysfunction not related to graft rejection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. The risk of volvulus in abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafeez, Abdelhafeez H; Schultz, Jessica A; Ertl, Allison; Cassidy, Laura D; Wagner, Amy J

    2015-04-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects are associated with abnormal intestinal rotation and fixation. A Ladd's procedure is not routinely performed in these patients; it is believed intestinal fixation is provided by adhesions that develop post-repair of the defects. However, patients with omphalocele may not have adequately protective postoperative adhesions because of difference in the inflammatory state of the bowel wall and in repair strategy. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of midgut volvulus in patients with gastroschisis or omphalocele. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients managed in a single institution born between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2008 with a diagnosis of gastroschisis or omphalocele. Patient charts were reviewed through 12/31/2012 for occurrence of midgut volvulus or need for second laparotomy. Of the 206 patients identified with abdominal wall defects, 142 patients (69%) had gastroschisis and 64 patients (31%) had omphalocele. Patients' follow up ranged from 4 years to 13 years. The median gestational age was 36 weeks (26-41 weeks) and the median birth weight was 2.42 kg (0.8-4.87 kg). None of the patients with gastroschisis developed midgut volvulus, however two patients (3%) with omphalocele developed midgut volvulus. No patients with gastroschisis developed midgut volvulus. Therefore, the current practice of not routinely performing a Ladd's procedure is a safe approach during surgical repair of gastroschisis. The two cases of volvulus in patients with omphalocele may be related to less bowel fixation. It is necessary to examine current practice in regards to the need for assessing the risk of volvulus during omphalocele closure and counseling of these patients. This assessment may be achieved via routine examination of the width of the small bowel mesenteric base, whenever feasible; however, the sample size is relatively small to draw any definitive conclusions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries.

  19. Atelectasis after free rectus transfer and abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jamie O; Weber, Stephen M; Andersen, Peter E; Gross, Neil D; Gosselin, Marc; Wax, Mark K

    2008-10-01

    Atelectasis is commonly encountered in patients undergoing rectus abdominus tissue transfer. Primary closure of the anterior rectus sheath may contribute to this process. Augmentation of the closure with mesh may decrease the incidence of Atelectasis. In this retrospective review 32 patients with preoperative and postoperative augmentation were compared to 23 who had primary closure of the anterior rectus sheath. Augmentation consisted of acellular dermis (25) or mesh (7). Postoperative atelectasis was radiographically detected in: 91% (n=29) of augmented patients versus 83% (n=19) of primary closure patients. Major atelectasis in 41% (n=13) of augmented patients versus 61% (n=14) of primary closure patients p<.05. The incidence of atelectasis was independent of skin flap size and operative times. The use of acellular dermis or mesh to augment the abdominal wall appears to reduce the high incidence of postoperative atelectasis following rectus-free flap harvest. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 2008.

  20. Abdominal Wall Defects in Greenland 1989-2015.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Merete; Drachmann, Gitte; Kern, Peder; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Eiberg, Hans; Olsen, Britta; Tommerup, Niels; Nielsen, Inge-Merete

    2017-07-03

    In the last decades, an increasing rate of gastroschisis but not of omphalocele has been reported worldwide. Greenland is the world's largest island, but 80% is covered by an ice cap, it has a small population of around 56,000 peoples (as of 2016). The occurrence of abdominal wall defects has never been investigated in Greenland. The present study is based on data retrieved from three nationwide and two local registries in the Greenlandic health care system over 27 years (1989-2015). We identified 33 infants with abdominal wall defects born in the study time period. All cases were reclassified to 28 cases of gastroschisis, four cases of omphalocele, and there was 1 infant in the indeterminate group. The point prevalence at birth for gastroschisis increased significantly from 8 to 35 (average 10.7) per 10,000 liveborn and -stillborn infants. Mothers below 20 years of age represented 23% of all cases and the prevalence for this group was 17 per 10,000 liveborn and stillborn. Perinatal mortality for infants with gastroschisis was high (18%), and 1 year survival was 71%. For omphalocele, the prevalence varied from 8 to 11 per 10,000 liveborn and stillborn infants. There was no increasing rate in the period, further highlighting an etiological difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele. This study confirms the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis in Greenland in the period from 1989 to 2015. The average was 10.7 per 10,000 liveborn and -stillborn infants and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the highest prevalence ever reported. Birth Defects Research 109:836-842, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Abdominal wall reinforcement: biologic vs. degradable synthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Gruber-Blum, S; Brand, J; Keibl, C; Fortelny, R H; Redl, H; Mayer, F; Petter-Puchner, A H

    2017-04-01

    New biodegradable synthetic and biologic hernia implants have been promoted for rapid integration and tissue reinforcement in challenging repairs, e.g. at the hiatus or in contaminated wound fields. Interestingly, experimental data to support or falsify this assumption is scarce. Synthetic (BioA ® ) and biologic implants (porcine and bovine collagen matrices Strattice ® and Veritas ® ) have been tested in experimental onlay hernia repair in rats in observation periods of 30 and 60 days. The key outcome parameters were mesh integration and reinforcement of the tissue at the implant site over sutured and sealed defects as well as comparison to native abdominal wall. Macroscopic assessment, biomechanical analysis and histology with haematoxylin/eosin staining, collagen staining and van Willebrand factor staining for detection of neovascularization were performed. BioA ® was well integrated. Although the matrices were already fragmented at 60 days follow-up, hernia sites treated with synthetic scaffolds showed a significantly enhanced tissue deflection and resistance to burst force when compared to the native abdominal wall. In porcine and bovine matrices, tissue integration and shrinkage were significantly inferior to BioA ® . Histology revealed a lack of fibroblast ingrowth through mesh interstices in biologic samples, whereas BioA ® was tightly connected to the underlying tissue by reticular collagen fibres. Strattice ® and Veritas ® yielded reduced tissue integration and significant shrinkage, prohibiting further biomechanical tests. The synthetic BioA ® provides little inherent strength but reticular collagen remodelling led to an augmentation of the scar due to significantly higher burst force resistance in comparison to native tissue.

  2. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  3. Chronic abdominal wall pain--a diagnostic challenge for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Stulberg, Jonah

    2009-07-01

    Chronic abdominal wall pain (CAWP) occurs in about 30% of all patients presenting with chronic abdominal pain. The authors review the literature identified in a PubMed search regarding the abdominal wall as the origin of chronic abdominal pain. CAWP is frequently misinterpreted as visceral or functional abdominal pain. Misdiagnosis often leads to a variety of investigational procedures and even abdominal operations with negative results. With a simple clinical test (Carnett's test), >90% of patients with CAWP can be recognized, without risk for missing intra-abdominal pathology. The condition can be confirmed when the injection of local anesthetics in the trigger point(s) relieves the pain. A fasciotomy in the anterior abdominal rectus muscle sheath through the nerve foramina of the affected branch of one of the anterior intercostal nerves heals the pain.

  4. Grey Turner's and Cullen's signs induced by spontaneous hemorrhage of the abdominal wall after coughing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhe; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-08-01

    Grey Turner's and Cullen's signs are rare clinical signs, which most appear in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The present patient complained of abdominal pain after coughing. However, contrast-enhanced CT revealed a hemorrhage of the abdominal wall. Therefore, spontaneous hemorrhage of the abdominal wall was diagnosed. The patient recovered through immobilization and hemostasis therapy. This case report and literature review aims to remind clinicians of manifestations and treatment of spontaneous hemorrhage.

  5. Technical advances for abdominal wall closure after intestinal and multivisceral transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Undine A; Pascher, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Abdominal wall closure after intestinal transplantation (ITX) or multivisceral transplantation (MVTX) is challenging because of the loss of abdominal domain and wall elasticity as a result of previous operations and donor-to-recipient weight and height mismatch. We report on abdominal wall closure management in 30 ITX and MVTX recipients. In 60% of patients (n = 18), a primary abdominal closure (PAC) was achieved, in 40% (n = 12) a staged closure (SAC) was necessary. Patients with PAC had undergone less pretransplant operations and required less posttransplant relaparotomies. They were mainly ITX recipients or more abdominal domain because of a longer intestinal remnant. A literature review revealed different strategies to overcome a failed primary closure. They focus on graft reduction or an enlargement of the abdominal domain. The latter includes temporary coverage with prosthetic materials for SAC. Definite abdominal closure is achieved by skin only closure, or by using acellular dermal matrix, rotational flaps, rectus muscle fascia or abdominal wall grafts. Abdominal wall reconstruction after ITX/MVTX is commonly demanded and can be conducted by different strategies. The technique should be easy to use in a timely manner and should prevent abdominal infections, intestinal fistulation, incisional hernias, and wound dehiscence.

  6. The impact of personalized probabilistic wall thickness models on peak wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Biehler, J; Wall, W A

    2018-02-01

    If computational models are ever to be used in high-stakes decision making in clinical practice, the use of personalized models and predictive simulation techniques is a must. This entails rigorous quantification of uncertainties as well as harnessing available patient-specific data to the greatest extent possible. Although researchers are beginning to realize that taking uncertainty in model input parameters into account is a necessity, the predominantly used probabilistic description for these uncertain parameters is based on elementary random variable models. In this work, we set out for a comparison of different probabilistic models for uncertain input parameters using the example of an uncertain wall thickness in finite element models of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We provide the first comparison between a random variable and a random field model for the aortic wall and investigate the impact on the probability distribution of the computed peak wall stress. Moreover, we show that the uncertainty about the prevailing peak wall stress can be reduced if noninvasively available, patient-specific data are harnessed for the construction of the probabilistic wall thickness model. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Laparoscopic excision of an epidermoid cyst arising from the deep abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Nakai, Takuya; Ueda, Kazuki; Haji, Seiji; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Ohyanagi, Harumasa

    2009-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are the most common type of cutaneous cyst. However, their occurrence in the deep abdominal wall has not yet been reported. Here, we present the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed an epidermoid cyst in the deep abdominal wall, which was resected laparoscopically. The patient presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain on admission to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed cholecystolithiasis and an incidentally identified well-defined hypoattenuating mass (62 x 47 x 65 mm) in the deep abdominal wall on the left side of the navel. We performed laparoscopic complete resection of the abdominal wall tumor followed by cholecystectomy. The excised specimen was a cyst covered with a smooth thin membrane and contained sludge. Histopathologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. This is a very rare case with no previous reports on a similar type of epidermoid cyst.

  8. Abdominal wall dysfunction in adult bladder exstrophy: a treatable but under-recognized problem.

    PubMed

    Manahan, M A; Campbell, K A; Tufaro, A P

    2016-08-01

    Bladder exstrophy is defined by urogenital and skeletal abnormalities with cosmetic and functional deformity of the lower anterior abdominal wall. The primary management objectives have historically been establishment of urinary continence with renal function preservation, reconstruction of functional and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia, and abdominal wall closure of some variety. The literature has focused on the challenges of neonatal approaches to abdominal wall closure; however, there has been a paucity of long-term followup to identify the presence and severity of abdominal wall defects in adulthood. Our goal was to characterize the adult disease and determine effective therapy. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of six patients was performed. We report and characterize the presence of severe abdominal wall dysfunction in these adult exstrophy patients treated as children. We tailored an abdominal wall and pelvic floor reconstruction with long-term success to highlight a need for awareness of the magnitude of the problem and its solvability. The natural history of abdominal wall laxity and the long-term consequences of cloacal exstrophy closure have gone unexplored and unreported. Evaluation of our series facilitates understanding in this complex area and may be valuable for patients who are living limited lives thinking that no solution is available.

  9. Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects: prenatal imaging by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Teresa; Andronikou, Savvas; Bowen, Diana; Laje, Pablo; Weiss, Dana A; Johnson, Ann M; Peranteau, William H; Canning, Douglas A; Adzick, N Scott

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal wall defects range from the mild umbilical cord hernia to the highly complex limb-body wall syndrome. The most common defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, and the rarer ones include the exstrophy complex, pentalogy of Cantrell and limb-body wall syndrome. Although all have a common feature of viscera herniation through a defect in the anterior body wall, their imaging features and, more important, postnatal management, differ widely. Correct diagnosis of each entity is imperative in order to achieve appropriate and accurate prenatal counseling and postnatal management. In this paper, we discuss fetal abdominal wall defects and present diagnostic pearls to aid with diagnosis.

  10. [Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to underlying GI pathology: seven cases].

    PubMed

    Monneuse, O; Gruner, L; Barth, X; Malick, P; Timsit, M; Gignoux, B; Tissot, E

    2007-01-01

    Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall is a rare clinical occurrence with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The primary source of the infection is often unknown. To analyze the primary underlying intestinal etiologies and diagnostic approaches of gas gangrene of the abdominal wall, and to highlight specific treatment problems, particularly that of constructing a colostomy exteriorized through a massively infected abdominal wall. Seven cases of abdominal wall gas gangrene due to a gastrointestinal etiology were identified. (Cases arising from proctologic sources or related to recent abdominal surgery were excluded.) During the same period, 39 other patients presenting with abdominal wall gangrene from non-intestinal sources were treated. The etiologies were: perforated sigmoid diverticulitis (n=2), perforated appendicitis (n=1), acute pancreatitis with associated cecal perforation (n=1), and perforated colorectal cancer (n=3). Four of the seven patients died despite treatment (mortality of 57%). The clinical presentations of these seven cases demonstrate that a GI source must be suspected whenever a patient presents with abdominal wall gas gangrene, even when there are no specific GI symptoms. Imaging, particularly with CT scan, is essential both to visualize the extent of tissue necrosis and to reveal underlying primary GI pathology. This optimizes the surgical approach both by allowing for complete debridement and drainage of infected tissue, and by focussing the intervention on correction of the underlying primary GI source of infection.

  11. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Annuar, Z; Sakijan, A S; Annuar, N; Kooi, G H

    1990-12-01

    Ultrasound examinations were done to evaluate clinically palpable abdominal masses in 125 children. The examinations were normal in 21 patients. In 15 patients, the clinically palpable masses were actually anterior abdominal wall abscesses or hematomas. Final diagnosis was available in 87 of 89 patients with intraabdominal masses detected on ultrasound. The majority (71%) were retroperitoneal masses where two-thirds were of renal origin. Ultrasound diagnosis was correct in 68 patients (78%). All cases of hydronephrosis were correctly diagnosed based on characteristic ultrasound appearances. Correct diagnoses of all cases of adrenal hematoma, psoas abscess, liver hematoma, liver abscess and one case of liver metastases were achieved with correlation of relevant clinical information.

  12. Rectus sheath hematoma of the abdomen. Case report.

    PubMed

    Villena-Tovar, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma in the vast number of cases is due to an inferior epigastric artery tear occasionally due to trauma (not considered serious) or alterations in coagulation or use of anticoagulant therapy. It is an unlikely and difficult to diagnose pathology. We present the case of a 61-year-old female patient. The patient presented in emergency service with sudden abdominal pain caused by coughing as a result of an upper respiratory tract infection. The culmination was a spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. Rectus sheath hematoma is a diagnosis to consider in a previously asymptomatic patient who presents with clinical features of acute pain and appearance of increase of volume in the abdominal wall involving the rectus muscles.

  13. Morphology of the abdominal wall in the bat, Pteronotus parnellii (Microchiroptera: Mormoopidae): implications for biosonar vocalization.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, W C; Henson, O W

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the structure of the abdominal wall of Pteronotus parnellii and made comparisons with eight other species of Microchiroptera and one megachiropteran. Similar to other mammals, the abdominal wall of bats consists of the three flank muscles laterally and the m. rectus abdominis ventrally. In Microchiroptera, flank muscles are mostly confined to dorsal portions of the wall. The mm. transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis form the bulk of the wall; the m. obliquus externus is poorly developed. Ventrolaterally, a large portion of the wall is a dense, bilaminar aponeurosis, composed of collagen, elastin, and fibroblasts. The thicker, superficial lamina derives from the mm. obliquus internus and transversus abdominis. The deep lamina is a continuation of the transversalis fascia. Collagen fibers of the two fused laminae are oriented orthogonally, resulting in a resilient, composite fabric. Fascicles of the flank muscles are oriented along the margins of the aponeurosis so that their forces appear to be concentrated onto the aponeurosis. We suggest that this system is adapted for the regulation and generation of intra-abdominal pressure. The abdominal wall of Pteropus, the one megachiropteran examined, lacks the derived aponeurosis and is similar to other mammals. We consider the abdominal wall of Microchiroptera to be analogous to the diaphragma, in that it functions in the regulation of pressure within body cavities and facilitates biosonar vocalization.

  14. Subungual Hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Subungual Hematoma Share | A subungual hematoma is a transient condition where blood and fluid ... bleeding underneath the nail. Regardless of treatment the hematoma will eventually be resorbed by the body and ...

  15. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in < or = 20% of cases, while gallstone spillage occurs in < or = 6% of cases. In most cases, there are no consequences. Gallstones can be lost in the abdominal wall as well as the abdomen during extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  16. Mechanical behaviour of synthetic surgical meshes: finite element simulation of the herniated abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Melero, H; Pascual, G; Doblaré, M; Ginebra, M P; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2011-11-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia surgery contribute to the overall mechanical behaviour of the repaired abdominal wall. The mechanical response of a surgical mesh has to be defined since the haphazard orientation of an anisotropic mesh can lead to inconsistent surgical outcomes. This study was designed to characterize the mechanical behaviour of three surgical meshes (Surgipro®, Optilene® and Infinit®) and to describe a mechanical constitutive law that accurately reproduces the experimental results. Finally, through finite element simulation, the behaviour of the abdominal wall was modelled before and after surgical mesh implant. Uniaxial loading of mesh samples in two perpendicular directions revealed the isotropic response of Surgipro® and the anisotropic behaviour of Optilene® and Infinit®. A phenomenological constitutive law was used to reproduce the measured experimental curves. To analyze the mechanical effect of the meshes once implanted in the abdomen, finite element simulation of the healthy and partially herniated repaired rabbit abdominal wall served to reproduce wall behaviour before and after mesh implant. In all cases, maximal displacements were lower and maximal principal stresses higher in the implanted abdomen than the intact wall model. Despite the fact that no mesh showed a behaviour that perfectly matched that of abdominal muscle, the Infinit® mesh was able to best comply with the biomechanics of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endometrial stromal cell attachment and matrix homeostasis in abdominal wall endometriomas.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiroko; Mogami, Haruta; Bou Nemer, Laurice; Word, Larry; Rogers, David; Miller, Rodney; Word, R Ann

    2018-02-01

    How does progesterone alter matrix remodeling in abdominal wall endometriomas compared with normal endometrium? Progesterone may prevent attachment of endometrial cells to the abdominal wall, but does not ameliorate abnormal stromal cell responses of abdominal wall endometriomas. Menstruation is a tightly orchestrated physiologic event in which steroid hormones and inflammatory cells cooperatively initiate shedding of the endometrium. Abdominal wall endometriomas represent a unique form of endometriosis in which endometrial cells inoculate fascia or dermis at the time of obstetrical or gynecologic surgery. Invasion of endometrium into ectopic sites requires matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for tissue remodeling but endometrium is not shed externally. Observational study in 14 cases and 19 controls. Tissues and stromal cells isolated from 14 abdominal wall endometriomas were compared with 19 normal cycling endometrium using immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR, gelatin zymography and cell attachment assays. P values < 0.05 were considered significant and experiments were repeated in at least three different cell preps to provide scientific rigor to the conclusions. The results indicate that MMP2 and MMP9 are not increased by TGFβ1 in endometrioma stromal cells. Although progesterone prevents attachment of endometrioma cells to matrix components of the abdominal wall, it does not ameliorate these abnormal stromal cell responses to TGFβ1. N/A. Endometriomas were collected from women identified pre-operatively. Not all endometriomas were collected. Stromal cells from normal endometrium were from different patients, not women undergoing endometrioma resection. This work provides insight into the mechanisms by which progesterone may prevent abdominal wall endometriomas but, once established, are refractory to progesterone treatment. Tissue acquisition was supported by NIH P01HD087150. Authors have no competing interests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford

  18. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ding-Hui; Liu, Wen-Yan; Feng, Hai-Bo; Fu, Yi-Li; Huang, Shi; Xiang, Jun-Xi; Lyu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI), relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT) deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3) is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. “BMI-ICAWT” curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x) = P1 × x2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056), P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164), P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412), R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of “BMI-ICAWT” curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI. PMID:26228215

  19. An evaluation of abdominal wall closure in general surgical and gynecological residents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Z; Williams, S; Easley, H A; Seita, H M; Hope, W W

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate abdominal wall closure knowledge base and technical skills in surgical and OB/GYN residents. Residents consented to participate in a skills laboratory and quiz. The skills portion involved closure of a 10-cm incision on a simulated abdominal wall. Participants were timed, filmed, and graded using a standardized grading system. Thirty surgical and OB/GYN residents participated. All residents reported closing the abdominal wall continuously, 97% preferred slowly absorbing sutures (28/29), 97% preferred taking 1-cm bites (29/30), and 93% spaced bites 1 cm apart (27/29). However, 77% (10/13) of surgery residents identified 4:1 as the ideal suture to wound length ratio; 47% (7/15) of OB/GYN residents believed it to be 2:1, and another 40% (6/15) indicated 3:1 (p < 0.0001). In the simulation, OB/GYN residents used significantly fewer stitches (p = 0.0028), significantly more distance between bites (p < 0.0001), and significantly larger bite size (p < 0.0001) than surgery residents. When graded, there was no significant difference between programs. Despite some knowledge regarding the principles of abdominal wall closure among surgical and OB/GYN residents, more instruction is needed. We identified some differences in knowledge base and techniques for abdominal wall closure among general surgery and OB/GYN residents, which are likely due to differences in educational curriculums.

  20. Mesh abdominal wall hernia surgery is safe and effective-the harm New Zealand media has done.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven

    2017-10-06

    Patients in New Zealand have now developed a fear of mesh abdominal wall hernia repair due to inaccurate media reporting. This article outlines the extensive literature that confirms abdominal wall mesh hernia repair is safe and effective. The worsening confidence in the transvaginal mesh prolapse repair should not adversely affect the good results of mesh abdominal wall hernia repair. New Zealand general surgeons are well trained in providing modern hernia surgery.

  1. Ectodermal Wnt signaling regulates abdominal myogenesis during ventral body wall development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Li, Hanjun; Yu, Jian; Cao, Jingjing; Chen, Huihui; Zhao, Haixia; Zhao, Jianzhi; Yao, Yiyun; Cheng, Huihui; Wang, Lifang; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2014-03-01

    Defects of the ventral body wall are prevalent birth anomalies marked by deficiencies in body wall closure, hypoplasia of the abdominal musculature and multiple malformations across a gamut of organs. However, the mechanisms underlying ventral body wall defects remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt signaling in ventral body wall development by inactivating Wls or β-catenin in murine abdominal ectoderm. The loss of Wls in the ventral epithelium, which blocks the secretion of Wnt proteins, resulted in dysgenesis of ventral musculature and genito-urinary tract during embryonic development. Molecular analyses revealed that the dermis and myogenic differentiation in the underlying mesenchymal progenitor cells was perturbed by the loss of ectodermal Wls. The activity of the Wnt-Pitx2 axis was impaired in the ventral mesenchyme of the mutant body wall, which partially accounted for the defects in ventral musculature formation. In contrast, epithelial depletion of β-catenin or Wnt5a did not resemble the body wall defects in the ectodermal Wls mutant. These findings indicate that ectodermal Wnt signaling instructs the underlying mesodermal specification and abdominal musculature formation during ventral body wall development, adding evidence to the theory that ectoderm-mesenchyme signaling is a potential unifying mechanism for the origin of ventral body wall defects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhoubing; Allen, Wade M.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore,more » to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and

  3. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis: Myofibroblasts as a Possible Evidence of Metaplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Gamal; Delarue, Eleonore; Abesadze, Elene; Haas, Matthias; Sehouli, Jalid; Chiantera, Vito; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report about a patient with extra-uterine endometriosis (EM) in the abdominal wall muscle with evident metaplasia based on the abundant alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA)-expressing myofibroblasts. Laparotomy excision of the abdominal wall EM was done following ultrasonographic evidence of a hypodense swelling in the right rectus abdominis, which was confirmed by MRI. Immunohistochemistry staining for ASMA and collagen I was done, with the results confirming that endometriotic stromal cells expressed both. Anterior abdominal wall endometriosis was suspected because of the patient's history of recurrent EM combined with the cyclic nature of symptoms. MRI is useful in determining the extent of the disease. In case of persisting symptoms even under hormonal treatment, surgical excision is mandatory. The expression of both ASMA and collagen I in and around EM lesions supports the notion of the metaplastic process in the course of disease development. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Abdominal wall Hydatid cyst: A review a literature with a case report.

    PubMed

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, F H; Hammood, Zuhair D; Yasin, Bzhwen; Ahmed, Dilshad M

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is a serious health problem in endemic areas. It is a parasitic infection that commonly involves liver and lungs while muscular HC is rare. HC of abdominal wall was reported only six times. We reported a 39-year-old male presented with HC of the right loin who was managed surgically with brief literature review. HC should be put in the differential diagnosis of the abdominal wall masses. Its pre-operative diagnosis is important to prevent rupture with subsequent anaphylaxis and recurrence. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Contraction of Abdominal Wall Muscles Influences Incisional Hernia Occurrence and Size

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Samuel C.; Hu, Yaxi; Wollstein, Adi; Franz, Michael G.; Patel, Shaun P.; Kuzon, William M.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional hernias are a complication in 10% of all open abdominal operations and can result in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine if inhibiting abdominal muscle contraction influences incisional hernia formation during laparotomy healing. We hypothesize that reducing abdominal musculature deformation reduces incisional hernia occurrence and size. Study Design Using an established rat model for incisional hernia, a laparotomy through the linea alba was closed with one mid-incision, fast-absorbing suture. Three groups were compared: a SHAM group (SHAM; n = 6) received no laparotomies while the Saline Hernia (SH; n = 6) and Botox Hernia (BH; n = 6) groups were treated once with equal volume saline or Botulinum Toxin (Botox®, Allergan) before the incomplete laparotomy closure. On post-operative day 14, the abdominal wall was examined for herniation and adhesions and contractile forces were measured for abdominal wall muscles. Results No hernias developed in SHAM rats. Rostral hernias developed in all SH and BH rats. Caudal hernias developed in all SH rats, but in only 50% of the BH rats. Rostral hernias in the BH group were 35% shorter and 43% narrower compared to those in the SH group (p < 0.05). The BH group had weaker abdominal muscles compared to the SHAM and SH groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions In our rat model, partial paralysis of abdominal muscles reduces the number and size of incisional hernias. These results confirm abdominal wall muscle contractions play a significant role in the pathophysiology of incisional hernia formation. PMID:25817097

  6. Role of tissue expansion in abdominal wall reconstruction: A systematic evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kimberly E; Ozturk, Cemile Nurdan; Ozturk, Can; Laub, Peter; Aronoff, Nell; Gurunluoglu, Raffi

    2017-06-01

    Tissue expanders (TEs) can be used to assist primary closure of complicated hernias and large abdominal wall defects. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal technique, use, or associated risk of TE in abdominal wall reconstruction. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted to identify articles reporting abdominal wall reconstruction with TE techniques. English articles published between 1980 and 2016 were included on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: two-stage TE surgical technique, >3 cases, reporting of postoperative complications, hernia recurrence, and patient-based clinical data. Fourteen studies containing 103 patients (85 adults and 18 children) were identified for analysis. Most patients presented with a skin-grafted ventral hernia (n = 86). The etiology of the hernia was from trauma or prior abdominal surgery. The remaining patients had TE placed before organ transplantation (n = 12) or for congenital abdominal wall defects (n = 5). The location for expander placement was subcutaneous (n = 74), between the internal and external obliques (n = 26), posterior to the rectus sheath (n = 2), and intra-peritoneal (n = 1). Postoperative infections and implant-related problems were the most commonly reported complications after Stage I. The most common complication after Stage II was recurrent hernia, which was observed in 12 patients (11.7%). Five patients with TE died. Complications and mortality were more prevalent in children, immunosuppressed patients, and those with chronic illnesses. Tissue expansion for abdominal wall reconstruction can be successfully used for a variety of carefully selected patients with an acceptable complication and risk profile. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dura covered with fibrin glue reduces adhesions in abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Schier, F; Srour, N; Waldschmidt, J

    1991-12-01

    Dura can greatly facilitate the closure of abdominal wall defects. However, a main disadvantage of its use are the adhesions which develop between omentum, bowel and dura and may lead to bowel obstructions. In this study various groups of rats had either the anterior wall replaced by untreated dura or by dura covered with fibrin glue prior to implantation. Adhesions were found in 75% of sham operated rats, 100% after untreated dura implantation and 50% after the implantation of fibrin glue treated dura.

  8. [Abdominal catastrophe--abdominal wall defect associated with gastrointestinal fistula--strategy of therapy].

    PubMed

    Chobola, M; Sobotka, L; Ferko, A; Oberreiter, M; Kaska, M; Motycka, V; Páral, J; Mottl, R

    2010-11-01

    Wound dehiscence complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) fistula to belong ,,abdominal catastrophe". Therapy is prolonged and connected with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the period from October 2006 to July 2009 we performed 12 reconstructive surgical procedures on gastrointestinal tract in patients with abdominal catastrophe. Treatment of 12 consecutive patients (9 men, 3 women) was managed according to a standardize protocol. The protocol consists of treatment of septic complications, optimisation of nutritional state, special wound procedures, diagnosis of gastrointestinal fistulas and GI tract, timing of surgical procedures, reconstruction of GI tract and postoperative care. Reconstructive surgery of GI tract was successful on 11 patients. One patient developed recurrence of early GI fistula. In four patients we let open abdomen to heal per secundam. We observed no deaths after operation. With regard to complex character of therapy of abdominal catastrophe there is a need of multidisciplinary approach. Considering long-lasting and expensive therapy there is logical step to concentrate these patients into special centres which are experienced, equipped and their staff is trained in treatment of such a seriously impaired patients.

  9. Reconstruction of infected abdominal wall defects using latissimus dorsi free flap.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Sang Chul; Hwang, Kyu Tae; Ahn, Byung Kyu; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Infected abdominal defects are a challenge to surgeons. In this study, we describe 10 cases in which the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used for successful reconstruction of abdominal wall defects severely infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective review of 10 patients with abdominal wall defects that were reconstructed using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap between 2002 and 2010. All patients had abdominal defects with hernias, combined with MRSA infections. The sizes of the flaps ranged from 120 to 364 cm(2) . The deep inferior epigastric artery was the recipient vessel in nine patients and the internal mammary vessels were used for one patient. There were no complications relating to the flaps, although there were other minor complications including wound dehiscence, haematoma and fluid correction. After reconstruction, there were no signs of infection during follow-up periods, and the patients were satisfied with the final results. Reconstruction using the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, including muscle fascia structures, is a potential treatment option for severely infected large abdominal wall defects. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Impact of isotropic constitutive descriptions on the predicted peak wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Man, V; Polzer, S; Gasser, T C; Novotny, T; Bursa, J

    2018-03-01

    Biomechanics-based assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk has gained considerable scientific and clinical momentum. However, computation of peak wall stress (PWS) using state-of-the-art finite element models is time demanding. This study investigates which features of the constitutive description of AAA wall are decisive for achieving acceptable stress predictions in it. Influence of five different isotropic constitutive descriptions of AAA wall is tested; models reflect realistic non-linear, artificially stiff non-linear, or artificially stiff pseudo-linear constitutive descriptions of AAA wall. Influence of the AAA wall model is tested on idealized (n=4) and patient-specific (n=16) AAA geometries. Wall stress computations consider a (hypothetical) load-free configuration and include residual stresses homogenizing the stresses across the wall. Wall stress differences amongst the different descriptions were statistically analyzed. When the qualitatively similar non-linear response of the AAA wall with low initial stiffness and subsequent strain stiffening was taken into consideration, wall stress (and PWS) predictions did not change significantly. Keeping this non-linear feature when using an artificially stiff wall can save up to 30% of the computational time, without significant change in PWS. In contrast, a stiff pseudo-linear elastic model may underestimate the PWS and is not reliable for AAA wall stress computations. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rectus sheath block: successful use in the chronic pain management of pediatric abdominal wall pain.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Adam V; Lauder, Gillian R

    2007-12-01

    Seven pediatric patients (aged 11-16 years) with chronic abdominal wall pain are presented who gained significant relief from a rectus sheath block (RSB). We describe the case histories and review the relevant literature for this technique. The etiology of the abdominal wall pain was considered to be abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment, iatrogenic peripheral nerve injury, myofascial pain syndrome or was unknown. All patients showed significant initial improvement in pain and quality of life. Three patients required only the RSB to enable them to be pain-free and return to normal schooling and physical activities. Two children received complete relief for more than 1 year. In the majority of cases, the procedure was carried out under general anesthesia as a daycase procedure. Local anesthetic and steroids were used. This is the first report of the successful use of this technique in the chronic pain management setting in children.

  12. 2017 update of the WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, Arianna; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Campanelli, Giampiero; Khokha, Vladimir; Moore, Ernest E; Peitzman, Andrew; Velmahos, George; Moore, Frederick Alan; Leppaniemi, Ari; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Biffl, Walter L; Koike, Kaoru; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P; Ordonez, Carlos A; Novello, Matteo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Sakakushev, Boris; Gerych, Igor; Wani, Imtiaz; Kelly, Michael D; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Faro, Mario Paulo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Lee, Jae Gil; Vettoretto, Nereo; Guercioni, Gianluca; Persiani, Roberto; Tranà, Cristian; Cui, Yunfeng; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Abbas, Ashraf El-Sayed; Sato, Norio; Marwah, Sanjay; Rangarajan, Muthukumaran; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Adesunkanmi, Abdul Rashid K; Lohse, Helmut Alfredo Segovia; Kenig, Jakub; Mandalà, Stefano; Coimbra, Raul; Bhangu, Aneel; Suggett, Nigel; Biondi, Antonio; Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Scibé, Rodolfo; Sugrue, Michael; Chiara, Osvaldo; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias may be associated with worsen outcome and a significant rate of postoperative complications. There is no consensus on management of complicated abdominal hernias. The main matter of debate is about the use of mesh in case of intestinal resection and the type of mesh to be used. Wound infection is the most common complication encountered and represents an immense burden especially in the presence of a mesh. The recurrence rate is an important topic that influences the final outcome. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013 with the aim to define recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. In 2016, the guidelines have been revised and updated according to the most recent available literature.

  13. Clinical evaluation of extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Dong, L-R; Zhu, Y-M; Xu, Q; Cao, C-X; Zhang, B-Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall is an improved surgical procedure compared with conventional sigmoid colostomy in patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection. Patients with rectal cancer undergoing abdominoperineal resection were selected and randomly divided into two groups: the study group received extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall and the control group received conventional colostomy. Clinical data from both groups were analysed. A total of 128 patients were included: 66 received extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall and 62 received conventional colostomy. Significant differences between the two groups were found in relation to colostomy operating time, defaecation sensation, bowel control and overall stoma-related complications. Duration of postoperative hospital stay was also significantly different between the study groups. Extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall was found to be an improved procedure compared with conventional sigmoid colostomy in abdominoperineal resection, and may reduce colostomy-related complications, shorten operating time and postoperative hospital stay, and potentially improve patients' quality of life.

  14. [Experience with Clotteau-Prémont's technique in abdominal wall hernias. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Soto-Dávalos, Baltazar Alberto; Del Pozzo-Magaña, José Antonio; Luna-Martínez, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Incisional hernias account for at least a third of abdominal wall hernias. There are different techniques of repair that include the use of prosthetic materials, which has lowered the hernia recurrence rate. Nonetheless, its use in case of rejection or infection requires other techniques with local tissue. The use of prosthetic material in a contaminated environment is contraindicated because the risk of infection and recurrence rate is unacceptably high. In order to compare two repair techniques for abdominal wall hernias in terms of complications and recurrence to be used as an alternative for hernia repair in patients with abdominal wall hernias, we conducted, between January 2000 and January 2004, an observational, longitudinal, retrospective, non-randomized matched control case study in patients with abdominal wall hernia. A total of 30 patients were studied and were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Subjects were matched for sex, age and hernia type (group A, mesh treated and group B, Clotteau-Prémont treated) who had at least a 5-month postoperative follow-up. Complication and recurrence rate was assessed and compared. There were no differences between the two groups in complications or recurrence (p <0.05). The average follow-up time was 18.9 +/- 8 months for group A and 15 +/- 7.9 months for group B. Clotteau-Prémont's technique is a safe and feasible alternative procedure with indications in selected patients.

  15. Characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of human abdominal wall connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Astruc, Laure; De Meulaere, Maurice; Witz, Jean-François; Nováček, Vit; Turquier, Frédéric; Hoc, Thierry; Brieu, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall sheathing tissues are commonly involved in hernia formation. However, there is very limited work studying mechanics of all tissues from the same donor which prevents a complete understanding of the abdominal wall behavior and the differences in these tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the mechanical properties of the linea alba and the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths from a macroscopic point of view. Eight full-thickness human anterior abdominal walls of both genders were collected and longitudinal and transverse samples were harvested from the three sheathing connective tissues. The total of 398 uniaxial tensile tests was conducted and the mechanical characteristics of the behavior (tangent rigidities for small and large deformations) were determined. Statistical comparisons highlighted heterogeneity and non-linearity in behavior of the three tissues under both small and large deformations. High anisotropy was observed under small and large deformations with higher stress in the transverse direction. Variabilities in the mechanical properties of the linea alba according to the gender and location were also identified. Finally, data dispersion correlated with microstructure revealed that macroscopic characterization is not sufficient to fully describe behavior. Microstructure consideration is needed. These results provide a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall sheathing tissues as well as the directions for microstructure-based constitutive model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Giant spigelian hernia due to abdominal wall injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ersun; Kaya, Ekrem; Topal, Naile Bolca; Sahin, Ilker

    2007-02-01

    Spigelian hernia is a rare clinical entity. It is difficult to diagnose due to its location. In this article we report the case of a giant spigelian hernia consequent to abdominal wall injury. The neck of the hernia was 10 cm in diameter. We repaired this hernia with a polypropylene mesh.

  17. [Prophylactics and treatment of postoperative hernias of the lateral abdominal walls using polypropylene endoprosthesis].

    PubMed

    Sukovatykh, B S; Valuĭskaia, N M; Pravednikova, N V; Netiaga, A A; Kas'ianova, M A; Zhukovskiĭ, V A

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of complex examination and treatment of 151 patients after planned and performed surgical interventions on organs of the retroperitoneal space was made. The patients were divided into 4 groups. The first group (of comparison) included 46 patients who were treated by lumbotomy for different diseases of organs of the urinary system. In 35 patients of the second group (prophylactics) the indications were determined and in 20 patients preventive endoprosthesis of the lateral abdominal wall using polypropylene endoprosthesis was fulfilled. Herniotomy with plasty of the lateral abdominal wall using local tissues was fulfilled in 30 patients. Prosthesing hernioplasty of the lateral abdominal wall was fulfilled in 40 patients of the main group. It was found that preventive endoprosthesis of the lateral abdominal wall allowed prevention of progressing anatomo-functional i/isufficiency and the appearance of postoperative hernias. The application of polypropylene endoprosthesis for the treatment of postoperative hernias allows obtaining 36.4% more good results as compared with the control group, 21.7% decreased number of satisfactory results and no recurrent hernias.

  18. Age determination of vessel wall hematoma in spontaneous cervical artery dissection: A multi-sequence 3T Cardiovascular Magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previously proposed classifications for carotid plaque and cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages are used to estimate the age of hematoma according to its signal intensities on T1w and T2w MR images. Using these classifications, we systematically investigated the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in determining the age of vessel wall hematoma (VWH) in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD). Methods 35 consecutive patients (mean age 43.6 ± 9.8 years) with sCAD received a cervical multi-sequence 3T CMR with fat-saturated black-blood T1w-, T2w- and TOF images. Age of sCAD was defined as time between onset of symptoms (stroke, TIA or Horner's syndrome) and the CMR scan. VWH were categorized into hyperacute, acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic based on their signal intensities on T1w- and T2w images. Results The mean age of sCAD was 2.0, 5.8, 15.7 and 58.7 days in patients with acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic VWH as classified by CMR (p < 0.001 for trend). Agreement was moderate between VWH types in our study and the previously proposed time scheme of signal evolution for cerebral hemorrhage, Cohen's kappa 0.43 (p < 0.001). There was a strong agreement of CMR VWH classification compared to the time scheme which was proposed for carotid intraplaque hematomas with Cohen's kappa of 0.74 (p < 0.001). Conclusions Signal intensities of VWH in sCAD vary over time and multi-sequence CMR can help to determine the age of an arterial dissection. Furthermore, findings of this study suggest that the time course of carotid hematomas differs from that of cerebral hematomas. PMID:22122756

  19. Investigation into the optimal prosthetic material for wound healing of abdominal wall defects

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Adem; Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Citgez, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate and compare the effects of prosthetic materials used for wound healing of abdominal wall hernias. A total of 60 rats were divided into five equal groups: Group I, control subjected to laparotomy; group II, abdominal wall defect 3×2 cm+polypropylene (PP) mesh; group III, abdominal wall defect 3×2 cm+PP mesh+hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose (H-CMC; Seprafilm®); group IV, abdominal wall defect 3×2 cm+polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Composix™); and group V, abdominal wall defect 3×2 cm+polyethylene terephthalate (PET; Dacron®). A total of 14 days after the surgery, rats were sacrificed and the meshes with the surrounding tissue were extracted in block. The breaking strength of the mesh from the fascia was recorded. The healing tissue was examined with the index of histopathology and the hydroxyproline value was analyzed using the Switzer method. Both the breaking strength and histopathological index of the wound healing were significantly improved in groups II and III compared with that in groups IV and V (P<0.001). Hydroxyproline values were the highest in group I (P<0.001). There was also a statistically significant difference between groups II and IV, and group V and the other groups (P<0.001). The present findings demonstrated that PP mesh and PP mesh+H-CMC had a superior breaking strength and improved histopathologic indices compared with PTFE and PET. Furthermore, hydroxyproline values were the lowest in the PET group. In conclusion, wound healing was improved in the PP mesh group and the PP mesh+H-CMC group compared with the PTFE and PET groups according to the present study parameters. PMID:29399133

  20. A novel nonoperative approach to abdominal compartment syndrome after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeenat R; Sorensen, G Brent

    2013-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome have been increasingly recognized as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in both medical and surgical patients. The gold standard remains surgical intervention; however, nonoperative approaches have been investigated less. Here, we describe the successful treatment of a severe acute case by intubation, nasogastric decompression, and paralysis--a novel approach not previously described in the literature. After the patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral component separation and repair of a large recurrent ventral hernia with a 20 30-cm Strattice mesh (LifeCell Corp, Branchburg, NJ), acute renal failure developed within 12 hours postoperatively, and was associated with oliguria, hyperkalemia, and elevated peak airway and bladder pressures. The patient was treated nonoperatively with intubation, nasogastric tube decompression, and paralysis with a vecuronium drip. Rapid reversal was seen, avoiding further surgery. Within 2 hours after intubation and paralysis, our patient's urine output improved dramatically with an initial diuresis of approximately 1 L, his bladder pressures decreased, and within 12 hours his creatinine level had normalized. Although surgical intervention has traditionally been thought of as the most effective--and thus the gold standard--for abdominal compartment syndrome, this preliminary experience demonstrates nonoperative management as highly efficacious, with the added benefit of decreased morbidity. Therefore, nonoperative management could be considered first-line therapy, with laparotomy reserved for refractory cases only. This suggests a more complex pathology than the traditional teaching of congestion and edema alone.

  1. The Relationship Between Surface Curvature and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress.

    PubMed

    de Galarreta, Sergio Ruiz; Cazón, Aitor; Antón, Raúl; Finol, Ender A

    2017-08-01

    The maximum diameter (MD) criterion is the most important factor when predicting risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). An elevated wall stress has also been linked to a high risk of aneurysm rupture, yet is an uncommon clinical practice to compute AAA wall stress. The purpose of this study is to assess whether other characteristics of the AAA geometry are statistically correlated with wall stress. Using in-house segmentation and meshing algorithms, 30 patient-specific AAA models were generated for finite element analysis (FEA). These models were subsequently used to estimate wall stress and maximum diameter and to evaluate the spatial distributions of wall thickness, cross-sectional diameter, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature. Data analysis consisted of statistical correlations of the aforementioned geometry metrics with wall stress for the 30 AAA inner and outer wall surfaces. In addition, a linear regression analysis was performed with all the AAA wall surfaces to quantify the relationship of the geometric indices with wall stress. These analyses indicated that while all the geometry metrics have statistically significant correlations with wall stress, the local mean curvature (LMC) exhibits the highest average Pearson's correlation coefficient for both inner and outer wall surfaces. The linear regression analysis revealed coefficients of determination for the outer and inner wall surfaces of 0.712 and 0.516, respectively, with LMC having the largest effect on the linear regression equation with wall stress. This work underscores the importance of evaluating AAA mean wall curvature as a potential surrogate for wall stress.

  2. The use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Young, J; Gilbert, A I; Graham, M F

    2007-08-01

    The diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias is not always straightforward and may require additional investigative modalities. Real-time ultrasound is accurate, non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, and readily available. The value of ultrasound as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias in both pre-operative and post-operative patients was studied. Retrospective analysis of 200 patients treated at the Hernia Institute of Florida was carried out. In these cases, ultrasound had been used to assist with case management. Patients without previous hernia surgery and those with early and late post-herniorrhaphy complaints were studied. Patients with obvious hernias were excluded. Indications for ultrasound examination included patients with abdominal pain without a palpable hernia, a palpable mass of questionable etiology, and patients with inordinate pain or excessive swelling during the early post-operative period. Patients were treated with surgery or conservative therapy depending on the results of the physical examination and ultrasound studies. Cases in which the ultrasound findings influenced the decision-making process by confirming clinical findings or altering the diagnosis and changing the treatment plan are discussed. Of the 200 patients, 144 complained of pain alone and on physical exam no hernia or mass was palpable. Of these 144 patients with pain alone, 21 had a hernia identified on the US examination and were referred for surgery. The 108 that had a negative ultrasound were treated conservatively with rest, heat, and anti-inflammatory drugs, most often with excellent results. Of the 56 remaining patients who had a mass, with or without pain, 22 had hernias identified by means of ultrasound examination. In the other 34, the etiology of the mass was not a hernia. Abdominal wall ultrasound is a valuable tool in the scheme of management of patients in whom the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernia is unclear. Therapeutic decisions can be

  3. Catheter enterostomy and patch repair of the abdominal wall for gastroschisis with intestinal atresia: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshida, Tatsuyuki; Yamada, Hiroto; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Masahata, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    A male infant, weighing 2177 g, was born with the entire intestine protruding through a defect on the right side of the navel. Intestinal atresia, approximately 70 cm from the Treitz ligament, was also confirmed. Primary anastomosis and abdominal wall repair were impossible because of the intestinal dilation and thick peel, as well as the small abdominal cavity. Thus, we initially performed catheter enterostomy with a 14-F balloon catheter and patch repair of the abdominal wall, to enable the baby to be fed. Secondary anastomosis and abdominal wall repair was safely performed when the baby was 106 days old. The combination of catheter enterostomy and patch repair of the abdominal wall does not require dissection of the intestine and it can be safely performed in low-birth-weight babies. It also enables feeding and weight gain, and the overlying skin prevents contamination of the artificial sheet. We recommend this combination for neonates with both gastroschisis and intestinal atresia.

  4. Outcomes of abdominal wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix are not affected by wound contamination.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Patrick B; Martinez, Roberto A; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2014-11-01

    The optimal type of mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that AWRs using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) experience low rates of surgical site occurrence (SSO) and surgical site infection, despite increasing degrees of wound contamination. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive abdominal wall reconstructions with ADM over a 9-year period. Outcomes of abdominal wall reconstructions were compared between patients with different CDC wound classifications. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses identified potential associations and predictive/protective factors. The 359 patients had a mean follow-up of 28.3 ± 19.0 months. Reconstruction of clean wounds (n = 171) required fewer reoperations than that of combined contaminated (n = 188) wounds (2.3% vs 11.2%; p = 0.001) and trended toward experiencing fewer SSOs (19.9% vs 28.7%, p = 0.052). There were no significant differences between clean and combined contaminated cases in 30-day SSI (8.8% vs 8.0%), hernia recurrence (9.9% vs 10.1%), and mesh removal (1.2% vs 1.1%) rates. Independent predictors of SSO included body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio [OR] 3.6; p < 0.001), 1 or more comorbidities (OR 2.5; p = 0.008), and defect width ≥15 cm (OR 1.8; p = 0.02). Complex abdominal wall reconstructions using ADM demonstrated similar rates of complications between the different CDC wound classifications. This is in contradistinction to published outcomes for abdominal wall reconstruction using synthetic mesh that show progressively higher complication rates with increasing degrees of contamination. These data support the use of ADM rather than synthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction in the setting of wound contamination. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Abdominal wall phlebitis due to Prevotella bivia following renal transplantation in a patient with an occluded inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; van Donselaar-van der Pant, K A M I; van der Weerd, N C; Develter, W; Bemelman, F J; Grobusch, M P; Idu, M M; Ten Berge, I J M

    2013-02-01

    Pre-existing occlusion of the inferior vena cava may complicate renal transplantation. Suppurative abdominal wall phlebitis following renal transplantation was diagnosed in a patient with pre-existing thrombosis of the inferior vena cava of unknown cause. The phlebitis developed in the subcutaneous collateral veins of the abdominal wall contra-laterally to the renal transplant. Cultures from abdominal wall micro-abscesses yielded Prevotella bivia as the causative agent. This complication has not been described before in the context of renal transplantation. The pathogenesis and management of this serious complication are discussed in this paper.

  6. [Endoprosthetic replacement with lifting of abdominal wall in treatment of umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias].

    PubMed

    Sukhovatykh, B S; Valuyskaya, N M; Gerasimchuk, E V

    2015-01-01

    The results of complex clinical and ultrasonic investigation of abdominal wall and following surgical treatment in 60 women with umbilical and postoperative large ventral hernias combined with abdomen ptosis were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups with 30 people per group. Endoprosthetic replacement of abdominal wall defect using standard polypropylene prosthesis was applied in the 1st group, endoprosthetic replacement with musculoaponeurotic tissues lifting in hypogastric area using original super lightweight polypropylenepolyvinylidenefluoride prosthesis--in the 2nd group. Polypropylene endoprosthesisconsist of main flap 15×15 cm with roundish edges and additional flap 5×40 cm in the form of wide stripe placed at the lower edge of main flap transversely to its direction. It was revealed increased physical health component in 1.8 times, psychic--in 2.5 times in the 2nd group. Thus number of excellent results increased on 33.3% and amount of satisfactory outcomes reduced on 30%.

  7. Illustrated review of new imaging techniques in the diagnosis of abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Toms, A P; Dixon, A K; Murphy, J M; Jamieson, N V

    1999-10-01

    The assessment of abdominal wall hernias has long been a clinical skill that only occasionally required the supplementary radiological assistance of herniography. However, with the advent of cross-sectional imaging, a new range of diagnostic tools is now available to help the clinician in difficult cases. This review explores the ability of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate many of the hernias encountered in the anterior abdominal wall. Also discussed is the role of imaging techniques in the management of a variety of hernias. Cross-sectional imaging techniques are being employed with increasing frequency for the assessment of hernias. Although the anatomical detail can usually be delineated clearly, the accuracy of the various methods and their place in the clinical management of hernias has yet to be fully determined.

  8. Desmoid Fibromatosis of the Abdominal Wall: Surgical Resection and Reconstruction with Biological Matrix Egis®

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Saveria; Mocellin, Simone; Stramare, Roberto; Bonavina, Maria Giuseppina; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Rastrelli, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a rare monoclonal fibroblast proliferation that is regarded as benign. The clinical management of desmoid tumors is very complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach because of the unpredictable disease course. For those cases localized in the anterior abdominal wall, symptomatic and unresponsive to medical treatment, radical resection and reconstruction with a prosthetic device are indicated. We present here a case of desmoid fibromatosis of the left anterolateral abdominal wall with a marked increase of the mass that required a large excision followed by reconstruction with biological matrix. The fact that it can be incorporated in patient tissue without a fibrotic response and that it can resist future infections, together with a very competetive price, made the new collagen matrix Egis® our first choice. PMID:28413398

  9. Abdominal wall reconstruction following removal of a chronically infected mid-urethral tape.

    PubMed

    Walker, Helen; Brooker, Thomas; Gelman, Wolf

    2009-10-01

    We report a rare postoperative complication of a mid-urethral tape. The patient presented with a chronic infection resistant to treatment with several weeks of antibiotics, with eventual surgical removal, and the resulting complications of an infected incisional hernia and vesico-cutaneous fistula required reconstruction of the abdominal wall with Permacol and excision of the vesico-cutaneous fistula. We also look briefly at the impact of health tourism on the National Health Service.

  10. Clostridial Gas Gangrene of the Abdominal Wall After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Annelieke M K; van Tol, Erik; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; de Brauw, L Maurits

    2016-08-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene is a rare, yet severe, complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case report of a 48-year-old man with obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes, who developed clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the diagnosis was missed initially, successful radical surgical debridement was performed and the patient survived. Pathogenesis, symptoms, prognostic factors, and the best treatment are discussed.

  11. Pilot study on objective measurement of abdominal wall strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael; Goldberg, Ross F; Dinkins, Maryane M; Asbun, Horacio J; Daniel Smith, C; Preissler, Susanne; Bowers, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Outcomes after ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair are measured by recurrence rate and subjective measures. No objective metrics evaluate functional outcomes after abdominal wall reconstruction. This study aimed to develop testing of abdominal wall strength (AWS) that could be validated as a useful metric. Data were prospectively collected during 9 months from 35 patients. A total of 10 patients were evaluated before and after VIH repair, for a total of 45 encounters. The patients were tested simultaneously or in succession by two of three examiners. Data were collected for three tests: double leg lowering (DLL), trunk raising (TR), and supine reaching (SR). Raw data were compared and tested for validity, and continuous data were transformed to categorical data. Agreement was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DLL and using kappa for the ordinal measures. Simultaneous testing yielded the following interobserver reliability: DLL (0.96 and 0.87), TR (1.00 and 0.95), and SR (0.76). Reproducibility was assessed by consecutive tests, with correlation as follows: DLL (0.81), TR (0.81), and RCH (0.21). Due to poor interobserver reliability for the SR test compared with the DLL and TR tests, the SR test was excluded from calculation of an overall score. Based on raw data distribution from the DLL and TR tests, the DLL data were categorized into 10º increments, allowing construction of a 10-point score. The median AWS score was 5 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-7), and there was agreement within 1 point for 42 of the 45 encounters (93%). The findings from this study demonstrate that the 10-point AWS score may measure AWS in an accurate and reproducible fashion, with potential for objective description of abdominal wall function of VIH patients. This score may help to identify patients suited for abdominal wall reconstruction while measuring progress after VIH repair. Further longitudinal outcomes studies are needed.

  12. Bovine versus porcine acellular dermal matrix for complex abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Mark W; Selber, Jesse C; Liu, Jun; Adelman, David M; Baumann, Donald P; Garvey, Patrick B; Butler, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction with bioprosthetic mesh is associated with lower rates of mesh infection, fistula formation, and mesh explantation than reconstruction with synthetic mesh. The authors directly compared commonly used bioprosthetic meshes in terms of clinical outcomes and complications. A database of consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction with porcine or bovine acellular dermal matrix and midline musculofascial closure at their institution between January of 2008 and March of 2011 was reviewed. Surgical outcomes were compared. One hundred twenty patients were identified who underwent a nonbridged, inlay abdominal wall reconstruction with porcine [69 patients (57.5 percent)] or bovine acellular dermal matrix (51 patients (42.5 percent)]. The mean follow-up time was 21.0 ± 9.9 months. The overall complication rate was 36.6 percent; the porcine matrix group had a significantly higher complication rate (44.9 percent) than the bovine matrix group (25.5 percent; p = 0.04) and statistically equivalent surgical complications (29.2 percent versus 21.6 percent; p = 0.34). There were no significant differences in rates of recurrent hernia (2.9 percent versus 3.9 percent; p = 0.99) or bulge (7.2 percent versus 0 percent; p = 0.07). However, the rate of intraoperative adverse events in the porcine matrix group [seven events (10.1 percent)] was significantly higher than that in the bovine matrix group (0 percent; p = 0.02). In patients who undergo complex abdominal wall reconstruction, both bovine and porcine acellular dermal matrix are associated with similar rates of postoperative surgical complications and appear to result in similar outcomes. Porcine acellular dermal matrix may be prone to intraoperative device failure. Therapeutic, III.

  13. Prior Radiotherapy Does Not Affect Abdominal Wall Reconstruction Outcomes: Evidence from Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Salvatore; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2017-03-01

    Prior abdominal wall radiotherapy (XRT) adversely affects wound healing, but data are limited on how prior XRT may affect abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior abdominal wall radiotherapy is associated with a higher incidence of complications following AWR for a hernia or oncologic resection defect. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent complex AWR using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) at a single center. We compared outcomes between patients who underwent prior XRT that directly involved the abdominal wall and those who did not receive XRT. Propensity score match-paired and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 511 patients (130 [25.4 %] with prior XRT; 381 [74.6 %] without prior XRT) underwent AWR with ADM for repair of a complex hernia or oncologic resection defect. Mean follow-up was 31.4 months, mean XRT dose was 48.9 Gy, and mean time between XRT and reconstruction was 19.2 months. XRT AWR patients underwent more flap reconstructions (14.6 vs. 5.0 %, P < 0.001) but fewer component separations (61.5 vs. 71.4 %; P = 0.036) than non-XRT AWR patients. The two groups had similar rates of hernia recurrence (8.5 vs. 9.4 %; P = 0.737) and surgical site occurrence (25.4 vs. 23.4 %; P = 0.640). In the propensity score-matched subgroups, there were no differences in hernia recurrence, surgical site occurrence, and wound healing complication rates. Prior XRT does not adversely affect outcomes in AWR. However, surgeons should be aware of the higher likelihood of needing a soft tissue flap reconstruction for soft tissue replacement when performing AWR after XRT.

  14. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall in a Premature Infant: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Narvey, Michael; Byrne, Paul; Fraser, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    We present a first report of necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall in a 23-day-of-age, former 32-week-gestation premature infant. She was successfully treated with antibiotics without the need for initial debridement. After reviewing the etiology of necrotizing fasciitis, we discuss the unique aspects of this case, including the noninvasive approach to initial treatment, which we consider significantly contributed to her survival.

  15. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall: a case report.

    PubMed

    Beerle, Corinne; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan; Staerkle, Ralph F

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a rare complication of acute appendicitis with perforation through the abdominal wall. The case points out that an intraabdominal origin should be considered in patients presenting with rapidly spreading soft tissue infections of the trunk. A 58-year-old European woman presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of severe abdominal pain accompanied by rapidly spreading erythema and emphysema of the lower abdomen. On admission, the patient was in septic shock with leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Among other diagnoses, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected. Computed tomography showed a large soft tissue infection with air-fluid levels spreading through the lower abdominal wall. During the operation, we found a perforated appendicitis breaking through the fascia and causing a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall. Appendicitis was the origin of the soft tissue infection. The abdominal wall was only secondarily involved. Even though perforated appendicitis as an etiology of a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal wall cellulitis. The distinction between rapidly spreading subcutaneous infection with abscess formation and early onset of necrotizing fasciitis is often difficult and can be confirmed only by surgical intervention.

  16. Comparison of prosthetic materials for abdominal wall reconstruction in the presence of contamination and infection.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G L; Richardson, J D; Malangoni, M A; Tobin, G R; Ackerman, D; Polk, H C

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects resulting from trauma, invasive infection, or hernia present a difficult problem for the surgeon. In order to study the problems associated with the prosthetic materials used for abdominal wall reconstruction, an animal model was used to simulate abdominal wall defects in the presence of peritonitis and invasive infection. One hundred guinea pigs were repaired with either polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) or polypropylene mesh (PPM). Our experiments included intra-operative contamination with Staphylococcus aureus. We found significantly fewer organisms (p less than 0.05) adherent to the PTFE than to the PPM when antibiotics were administered after surgery, as well as when no antibiotics were given. In the presence of peritonitis, we found no real difference in numbers of intraperitoneal bacteria present whether PTFE or PPM was used. In all instances, the PTFE patches produced fewer adhesions and were more easily removed. From these experiments, it appears that PTFE may be associated with fewer problems than PPM in the presence of contamination and infection. Images FIG. 1. PMID:3159353

  17. The management of abdominal wall hernias – in search of consensus

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Kamil; Śmietański, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic repair is becoming an increasingly popular alternative in the treatment of abdominal wall hernias. In spite of numerous studies evaluating this technique, indications for laparoscopic surgery have not been established. Similarly, implant selection and fixation techniques have not been unified and are the subject of scientific discussion. Aim To assess whether there is a consensus on the management of the most common ventral abdominal wall hernias among recognised experts. Material and methods Fourteen specialists representing the boards of European surgical societies were surveyed to determine their choice of surgical technique for nine typical primary ventral and incisional hernias. The access method, type of operation, mesh prosthesis and fixation method were evaluated. In addition to the laparoscopic procedures, the number of tackers and their arrangement were assessed. Results In none of the cases presented was a consensus of experts obtained. Laparoscopic and open techniques were used equally often. Especially in the group of large hernias, decisions on repair methods were characterised by high variability. The technique of laparoscopic mesh fixation was a subject of great variability in terms of both method selection and the numbers of tackers and sutures used. Conclusions Recognised experts have not reached a consensus on the management of abdominal wall hernias. Our survey results indicate the need for further research and the inclusion of large cohorts of patients in the dedicated registries to evaluate the results of different surgical methods, which would help in the development of treatment algorithms for surgical education in the future. PMID:25960793

  18. Evaluation of a new composite prosthesis for the repair of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Losi, Paola; Munaò, Antonella; Spiller, Dario; Briganti, Enrica; Martinelli, Ilaria; Scoccianti, Marco; Soldani, Giorgio

    2007-10-01

    The degree of integration of biomaterials used in the repair of abdominal wall defects seems to depend upon the structure of the prosthesis. The present investigation evaluates the behaviour in terms of adhesion formation and integration of a new composite prosthesis that could be employed in this clinical application. Full-thickness abdominal wall defects (7 x 5 cm) were created in 16 anaesthetized New Zealand white rabbits and the prosthesis were placed in direct contact with the visceral peritoneum during the experiment. The defects were repaired with a composite prosthesis or pure polypropylene mesh to establish two study groups (n = 8 each). The composite device was constituted by a polypropylene mesh physically attached to a poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane laminar sheet. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14, 21 and 30 days after implant and prosthesis/surrounding tissue specimens subjected to light and electron microscopy. Firm adhesions were detected in the polypropylene implants, while they were not present in the composite implants. The excellent behaviour of the composite prosthesis shown in this study warrants further investigation on its use for the repair of abdominal wall defects when a prosthetic device needs to be placed in contact with the intestinal loops.

  19. Abdominal wall abscess secondary to spontaneous rupture of pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Maurizio; Zaghi, Claudia; Manenti, Antonio; Luppi, Davide; Ugoletti, Lara; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess is a rare cause of hospitalization, related to a mortality rate ranging between 15% and 19%. Treatment of choice is represented by image-guided percutaneous drainage in combination with antibiotic therapy but, in some selected cases, surgical treatment is necessary. In extremely rare cases, spontaneous rupture of liver abscess may occur, free in the peritoneal cavity or in neighboring organs, an event which is generally considered a surgical emergency. A 95-years-old woman was hospitalized with fever, upper abdominal pain, mild dyspepsia and massive swelling of the anterior abdominal wall. Computed tomography revealed an oval mass located in the abdominal wall of 12cm×14cm×7cm, in continuity with an abscess of the left hepatic lobe. Because Proteus mirabilis was detected in both the liver abscess and the abdominal wall abscess, the patient was diagnosed with a ruptured pyogenic liver abscess. After spontaneous drainage to the exterior of the hepato-parietal abscess, she was successfully treated with antibiotics alone. Pyogenic liver abscess is a serious and life-threatening illness. Abscess rupture might occur. Many authors consider this complication a surgical emergency, but the site of abscess rupture changes the clinical history of the disease: in case of free rupture into the peritoneum, emergency surgery is mandatory, while a rupture localized in neighboring tissues or organs can be successfully treated by a combination of systemic antibiotics and fine needle aspiration and/or percutaneous drainage of the abscess. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical behavior of surgical meshes for abdominal wall repair: In vivo versus biaxial characterization.

    PubMed

    Simón-Allué, R; Ortillés, A; Calvo, B

    2018-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of synthetic meshes in the surgical treatment of the hernia pathology, the election criteria of a suitable mesh for specific patient continues to be uncertain. Thus, in this work, we propose a methodology to determine in advance potential disadvantages on the use of certain meshes based on the patient-specific abdominal geometry and the mechanical features of the certain meshes. To that purpose, we have first characterized the mechanical behavior of four synthetic meshes through biaxial tests. Secondly, two of these meshes were implanted in several New Zealand rabbits with a total defect previously created on the center of the abdominal wall. After the surgical procedure, specimen were subjected to in vivo pneumoperitoneum tests to determine the immediate post-surgical response of those meshes after implanted in a healthy specimen. Experimental performance was recorded by a stereo rig with the aim of obtaining quantitative information about the pressure-displacement relation of the abdominal wall. Finally, following the procedure presented in prior works (Simón-Allué et al., 2015, 2017), a finite element model was reconstructed from the experimental measurements and tests were computationally reproduced for the healthy and herniated cases. Simulations were compared and validated with the in vivo behavior and results were given along the abdominal wall in terms of displacements, stresses and strain. Mechanical characterization of the meshes revealed Surgipro TM as the most rigid implant and Neomesh SuperSoft® as the softer, while other two meshes (Neomesh Soft®, Neopore®) remained in between. These two meshes were employed in the experimental study and resulted in similar effect in the abdominal wall cavity and both were close to the healthy case. Simulations confirmed this result while showed potential objections in the case of the other two meshes, due to high values in stresses or elongation that may led to discomfort in real

  1. Subdural Hematoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    characterization of more subtle associated CNS injuries. Treatment of nonacute subdural hematoma may involve craniotomy -guided hematoma evacuation...nature of this process. Note the ventricular shunt (arrow) in place for drainage of hydrocephalus, caused by significant mass effect on the...collections may require craniotomy . Because SDH may be under high intracranial pressure resultant from associated injuries, patients with the acute form

  2. An Unusual Complication of EVAR, Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sirivanichai, Chusak

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report a successful conservative management in a case of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) after Endovascular Aneurysmal Repair (EVAR) of infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). Case Presentation: An 84-year-old woman with a 6 cm in diameter infrarenal AAA underwent EVAR at our hospital. During the procedure, intravenous heparin was administered to keep the activated clotting time around 300 seconds. One hour after the procedure, the patient complained of pain on her right side abdomen. Physical examination revealed a tender mass in the right lower abdominal wall. Laboratory studies showed a fall in hemoglobin from 12.7 g/dl to 9.3 g/dl. Ultrasound (US) examination demonstrated an 8 × 5 cm hematoma within the right rectus muscle. Follow-up US examination revealed that the hematoma had enlarged and a computed tomography (CT) examination of the lower abdomen was performed. CT scan showed a smooth-shaped mass within the layers of the anterolateral abdominal wall leading to enlargement of the right rectus abdominis muscle without signs of active bleeding. A conservative management was considered. Result: The clinical course was uneventful with a stable hemodynamic state. The patient was discharged 12 days later and was doing well at the 2 week follow-up. Conclusion: Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is an unusual complication of a patient on anticoagulant therapy during EVAR. A prompt radiological investigation may prevent unnecessary surgical procedures in this unusual complication. PMID:23555371

  3. Risk Assessment of Abdominal Wall Thickness Measured on Pre-Operative Computerized Tomography for Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tongyoo, Assanee; Chatthamrak, Putipan; Sriussadaporn, Ekkapak; Limpavitayaporn, Palin; Mingmalairak, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    The surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of abdominal operation. It relates to increased hospital stay, increased healthcare cost, and decreased patient's quality of life. Obesity, usually defined by BMI, is known as one of the risks of SSI. However, the thickness of subcutaneous layers of abdominal wall might be an important local factor affecting the rate of SSI after the abdominal operations. The objective of this study is to assess the importance of the abdominal wall thickness on incisional SSI rate. The subjects of the present study were patients who had undergone major abdominal operations at Thammasat University Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014, and had been investigated with CT scans before their operations. The demographic data and clinical information of these patients were recorded. The thickness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue from skin down to the most superficial layer of abdominal wall muscle at the surgical site was measured on CT images. The wound infectious complication was reviewed and categorized as superficial and deep incisional SSIfollowing the definition from Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. The significance ofeach potentialfactors on SSI rates was determined separately with student t-test for quantitative data and χ2-test for categorical data. Then all factors, which had p < 0.10, were included into the multivariate logistic regression analysis and were analyzed with significance at p < 0.05. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were included in this study. They all underwent major abdominal surgery and had had pre-operative CTscans. Post-operative SSI was 25.2% (35/139), superficial and deep types in 27 and 8 patients, respectively. The comparison of abdominal wall thickness between patients with and without infection was significantly different (20.0 ± 8.4 mm and 16.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively). When the thickness at 20 mm was used as the cut-off value, 43 of 139 patients had abdominal wall

  4. A simple, effective and clinically applicable method to compute abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress.

    PubMed

    Joldes, Grand Roman; Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Doyle, Barry

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent and irreversible dilation of the lower region of the aorta. It is a symptomless condition that if left untreated can expand to the point of rupture. Mechanically-speaking, rupture of an artery occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. It is therefore desirable to be able to non-invasively estimate the AAA wall stress for a given patient, quickly and reliably. In this paper we present an entirely new approach to computing the wall tension (i.e. the stress resultant equal to the integral of the stresses tangent to the wall over the wall thickness) within an AAA that relies on trivial linear elastic finite element computations, which can be performed instantaneously in the clinical environment on the simplest computing hardware. As an input to our calculations we only use information readily available in the clinic: the shape of the aneurysm in-vivo, as seen on a computed tomography (CT) scan, and blood pressure. We demonstrate that tension fields computed with the proposed approach agree well with those obtained using very sophisticated, state-of-the-art non-linear inverse procedures. Using magnetic resonance (MR) images of the same patient, we can approximately measure the local wall thickness and calculate the local wall stress. What is truly exciting about this simple approach is that one does not need any information on material parameters; this supports the development and use of patient-specific modelling (PSM), where uncertainty in material data is recognised as a key limitation. The methods demonstrated in this paper are applicable to other areas of biomechanics where the loads and loaded geometry of the system are known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Ten patients with VIH and ten healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test-retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Truncal flexion and extension showed excellent test-retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH, no significant correlations between objective measures of truncal strength and IPAQ or SATS were found. For healthy controls, both truncal flexion (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) and extension (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) correlated significantly with SATS, while no other significant correlation between truncal strength measures and IPAQ was found. The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH.

  6. What is the evidence for the use of biologic or biosynthetic meshes in abdominal wall reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Köckerling, F; Alam, N N; Antoniou, S A; Daniels, I R; Famiglietti, F; Fortelny, R H; Heiss, M M; Kallinowski, F; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Mayer, F; Miserez, M; Montgomery, A; Morales-Conde, S; Muysoms, F; Narang, S K; Petter-Puchner, A; Reinpold, W; Scheuerlein, H; Smietanski, M; Stechemesser, B; Strey, C; Woeste, G; Smart, N J

    2018-04-01

    Although many surgeons have adopted the use of biologic and biosynthetic meshes in complex abdominal wall hernia repair, others have questioned the use of these products. Criticism is addressed in several review articles on the poor standard of studies reporting on the use of biologic meshes for different abdominal wall repairs. The aim of this consensus review is to conduct an evidence-based analysis of the efficacy of biologic and biosynthetic meshes in predefined clinical situations. A European working group, "BioMesh Study Group", composed of invited surgeons with a special interest in surgical meshes, formulated key questions, and forwarded them for processing in subgroups. In January 2016, a workshop was held in Berlin where the findings were presented, discussed, and voted on for consensus. Findings were set out in writing by the subgroups followed by consensus being reached. For the review, 114 studies and background analyses were used. The cumulative data regarding biologic mesh under contaminated conditions do not support the claim that it is better than synthetic mesh. Biologic mesh use should be avoided when bridging is needed. In inguinal hernia repair biologic and biosynthetic meshes do not have a clear advantage over the synthetic meshes. For prevention of incisional or parastomal hernias, there is no evidence to support the use of biologic/biosynthetic meshes. In complex abdominal wall hernia repairs (incarcerated hernia, parastomal hernia, infected mesh, open abdomen, enterocutaneous fistula, and component separation technique), biologic and biosynthetic meshes do not provide a superior alternative to synthetic meshes. The routine use of biologic and biosynthetic meshes cannot be recommended.

  7. Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, Alberto; De Wever, Ivo; Van Limbergen, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2more » Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT.« less

  8. The effect of abdominal wall morphology on ultrasonic pulse distortion. Part II. Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mast, T D; Hinkelman, L M; Orr, M J; Waag, R C

    1998-12-01

    Wavefront propagation through the abdominal wall was simulated using a finite-difference time-domain implementation of the linearized wave propagation equations for a lossless, inhomogeneous, two-dimensional fluid as well as a simplified straight-ray model for a two-dimensional absorbing medium. Scanned images of six human abdominal wall cross sections provided the data for the propagation media in the simulations. The images were mapped into regions of fat, muscle, and connective tissue, each of which was assigned uniform sound speed, density, and absorption values. Propagation was simulated through each whole specimen as well as through each fat layer and muscle layer individually. Wavefronts computed by the finite-difference method contained arrival time, energy level, and wave shape distortion similar to that in measurements. Straight-ray simulations produced arrival time fluctuations similar to measurements but produced much smaller energy level fluctuations. These simulations confirm that both fat and muscle produce significant wavefront distortion and that distortion produced by fat sections differs from that produced by muscle sections. Spatial correlation of distortion with tissue composition suggests that most major arrival time fluctuations are caused by propagation through large-scale inhomogeneities such as fatty regions within muscle layers, while most amplitude and waveform variations are the result of scattering from smaller inhomogeneities such as septa within the subcutaneous fat. Additional finite-difference simulations performed using uniform-layer models of the abdominal wall indicate that wavefront distortion is primarily caused by tissue structures and inhomogeneities rather than by refraction at layer interfaces or by variations in layer thicknesses.

  9. Wall stress reduction in abdominal aortic aneurysms as a result of polymeric endoaortic paving.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John H; Ayyalasomayajula, Avinash; Simon, Bruce R; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2011-06-01

    Polymeric endoaortic paving (PEAP) may improve endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) since it has the potential to treat patients with complex AAA geometries while reducing the incidence of migration and endoleak. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyurethane (PU) blends are proposed as PEAP materials due to their range of mechanical properties, thermoformability, and resistance to biodegradation. In this study, the reduction in AAA wall stress that can be achieved using PEAP was estimated and compared to that resulting from stent-grafts. This was accomplished by mechanically modeling the anisotropic response of PCL/PU blends and implementing these results into finite element model (FEM) simulations. We found that at the maximum diameter of the AAA, the 50/50 and 10/90 PCL/PU blends reduced wall stress by 99 and 98%, respectively, while a stent-graft reduced wall stress by 99%. Our results also show that wall stress reduction increases with increasing PEAP thickness and PCL content in the blend ratio. These results indicate that PEAP can reduce AAA wall stress as effectively as a stent-graft. As such, we propose that PEAP may provide an improved treatment alternative for AAA, since many of the limitations of stent-grafts have the potential to be solved using this approach.

  10. Reconstruction with latissimus dorsi, external abdominal oblique and cranial sartorius muscle flaps for a large defect of abdominal wall in a dog after surgical removal of infiltrative lipoma

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Yu-Ching; CHEN, Kuan-Sheng; CHANG, Shih-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    This animal was presented with a large-sized infiltrative lipoma in the abdominal wall that had been noted for 4 years. This lipoma was confirmed by histological examination from a previous biopsy, and the infiltrative features were identified by a computerized tomography scan. The surgical removal created a large-sized abdominal defect that was closed by a combination of latissimus dorsi and external abdominal oblique muscle flaps in a pedicle pattern. A small dehiscence at the most distal end of the muscle flap resulted in a small-sized abdominal hernia and was repaired with cranial sartorius muscle flap 14 days after surgery. The dog was in good general health with no signs of tumor recurrence after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:27476526

  11. Perforator-Guided Drug Injection in the Treatment of Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Weum, Sven; de Weerd, Louis

    2016-07-01

    Pain from the abdominal wall can be caused by nerve entrapment, a condition called abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES). As an alternative to surgery, ACNES may be treated with injection of local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or botulinum toxin at the point of maximal pain. The point of maximal pain was marked on the abdominal skin. Using color Doppler ultrasound, the corresponding exit point of perforating blood vessels through the anterior fascia of the rectus abdominis muscle was identified. Ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin in close proximity to the perforator's exit point was performed below and above the muscle fascia. The technique was used from 2008 to 2014 on 15 patients in 46 sessions with a total of 128 injections without complications. The injection technique provided safe and accurate administration of the drug in proximity to the affected cutaneous nerves. The effect of botulinum toxin on ACNES is beyond the scope of this article. Perforator-guided injection enables precise drug administration at the location of nerve entrapment in ACNES in contrast to blind injections. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Whole abdominal wall segmentation using augmented active shape models (AASM) with multi-atlas label fusion and level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes.

  13. Stress adapted embroidered meshes with a graded pattern design for abdominal wall hernia repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J.; Bittrich, L.; Breier, A.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are one of the most relevant injuries of the digestive system with 25 million patients in 2013. Surgery is recommended primarily using allogenic non-absorbable wrap-knitted meshes. These meshes have in common that their stress-strain behaviour is not adapted to the anisotropic behaviour of native abdominal wall tissue. The ideal mesh should possess an adequate mechanical behaviour and a suitable porosity at the same time. An alternative fabrication method to wrap-knitting is the embroidery technology with a high flexibility in pattern design and adaption of mechanical properties. In this study, a pattern generator was created for pattern designs consisting of a base and a reinforcement pattern. The embroidered mesh structures demonstrated different structural and mechanical characteristics. Additionally, the investigation of the mechanical properties exhibited an anisotropic mechanical behaviour for the embroidered meshes. As a result, the investigated pattern generator and the embroidery technology allow the production of stress adapted mesh structures that are a promising approach for hernia reconstruction.

  14. The risk of midgut volvulus in patients with abdominal wall defects: A multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Fawley, Jason A; Abdelhafeez, Abdelhafeez H; Schultz, Jessica A; Ertl, Allison; Cassidy, Laura D; Peter, Shawn St; Wagner, Amy J

    2017-01-01

    The management of malrotation in patients with congenital abdominal wall defects has varied among surgeons. We were interested in investigating the risk of midgut volvulus in patients with gastroschisis and omphalocele to help determine if these patients may benefit from undergoing a Ladd procedure. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients managed at three institutions born between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2008 with a diagnosis of gastroschisis or omphalocele. Patient charts were reviewed through 12/31/2012 for occurrence of midgut volvulus or need for second laparotomy. Of the 414 patients identified with abdominal wall defects, 299 patients (72%) had gastroschisis, and 115 patients (28%) had omphalocele. The mean gestational age at birth was 36.1±2.3weeks, and the mean birth weight was 2.57±0.7kg. There were a total of 8 (1.9%) cases of midgut volvulus: 3 (1.0%) patients with gastroschisis compared to 5 patients (4.4%) with omphalocele (p=0.04). Patients with omphalocele have a greater risk of developing midgut volvulus, and a Ladd procedure should be considered during definitive repair to mitigate these risks. III; retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair.

    PubMed

    2017-08-29

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) detect cellular inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, we assessed whether USPIO-enhanced MRI can predict aneurysm growth rates and clinical outcomes. In a prospective multicenter open-label cohort study, 342 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (diameter ≥40 mm) were classified by the presence of USPIO enhancement and were monitored with serial ultrasound and clinical follow-up for ≥2 years. The primary end point was the composite of aneurysm rupture or repair. Participants (85% male, 73.1±7.2 years) had a baseline aneurysm diameter of 49.6±7.7 mm, and USPIO enhancement was identified in 146 (42.7%) participants, absent in 191 (55.8%), and indeterminant in 5 (1.5%). During follow-up (1005±280 days), 17 (5.0%) abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared with those without uptake, patients with USPIO enhancement have increased rates of aneurysm expansion (3.1±2.5 versus 2.5±2.4 mm/year, P =0.0424), although this was not independent of current smoking habit ( P =0.1993). Patients with USPIO enhancement had higher rates of aneurysm rupture or repair (47.3% versus 35.6%; 95% confidence intervals, 1.1-22.2; P =0.0308). This finding was similar for each component of rupture (6.8% versus 3.7%, P =0.1857) or repair (41.8% versus 32.5%, P =0.0782). USPIO enhancement was associated with reduced event-free survival for aneurysm rupture or repair ( P =0.0275), all-cause mortality ( P =0.0635), and aneurysm-related mortality ( P =0.0590). Baseline abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter ( P <0.0001) and current smoking habit ( P =0.0446) also predicted the primary outcome, and the addition of USPIO enhancement to the multivariate model did not improve event prediction (c-statistic, 0.7935-0.7936). USPIO-enhanced MRI is a novel approach to the identification of aortic wall

  17. Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    identification of aortic wall cellular inflammation in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and predicts the rate of aneurysm growth and clinical outcome. However, it does not provide independent prediction of aneurysm expansion or clinical outcomes in a model incorporating known clinical risk factors. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN76413758. PMID:28720724

  18. Feasibility of wall stress analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms using three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kok, Annette M; Nguyen, V Lai; Speelman, Lambert; Brands, Peter J; Schurink, Geert-Willem H; van de Vosse, Frans N; Lopata, Richard G P

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are local dilations that can lead to a fatal hemorrhage when ruptured. Wall stress analysis of AAAs is a novel tool that has proven high potential to improve risk stratification. Currently, wall stress analysis of AAAs is based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging; however, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) has great advantages over CT and magnetic resonance imaging in terms of costs, speed, and lack of radiation. In this study, the feasibility of 3D US as input for wall stress analysis is investigated. Second, 3D US-based wall stress analysis was compared with CT-based results. The 3D US and CT data were acquired in 12 patients (diameter, 35-90 mm). US data were segmented manually and compared with automatically acquired CT geometries by calculating the similarity index and Hausdorff distance. Wall stresses were simulated at P = 140 mm Hg and compared between both modalities. The similarity index of US vs CT was 0.75 to 0.91 (n = 12), with a median Hausdorff distance ranging from 4.8 to 13.9 mm, with the higher values found at the proximal and distal sides of the AAA. Wall stresses were in accordance with literature, and a good agreement was found between US- and CT-based median stresses and interquartile stresses, which was confirmed by Bland-Altman and regression analysis (n = 8). Wall stresses based on US were typically higher (+23%), caused by geometric irregularities due to the registration of several 3D volumes and manual segmentation. In future work, an automated US registration and segmentation approach is the essential point of improvement before pursuing large-scale patient studies. This study is a first step toward US-based wall stress analysis, which would be the modality of choice to monitor wall stress development over time because no ionizing radiation and contrast material are involved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tension-free repair during extensive radical surgery for cecal cancer with abdominal wall invasion and inguinal lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaiwu; Chen, Zhihui; Song, Xinming

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of cecal cancer with invasion of the abdominal wall and right inguinal lymph node metastasis. This patient had undergone an appendectomy 2 years previously. He underwent extensive radical right hemicolectomy with anastomosis and tension-free repair of the damaged right lower abdominal wall. The surgery progressed successfully, and the vital signs of the patient were stable (approximately 200 mL blood loss). Postoperative diagnosis revealed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cecum with invasion of the abdominal wall and metastasis of the inguinal lymph nodes (pT4bN2bM1, IV4a). The patient has remained well post-surgery. PMID:24855366

  20. Functional electrical stimulation to the abdominal wall muscles synchronized with the expiratory flow does not induce muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yukako; Takahashi, Ryoichi; Sewa, Yoko; Ohse, Hirotaka; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Continuous electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles is known to induce mild muscle fatigue. However, it is not clear whether this is also true for functional electrical stimulation delivered only during the expiratory phase of breathing. This study aimed to examine whether or not intermittent electrical stimulation delivered to abdominal wall muscles induces muscle fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults. Abdominal electrical stimulation was applied for 1.5 seconds from the start of expiration and then turned off during inspiration. The electrodes were attached to both sides of the abdomen at the lower margin of the 12th rib. Abdominal electrical stimulation was delivered for 15 minutes with the subject in a seated position. Expiratory flow was measured during stimulus. Trunk flexor torque and electromyography activity were measured to evaluate abdominal muscle fatigue. [Results] The mean stimulation on/off ratio was 1:2.3. The declining rate of abdominal muscle torque was 61.1 ± 19.1% before stimulus and 56.5 ± 20.9% after stimulus, not significantly different. The declining rate of mean power frequency was 47.8 ± 11.7% before stimulus and 47.9 ± 10.2% after stimulus, not significantly different. [Conclusion] It was found that intermittent electrical stimulation to abdominal muscles synchronized with the expiratory would not induce muscle fatigue.

  1. Histopathological analysis of cellular localization of cathepsins in abdominal aortic aneurysm wall.

    PubMed

    Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Zimmermann, Alexander; Ockert, Stefan; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2012-08-01

    An important feature of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the destruction of vessel wall, especially elastin and collagen. Besides matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins are the most potent elastolytic enzymes. The expression of cathepsins with known elastolytic and collagenolytic activities in the individual cells within AAA has not yet been determined. The vessel wall of 32 AAA patients and 10 organ donors was analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and cystatin C in all cells localized within AAA. Luminal endothelial cells (ECs) of AAA were positive for cathepsin D and partially for cathepsins B, K and S. Endothelial cells of the neovessels and smooth muscle cells in the media were positive for all cathepsins tested, especially for cathepsin B. In the inflammatory infiltrate all cathepsins were expressed in the following pattern: B > D = S > K = L. Macrophages showed the highest staining intensity for all cathepsins. Furthermore, weak overall expression of cystatin C was observed in all the cells localized in the AAA with the exception of the ECs. There is markedly increased expression of the various cathepsins within the AAA wall compared to healthy aorta. Our data are broadly consistent with a role for cathepsins in AAA; and demonstrate expression of cathepsins D, B and S in phagocytic cells in the inflammatory infiltrate; and also may reveal a role for cathepsin B in lymphocytes. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  2. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treatedmore » by TAE.« less

  3. Unexpected Abscess Localization of the Anterior Abdominal Wall in an ADPKD Patient Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, Nikos; Paschou, Eleni; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Mourounoglou, Maria; Vasileiou, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common monogenic disorders and the leading inheritable cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Cystic and noncystic extrarenal manifestations are correlated with variable clinical presentations so that an inherited disorder is now considered a systemic disease. Kidney and liver cystic infections are the most common infectious complications in ADPKD patients. Furthermore, it is well known that ADPKD is commonly associated with colonic diverticular disease which recently has been reported to be linked to increased risk of infection on hemodialysis patients. Herein, we present a case of anterior abdominal wall abscess caused by Enterococcus faecalis in a patient with ADPKD undergoing hemodialysis. Although the precise pathway of infection remains uncertain, the previous medical history as well as the clinical course of our patient led us to hypothesize an alternative route of infection from the gastrointestinal tract through an aberrant intestinal barrier into the bloodstream and eventually to an atypical location.

  4. Management of enterocutaneous fistulas and problem stomas with silicone casting of the abdominal wall defect.

    PubMed

    Streza, G A; Laing, B J; Gilsdorf, R B

    1977-12-01

    Silicone casting of abdominal wall defects around enteric fistulas in six patients and problem stomas in three patients proved to be an effective means of controlling the output of the fistulas, reducing wound care time, and reducing or eliminating parenteral nutrition needs. Outpatient management was possible in seven of the nine patients. It is observed that the wounds healed rapidly with this method of fistula control. Epithelialization occurred more rapidly than expected. This method of management may tend to make the fistulas remain open longer than by other means of care, but the significant increase in patient comfort, the financial savings, and the relative safety warrant continued utilization and observation of this method of management.

  5. Spontaneous extraskeletal osteosarcoma with various histological growth patterns in the abdominal wall of an ICR mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Yuko; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Kuwahara, Maki; Harada, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is extremely rare in mice. This case report demonstrates a spontaneous murine extraskeletal osteosarcoma that exhibited various histological growth patterns in an ICR mouse. At necropsy, the tumor mass was located in the abdominal wall and was 45 × 30 × 25 mm in size. Histopathologically, the tumor showed the following four growth patterns: a solid pattern of polygonal cells embedded in an osteoid eosinophilic matrix with calcification, an irregular sheet pattern of short spindle cells accompanying some eosinophilic multinucleated cells, a fascicular pattern of spindle cells and a cystic pattern lined by short spindle cells. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and osterix. The multinucleated cells mentioned above were desmin positive and were regarded as regenerative striated muscles but not tumor cells. Since no clear continuity with normal bone tissues was observed, the tumor was diagnosed as an “extraskeletal osteosarcoma.” PMID:26989300

  6. Necrotizing Fasciitis of Thoracic and Abdominal Wall with Emphysematous Pyelonephritis and Retroperitoneal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Jain, Kunaal Mahesh; Kuber, Rajesh; Gandage, Sidappa

    2018-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life-threatening severe form of pyelonephritis usually occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus with or without obstructive uropathies in whom there is necrotizing infection leading to the gas production of an unclear mechanism involving the renal parenchyma and the collecting system. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by progressive necrosis of fat and fascia due to deep-seated infection of subcutaneous tissue. It has a fulminant course with considerable mortality. Diabetes Mellitus is a common predisposing factor. The combined occurrence of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis is extremely unusual. Early recognition and management is mandatory to avoid mortality. We report a case of a 53-year-old female, a known case of Type II diabetes mellitus, who presented with necrotizing fasciitis of thoracic and abdominal wall with emphysematous pyelonephritis in the left kidney with a retroperitoneal abscess. PMID:29541493

  7. An observational study: Effects of tenting of the abdominal wall on peak airway pressure in robotic radical prostatectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kakde, Avinash Sahebarav; Wagh, Harshal D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is associated with various anesthetic challenges due to pneumoperitoneum and deep Trendelenburg position. Tenting of the abdominal wall done in RRP surgery causes decrease in peak airway pressure leading to better ventilation. Herein, we aimed to describe the effects of tenting of the abdominal wall on peak airway pressure in RRP surgery performed in deep Trendelenburg position. Methods: One hundred patients admitted for RRP in Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital of American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 physical status were included in the study. After undergoing preanesthesia work-up, patients received general anesthesia. Peak airway pressures were recorded after induction of general anesthesia, after insufflation of CO2, after giving Trendelenburg position, and after tenting of the abdominal wall with robotic arms. Results: Mean peak airway pressure recording after induction in supine position was 19.5 ± 2.3 cm of H2O, after insufflation of CO2 in supine position was 26.3 ± 2.6 cm of H2O, after giving steep head low was 34.1 ± 3.4 cm of H2O, and after tenting of the abdominal wall with robotic arms was 29.5 ± 2.5 cm of H2O. P value is highly statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Tenting of the abdominal wall during RRP is beneficial as it decreases peak airway pressure and helps in better ventilation and thus reduces the ill effects of raised peak airway pressure and intra-abdominal pressures. PMID:28757826

  8. [Vesico-cutaneous fistula revealing abdominal wall malakoplakia accompanied by Boeck's sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Knausz, József; Lipták, József; Andrásovszky, Zsolt; Baranyay, Ferenc

    2010-02-07

    Malakoplakia is an acquired granulomatous disorder first described by Michaelis and Gutmann in 1902. The pathogenesis of malakoplakia is hardly known, but it thought to be secondary to an acquired bactericidal defect in macrophages occurring mostly in immunosuppressed patients. 63-year-old female patient had been treated with methylprednisolone for ten years, because of pulmonary sarcoidosis. For six month, recurrent abdominal abscess and vesico-cutaneous fistula developed. Histological examination proved malakoplakia, and Escherichia coli was detected in the abscess cavity. Hematoxyline eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff, Berlin-blue and Kossa reactions were performed. Microscopically malakoplakia consists of mainly macrophages, known as von Hansemann cells with scattered targetoid intracytoplasmic inclusions known as Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. In our presented case, after urological-surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy, the patient became free from complaints and symptoms. Malakoplakia has been described in numerous anatomic locations, mainly in the urogenital tract. Malakoplakia may be complicated with fistulas in different locations: vesico-coccygeal, rectoprostatic, anorectal fistulas have been were reported in the literature, while 6 cases of malakoplakia with Boeck's sarcoidosis are published. In the presented case sarcoidosis and the 10-year immunosuppressive treatment with methylprednisolone might have been in the background of abdominal wall malakoplakia, complicated by vesico-cutaneous fistula. The patient was successfully treated with surgery and the followed antibiotic therapy.

  9. Non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrices for abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Burns, Nadja K; Jaffari, Mona V; Rios, Carmen N; Mathur, Anshu B; Butler, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrices have been used clinically for abdominal wall repair; however, their biologic and mechanical properties and propensity to form visceral adhesions have not been studied. The authors hypothesized that their use would result in fewer, weaker visceral adhesions than polypropylene mesh when used to repair ventral hernias and form a strong interface with the surrounding musculofascia. Thirty-four guinea pigs underwent inlay repair of surgically created ventral hernias using polypropylene mesh, porcine acellular dermal matrix, or a composite of the two. The animals were killed at 4 weeks, and the adhesion tenacity grade and surface area of the repair site involved by adhesions were measured. Sections of the repair sites, including the implant-musculofascia interface, underwent histologic analysis and uniaxial mechanical testing. The incidence of bowel adhesions to the repair site was significantly lower with the dermal matrix (8 percent, p < 0.01) and the matrix/mesh combination (0 percent, p < 0.001) than with polypropylene mesh alone (70 percent). The repairs made with the matrix or the matrix/mesh combination, compared with the polypropylene mesh repairs, had significantly lower mean adhesion surface areas [12.8 percent (p < 0.001), 9.2 percent (p < 0.001), and 79.9 percent] and grades [0.6 (p < 0.001), 0.6 (p < 0.001), and 2.9]. The dermal matrix underwent robust cellular and vascular infiltration. The ultimate tensile strength at the implant-musculofascia interface was similar in all groups. Porcine acellular dermal matrix becomes incorporated into the host tissue and causes fewer adhesions to repair sites than does polypropylene mesh, with similar implant-musculofascia interface strength. It also inhibits adhesions to adjacent dermal matrix in the combination repairs. It has distinct advantages over polypropylene mesh for complex abdominal wall repairs, particularly when material placement directly over bowel is

  10. A systematic review of synthetic and biologic materials for abdominal wall reinforcement in contaminated fields.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lawrence; Mata, Juan; Landry, Tara; Khwaja, Kosar A; Vassiliou, Melina C; Fried, Gerald M; Feldman, Liane S

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of bioprosthetics for abdominal wall reinforcement in contaminated fields, but the evidence supporting the use of biologic over synthetic non-absorbable prosthetics for this indication is poor. Therefore, the objective was to perform a systematic review of outcomes after synthetic non-absorbable and biologic prosthetics for ventral hernia repair or prophylaxis in contaminated fields. The systematic literature search identified all articles published up to 2013 that reported outcomes after abdominal wall reinforcement using synthetic non-absorbable or biologic prosthetics in contaminated fields. Studies were included if they included at least 10 cases (excluding inguinal and parastomal hernias). Quality assessment was performed using the MINORS instrument. The main outcomes measures were the incidence of wound infection and hernia at follow-up. Weighted pooled proportions were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 32 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included for synthesis. Mean sample size was 41.4 (range 10-190), and duration of follow-up was >1 year in 72 % of studies. Overall quality was low (mean 6.2, range 1-12). Pooled wound infection rates were 31.6 % (95 % CI 14.5-48.7) with biologic and 6.4 % (95 % CI 3.4-9.4) with synthetic non-absorbable prosthetics in clean-contaminated cases, with similar hernia rates. In contaminated and/or dirty fields, wound infection rates were similar, but pooled hernia rates were 27.2 % (95 % CI 9.5-44.9) with biologic and 3.2 % (95 % CI 0.0-11.0) with synthetic non-absorbable. Other outcomes were comparable. The available evidence is limited, but does not support the superiority of biologic over synthetic non-absorbable prosthetics in contaminated fields.

  11. Stochastic modelling of wall stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysms treated by a gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohand-Kaci, Faïza; Ouni, Anissa Eddhahak; Dai, Jianping; Allaire, Eric; Zidi, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic mechanical model using the membrane theory was used to simulate the in vivo mechanical behaviour of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in order to compute the wall stresses after stabilisation by gene therapy. For that, both length and diameter of AAAs rats were measured during their expansion. Four groups of animals, control and treated by an endovascular gene therapy during 3 or 28 days were included. The mechanical problem was solved analytically using the geometric parameters and assuming the shape of aneurysms by a 'parabolic-exponential curve'. When compared to controls, stress variations in the wall of AAAs for treated arteries during 28 days decreased, while they were nearly constant at day 3. The measured geometric parameters of AAAs were then investigated using probability density functions (pdf) attributed to every random variable. Different trials were useful to define a reliable confidence region in which the probability to have a realisation is equal to 99%. The results demonstrated that the error in the estimation of the stresses can be greater than 28% when parameters uncertainties are not considered in the modelling. The relevance of the proposed approach for the study of AAA growth may be studied further and extended to other treatments aimed at stabilisation AAAs, using biotherapies and pharmacological approaches.

  12. Suprascarpal fat pad thickness may predict venous drainage patterns in abdominal wall flaps.

    PubMed

    Bast, John; Pitcher, Austin A; Small, Kevin; Otterburn, David M

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal wall flaps are routinely used in reconstructive procedures. In some patients inadequate venous drainage from the deep vein may cause fat necrosis or flap failure. Occasionally the superficial inferior epigastric vessels (SIEV) are of sufficient size to allow for microvascular revascularization. This study looked at the ratio of the sub- and suprascarpal fat layers, the number of deep system perforators, and SIEV diameter to determine any correlation of the fat topography and SIEV. 50 abdominal/pelvic CT angiograms (100 hemiabdomens) were examined in women aged 34-70 years for number of perforators, SIEV diameter, and fat pad thickness above and below Scarpa's fascia. Data was analyzed using multivariate model. The average suprascarpal and subscarpal layers were 18.6 ± 11.5 mm and 6.2 ± 7.2 mm thick, respectively. The average SIEV diameter was 2.06 ± 0.81 mm and the average number of perforators was 2.09 ± 1.03 per hemiabdomen. Hemiabdomens with suprascarpal thickness>23 mm had greater SIEV diameter [2.69 mm vs. 1.8 mm (P < 0.0001)] The fat layer thickness did not correlate with the number of perforators. Neither subscarpal fat thickness nor suprascarpal-to-subscarpal fat layer thickness correlated significantly with SIEV caliber or number of perforators in multivariate model. Suprascarpal fat pad thicker than 23 mm had larger SIEVs irrespective of the number of deep system perforators. This may indicate a cohort of patients at risk of venous congestion from poor venous drainage if only the deep system is revascularized. We recommend harvesting the SIEV in patients with suprascarpal fat pad >23 mm to aid in superficial drainage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block with liposomal bupivacaine during open abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Majumder, Arnab; Neupane, Ruel; Elliott, Heidi L; Novitsky, Yuri W

    2016-09-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPb) is an analgesic adjunct used for abdominal surgical procedures. Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) demonstrates prolonged analgesic effects, up to 72 hours. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of TAPb using LB for patients undergoing open abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). Fifty patients undergoing AWR with TAPb using LB (TAP-group) were compared with a matched historical cohort undergoing AWR without TAPb (control group). Outcome measures included postoperative utilization of morphine equivalents, numerical rating scale pain scores, time to oral narcotics, and length of stay (LOS). Cohorts were matched demographically. No complications were associated with TAPb or LB. TAP-group evidenced significantly reduced narcotic requirements on operative day (9.5 mg vs 16.5 mg, P = .004), postoperative day (POD) 1 (26.7 mg vs 39.5 mg, P = .01) and POD2 (29.6 mg vs 40.7 mg, P = .047) and pain scores on operative day (5.1 vs 7.0, P <.001), POD1 (4.2 vs 5.5, P = .002), and POD2 (3.9 vs 4.8, P = .04). In addition, TAP-group demonstrated significantly shorter time to oral narcotics (2.7 days vs 4.0 days, P <.001) and median LOS (5.2 days vs 6.8 days, P = .004). TAPb with LB demonstrated significant reductions in narcotic consumption and improved pain control. TAPb allowed for earlier discontinuation of intravenous narcotics and shorter LOS. Intraoperative TAPb with LB appears to be an effective adjunct for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing open AWR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; Ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential.

  15. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  16. Laparoscopic-assisted management of traumatic abdominal wall hernias in children: case series and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Talutis, Stephanie D; Muensterer, Oliver J; Pandya, Samir; McBride, Whitney; Stringel, Gustavo

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is defined as herniation through a disrupted portion of musculature/fascia without skin penetration or history of prior hernia. In children, TAWH is a rare injury. The objectives of this study were to report our experience with different management strategies of TAWH in children and to determine the utility of laparoscopy. A retrospective chart review of all children treated by pediatric surgery at our institution for TAWH in a 5year interval was performed. Data were collected on mechanism of injury, initial patient presentation, surgical management, and outcomes. We present 5 cases of traumatic abdominal wall hernia; 3 were managed using laparoscopic assistance. One patient was managed nonoperatively. All patients recovered without complications and were asymptomatic on follow up. Traumatic abdominal wall hernias require a high index of suspicion in the cases of blunt abdominal trauma. Laparoscopy is useful mainly as a diagnostic modality, both to evaluate the hernia and associated injuries to intraabdominal structures. Its use may facilitate repair through a smaller incision. Conservative management of TAWH may be appropriate in select cases where there is a low risk of bowel strangulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Skeletal muscle derived stem cells microintegrated into a biodegradable elastomer for reconstruction of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Keisuke; Hashizume, Ryotaro; Hong, Yi; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Yoshida, Osamu; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Sato, Hideyoshi; Huard, Johnny; Wagner, William R

    2017-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been applied to generate tissue engineered constructs, where cells are combined with degradable scaffolds followed by a period of in vitro culture or direct implantation. In the current study, a cellularized scaffold was generated by concurrent deposition of electrospun biodegradable elastomer (poly(ester urethane)urea, PEUU) and electrosprayed culture medium + skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) or electrosprayed culture medium alone as a control. MDSCs were obtained from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats. The created scaffolds were implanted into allogenic strain-matched rats to replace a full thickness abdominal wall defect. Both control and MDSC-integrated scaffolds showed extensive cellular infiltration at 4 and 8 wk. The number of blood vessels was higher, the area of residual scaffold was lower, number of multinucleated giant cells was lower and area of connective tissue was lower in MDSC-integrated scaffolds (p < 0.05). GFP + cells co-stained positive for VEGF. Bi-axial mechanical properties of the MDSC-microintegrated constructs better approximated the anisotropic behavior of the native abdominal wall. GFP + cells were observed throughout the scaffold at ∼5% of the cell population at 4 and 8 wk. RNA expression at 4 wk showed higher expression of early myogenic marker Pax7, and b-FGF in the MDSC group. Also, higher expression of myogenin and VEGF were seen in the MDSC group at both 4 and 8 wk time points. The paracrine effect of donor cells on host cells likely contributed to the differences found in vivo between the groups. This approach for the rapid creation of highly-cellularized constructs with soft tissue like mechanics offers an attractive methodology to impart cell-derived bioactivity into scaffolds providing mechanical support during the healing process and might find application in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Concomitant Ostomy-Associated Hernia Repair: Outcomes and Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mericli, Alexander F; Garvey, Patrick B; Giordano, Salvatore; Liu, Jun; Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E

    2017-03-01

    The optimal strategy for abdominal wall reconstruction in the presence of a stomal-site hernia is unclear. We hypothesized that the rate of ventral hernia recurrence in patients undergoing a combined ventral hernia repair and stomal-site herniorraphy would not differ clinically from the ventral hernia recurrence rate in patients undergoing an isolated ventral hernia repair. We also hypothesized that bridged ventral hernia repairs result in worse outcomes compared with reinforced repairs, regardless of stomal hernia. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive abdominal wall reconstructions performed with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) at a single center between 2000 and 2015. We compared patients who underwent a ventral hernia repair alone (AWR) and those who underwent both a ventral hernia repair and ostomy-associated herniorraphy (AWR+O). We conducted a propensity score matched analysis to compare the outcomes between the 2 groups. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to study associations between potential predictive or protective reconstructive strategies and surgical outcomes. We included 499 patients (median follow-up 27.2 months; interquartile range [IQR] 12.4 to 46.6 months), 118 AWR+O and 381 AWR. After propensity score matching, 91 pairs were obtained. Ventral hernia recurrence was not statistically associated with ostomy-associated herniorraphy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.5; p = 0.34). However, the AWR+O group experienced a significantly higher percentage of surgical site occurrences (34.1%) than the AWR group (18.7%; adjusted odds ratio 2.3; 95% CI 1.4 to 3.7; p < 0.001). In the AWR group, there were significantly fewer ventral hernia recurrences when the repair was reinforced compared with bridged (5.3% vs 38.5%; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ventral hernia recurrence between the AWR and AWR+O groups. Bridging was associated

  19. Laparoscopic-guided abdominal wall nerve blocks in the pediatric population: a novel technique with comparison to ultrasound-guided blocks and local wound infiltration alone.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Alessandra; Visoiu, Mihaela; Malek, Marcus M

    2018-03-01

    Abdominal wall nerve blocks have been gaining popularity for the treatment of perioperative pain in children. Our aim was to compare a technique of surgeon-performed, laparoscopic abdominal wall nerve blocks to anesthesia-placed, ultrasound-guided abdominal wall nerve blocks and the current standard of local wound infiltration. After institutional review board approval was obtained, a retrospective chart review was performed of pediatric patients treated at a single institution during a 2-year period. Statistics were calculated using analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferonni t tests for pair-wise comparisons. Included in this study were 380 patients who received ultrasound-guided abdominal wall nerve blocks (n = 125), laparoscopic-guided abdominal wall nerve blocks (n = 88), and local wound infiltration (n = 117). Groups were well matched for age, sex, and weight. There was no significant difference in pain scores within the first 8 hours or narcotic usage between groups. Local wound infiltration demonstrated the shortest overall time required to perform (P < .0001). Patients who received a surgeon-performed abdominal wall nerve block demonstrated a shorter duration of hospital stay when compared to the other groups (P = .02). Our study has demonstrated that laparoscopic-guided abdominal wall nerve blocks show similar efficacy to ultrasound-guided nerve blocks performed by pain management physicians without increasing time in the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selecting criteria for the right prosthesis in defect of the abdominal wall surgery.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, H; Ion, D; Serban, M B; Ciurea, M

    2009-01-01

    The article is debating a theme of great interest for the defect of the abdominal wall surgery--the use of biocompatible prosthesis. The surgeon is often confused by the avalanche of offers made by the mesh producers, making it mandatory for him to know very well the behavior of these alloplastic structures in the tissue environment. From this point of view, we have discussed both the physicochemical properties and the histological reaction brought by the most common type of meshes: polypropylene, polyethylene - tereftalat, polytetrafluorideethylene. This presentation brings out the minimal but mandatory criteria for any mesh to be accepted, but also the criteria that need to be taken into consideration when we try to improve the qualities of the mesh closer to the desideratum of the "ideal mesh". The main conclusion of this review is that we have to change the myth of the "ideal mesh" with "the right chosen mesh", that based on its chemical, physical, structural and biological qualities will adapt perfectly first to the patient's needs and second to the surgeon's needs.

  1. Predicting adverse neonatal outcomes in fetuses with abdominal wall defects using prenatal risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Sara S; Stamilio, David M; Dicke, Jeffery M; Gray, Diana L; Macones, George A; Odibo, Anthony O

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether prenatal variables can predict adverse neonatal outcomes in fetuses with abdominal wall defects. A retrospective cohort study that used ultrasound and neonatal records for all cases of gastroschisis and omphalocele seen over a 16-year period. Cases with adverse neonatal outcomes were compared with noncases for multiple candidate predictive factors. Univariable and multivariable statistical methods were used to develop the prediction models, and effectiveness was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Of 80 fetuses with gastroschisis, 29 (36%) had the composite adverse outcome, compared with 15 of 33 (47%) live neonates with omphalocele. Intrauterine growth restriction was the only significant variable in gastroschisis, whereas exteriorized liver was the only predictor in omphalocele. The areas under the curve for the prediction models with gastroschisis and omphalocele are 0.67 and 0.74, respectively. Intrauterine growth restriction and exteriorization of the liver are significant predictors of adverse neonatal outcome with gastroschisis and omphalocele.

  2. Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

  3. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Port site endometrioma: a rare cause of abdominal wall pain following laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zohaib A; Husain, Fahd; Siddiqui, Zain; Siddiqui, Midhat

    2017-06-18

    Endometriomas are a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. We report a case of a port site endometrioma presenting with an umbilical swelling. The patient underwent a laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis 6 months previously and presented with a swelling around her umbilical port site scar associated with cyclical pain during menses. Ultrasound scan reported a well-defined lesion in the umbilicus and MRI scanning excluded other pathology. As she was symptomatic, she underwent an exploration of the scar and excision of the endometrioma with resolution of her symptoms. Precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of endometrial seeding during laparoscopic surgery. All tissues should be removed in an appropriate retrieval bag and the pneumoperitoneum should be deflated completely before removing ports to reduce the chimney effect of tissue being forced through the port site. The diagnosis should be considered in all women of reproductive age presenting with a painful port site scar. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. What Do We Know About Component Separation Techniques for Abdominal Wall Hernia Repair?

    PubMed

    Scheuerlein, Hubert; Thiessen, Andreas; Schug-Pass, Christine; Köckerling, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    The component separation technique (CST) was introduced to abdominal wall reconstruction to treat large, complex hernias. It is very difficult to compare the published findings because of the vast number of technical modifications to CST as well as the heterogeneity of the patient population operated on with this technique. The main focus of the literature search conducted up to August 2017 in Medline and PubMed was on publications reporting comparative findings as well as on systematic reviews in order to formulate statements regarding the various CSTs. CST without mesh should no longer be performed because of too high recurrence rates. Open anterior CST has too high a surgical site occurrence rate and henceforth should only be conducted as endoscopic and perforator sparing anterior CST. Open posterior CST and posterior CST with transversus abdominis release (TAR) produce better results than open anterior CST. To date, no significant differences have been found between endoscopic anterior, perforator sparing anterior CST and posterior CST with transversus abdominis release. Robot-assisted posterior CST with TAR is the latest, very promising alternative. The systematic use of biologic meshes cannot be recommended for CST. CST should always be performed with mesh as endoscopic or perforator sparing anterior or posterior CST. Robot-assisted posterior CST with TAR is the latest development.

  6. Long-term anisotropic mechanical response of surgical meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2012-01-01

    Routine hernia repair surgery involves the implant of synthetic mesh. However, this type of procedure may give rise to pain and bowel incarceration and strangulation, causing considerable patient disability. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term behaviour of three commercial meshes used to repair the partially herniated abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits: the heavyweight (HW) mesh, Surgipro(®) and lightweight (LW) mesh, Optilene(®), both made of polypropylene (PP), and a mediumweight (MW) mesh, Infinit(®), made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The implanted meshes were mechanical and histological assessed at 14, 90 and 180 days post-implant. This behaviour was compared to the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the unrepaired abdominal wall in control non-operated rabbits. Both uniaxial mechanical tests conducted in craneo-caudal and perpendicular directions and histological findings revealed substantial collagen growth over the repaired hernial defects causing stiffness in the repair zone, and thus a change in the original properties of the meshes. The mechanical behaviour of the healthy tissue in the craneo-caudal direction was not reproduced by any of the implanted meshes after 14 days or 90 days of implant, whereas in the perpendicular direction, SUR and OPT achieved similar behaviour. From a mechanical standpoint, the anisotropic PP-lightweight meshes may be considered a good choice in the long run, which correlates with the structure of the regenerated tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  8. Chronic subdural hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... A subdural hematoma develops when bridging veins tear and leak blood. These are the tiny veins that run between the ...

  9. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kyu; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction. Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery. Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle. PMID:23362477

  10. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka

    2010-06-15

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

  11. Gasless laparoscopic surgery plus abdominal wall lifting for giant hiatal hernia-our single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang-Hong; Wu, Ji-Xiang; Yu, Lei; Li, Jian-Ye

    2016-12-01

    Giant hiatal hernia (GHH) comprises 5% of hiatal hernia and is associated with significant complications. The traditional operative procedure, no matter transthoracic or transabdomen repair of giant hiatal hernia, is characteristic of more invasion and more complications. Although laparoscopic repair as a minimally invasive surgery is accepted, a part of patients can not tolerate pneumoperitoneum because of combination with cardiopulmonary diseases or severe posterior mediastinal and neck emphesema during operation. The aim of this article was to analyze our experience in gasless laparoscopic repair with abdominal wall lifting to treat the giant hiatal hernia. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing gasless laparoscopic repair of GHH with abdominal wall lifting from 2012 to 2015 at our institution. The GHH was defined as greater than one-third of the stomach in the chest. Gasless laparoscopic repair of GHH with abdominal wall lifting was attempted in 27 patients. Mean age was 67 years. The results showed that there were no conversions to open surgery and no intraoperative deaths. The mean duration of operation was 100 min (range: 90-130 min). One-side pleura was injured in 4 cases (14.8%). The mean postoperative length of stay was 4 days (range: 3-7 days). Median follow- up was 26 months (range: 6-38 months). Transient dysphagia for solid food occurred in three patients (11.1%), and this symptom disappeared within three months. There was one patient with recurrent hiatal hernia who was reoperated on. Two patients still complained of heartburn three months after surgery. Neither reoperation nor endoscopic treatment due to signs of postoperative esophageal stenosis was required in any patient. Totally, satisfactory outcome was reported in 88.9% patients. It was concluded that the gasless laparoscopic approach with abdominal wall lifting to the repair of GHH is feasible, safe, and effective for the patients who cannot tolerate the pneumoperitoneum.

  12. Correspondence: Laparoscopic repair of abdominal wall hernia--"How I do it"--synopsis of a seemingly straightforward technique.

    PubMed

    Berney, Christophe R

    2015-08-19

    Abdominal wall hernia repairs are commonly performed worldwide in general surgery. There is still no agreed consensus on the optimal surgical approach. Since the turn of the twenty-first century, minimally invasive techniques have gained in popularity as they combine the advantages of limited abdominal wall dissection, reduced post-operative pain and risk of complications, and shorter hospital stay. Although the added cost incurred by using sophisticated laparoscopic instruments may be quite substantial, it is precisely counterbalanced by an improved morbidity rate, faster discharge home and time to return to work. Laparoscopic abdominal wall hernia repair is often challenging, as it requires good anatomical knowledge, eye-hand coordination and diversified laparoscopic skills. The objective of this article is not to present another set of personal data and to compare it with already published results on this matter, but simply to offer comprehensive guidelines on the practical aspects of this relatively new technique. Some of these steps have already been discussed but most of the time in a scattered way in the surgical literature, while others are the fruit of a personal expertise grasped over the years.

  13. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma in pregnancy and a systematic anatomical workup of rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eckhoff, Kerstin; Wedel, Thilo; Both, Marcus; Bas, Kayhan; Maass, Nicolai; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2016-10-19

    Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare clinical diagnosis, particularly in pregnancy. Due to unspecific symptoms, misdiagnosis is likely and could potentially endanger a patient as well as her fetus. A 26-year-old white woman presented with mild right-sided abdominal pain, which increased during palpation and movement, at 26 + 3 weeks' gestational age. Ultrasound imaging initially showed a round and well-demarcated structure, which appeared to be in contact with her uterine wall, leading to a suspected diagnosis of an infarcted leiomyoma. However, she reported increasing levels of pain and laboratory tests showed a significant drop in her initially normal hemoglobin level. A magnetic resonance imaging scan finally revealed a large type III rectus sheath hematoma on the right side. Because of progressive blood loss into her rectus sheath under conservative therapy, with a significant further decrease in her hemoglobin levels, surgical treatment via right-sided paramedian laparotomy was initiated. During the operation the arterial bleed could be ligated. She eventually achieved complete convalescence and delivered a healthy newborn spontaneously after 40 weeks of gestation. This case report highlights the clinical and diagnostic features of rectus sheath hematoma and shows the anatomical aspects of the rectus sheath, simplifying early and correct diagnosis.

  14. Adventitial adipogenic degeneration is an unidentified contributor to aortic wall weakening in the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Stefan A; Gäbel, Gabor; Kokje, Vivianne B C; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2018-06-01

    The processes driving human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression are not fully understood. Although antiinflammatory and proteolytic strategies effectively quench aneurysm progression in preclinical models, so far all clinical interventions failed. These observations hint at an incomplete understanding of the processes involved in AAA progression and rupture. Interestingly, strong clinical and molecular associations exist between popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) and AAAs; however, PAAs have an extremely low propensity to rupture. We thus reasoned that differences between these aneurysms may provide clues toward (auxiliary) processes involved in AAA-related wall debilitation. A better understanding of the pathophysiologic processes driving AAA growth can contribute to pharmaceutical treatments in the future. Aneurysmal wall samples were collected during open elective and emergency repair. Control perirenal aorta was obtained during kidney transplantation, and reference popliteal tissue obtained from the anatomy department. This study incorporates various techniques including (immuno)histochemistry, Western Blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray, and cell culture. Histologic evaluation of AAAs, PAAs, and control aorta shows extensive medial (PAA) and transmural fibrosis (AAA), and reveals abundant adventitial adipocytes aggregates as an exclusive phenomenon of AAAs (P < .001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and microarray analysis showed enrichment of adipogenic mediators (C/EBP family P = .027; KLF5 P < .000; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, P = .032) in AAA tissue. In vitro differentiation tests indicated a sharply increased adipogenic potential of AAA adventitial mesenchymal cells (P < .0001). Observed enrichment of adipocyte-related genes and pathways in ruptured AAA (P < .0003) supports an association between the extent of fatty degeneration and rupture. This

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using abdominal wall retraction. Hemodynamics and gas exchange, a comparison with conventional pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, D W; Rademaker, B P; Schlooz, S; Bemelman, W A; de Wit, L T; Bannenberg, J J; Stijnen, T; Gouma, D F

    1997-06-01

    Disadvantages related to CO2 pneumoperitoneum have led to development of the abdominal wall retractor (AWR), a device designed to facilitate laparoscopic surgery without conventional pneumoperitoneum (15 mmHg CO2). We investigated the effects of the AWR on hemodynamics and gas exchange in humans. We also investigated whether the use of an AWR imposed extra technical difficulties for the surgeon. A pilot study revealed that cholecystectomy without low-pressure pneumoperitoneum was technically impossible. A prospective randomized controlled trial: Twenty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into group 1: AWR with low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (5 mmHg), or group 2: conventional pneumoperitoneum (15 mmHg). Surgery using the AWR lasted longer, 72 +/- 16 min (mean +/- SD) vs 50 +/- 18 min compared with standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no differences between the groups with respect to hemodynamic parameters, although a small reduction of the cardiac output was observed using conventional pneumoperitoneum (from 3.9 +/- 0.7 to 3. 2 +/- 1.1 l/min) and an increase during AWR (from 4.2 +/- 0.9 to 5.2 +/- 1.5 l/min). Peak inspiratory pressures were significantly higher during conventional pneumoperitoneum compared to AWR. A slight decrease in pH accompanied by an increase in CO2 developed during pneumoperitoneum and during the use of the AWR. In both groups arterial PO2 decreased. The results indicate that the view was impaired during use of the AWR and therefore its use was difficult and time-consuming. Possible advantages of this devices' effects on hemodynamics and ventilatory parameters could not be confirmed in this study.

  16. Primary fascial closure with mesh reinforcement is superior to bridged mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Booth, Justin H; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Selber, Jesse C; Nguyen, Alexander T; Clemens, Mark W; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    Many surgeons believe that primary fascial closure with mesh reinforcement should be the goal of abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR), yet others have reported acceptable outcomes when mesh is used to bridge the fascial edges. It has not been clearly shown how the outcomes for these techniques differ. We hypothesized that bridged repairs result in higher hernia recurrence rates than mesh-reinforced repairs that achieve fascial coaptation. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive patients with 1 year or more of follow-up, who underwent midline AWR between 2000 and 2011 at a single center. We compared surgical outcomes between patients with bridged and mesh-reinforced fascial repairs. The primary outcomes measure was hernia recurrence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors predictive of or protective for complications. We included 222 patients (195 mesh-reinforced and 27 bridged repairs) with a mean follow-up of 31.1 ± 14.2 months. The bridged repairs were associated with a significantly higher risk of hernia recurrence (56% vs 8%; hazard ratio [HR] 9.5; p < 0.001) and a higher overall complication rate (74% vs 32%; odds ratio [OR] 3.9; p < 0.001). The interval to recurrence was more than 9 times shorter in the bridged group (HR 9.5; p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis identified bridged repair and defect width > 15 cm to be independent predictors of hernia recurrence (HR 7.3; p < 0.001 and HR 2.5; p = 0.028, respectively). Mesh-reinforced AWRs with primary fascial coaptation resulted in fewer hernia recurrences and fewer overall complications than bridged repairs. Surgeons should make every effort to achieve primary fascial coaptation to reduce complications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Meta-analysis of peak wall stress in ruptured, symptomatic and intact abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Khosla, S; Morris, D R; Moxon, J V; Walker, P J; Gasser, T C; Golledge, J

    2014-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of sudden death; however, there are currently incomplete means to predict the risk of AAA rupture. AAA peak wall stress (PWS) can be estimated using finite element analysis (FEA) methods from computed tomography (CT) scans. The question is whether AAA PWS can predict AAA rupture. The aim of this systematic review was to compare PWS in patients with ruptured and intact AAA. The MEDLINE database was searched on 25 May 2013. Case-control studies assessing PWS in asymptomatic intact, and acutely symptomatic or ruptured AAA from CT scans using FEA were included. Data were extracted independently. A random-effects model was used to calculate standard mean differences (SMDs) for PWS measurements. Nine studies assessing 348 individuals were identified and used in the meta-analysis. Results from 204 asymptomatic intact and 144 symptomatic or ruptured AAAs showed that PWS was significantly greater in the symptomatic/ ruptured AAAs compared with the asymptomatic intact AAAs (SMD 0·95, 95 per cent confidence interval 0·71 to 1·18; P < 0·001). The findings remained significant after adjustment for mean systolic blood pressure, standardized at 120 mmHg (SMD 0·68, 0·39 to 0·96; P < 0·001). Minimal heterogeneity between studies was noted (I(2)  = 0 per cent). This study suggests that PWS is greater in symptomatic or ruptured AAA than in asymptomatic intact AAA. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Primary fascial closure with biologic mesh reinforcement results in lesser complication and recurrence rates than bridged biologic mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction: A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Salvatore; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that bridged mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction may result in worse outcomes than mesh-reinforced, primary fascial closure, particularly when acellular dermal matrix is used. We compared our outcomes of bridged versus reinforced repair using ADM in abdominal wall reconstruction procedures. This retrospective study included 535 consecutive patients at our cancer center who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction either for an incisional hernia or for abdominal wall defects left after excision of malignancies involving the abdominal wall with underlay mesh. A total of 484 (90%) patients underwent mesh-reinforced abdominal wall reconstruction and 51 (10%) underwent bridged repair abdominal wall reconstruction. Acellular dermal matrix was used, respectively, in 98% of bridged and 96% of reinforced repairs. We compared outcomes between these 2 groups using propensity score analysis for risk-adjustment in multivariate analysis and for 1-to-1 matching. Bridged repairs had a greater hernia recurrence rate (33.3% vs 6.2%, P < .001), a greater overall complication rate (59% vs 30%, P = .001), and worse freedom from hernia recurrence (log-rank P <.001) than reinforced repairs. Bridged repairs also had a greater rate of wound dehiscence (26% vs 14%, P = .034) and mesh exposure (10% vs 1%, P = .003) than mesh-reinforced abdominal wall reconstruction. When the treatment method was adjusted for propensity score in the propensity-score-matched pairs (n = 100), we found that the rates of hernia recurrence (32% vs 6%, P = .002), overall complications (32% vs 6%, P = .002), and freedom from hernia recurrence (68% vs 32%, P = .001) rates were worse after bridged repair. We did not observe differences in wound healing and mesh complications between the 2 groups. In our population of primarily cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center bridged repair for abdominal wall reconstruction is associated with worse outcomes than mesh

  19. Volume rather than flow incentive spirometry is effective in improving chest wall expansion and abdominal displacement using optoelectronic plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Paisani, Denise de Moraes; Lunardi, Adriana Claudia; da Silva, Cibele Cristine Berto Marques; Porras, Desiderio Cano; Tanaka, Clarice; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Incentive spirometers are widely used in clinical practice and classified as flow-oriented (FIS) and volume-oriented (VIS). Until recently the respiratory inductive plethysmography used to evaluate the effects of incentive spirometry on chest wall mechanics presented limitations, which may explain why the impact of VIS and FIS remains poorly known. To compare the effects of VIS and FIS on thoracoabdominal mechanics and respiratory muscle activity in healthy volunteers. This cross-sectional trial assessed 20 subjects (12 female, ages 20-40 years, body mass index 20-30 kg/m(2)). All subjects performed 8 quiet breaths and 8 deep breaths with FIS and VIS, in a randomized order. We measured thoracoabdominal chest wall, upper and lower rib-cage, and abdominal volumes with optoelectronic plethysmography, and the muscle activity of the sternocleidomastoid and superior and inferior intercostal muscles with electromyography. VIS increased chest wall volume more than did FIS (P = .007) and induced a larger increase in the upper and lower rib-cages and abdomen (156%, 91%, and 151%, respectively, P < .001). By contrast, FIS induced more activity in the accessory muscles of respiration than did VIS (P < .001). VIS promotes a greater increase in chest wall volume, with a larger abdominal contribution and lower respiratory muscle activity, than does FIS in healthy adults.

  20. The Effects of Modified Wall Squat Exercises on Average Adults’ Deep Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Lumbar Stability

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bridge exercises applying the abdominal drawing-in method and modified wall squat exercises on deep abdominal muscle thickness and lumbar stability. [Subjects] A total of 30 subjects were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] The experimental group completed modified wall squat exercises, and the control group performed bridge exercises. Both did so for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Both groups’ transversus abdominis (Tra), internal oblique (IO), and multifidus muscle thickness were measured using ultrasonography, while their static lumbar stability and dynamic lumbar stability were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] A comparison of the pre-intervention and post-intervention measures of the experimental group and the control group was made; the Tra and IO thicknesses were significantly different in both groups. [Conclusion] The modified wall squat exercise and bridge exercise affected the thicknesses of the Tra and the IO muscles. While the bridge exercise requirs space and a mattress to lie on, the modified wall squat exercise can be conveniently performed anytime. PMID:24259831

  1. Gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to late-onset enteric fistula after polyester mesh repair of an incisional hernia.

    PubMed

    Moussi, A; Daldoul, S; Bourguiba, B; Othmani, D; Zaouche, A

    2012-04-01

    The occurrence of enteric fistulae after wall repair using a prosthetic mesh is a serious but, fortunately, rare complication. We report the case of a 66-year-old diabetic man who presented with gas gangrene of the abdominal wall due to an intra-abdominal abscess caused by intestinal erosion six years after an incisional hernia repair using a polyester mesh. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the seriousness of enteric fistula after parietal repair using a synthetic material.

  2. Robotic Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR): is it possible to offer minimally invasive surgery for abdominal wall complex defects?

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maria Vitória França DO; Guimarães, José Ricardo; Volpe, Paula; Oliveira, Flávio Malcher Martins DE; Domene, Carlos Eduardo; Roll, Sérgio; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti

    2017-01-01

    We describe the preliminary national experience and the early results of the use of robotic surgery to perform the posterior separation of abdominal wall components by the Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR) technique for the correction of complex defects of the abdominal wall. We performed the procedures between 04/2/2015 and 06/15/2015 and the follow-up time was up to six months, with a minimum of two months. The mean surgical time was five hours and 40 minutes. Two patients required laparoscopic re-intervention, since one developed hernia by peritoneal migration of the mesh and one had mesh extrusion. The procedure proved to be technically feasible, with a still long surgical time. Considering the potential advantages of robotic surgery and those related to TAR and the results obtained when these two techniques are associated, we conclude that they seem to be a good option for the correction of complex abdominal wall defects. RESUMO Descrevemos a experiência preliminar nacional na utilização da cirurgia robótica para realizar a separação posterior de componentes da parede abdominal pela técnica transversus abdominis release (TAR) na correção de defeitos complexos da parede abdominal e seus resultados precoces. As cirurgias foram realizadas entre 02/04/2015 e 15/06/2015 e o tempo de acompanhamento dos resultados foi de até seis meses, com tempo mínimo de dois meses. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de cinco horas e 40 minutos. Dois pacientes necessitaram reintervenção por laparoscopia, pois um desenvolveu hérnia por migração peritoneal da tela e um teve escape da tela. A cirurgia provou ser factível do ponto de vista técnico, com um tempo cirúrgico ainda elevado. Tendo em vista as vantagens potenciais da cirurgia robótica e aquelas relacionadas ao TAR e os resultados obtidos ao se associar essas duas técnicas, conclui-se que elas parecem ser uma boa opção para a correção de defeitos complexos da parede abdominal.

  3. Comparison of the sonographic features of the abdominal wall muscles and connective tissues in individuals with and without lumbopelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Warner, Martin B; Stokes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional, case-control study. To measure and compare the resting thickness of the 4 abdominal wall muscles, their associated perimuscular connective tissue (PMCT), and interrecti distance (IRD) in persons with and without lumbopelvic pain (LPP), using ultrasound imaging. The muscles and PMCT of the abdominal wall assist in controlling the spine. Functional deficits of the abdominal wall muscles have been detected in populations with LPP. Investigations of the abdominal wall in those with LPP are primarily concerned with muscle, most commonly the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO). Because the abdominal wall functions as a unit, all 4 abdominal muscles and their associated connective tissues should be considered concurrently. B-mode ultrasound imaging was used to measure the resting thickness of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique, IO, and TrA muscles; the PMCT planes; and IRD in 50 male and female subjects, 25 with and 25 without LPP (mean ± SD age, 36.3 ± 9.4 and 46.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively). Univariate correlation analysis was used to identify covariates. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and the Kruskal-Wallis test (IRD) were used to compare cohorts (α = .05). The LPP cohort had less total abdominal muscle thickness (LPP mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 3.0 mm; control, 20.3 ± 3.0 mm; ANCOVA adjusted for body mass index, P = .03), thicker PMCT (LPP, 5.5 ± 0.2 mm; control, 4.3 ± 0.2 mm; ANCOVA adjusted for body mass index, P = .007), and wider IRD (LPP, 11.5 ± 2.0 mm; control, 8.4 ± 1.8 mm; Kruskal-Wallis, P = .005). Analysis of individual muscle thickness revealed no difference in the external oblique, IO, and TrA, but a thinner RA in the LPP cohort (LPP mean ± SD, 7.8 ± 1.5 mm; control, 9.1 ± 1.2 mm; ANCOVA adjusted for body mass index, P<.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the morphological characteristics of all 4 abdominal muscles and PMCT in individuals with LPP. The results suggest that there

  4. Left hepatic lobe herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nuño-Guzmán, Carlos M; Arróniz-Jáuregui, José; Espejo, Ismael; Valle-González, Jesús; Butus, Hernán; Molina-Romo, Alejandro; Orranti-Ortega, Rodrigo I

    2012-01-10

    Herniation of the liver through an anterior abdominal wall hernia defect is rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases have been described in the literature. A 70-year-old Mexican woman presented with a one-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice to our Department of General Surgery. Her medical history included an open cholecystectomy from 20 years earlier and excessive weight. She presented with jaundice, abdominal distension with a midline surgical scar, right upper quadrant tenderness, and a large midline abdominal wall defect with dullness upon percussion and protrusion of a large, tender, and firm mass. The results of laboratory tests were suggestive of cholestasis. Ultrasound revealed choledocholithiasis. A computed tomography scan showed a protrusion of the left hepatic lobe through the anterior abdominal wall defect and a well-defined, soft tissue density lesion in the right adrenal topography. An endoscopic common bile duct stone extraction was unsuccessful. During surgery, the right adrenal tumor was resected first. The hernia was approached through a median supraumbilical incision; the totality of the left lobe was protruding through the abdominal wall defect, and once the lobe was reduced to its normal position, a common bile duct surgical exploration with multiple stone extraction was performed. Finally, the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Histopathology revealed an adrenal myelolipoma. Six months after the operation, our patient remains in good health. The case of liver herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia in this report represents, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth such case reported in the literature. The rarity of this medical entity makes it almost impossible to specifically describe predisposing risk factors for liver herniation. Obesity, the right adrenal myelolipoma mass effect, and the previous abdominal surgery are likely to have contributed to

  5. Long-Term Outcomes after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Patrick B; Giordano, Salvatore A; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2017-03-01

    Long-term outcomes data for hernia recurrence rates after abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term durability of AWR using ADM. We studied patients who underwent AWR with ADM at a single center in 2005 to 2015 with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. Hernia recurrence was the primary end point and surgical site occurrence (SSO) was a secondary end point. The recurrence-free survival curves were estimated by Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations of risk factors at surgery with subsequent risks for hernia recurrence and SSO, respectively. A total of 512 patients underwent AWR with ADM. After excluding those with follow-up less than 36 months, 191 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 52.9 months (range 36 to 104 months). Twenty-six of 191 patients had a hernia recurrence documented in the study. The cumulative recurrence rates were 11.5% at 3 years and 14.6% by 5 years. Factors significantly predictive of hernia recurrence developing included bridged repair, wound skin dehiscence, use of human cadaveric ADM, and coronary disease; component separation was protective. In a subset analysis excluding bridged repairs and human cadaveric ADM patients, cumulative hernia recurrence rates were 6.4% by 3 years and 8.3% by 5 years. The crude rate of SSO was 25.1% (48 of 191). Factors significantly predictive of the incidence of SSO included at least 1 comorbidity, BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 , and defect width >15 cm. Use of ADM for AWR was associated with 11.5% and 14.6% hernia recurrence rates at 3- and 5-years follow-up, respectively. Avoiding bridged repairs and human cadaveric ADM can improve long-term AWR outcomes using ADM. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Abdominal Wall Reconstruction Outcomes: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Salvatore A; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and higher body mass index (BMI) may be associated with higher rates of wound healing complications and hernia recurrence rates following complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). We hypothesized that higher BMI’s result in higher rates of postoperative wound healing complications but similar rates of hernia recurrence in AWR patients. Methods We included 511 consecutive patients who underwent AWR with underlay mesh. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of preoperative BMI: <30 kg/m2 (non-obese), 30–34.9 kg/m2 (class I obesity) and ≥35 kg/m2 (class II/III obesity). We compared postoperative outcomes among these three groups. Results Class I and class II/III obesity patients had higher surgical site occurrence rates than non-obese patients (26.4% vs. 14.9%; p=0.006 and 36.8% vs. 14.9%; p<0.001, respectively) and higher overall complication rates (37.9% vs. 24.7%; p=0.007 and 43.4% vs. 24.7%; p<0.001, respectively). Similarly, obese patients had significantly higher skin dehiscence (19.3% vs 7.2%; p<0.001 and 26.5% vs 7.2%; p<0.001, respectively) and fat necrosis rates (10.0% vs 2.1%; p=0.001 and 11.8% vs 2.1%; p<0.001, respectively) than non-obese patients. Obesity class II/III patients had higher infection and seroma rates than non-obese patients (9.6% vs 4.3%; p=0.041 and 8.1% vs 2.1%; p=0.006, respectively). However, class I and class II/III obesity patients experienced hernia recurrence rates (11.4% vs. 7.7%; p=0.204 and 10.3% vs. 7.7%; p=0.381, respectively) and freedom from hernia recurrence (overall log-rank p=0.41) similar to non-obese patients. Conclusions Hernia recurrence rates do not appear to be affected by obesity on long-term follow-up in AWR. PMID:28445378

  7. Rectus Sheath Hematoma Associated with Apixaban.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Kulothungan; Winans, Amanda R McFee; Murthi, Swetha; Ahmad, Mudassar Raees; Kaatz, Scott

    2017-06-07

    Apixaban is an oral anticoagulant that directly inhibits Factor Xa and is indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare, life-threatening complication of anticoagulant treatment. We describe a case of an elderly patient on apixaban for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis who developed severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed left rectus sheath hematoma. Apixaban was discontinued and the patient was monitored for extension of the hematoma. After 2 days she was discharged home. Outpatient computed tomography 1 month later showed complete resolution of the rectus sheath hematoma. We recommend that clinicians become aware of the potential for rare and serious bleeding complications of anticoagulants and identify the need for early recognition and prompt management.

  8. A Case of Pediatric Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Components Separation within the Austere War Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Jennifer; Kumar, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Reconstructive surgeons supporting military operations are required to definitively treat severe pediatric abdominal injuries in austere environments. The safety and efficacy of using a components separation technique to treat large ventral hernias in pediatric patients in this setting remains understudied. Components separation technique was required to achieve definitive closure in a 12-month-old pediatric patient in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Her course was complicated by an anastomotic leak after small bowel resection. Her abdominal was successfully reopened, the leak repaired, and closed primarily without incident on postinjury day 9. Abdominal trauma with a large ventral hernia requiring components separation is extremely rare. A pediatric patient treated with components separation demonstrated minimal complications, avoidance of abdominal compartment syndrome, and no mortality. PMID:25426363

  9. Tissue-engineering with muscle fiber fragments improves the strength of a weak abdominal wall in rats.

    PubMed

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-02-01

    Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP and then evaluate the regenerative potential of a quickly biodegradable synthetic scaffold, methoxypolyethylene glycol polylactic-co-glycolic acid (MPEG-PLGA), seeded with autologous muscle fiber fragments (MFFs) using this model. In an initial pilot study with 15 animals, significant weakening of the abdominal wall and a feasible technique was established by creating a partial defect with removal of one abdominal muscle layer. Subsequently, 18 rats were evenly divided into three groups: (1) unrepaired partial defect; (2) partial defect repaired with MPEG-PLGA; (3) partial defect repaired with MPEG-PLGA and MFFs labeled with PKH26-fluorescence dye. After 8 weeks, we performed histopathological and immunohistochemical testing, fluorescence analysis, and uniaxial biomechanical testing. Both macroscopically and microscopically, the MPEG-PLGA scaffold was fully degraded, with no signs of an inflammatory or foreign-body response. PKH26-positive cells were found in all animals from the group with added MFFs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference between groups with respect to load at failure (p = 0.028), and post hoc testing revealed that the group with MPEG-PLGA and MFFs showed a significantly higher strength than the group with MPEG-PLGA alone (p = 0.034). Tissue-engineering with MFFs seeded on a scaffold of biodegradable MPEG-PLGA might be an interesting adjunct to future POP repair.

  10. Challenges in the repair of large abdominal wall hernias in Nigeria: review of available options in resource limited environments.

    PubMed

    Ezeome, E R; Nwajiobi, C E

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the challenges and outcome of management of large abdominal wall hernias in a resource limited environment and highlight the options available to surgeons in similar conditions. A review of prospectively collected data on large abdominal wall hernias managed between 2003 and 2009. University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria and surrounding hospitals. Patients with hernias more than 4 cm in their largest diameter, patients with closely sited multiple hernias or failed previous repairs and in whom the surgeon considers direct repair inappropriate. Demographics of patients with large hernias, methods of hernia repair, recurrences, early and late complications following the repair. There were 41 patients, comprising 28 females and 13 males with ages 14 - 73 years. Most (53.7%) were incisional hernias. Gynecological surgeries (66.7%) were the most common initiating surgeries. Fifteen of the patients (36.6%) have had failed previous repairs, 41.5% were obese, five patients presented with intestinal obstruction. Thirty nine of the hernias were repaired with prolene mesh, one with composite mesh and one by danning technique. Most of the patients had extra peritoneal mesh placement. Three patients needed ventilator support. After a mean follow up of 18.6 months, there was a single failed repair. Two post op deaths were related to respiratory distress. There were 12 wound infection and 8 superficial wound dehiscence, all of which except one resolved with dressing. One reoperation was done following mesh infection and extrusion. Large abdominal wall hernia repair in resource limited environments present several challenges with wound infection and respiratory distress being the most notable. Surgeons who embark on it in these environments must be prepared t o secure the proper tissue replacement materials and have adequate ventilation support.

  11. Sporadic extra abdominal wall desmoid-type fibromatosis: surgical resection can be safely limited to a minority of patients.

    PubMed

    Colombo, C; Miceli, R; Le Péchoux, C; Palassini, E; Honoré, C; Stacchiotti, S; Mir, O; Casali, P G; Dômont, J; Fiore, M; Le Cesne, A; Gronchi, A; Bonvalot, S

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the natural history of extra-abdominal wall desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) and compare outcome in patients who underwent initial surgery with those who did not. All consecutive patients affected by primary sporadic extra-abdominal wall DF observed between January 1992 and December 2012 were included. Patients were divided into surgical (SG) or non-surgical groups (NSG) according to initial treatment. Relapse free survival was calculated for SG, and crude cumulative incidence (CCI) of switching to surgery or other treatments for NSG. 216 patients were identified, 94 in SG (43%), 122 in NSG (57%). A shift towards a more systematic use of a conservative approach (78% of all comers) was observed in the latter years (2006-2012), although a small proportion of patients (28%) had been offered the conservative strategy even in the early period (1992-2005). Median follow-up (FU) was 49 mo. (interquartile (IQ), 20-89 mo.), 76 months for SG and 39 months for NSG. 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) for SG was 80% (95% confidence interval (CI), 72-89%). For the NSG, 5-year CCI of switching to surgery was 5% (95% CI: 1.7%, 14%), and 51% to other treatments (95% CI: 41%, 65%). 27 (20%) NSG patients underwent spontaneous regression. A non-surgical approach to extra-abdominal wall DF allowed surgery to be avoided in the majority of patients. This approach can be safely proposed and surgery offered as an option in selected cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Epidural Analgesia as an Adjunct in Elective Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: A Review of 4983 Cases.

    PubMed

    Karamanos, Efstathios; Dream, Sophie; Falvo, Anthony; Schmoekel, Nathan; Siddiqui, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Use of epidural analgesia in patients undergoing elective abdominal wall reconstruction is common. To assess the impact of epidural analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction. All patients who underwent elective ventral hernia repair from 2005 to 2014 were retrospectively identified. Patients were divided into two groups by the postoperative use of epidural analgesics as an adjunct analgesic method. Preoperative comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, operative findings, postoperative pain management, and venothromboembolic prophylaxis were extracted from the database. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the impact of epidural use. Severity of pain on postoperative days 1 and 2. During the study period, 4983 patients were identified. Of those, 237 patients (4.8%) had an epidural analgesic placed. After adjustment for differences between groups, use of epidural analgesia was associated with significantly lower rates of 30-day presentation to the Emergency Department (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32-0.87, adjusted p = 0.01). Use of epidural analgesia resulted in higher odds of abscess development (AOR = 5.89, CI = 2.00-17.34, adjusted p < 0.01) and transfusion requirement (AOR = 2.92, CI = 1.34-6.40, adjusted p < 0.01). Use of epidural analgesia resulted in a significantly lower pain score on postoperative day 1 (3 vs 4, adjusted p < 0.01). Use of epidural analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction may result in longer hospital stay and higher incidence of complications while having no measurable positive clinical impact on pain control.

  13. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma: The utility of CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Cilla, Savino; Modugno, Pietro; Centritto, Enrico Maria; De Filippo, Carlo Maria; Sallustio, Giuseppina

    2018-04-01

    We described the utility of computed tomography (CT) angiography in detection of bleeding vessels for a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. A 70-year-old woman comes to our attention with acute abdominal pain and a low hemoglobin level. An unenhanced CT was performed demonstrating a large rectus sheath hematoma. A conservative management was initially established. Despite this therapy, the abdominal pain increased together with a further decrease of hemoglobin values. A CT angiography was then performed, demonstrating an active bleeding within the hematoma and addressing the patient to a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization.

  14. Changes in the frequencies of abdominal wall hernias and the preferences for their repair: a multicenter national study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Seker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan; Öztuna, Derya; Topgül, Koray; Akyol, Cihangir; Çakmak, Atıl; Karateke, Faruk; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Gürer, Ahmet; Zerbaliyev, Elbrus; Seker, Duray; Yorgancı, Kaya; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydın, Ibrahim; Ensari, Cemal; Bilecik, Tuna; Kahraman, İzzettin; Reis, Erhan; Kalaycı, Murat; Canda, Aras Emre; Demirağ, Alp; Kesicioğlu, Tuğrul; Malazgirt, Zafer; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Terzi, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are a common problem in the general population. A Western estimate reveals that the lifetime risk of developing a hernia is about 2%. As a result, hernia repairs likely comprise the most frequent general surgery operations. More than 20 million hernias are estimated to be repaired every year around the world. Numerous repair techniques have been described to date however tension-free mesh repairs are widely used today because of their low hernia recurrence rates. Nevertheless, there are some ongoing debates regarding the ideal approach (open or laparoscopic), the ideal anesthesia (general, local, or regional), and the ideal mesh (standard polypropylene or newer meshes).

  15. Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mary L L S; Braz, Carolina A; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio C; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition among women, and 10 to 30 % of causes originate from the abdominal wall, and are associated with trigger points. Although little is known about their pathophysiology, variable methods have been practiced clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic injections versus ischemic compression via physical therapy for pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. We conducted a parallel group randomized trial including 30 women with chronic pelvic pain with abdominal wall trigger points. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. One group received an injection of 2 mL 0.5 % lidocaine without a vasoconstrictor into a trigger point. In the other group, ischemic compression via physical therapy was administered at the trigger points three times, with each session lasting for 60 s, and a rest period of 30 s between applications. Both treatments were administered during one weekly session for four weeks. Our primary outcomes were satisfactory clinical response rates and percentages of pain relief. Our secondary outcomes are pain threshold and tolerance at the trigger points. All subjects were evaluated at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the interventions. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital that was associated with a university providing assistance predominantly to working class women who were treated by the public health system. Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anaesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. The pain relief of women treated with local anaesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. In the local anaesthetic injection group, pain threshold

  16. Delayed hydronephrosis due to retroperitoneal hematoma after a seatbelt injury

    PubMed Central

    Yumoto, Tetsuya; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Kumon, Kento; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Hiraki, Takao; Yamada, Taihei; Naito, Hiromichi; Nakao, Atsunori

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hydronephrosis caused by retroperitoneal hematoma after a seatbelt injury is a unique clinical entity. Patient concerns: A 21-year-old man, who had been wearing a seatbelt, was brought to our hospital after a motor vehicle collision, complaining of abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the upper pelvic region. Since he was hemodynamically stable throughout admission, he was managed conservatively. Seventeen days after initial discharge, the patient revisited our emergency department due to right back pain. Diagnoses: CT scans indicated retroperitoneal hematoma growth resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. Interventions: Laparoscopic drainage of the retroperitoneal hematoma was successfully performed. Outcomes: His symptoms resolved after the surgery. Follow-up CT scans three months later demonstrated complete resolution of the hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal hematoma. Lessons: Our case highlights a patient with delayed hydronephrosis because of retroperitoneal hematoma expansion after a seatbelt injury. PMID:29879068

  17. Nasal septal hematoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum ...

  18. Abdominal wall reconstruction using a combination of free tensor fasciae lata and anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap: a prospective study in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yang; Cao, Dongsheng; Guo, Fangfang; Qian, Yunliang; Wang, Chen; Wang, Danru

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the abdominal wall continues to be a challenging problem for plastic surgeons. Transposition of well-vascularized flap tissue is the most effective way to repair composite abdominal wall defects. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment of such patients and assessed the reconstructive technique using combination of an inlay of bioprosthetic materials and a united thigh flap. A retrospective review of patients' records in the department was carried out. In total, 16 patients who underwent immediate abdominal wall reconstruction between 2000 and 2013 were identified. Patients' health status, defect sizes, and surgical technique were obtained from medical charts. The immediate reconstruction surgery of the abdominal wall was successful in all patients. One patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans experienced recurrences at the former site. One patient died because of liver metastases at 21 months after surgery. No incisional hernia or infection in this series of patients was observed. Full-thickness, giant defects of the complicated abdominal wall can be repaired successfully with relatively minor complications using this reconstructive technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p < 0.0001). Also, the extracellular connective tissue matrix provided a stiffening effect and enhanced the resistance to lengthening at long muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Carbon nanotubes as VEGF carriers to improve the early vascularization of porcine small intestinal submucosa in abdominal wall defect repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengni; Feng, Xueyi; Wang, Huichun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cui, Daxiang; Gu, Yan; Tang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient early vascularization in biological meshes, resulting in limited host tissue incorporation, is thought to be the primary cause for the failure of abdominal wall defect repair after implantation. The sustained release of exogenous angiogenic factors from a biocompatible nanomaterial might be a way to overcome this limitation. In the study reported here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalized by plasma polymerization to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor165 (VEGF165). The novel VEGF165-controlled released system was incorporated into porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) to construct a composite scaffold. Scaffolds incorporating varying amounts of VEGF165-loaded functionalized MWNT were characterized in vitro. At 5 weight percent MWNT, the scaffolds exhibited optimal properties and were implanted in rats to repair abdominal wall defects. PSIS scaffolds incorporating VEGF165-loaded MWNT (VEGF–MWNT–PSIS) contributed to early vascularization from 2–12 weeks postimplantation and obtained more effective collagen deposition and exhibited improved tensile strength at 24 weeks postimplantation compared to PSIS or PSIS scaffolds, incorporating MWNT without VEGF165 loading (MWNT–PSIS). PMID:24648727

  1. Actinomycotic abscess of the anterior abdominal wall: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pitot, D; De Moor, V; Demetter, P; Place, S; Gelin, M; El Nakadi, I

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare, chronic, suppurative, pseudotumoral illness caused by an anaerobic gram positive organism usually Actinomyces israelii which can mimick a tumoral pathology leading to a mutilating surgical resection. We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis and a literature review.

  2. Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nomoto, Satoru

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspirationmore » BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.« less

  3. Learning curves in abdominal wall reconstruction with components separation: one step closer toward improving outcomes and reducing complications.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Clayton, John L; Kittinger, Benjamin J; Tong, Winnie M

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves are characterized by incremental improvement of a process, through repetition and reduction in variability, but can be disrupted with the emergence of new techniques and technologies. Abdominal wall reconstruction continues to evolve, with the introduction of components separation in the 1990s and biologic mesh in the 2000s. As such, attempts at innovation may impact the success of reconstructive outcomes and yield a changing set of complications. The purpose of this project was to describe the paradigm shift that has occurred in abdominal wall reconstruction during the past 10 years, focusing on the incorporation of new materials and methods. We reviewed 150 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction of midline defects with components separation, from 2000 to 2010. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for complications. Patients were stratified into the following periods: early (2000-2003), middle (2004-2006), and late (2007-2010). From 2000 to 2010, we performed 150 abdominal wall reconstructions with components separation [mean age, 50.2 years; body mass index (BMI), 30.4; size of defect, 357 cm; length of stay, 9.6 days; follow-up, 4.4 years]. Primary fascial closure was performed in 120 patients. Mesh was used in 114 patients in the following locations: overlay (n = 28), inlay (n = 30), underlay (n = 54), and unknown (n = 2). Complications occurred in a bimodal distribution, highest in 2001 (introduction of biologic mesh) and 2008 (conversion from underlay to overlay location). Age, sex, history of smoking, defect size, and length of stay were not associated with incidence of complications. Unadjusted risk factors for seroma (16.8%) were elevated BMI, of previous hernia repairs, use of overlay mesh, and late portion of the learning curve, with logistic regression supporting only late portion of the learning curve [odds ratio (OR), 4.3; 95% confidence interval

  4. Management of traumatic duodenal hematomas in children.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michelle L; Abbas, Paulette I; Fallon, Sara C; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi J; Rodriguez, Jose Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Duodenal hematomas from blunt abdominal trauma are uncommon in children and treatment strategies vary. We reviewed our experience with this injury at a large-volume children's hospital. A retrospective case series was assembled from January 2003-July 2014. Data collected included demographics, clinical and radiographic characteristics, and hospital course. Patients with grade I injuries based on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Duodenum Injury Scale were compared with those with grade II injuries. Nineteen patients met inclusion criteria at a median age of 8.91 y (range, 1.7-17.2 y). Mechanisms of injury included direct abdominal blow or handle bar injury (n = 9), nonaccidental trauma (n = 5), falls (n = 3), and motor vehicle accident (n = 2). Ten patients had grade I hematomas and nine had grade II. Hematomas were most frequently seen in the second portion of the duodenum (n = 9). Five patients underwent a laparotomy for concerns for hollow viscus injury. No patients required operative drainage of the hematoma; however, one patient underwent percutaneous drainage. Twelve patients received parenteral nutrition (PN) for a median duration of 9 d (range, 5-14 d). Median duration of PN for grade I was 6.5 d (range, 5-8 d) versus 12 d for grade II (range, 9-14 d; P = 0.016). Complications included one readmission for concern of bowel obstruction requiring bowel rest. This study suggests that duodenal hematomas can be successfully managed nonoperatively. Grade II hematomas are associated with longer duration of PN therapy and consequently longer hospital stays. These data can assist in care management planning and parental counseling for patients with traumatic duodenal hematomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Samuel; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Araújo Correia, Luís

    2016-08-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with sudden left quadrant abdominal pain and hematochezia. There was no history of trauma. He denied other symptoms or taking off-the-counter medication. His medical history was relevant for ischemic and aortic-mitral valve disease with prosthetic valves for which he was medicated with aspirin and warfarin. On physical examination the patient presented normal vital signs with tenderness on palpation of the left side of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed moderate anemia (10.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (135.000x10^9 U/L) with therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.53). Colonoscopy revealed an extensive area of erythematous and bluish mucosa with an apparent torsion of the proximal descending colon around a volumous hematoma measuring 6.5x3 cm (Figure 1 A-C). Urgent abdominal CT confirmed the presence of a large intramural hematoma of the descending colon (Figure 2 A-B). A conservative approach was adopted with temporary suspension of anticoagulation. Given the high thrombotic risk, abdominal ultrasound was performed after 72 hours showing considerable reduction in the size of the hematoma. Anti-coagulation was then resumed without complications. One month later, colonoscopy was repeated showing complete healing of the mucosa. The increasing use of anti-aggregating and anti-coagulant therapy, especially in elderly patients, explains the increasing incidence of bleeding events seen in this population. However, gastrointestinal hematomas are estimated to occur in only 1 for every 250.000 anti-coagulated patients. Diagnosis is based on characteristic radiologic findings. While most parietal hematomas can be approached conservatively, surgery is indicated in the presence of complications or persistence of the hematoma.

  6. Minilaparotomy with a gasless laparoscopic-assisted procedure by abdominal wall lifting for ileorectal anastomosis in patients with slow transit constipation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Ryouichi; Fujisak, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) is the most widely adopted procedure. The aim of this study was to introduce a minimally invasive procedure, i.e., minilaparotomy with laparoscopic-assisted procedure, by abdominal wall lifting for IRA in patients with slow transit constipation (STC). Six STC patients (6 women, aged 40-69 years, mean age 56.3 years) underwent minilaparotomy with gasless laparoscopic-assisted approach by abdominal wall lifting for IRA. The present procedure involved a 7-cm lower abdominal median incision made at the beginning of the operation. 12 mm ports were also placed in the right and left upper abdominal quadrant positions. The upper abdominal wall was lifted by a subcutaneous Kirshner wire. The small wound was pulled upward and/or laterally by retractors (abdominal lifting) and conventional surgical instruments were used through the wound. Occasionally laparoscopic assistance was employed. The terminal ileum with total colon was brought out through the small wound and transected, approximately 5 cm from the ileocecal valve. The colon was also resected at the level of promontrium. Then, IRA was performed in the instruments. The total surgical time was 197.7 +/- 33.9 min and the mean estimated blood loss was 176.8 +/- 42.2 ml. There was no surgical mortality. Post-operative hospitalization was 8.1 +/- 2.1 days. Six months after surgery, they defecated 1.8 +/- 2.1 times daily, have no abdominal distension, pain, and incontinence. The patients also take no laxatives. All subjects were satisfied with this procedure. Minilaparotomy with gasless laparoscopic-assisted IRA by abdominal wall lifting could be a safe and efficient technique in the treatment of STC.

  7. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation.

  8. Recommendations for reporting outcome results in abdominal wall repair: results of a Consensus meeting in Palermo, Italy, 28-30 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Muysoms, F E; Deerenberg, E B; Peeters, E; Agresta, F; Berrevoet, F; Campanelli, G; Ceelen, W; Champault, G G; Corcione, F; Cuccurullo, D; DeBeaux, A C; Dietz, U A; Fitzgibbons, R J; Gillion, J F; Hilgers, R-D; Jeekel, J; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Köckerling, F; Mandala, V; Montgomery, A; Morales-Conde, S; Simmermacher, R K J; Schumpelick, V; Smietański, M; Walgenbach, M; Miserez, M

    2013-08-01

    The literature dealing with abdominal wall surgery is often flawed due to lack of adherence to accepted reporting standards and statistical methodology. The EuraHS Working Group (European Registry of Abdominal Wall Hernias) organised a consensus meeting of surgical experts and researchers with an interest in abdominal wall surgery, including a statistician, the editors of the journal Hernia and scientists experienced in meta-analysis. Detailed discussions took place to identify the basic ground rules necessary to improve the quality of research reports related to abdominal wall reconstruction. A list of recommendations was formulated including more general issues on the scientific methodology and statistical approach. Standards and statements are available, each depending on the type of study that is being reported: the CONSORT statement for the Randomised Controlled Trials, the TREND statement for non randomised interventional studies, the STROBE statement for observational studies, the STARLITE statement for literature searches, the MOOSE statement for metaanalyses of observational studies and the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A number of recommendations were made, including the use of previously published standard definitions and classifications relating to hernia variables and treatment; the use of the validated Clavien-Dindo classification to report complications in hernia surgery; the use of "time-to-event analysis" to report data on "freedom-of-recurrence" rather than the use of recurrence rates, because it is more sensitive and accounts for the patients that are lost to follow-up compared with other reporting methods. A set of recommendations for reporting outcome results of abdominal wall surgery was formulated as guidance for researchers. It is anticipated that the use of these recommendations will increase the quality and meaning of abdominal wall surgery research.

  9. Evaluation of optical data gained by ARAMIS-measurement of abdominal wall movements for an anisotropic pattern design of stress-adapted hernia meshes produced by embroidery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, A.; Bittrich, L.; Hahn, J.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    For the sustainable repair of abdominal wall hernia the application of hernia meshes is required. One reason for the relapse of hernia after surgery is seen in an inadequate adaption of the mechanical properties of the mesh to the movements of the abdominal wall. Differences in the stiffness of the mesh and the abdominal tissue cause tension, friction and stress resulting in a deficient tissue response and subsequently in a recurrence of a hernia, preferentially in the marginal area of the mesh. Embroidery technology enables a targeted influence on the mechanical properties of the generated textile structure by a directed thread deposition. Textile parameters like stitch density, alignment and angle can be changed easily and locally in the embroidery pattern to generate a space-resolved mesh with mechanical properties adapted to the requirement of the surrounding tissue. To determine those requirements the movements of the abdominal wall and the resulting distortions need to be known. This study was conducted to gain optical data of the abdominal wall movements by non-invasive ARAMIS-measurement on 39 test persons to estimate direction and value of the major strains.

  10. Tissue factor levels and the fibrinolytic system in thin and thick intraluminal thrombus and underlying walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Siennicka, Aldona; Zuchowski, Marta; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Cnotliwy, Miłosław; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Jastrzębska, Maria

    2018-03-20

    The hemostatic system cooperates with proteolytic degradation in processes allowing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. In previous studies, it has been suggested that aneurysm rupture depends on intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness, which varies across each individual aneurysm. We hypothesized that hemostatic components differentially accumulate in AAA tissue in relation to ILT thickness. Thick (A1) and thin (B1) segments of ILTs and aneurysm wall sections A (adjacent to A1) and B (adjacent to B1) from one aneurysm sac were taken from 35 patients undergoing elective repair. Factor levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of protein extract. Tissue factor (TF) activities were significantly higher in thinner segments of AAA (B1 vs A1, P = .003; B vs A, P < .001; B vs A1, P < .001; B vs B1, P = .001). Significantly higher tissue plasminogen activator was found in thick thrombus-covered wall segments (A) than in B, A1, and B1 (P = .015, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). Plasminogen concentrations were highest in ILT. Concentrations of α 2 -antiplasmin in thin ILT adjacent walls (B) were higher compared with wall (A) adjacent to thick ILT (P = .021) and thick ILT (A1; P < .001). Significant correlations between levels of different factors were mostly found in thick ILT (A1). However, no correlations were found at B sites, except for a correlation between plasmin and TF activities (r = 0.55; P = .004). These results suggest that higher TF activities are present in thinner AAA regions. These parameters and local fibrinolysis may be part of the processes leading to destruction of the aneurysm wall. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Retroperitoneal hematoma].

    PubMed

    Dordević, D; Gigić, A; Milev, I; Novaković, B; Sretenović, Z

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal haematoma is the problem of controversy in actual moment. It appears most frequently in the range of polytrauma or various traumas of abdomen and retroperitoneal organs. Here we report our experience in management of retroperitoneal haematoma. During the ten year period (from 1979 to 1986) we treated surgically, at the department for surgery, 58 injured patients with retroperitoneal haematoma. In 5 cases explorative laparotomy was done, and in other 53 cases there were injuries of intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs. The haematomas were caused by the ruptures of spleen, liver, kidneys, pancreas, duodenum, small bowel with mesenterium, large bowel, bladder, retroperitoneal large blood vessels and pelvic fractures. In 17 cases retroperitoneal haematoma was associated with the injury of one organ. In 36 cases there were injuries of two or more organs. Retroperitoneal haematoma was caused by blunt trauma in most cases. During the management there were some diagnostic difficulties. In diagnosis we use: clinical status, of patients, radiography, angiography, ultrasonography, but the most secure was laparotomy. There are two treatment approaches, operative and conservative. Retroperitoneal haematoma was a consequence of ruptured solid organs and retroperitoneal blood vessels, and associated with injuries of intraperitoneal organs. All this, mentioned above, is the reasons for detailed exploration of abdominal cavity.

  12. [Tongue, trachea, abdominal wall, uterus, and penis allografts. More details on some other clinical applications of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation].

    PubMed

    Petit, F

    2007-10-01

    The first hand and face allografts opened a new era in medicine history: a time when allotransplantation and reconstructive surgery coupled their principles. Their success and their development made composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) a clinical reality for our speciality. Although still recent and limited, experience from this new surgical practice will widen with feedback from the first clinical cases and with experience gained from more clinical cases, more anatomical areas, more type of allografts, more surgical techniques, more immunosuppressive regimens. Tongue, trachea, abdominal wall, uterus, penis allotransplantations have been performed, contemporarily. Whatever the future and the benefits for the selected patients might have been, reports from these - un- and misknown - cases contribute to a better knowledge of CTA, its therapeutic potential, its limits, its challenges.

  13. A Relation Between Near-Wall Particle-Hemodynamics and Onset of Thrombus Formation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Basciano, C.; Kleinstreuer, C.; Hyun, S.; Finol, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational particle-hemodynamics analysis of key criteria for the onset of an intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented. The focus is on enhanced platelet and white blood cell residence times as well as their elevated surface-shear loads in near-wall regions of the AAA sac. The generalized results support the hypothesis that a patient's AAA geometry and associated particle-hemodynamics have the potential to entrap activated blood particles, which will play a role in the onset of ILT. Although the ILT history of only a single patient was considered, the modeling and simulation methodology provided allow for the development of an efficient computational tool to predict the onset of ILT formation in complex patient-specific cases. PMID:21373952

  14. Changes in the Frequencies of Abdominal Wall Hernias and the Preferences for Their Repair: A Multicenter National Study From Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Şeker, Gaye; Kulacoglu, Hakan; Öztuna, Derya; Topgül, Koray; Akyol, Cihangir; Çakmak, Atıl; Karateke, Faruk; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Gürer, Ahmet; Zerbaliyev, Elbrus; Seker, Duray; Yorgancı, Kaya; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydın, İbrahim; Ensari, Cemal; Bilecik, Tuna; Kahraman, İzzettin; Reis, Erhan; Kalaycı, Murat; Canda, Aras Emre; Demirağ, Alp; Kesicioğlu, Tuğrul; Malazgirt, Zafer; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Terzi, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are a common problem in the general population. A Western estimate reveals that the lifetime risk of developing a hernia is about 2%.1–3 As a result, hernia repairs likely comprise the most frequent general surgery operations. More than 20 million hernias are estimated to be repaired every year around the world.4 Numerous repair techniques have been described to date however tension-free mesh repairs are widely used today because of their low hernia recurrence rates. Nevertheless, there are some ongoing debates regarding the ideal approach (open or laparoscopic),5,6 the ideal anesthesia (general, local, or regional),7,8 and the ideal mesh (standard polypropylene or newer meshes).9,10 PMID:25216417

  15. Satisfaction and perceived quality of life results in patients operated on for primary hernia of the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Ibáñez, Ricardo; Nahban-Al Saied, Saif Adeen; Alonso-Vallejo, Javier; Escribano Sotos, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Outpatient surgery is currently the standard procedure in 60-70% of the most prevalent surgical procedures. Minimally invasive models in health care have improved basic aspects such as postoperative pain and hospital stay, but there are few publications related to perceived quality shown by patients, such as the need for informal care at home or delay before surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the global satisfaction perceived by patients undergoing abdominal wall hernia repair. An ad hoc split questionnaire has been completed on satisfaction after a week and postoperative quality a month after intervention by 203 patients operated on for abdominal hernia in a year. Variables included postoperative pain, need for informal care, surgical delay, information supplied, professional management and overall satisfaction. A total of 48.28% of patients needed informal care at home. They were largely attended by women, wives or daughters, for a few days. In 45.81% they were discharged on the same day, and 53.2% in less than 72 h. Overall satisfaction in the program of day surgery and short hospital stay was 94.6%. The overall process of satisfaction was not related to age, sex or educational level of patients, while there was an inverse relationship between satisfaction and days of hospitalization and days of pain that required analgesia at home. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel transperitoneal abdominal wall nerve block for postoperative pain in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Akiyama, Masaki; Arase, Koichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Hamada, Kotaro; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Keiji

    2017-04-04

    Although the laparoscopic approach reduces pain associated with abdominal surgery, postoperative pain remains a problem. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block have become increasingly popular means of providing analgesia for laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients were enrolled in this study. A laparoscopic puncture needle was inserted via the port, and levobupivacaine was injected into the correct plane through the peritoneum. The patients' postoperative pain intensity was assessed using a numeric rating scale. The effects of laparoscopic nerve block versus percutaneous anesthesia were compared. This novel form of transperitoneal anesthesia did not jeopardize completion of the operative procedures. The percutaneous approach required more time for performance of the procedure than the transperitoneal technique. This new analgesia technique can become an optional postoperative treatment regimen for various laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. What we mainly want to suggest is that the transperitoneal approach has the advantage of a higher completion rate. A percutaneous technique is sometimes difficult with patients who have severe obesity and/or coagulation disorders. Additional studies are required to evaluate its benefits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Improvement of mesh recolonization in abdominal wall reconstruction with adipose vs. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, M; Schubert, T; Guiot, Y; Goebbels, R M; Gianello, P

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction of muscle defects remains a challenge. Our work assessed the potential of an engineered construct made of a human acellular collagen matrix (HACM) seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to reconstruct abdominal wall muscle defects in a rodent model. This study compared 2 sources of MSCs (bone-marrow, BMSCs, and adipose, ASCs) in vitro and in vivo for parietal defect reconstruction. Cellular viability and growth factor release (VEGF, FGF-Beta, HGF, IGF-1, TGF-Beta) were investigated under normoxic/hypoxic culture conditions. Processed and recellularized HACMs were mechanically assessed. The construct was tested in vivo in full thickness abdominal wall defect treated with HACM alone vs. HACM+ASCs or BMSCs (n=14). Tissue remodeling was studied at day 30 for neo-angiogenesis and muscular reconstruction. A significantly lower secretion of IGF was observed with ASCs vs. BMSCs under hypoxic conditions (-97.6%, p<0.005) whereas significantly higher VEGF/FGF secretions were found with ASCs (+92%, p<0.001 and +72%, p<0.05, respectively). Processing and recellularization did not impair the mechanical properties of the HACM. In vivo, angiogenesis and muscle healing were significantly improved by the HACM+ASCs in comparison to BMSCs (p<0.05) at day 30. A composite graft made of an HACM seeded with ASCs can improve muscle repair by specific growth factor release in hypoxic conditions and by in vivo remodeling (neo-angiogenesis/graft integration) while maintaining mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rectus sheath hematoma: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Kapan, Selin; Turhan, Ahmet N; Alis, Halil; Kalayci, Mustafa U; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Yigitbas, Hakan; Aygun, Ersan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. It could occur spontaneously or after trauma. They are usually located infraumblically and often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen, inflammatory diseases or tumours of the abdomen. Case presentation We reported three cases of rectus sheath hematoma presenting with a mass in the abdomen and diagnosed by computerized tomography. The patients recovered uneventfully after bed rest, intravenous fluid replacement, blood transfusion and analgesic treatment. Conclusion Rectus sheath hematoma is a rarely seen pathology often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen that may lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Computerized tomography must be chosen for definitive diagnosis since ultrasonography is subject to error due to misinterpretation of the images. Main therapy is conservative management. PMID:18221529

  19. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations.

    PubMed

    Spahlinger, D M; Newcomb, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; DeLancey, J O L; Chen, Luyun

    2014-07-01

    To develop and test a method for measuring the relationship between the rise in intra-abdominal pressure and sagittal plane movements of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls during Valsalva in a pilot sample of women with and without prolapse. Mid-sagittal MRI images were obtained during Valsalva while changes in intra-abdominal pressure were measured via a bladder catheter in 5 women with cystocele, 5 women with rectocele, and 5 controls. The regional compliance of the anterior and posterior vagina wall support systems were estimated from the ratio of displacement (mm) of equidistant points along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls to intra-abdominal pressure rise (mmHg). The compliance of both anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems varied along different regions of vaginal wall for all three groups, with the highest compliance found near the vaginal apex and the lowest near the introitus. Women with cystocele had more compliant anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems than women with rectocele. The movement direction differs between cystocele and rectocele. In cystocele, the anterior vaginal wall moves mostly toward the vaginal orifice in the upper vagina, but in a ventral direction in the lower vagina. In rectocele, the direction of the posterior vaginal wall movement is generally toward the vaginal orifice. Movement of the vaginal wall and compliance of its support is quantifiable and was found to vary along the length of the vagina. Compliance was greatest in the upper vagina of all groups. Women with cystocele demonstrated the most compliant vaginal wall support.

  20. Pseudotumors after primary abdominal lipectomy as a new sequela in patients with abdominal apron.

    PubMed

    Dragu, Adrian; Bach, Alexander D; Polykandriotis, Elias; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E

    2009-11-01

    Malnutrition and overweight is a common problem in modern societies. Primary abdominal lipectomy is a standard surgical tool in patients with these problems. However, unknown secondary problems result from recent advances in obesity surgery. Plication of the anterior musculoaponeurotic wall is a widely and commonly used operative technique during abdominoplasty. Many different plication techniques have been published. So far no common standard and long-term effectiveness is proven. In addition, there is no sufficient literature dealing with the postoperative risks of plication of the musculoaponeurotic wall. Four patients with development of pseudotumors were reviewed. All four patients received 12 months in advance a primary abdominal lipectomy including a vertical plication of the musculoaponeurotic wall. All four patients were females with mean age of 61 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 37 kg/m(2). All four patients had developed a pseudotumor of the abdomen as a long-term complication more than 12 months after primary abdominal lipectomy including a vertical plication of the anterior rectus sheath. One should be aware of the potential long-term risk of secondary postoperative hematoma formation, with or without partial necrosis of the anterior rectus sheath after vertical plication of the anterior musculoaponeurotic wall. Viewed clinically and radiologically, such sequelas may appear as pseudotumor like masses and require immediate revision.

  1. Critical overview of all available animal models for abdominal wall hernia research.

    PubMed

    Vogels, R R M; Kaufmann, R; van den Hil, L C L; van Steensel, S; Schreinemacher, M H F; Lange, J F; Bouvy, N D

    2017-10-01

    Since the introduction of the first prosthetic mesh for abdominal hernia repair, there has been a search for the "ideal mesh." The use of preclinical or animal models for assessment of necessary characteristics of new and existing meshes is an indispensable part of hernia research. Unfortunately, in our experience there is a lack of consensus among different research groups on which model to use. Therefore, we hypothesized that there is a lack of comparability within published animal research on hernia surgery due to wide range in experimental setup among different research groups. A systematic search of the literature was performed to provide a complete overview of all animal models published between 2000 and 2014. Relevant parameters on model characteristics and outcome measurement were scored on a standardized scoring sheet. Due to the wide range in different animals used, ranging from large animal models like pigs to rodents, we decided to limit the study to 168 articles concerning rat models. Within these rat models, we found wide range of baseline animal characteristics, operation techniques, and outcome measurements. Making reliable comparison of results among these studies is impossible. There is a lack of comparability among experimental hernia research, limiting the impact of this experimental research. We therefore propose the establishment of guidelines for experimental hernia research by the EHS.

  2. Tomodensitometric survey of the distance between thoracic and abdominal vital organs and the wall according to BMI, abdominal diameter and gender: proposition of an indicative chart for the forensic activities.

    PubMed

    Venara, A; Gaudin, A; Lebigot, J; Airagnes, G; Hamel, J F; Jousset, N; Ridereau-Zins, C; Mauillon, D; Rouge-Maillart, C

    2013-06-10

    Forensic doctors are frequently asked by magistrates when dealing principally with knife wounds, about the depth of the blade which may have penetrated the victim's body. Without the use of imaging, it is often difficult to respond to this question, even in an approximate way. Knowledge of the various distances between organs and the skin wall would allow an assessment to be made of the minimum blade length required to obtain the injuries observed. The objective of this study is thus to determine average distances between the vital organs of the thorax and abdomen, and the skin wall, taking into account the person's body mass index (BMI). This is a prospective single-center study, carried out over a 2-month period at University Hospital in Angers. A sample of 200 people was studied. The inclusion criteria were as follows: all patients coming to the radiology department and the emergency department for an abdominal, thoracic or thoraco-abdominal scan with injection. The exclusion criteria included patients presenting a large lymphoma, a large abdominal or retroperitoneal tumor, a tumor in one of the organs targeted by our study and patients presenting ascites. The organs focused on were: the pericardium, pleura, aorta, liver, spleen, kidneys, abdominal aorta and femoral arteries. The shortest distance between the organ and the skin wall was noted. Median distances were calculated according to gender, abdominal diameter and BMI. We associated these values to propose an indicative chart which may be used by doctors in connection with their forensic activities. The problem of the depth of a wound is frequently exposed to the expert. Without a reliable tool, it is difficult to value and a personal interpretation is often done. Even if, in current days, tomodensitometry is frequently done in vivo or after death, measurement can be difficult because of the local conditions. We classified values according to the different factors of fat repartition (BMI, abdominal diameter

  3. Biomechanical and histologic evaluation of two application forms of surgical glue for mesh fixation to the abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Ortillés, Á; Pascual, G; Peña, E; Rodríguez, M; Pérez-Köhler, B; Mesa-Ciller, C; Calvo, B; Bellón, J M

    2017-11-01

    The use of an adhesive for mesh fixation in hernia repair reduces chronic pain and minimizes tissue damage in the patient. This study was designed to assess the adhesive properties of a medium-chain (n-butyl) cyanoacrylate glue applied as drops or as a spray in a biomechanical and histologic study. Both forms of glue application were compared to the use of simple-loose or continuous-running polypropylene sutures for mesh fixation. Eighteen adult New Zealand White rabbits were used. For mechanical tests in an ex vivo and in vivo study, patches of polypropylene mesh were fixed to an excised fragment of healthy abdominal tissue or used to repair a partial abdominal wall defect in the rabbit respectively. Depending on the fixation method used, four groups of 12 implants each or 10 implants each respectively for the ex vivo and in vivo studies were established: Glue-Drops, Glue-Spray, Suture-Simple and Suture-Continuous. Biomechanical resistance in the ex vivo implants was tested five minutes after mesh fixation. In vivo implants for biomechanical and histologic assessment were collected at 14 days postimplant. In the ex vivo study, the continuous suture implants showed the highest failure sample tension, while the implants fixed with glue showed lower failure sample tension values. However, the simple and continuous suture implants returned the highest stretch values. In the in vivo implants, failure sample tension values were similar among groups while the implants fixed with a continuous running suture had the higher stretch values, and the glue-fixed implants the lower stretch values. All meshes showed good tissue integration within the host tissue regardless of the fixation method used. Our histologic study revealed the generation of a denser, more mature repair tissue when the cyanoacrylate glue was applied as a spray rather than as drops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Morphology of tissue reactions around implants after combined surgical repair of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Vostrikov, O V; Zotov, V A; Nikitenko, E V

    2004-01-01

    Tissue reactions to titanium-nickelide and polypropylen and caprone implants used in surgical treatment of anterior aldomen wall hernias were studied in experiment. Digital density of leukocytes, fibroblasts, vessels, thickness of the capsule were studied. Pronounced inflammatory reaction was observed on day 3 which attenuated on day 14 in case of titanium nickelide and on day 30-60 in case of polypropylene and caprone. Fibroplastic processes start in the first group after 7 days while in the second group only after 30 days of the experiment. Thickness of the capsule around titanium-nickelide was 2-3 times less than around polypropylene and caprone. Thus, titanium-nickelide material is biologically more inert than caprone and polypropylen which are widely used in surgery of hernias.

  5. Rectus sheath hematoma in a single secondary care institution: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, D; Kastanakis, M; Petrakis, G; Bobolakis, E

    2015-06-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) represents an unusual abdominal wall pathology, frequently confounded as acute abdomen, with high mortality rates reported especially among elderly patients. The purpose of this retrospective study was to delineate characteristics of the patients diagnosed with RSH at the First Surgery Department of the Saint George General Hospital of Chania, Greece over a 5-year period. Seven patients with a median age of 62 years (range 51–85) were included in the study. Clinical features, demographics, management and outcome are summarized. The most common predisposing risk factor was anticoagulation. Acute onset abdominal pain and painful palpable abdominal mass, located more often on the right lower abdominal quadrant, were the most frequent initial symptoms. Management was mostly conservative [6 (85.7 %)] with disruption of anticoagulation, analgesia and bed rest. Blood transfusion was performed in hemodynamic compromised patients [2 (28.5 %)]. One patient was not appropriately diagnosed. On admission, the patient presented severe hemodynamic compromise and for this reason underwent emergency explorative laparotomy. The majority of the patients [6 (85.7 %)] experienced an uncomplicated clinical recovery and were discharged home after a mean hospital stay of 10 days (range 7–12). Surgeons as well as primary care physicians have to be aware of the clinical diagnostic tests and include the condition in the differential diagnosis of acute onset abdominal pain. Prompt recognition will prevent unnecessary surgical intervention and potential complications.

  6. Open and Laparo-Endoscopic Repair of Incarcerated Abdominal Wall Hernias by the Use of Biological and Biosynthetic Meshes.

    PubMed

    Fortelny, René H; Hofmann, Anna; May, Christopher; Köckerling, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Although recently published guidelines recommend against the use of synthetic non-absorbable materials in cases of potentially contaminated or contaminated surgical fields due to the increased risk of infection (1, 2), the use of bio-prosthetic meshes for abdominal wall or ventral hernia repair is still controversially discussed in such cases. Bio-prosthetic meshes have been recommended due to less susceptibility for infection and the decreased risk of subsequent mesh explantation. The purpose of this review is to elucidate if there are any indications for the use of biological and biosynthetic meshes in incarcerated abdominal wall hernias based on the recently published literature. A literature search of the Medline database using the PubMed search engine, using the keywords returned 486 articles up to June 2015. The full text of 486 articles was assessed and 13 relevant papers were identified including 5 retrospective case cohort studies, 2 case-controlled studies, and 6 case series. The results of Franklin et al. (3-5) included the highest number of biological mesh repairs (Surgisis(®)) by laparoscopic IPOM in infected fields, which demonstrated a very low incidence of infection and recurrence (0.7 and 5.2%). Han et al. (6) reported in his retrospective study, the highest number of treated patients due to incarcerated hernias by open approach using acellular dermal matrix (ADM(®)) with very low rate of infection as well as recurrences (1.6 and 15.9%). Both studies achieved acceptable outcome in a follow-up of at least 3.5 years compared to the use of synthetic mesh in this high-risk population (7). Currently, there is a very limited evidence for the use of biological and biosynthetic meshes in strangulated hernias in either open or laparo-endoscopic repair. Finally, there is an urgent need to start with randomized controlled comparative trials as well as to support registries with data to achieve more knowledge for tailored indication for the use of

  7. Chronic subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cyst. Two case histories with pathological observations.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Takeshi; Harada, Kunyu; Nishimura, Shigeru; Onda, Jun; Nishi, Tohru; Takagaki, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are well known to induce chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after head injury. However, histological observations of the arachnoid cyst and hematoma membrane have only been rarely described. An 8-year-old boy and a 3-year-old boy presented with CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst. Surgical removal of the hematoma and biopsy of the hematoma membrane and cyst wall were performed. Clinical courses were good and without recurrence more than 1.5 years after surgery. Histological examination suggested that the cysts did not contribute to hematoma development. Pediatric hematoma membranes, similar to adult hematoma membranes, are key in the growth of CSDH. Therefore, simple hematoma evacuation is adequate as a first operation for CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst.

  8. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  9. Free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo imaging for measuring abdominal aortic wall distensibility: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Miin; Patterson, Andrew J.; Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Zhu, Chengcheng; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Mendes, Jason; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Graves, Martin J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper reports a free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo (FSE) technique for measuring abdominal aortic wall motion. The free-breathing CINE FSE includes the following MR techniques: (1) variable-density sampling with fast iterative reconstruction; (2) inner-volume imaging; and (3) a blood-suppression preparation pulse. The proposed technique was evaluated in eight healthy subjects. The inner-volume imaging significantly reduced the intraluminal artifacts of respiratory motion (p  =  0.015). The quantitative measurements were a diameter of 16.3  ±  2.8 mm and wall distensibility of 2.0  ±  0.4 mm (12.5  ±  3.4%) and 0.7  ±  0.3 mm (4.1  ±  1.0%) for the anterior and posterior walls, respectively. The cyclic cross-sectional distensibility was 35  ±  15% greater in the systolic phase than in the diastolic phase. In conclusion, we developed a feasible CINE FSE method to measure the motion of the abdominal aortic wall, which will enable clinical scientists to study the elasticity of the abdominal aorta.

  10. Evaluation of the abdominal wall cicatrization of rabbits exposed to nicotine and undergone abdominoplasty using nylon thread or cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciano Assis; Jardim, Paulo dos Reis; Macedo, Pedro Henrique Alvares Paiva; Amaral, Vânia da Fonseca; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da; Barbosa, Cirênio de Almeida

    2012-12-01

    To compare the wound healing of the abdominal wall of rabbits exposed to nicotine and submitted to abdominoplasty using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate or nylon thread for the surgery suture. Thirty two rabbits were used. They were divided in subgroups: A1, A2, B1 e B2. Group A received saline 0.9%; group B received nicotine, both groups for 14 days before surgery. We performed an abdominoplasty with a nylon suture into the A1 and B1 subgroups; as for A2 and B2 groups the suture was performed with cyanoacrylate. The euthanasia happened in the 14th post-operative day. After, we evaluated: swollen process, fibroblast proliferation, collagen, neovascularization, and macroscope and microscope epithelization of the scars. We observed the presence of eosinophils in all scars exposed to the cyanoacrylate, and a significant increase of neovascularization in the subgroup B2 comparing to the A2 one (p=0.037). The other variables haven't showed any statistical difference. Nicotine hasn't influenced the swollen process, the fibroblast proliferation, the presence of collagen, neither the epithelialization. The neovascularization showed cicatricial immaturity when comparing group A2 to group B2. The eosinophils in the scars repaired with glue showed that the substance has acted as an allergen.

  11. Advanced age does not affect abdominal wall reconstruction outcomes using acellular dermal matrix: A comparative study using propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Salvatore; Schaverien, Mark; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    We hypothesized that elderly patients (≥65 years) experience worse outcomes following abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for hernia or oncologic resection. We included all consecutive patients who underwent complex AWR using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) between 2005 and 2015. Propensity score analysis was performed for risk adjustment in multivariable analysis and for one-to-one matching. The primary outcome was hernia recurrence; the secondary outcomes included surgical site occurrence (SSO) and bulging. Mean follow-up for the 511 patients was 31.4 months; 184 (36%) patients were elderly. The elderly and non-elderly groups had similar rates of hernia recurrence (7.6% vs 10.1%, respectively; p = 0.43) and SSO (24.5% vs 23.5%, respectively; p = 0.82). Bulging occurred significantly more often in elderly patients (6.5% vs 2.8%, respectively; p = 0.04). After adjustment through the propensity score, which included 130 pairs, these results persisted. Contrary to our hypothesis, elderly patients did not have worse outcomes in AWR with ADM. Surgeons should not deny elderly patients AWR solely because of their age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Organ culture in 3-dimensional matrix: in vitro model for evaluating biological compliance of synthetic meshes for abdominal wall repair.

    PubMed

    Dasdia, T; Bazzaco, S; Bottero, L; Buffa, R; Ferrero, S; Campanelli, G; Dolfini, E

    1998-01-01

    A new in vitro method to evaluate the early critical interactions between synthetic prosthetic materials and growing tissues is reported. The correct spatial organization and proper cell to cell interaction required to mimic the in vivo environment was obtained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) embryo organ culture. The clot formed by plasma and chick-embryo extract provided a natural 3-D extracellular matrix that was able to support the growth and differentiation of intestinal tissue dissected from 12-day-old chick embryos. Different materials used for the repair of abdominal wall defects were taken as standards; all the prosthetic materials were devoid of any evident cytotoxic potential over a 10-day culture period, so they did not interfere with the organogenesis process. A polyglactin mesh (Vicryl) was fully incorporated into the growing tissue, but early signs of its degradation were detectable. The biologically inert materials polyethylene terephthalate (Mersilene) and polypropylene (Marlex, Prolene, and Herniamesh) retained their structural integrity when incubated with cultured tissue at 37 degrees C, and they did not hinder cellular proliferation or fibroblast migration. However, the outgrowth behavior was very different while the connective tissue invaded the interstices of the polyethylene terephthalate mesh; the explants and the migrating cells were repelled by hydrophobic polypropylene meshes. These findings are in agreement with other reported results in in vivo studies. Therefore, this method can be considered as reliable and predictable for the evaluation of biopolymers.

  13. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  14. Is prophylactic embolization of the hepatic falciform artery needed before radioembolization in patients with 99mTc-MAA accumulation in the anterior abdominal wall?

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Möhlenbruch, Markus; Sabet, Amir; Meyer, Carsten; Muckle, Marianne; Haslerud, Torjan; Wilhelm, Kai; Schild, Hans Heinz; Biersack, Hans Jürgen; Ezziddin, Samer

    2011-08-01

    While influx of chemoembolic agents into the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) from the hepatic artery can cause supraumbilical skin rash, epigastric pain and even skin necrosis, the significance of a patent HFA in patients undergoing radioembolization is not completely clear. Furthermore, the presence of tracer in the anterior abdominal wall seen in (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) images, which is generally performed prior to radioembolization, has been described as a sign of a patent HFA. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence and consequences of (99m)Tc-MAA accumulation in the anterior abdominal wall, indicating a patent HFA, in patients undergoing radioembolization of liver tumours. A total of 224 diagnostic hepatic angiograms combined with (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT were acquired in 192 patients with different types of cancer, of whom 142 were treated with a total of 214 radioembolization procedures. All patients received a whole-body scan, and planar and SPECT/CT scans of the abdomen. Only patients with extrahepatic (99m)Tc-MAA accumulation in the anterior abdominal wall were included in this study. Posttreatment bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT and follow-up results for at least 3 months served as reference standards. Tracer accumulation in the anterior abdominal wall was present in pretreatment (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT images of 18 patients (9.3%). The HFA was found and embolized by radiologists before treatment in one patient. In the remaining patients radioembolization was performed without any modification in the treatment plan despite the previously mentioned extrahepatic accumulation. Only one patient experienced abdominal muscle pain above the navel, which started 24 h after treatment and lasted for 48 h without any skin changes. The remaining patients did not experience any relevant side effects during the follow-up period. Side effects after radioembolization in patients with tracer accumulation in the anterior abdominal

  15. Clinical profile of subdural hematomas: dangerousness of subdural subacute hematoma.

    PubMed

    Kpelao, E; Beketi, K A; Moumouni, A K; Doleagbenou, A; Ntimon, B; Egbohou, P; Mouzou, T; Tomta, K; Sama, D H; Abalo, A; Walla, A; Dossim, A

    2016-04-01

    Subacute subdural hematomas are a poorly individualized nosological entity, often equated clinically to chronic subdural hematomas. Yet, their neurological deterioration which is usually rapid seems to distinguish them from chronic subdural hematomas. We wanted to show this dangerousness by establishing the clinically evolving profile of the three types of subdural hematomas. This was a prospective and retrospective study of 63 subdural hematoma (18 acute, 13 subacute, and 32 chronic) patients admitted between 2012 and 2014 in the neurosurgery unit of Lomé University Hospital. Hematomas were classified according to the elapsed time after head injury and blood density on CT. The main parameter studied was the evolution of the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) in the 3 months following the trauma, enabling to establish an evolving profile of each type of hematoma. The average age of patients was 58.1 years for chronic subdural hematomas and 47.6 years for subacute subdural hematomas. Disease duration before admission was 13.1 days for chronic against 36.6 h for subacute hematoma. The clinical profile shows acute worsening within hours during the second week for patients with subacute hematoma, while it is progressive for patients with chronic hematoma. We noted two deaths, all victims of a subacute hematoma (one operated, one patient waiting for surgery). Iso-density hematoma on CT, especially in a young person, must be considered as a predictive factor of rapid neurological aggravation suggesting an urgent care or increased monitoring by paramedics.

  16. Hematoma of the falciform ligament: a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Sari, Serkan; Ersöz, Feyzullah; Güneş, Mehmet Emin; Paşaoğlu, Esra; Arikan, Soykan

    2011-01-01

    Hematoma or abscess of the liver ligaments is extremely rare, and hematoma of the falciform ligament has been sporadically reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old female who presented with a three-day history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever and nausea. With a preoperative diagnosis of probable perforated acalculous cholecystitis, the patient underwent emergency surgery. Hematoma of the falciform ligament was found. Wide excision of the falciform ligament including the hematoma with abscess was performed. Although pathology of the falciform ligament is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in the case of antiaggregant drug usage.

  17. Laparoscopic intracorporeal rectus aponeuroplasty (LIRA technique): a step forward in minimally invasive abdominal wall reconstruction for ventral hernia repair (LVHR).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Menchero, Julio; Guadalajara Jurado, Juan Francisco; Suárez Grau, Juan Manuel; Bellido Luque, Juan Antonio; García Moreno, Joaquin Luis; Alarcón Del Agua, Isaías; Morales-Conde, Salvador

    2018-01-17

    Closing the defect (CD) during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair began to be performed in order to decrease seroma, to improve the functionality of the abdominal wall, and to decrease the bulging effect. However, tension at the incision after CD in large defects is related to an increased rate of pain and recurrence. We present the preliminary results of a new technique for medium midline hernias as an alternative to conventional CD. A prospective controlled study was conducted from January 2015 to January 2017 to evaluate an elective new procedure (LIRA) performed on patients with midline ventral hernias (4-10 cm width). The posterior rectus aponeurosis was opened lengthwise around the hernia defect using a laparoscopic approach to create two flaps and was then sutured. The size of the flaps was estimated using a mathematical formula. An on-lay mesh was placed intraperitoneal overlapping the fascia defect. The data analyzed included patient demographics, operative parameters, and complications. A computerized tomography was performed preoperatively and postoperatively (1 month and 1 year) to evaluate recurrence, distance between rectus and seroma. Twelve patients were included. Mean width of the defect was 5.5 cm. Average VAS (24 h) was 3.9, 1.1 (1 month), and 0 (1 year). Mean preoperative distance between rectus was 5.5 cm; postoperative was 2.2 cm (1 year). Radiological seroma at first month was detected in 50%. Mean follow-up was 15 months. The LIRA technique could be considered as an alternative to conventional CD or endoscopic component separation for medium defects under 10 cm in width. This technique obtained a "no tension" effect that could be related to a lower rate of postoperative pain with no recurrence or bulging, being a safe, feasible, and reproducible technique.

  18. Component separation of abdominal wall with intraoperative botulinum A presents satisfactory outcomes in large incisional hernias: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lucas Torres; Essu, Felipe Futema; de Mesquita, Gustavo Heluani Antunes; Jardim, Yuri Justi; Iuamoto, Leandro Ryuchi; Suguita, Fábio Yuji; Martines, Diego Ramos; Nii, Fernanda; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Meyer, Alberto; Andraus, Wellington; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation patients have a series of associated risk factors that make appearance of incisional hernia (IH) more likely. A number of aspects of the closure of large defects remain controversial. In this manuscript, we present the repair of a large IH following liver transplantation through the technique of posterior components separation combined with the anterior, together with the intraoperative use of botulinum toxin A and the placement of mesh. As a secondary objective, we analyze the incidence of IH following liver transplantation in our service. Between the years 2013 and 2016, 247 patients underwent liver transplantation in the Liver Transplantation Service at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the incidence of IH in these patients. One of these cases operated in March 2017 presented a defect in the abdominal wall of 22×16.6×6.4cm in the median and paramedian regions. We present the details of this innovative surgical technique. The total operating time was 470min. During the postoperative phase the patient presented ileus paralysis, without systemic repercussions. Resumption of an oral diet on the fifth postoperative day, without incident. Hospital discharge occurred on the 12th postoperative day, with outpatient follow up. In our service, the incidence of incisional hernias following liver transplantation is 14.5%. We described a successful approach for selected patient group for whom there is no established standard treatment. Given the complexity of such cases, however, more studies are necessary. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas in dengue hemorrhagic fever: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Angelina, Frida; Adiwinata, Randy; Matondang, Sahat; Andriono, Prasetyo

    2017-01-01

    Muscle hematomas are rare complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). We report a case of 58-year-old-female admitted with dengue fever who developed spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma complicating DHF. She presented with progressive thrombocytopenia with platelet count reaching 13000/μL at its lowest point. There was evidence of plasma leakage and persistent cough during the course of illness. During the recovery phase, she reported severe abdominal pain and developed hematoma in the right rectus sheath, which was confirmed by abdominal computed-tomography scan and serial magnetic resonance imaging. This complication during convalescent period of DHF needs to be recognized so it can be managed appropriately.

  20. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Description Your surgery will be done in an operating room in a hospital. You will receive general anesthesia . This will keep you asleep and pain-free during the procedure. The surgery takes 2 to 6 hours. You ...

  1. Operative correction of abdominal rectus diastasis (ARD) reduces pain and improves abdominal wall muscle strength: A randomized, prospective trial comparing retromuscular mesh repair to double-row, self-retaining sutures.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Dahlstrand, Ursula; Strigård, Karin; Stark, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, 2-armed trial was to evaluate the risk for recurrence using 2 different operative techniques for repair of abdominal rectus diastasis. Secondary aims were comparison of pain, abdominal muscle strength, and quality of life and to compare those outcomes to a control group receiving physical training only. Eighty-six patients were enrolled. Twenty-nine patients were allocated to retromuscular polypropylene mesh and 27 to double-row plication with Quill technology. Thirty-two patients participated in a 3-month training program. Diastasis was evaluated with computed tomography scan and clinically. Pain was assessed using the ventral hernia pain questionnaire, a quality-of-life survey, SF-36, and abdominal muscle strength using the Biodex System-4. One early recurrence occurred in the Quill group, 2 encapsulated seromas in the mesh group, and 3 in the suture group. Significant improvements in perceived pain, the ventral hernia pain questionnaire, and quality of life appeared at the 1-year follow-up with no difference between the 2 operative groups. Significant muscular improvement was obtained in all groups (Biodex System-4). Patient perceived gain in muscle strength assessed with a visual analog scale improved similarly in both operative groups. This improvement was significantly greater than that seen in the training group. Patients in the training group still experienced bodily pain at follow-up. There was no difference between the Quill technique and retromuscular mesh in the effect on abdominal wall stability, with a similar complication rate 1 year after operation. An operation improves functional ability and quality of life. Training strengthens the abdominal muscles, but patients still experience discomfort and pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Drainage of Supralevator Hematoma in a Hemodynamically Stable Patient.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Debjani; Jennings, Paul E; Banerjee, Mamta; Gada, Ruta

    2015-12-01

    Paravaginal hematomas can be life-threatening. In patients with intact vaginal walls and perineum, they may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Supralevator hematomas are much less common than infralevator hematomas. We present a case of puerperal hemorrhagic shock after a normal vaginal delivery in a low-risk parous woman resulting from an occult supralevator hematoma. Because the woman was hemodynamically unstable initially, she underwent a vaginal surgical drainage. A week later, the supravaginal hematoma reformed. At this time the patient was hemodynamically stable, and ultrasound-guided drainage was performed, which resulted in complete resolution of the hematoma within 10 days. In a clinically stable puerperal patient, ultrasound-guided drainage of a supralevator hematoma resulted in rapid and complete resolution of symptoms.

  3. Delayed hydronephrosis due to retroperitoneal hematoma after a seatbelt injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Tetsuya; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Kumon, Kento; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Hiraki, Takao; Yamada, Taihei; Naito, Hiromichi; Nakao, Atsunori

    2018-06-01

    Hydronephrosis caused by retroperitoneal hematoma after a seatbelt injury is a unique clinical entity. A 21-year-old man, who had been wearing a seatbelt, was brought to our hospital after a motor vehicle collision, complaining of abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the upper pelvic region. Since he was hemodynamically stable throughout admission, he was managed conservatively. Seventeen days after initial discharge, the patient revisited our emergency department due to right back pain. CT scans indicated retroperitoneal hematoma growth resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. Laparoscopic drainage of the retroperitoneal hematoma was successfully performed. His symptoms resolved after the surgery. Follow-up CT scans three months later demonstrated complete resolution of the hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal hematoma. Our case highlights a patient with delayed hydronephrosis because of retroperitoneal hematoma expansion after a seatbelt injury.

  4. On the effect of computed tomography resolution to distinguish between abdominal aortic aneurysm wall tissue and calcification: A proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H E; Cunnane, E M; O Brien, J M; Moloney, M A; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, M T

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal target CT spatial resolution for accurately imaging abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall characteristics, distinguishing between tissue and calcification components, for an accurate assessment of rupture risk. Ruptured and non-ruptured AAA-wall samples were acquired from eight patients undergoing open surgical aneurysm repair upon institutional review board approval and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Physical measurements of AAA-wall cross-section were made using scanning electron microscopy. Samples were scanned using high resolution micro-CT scanning. A resolution range of 15.5-155μm was used to quantify the influence of decreasing resolution on wall area measurements, in terms of tissue and calcification. A statistical comparison between the reference resolution (15.5μm) and multi-detector CT resolution (744μm) was also made. Electron microscopy examination of ruptured AAAs revealed extremely thin outer tissue structure <200μm in radial distribution which is supporting the aneurysm wall along with large areas of adjacent medial calcifications far greater in area than the tissue layer. The spatial resolution of 155μm is a significant predictor of the reference AAA-wall tissue and calcification area measurements (r=0.850; p<0.001; r=0.999; p<0.001 respectively). The tissue and calcification area at 155μm is correct within 8.8%±1.86 and 26.13%±9.40 respectively with sensitivity of 87.17% when compared to the reference. The inclusion of AAA-wall measurements, through the use of high resolution-CT will elucidate the variations in AAA-wall tissue and calcification distributions across the wall which may help to leverage an improved assessment of AAA rupture risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging-Derived Collagen Content and Maturity Correlates with Stress in the Aortic Wall of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Patients.

    PubMed

    Cheheltani, Rabee; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Rao, Jayashree; Weinbaum, Justin S; Kiani, Mohammad F; Vorp, David A; Pleshko, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aorta characterized by severe disruption of the structural integrity of the aortic wall and its major molecular constituents. From the early stages of disease, elastin in the aorta becomes highly degraded and is replaced by collagen. Questions persist as to the contribution of collagen content, quality and maturity to the potential for rupture. Here, using our recently developed Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) method, we quantified collagen content and maturity in the wall of AAA tissues in pairs of specimens with different wall stresses. CT scans of AAAs from 12 patients were used to create finite element models to estimate stress in different regions of tissue. Each patient underwent elective repair of the AAA, and two segments of the AAA tissues from anatomic regions more proximal or distal with different wall stresses were evaluated by histology and FT-IRIS after excision. For each patient, collagen content was generally greater in the tissue location with lower wall stress, which corresponded to the more distal anatomic regions. The wall stress/collagen ratio was greater in the higher stress region compared to the lower stress region (1.01 ± 1.09 vs. 0.55 ± 0.084, p = 0.02). The higher stress region also corresponded to the location with reduced intraluminal thrombus thickness. Further, collagen maturity tended to decrease with increased collagen content (p = 0.068, R = 0.38). Together, these results suggest that an increase in less mature collagen content in AAA patients does not effectively compensate for the loss of elastin in the aortic wall, and results in a reduced capability to endure wall stresses.

  6. Primary undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma of the deep abdominal wall with a novel variant of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Futani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kihara, Takako; Matsuo, Shohei; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-10-01

    We experienced a 38-year-old Japanese male with t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 -positive undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma in the deep abdominal wall. Three months before his first visit to our hospital, he noticed a mass in his right abdominal wall. Computed tomography on admission revealed a solid abdominal tumor 70×53mm in size and multiple small tumors in both lungs. The biopsy of the abdominal tumor revealed undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma, suggestive of Ewing sarcoma. Under the clinical diagnosis of Ewing-like sarcoma of the abdominal wall with multiple lung metastases, several cycles of ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide) therapy were performed. After the chemotherapy, the lung metastases disappeared, while the primary lesion rapidly grew. Additional VDC (vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide) therapy was carried out without apparent effect. Although the surgical removal of the primary lesion was done, peritoneal dissemination and a huge metastatic liver tumor appeared thereafter. The patient died of disease progression two months after the surgery. The total clinical course was approximately one year, showing that the tumor was extremely aggressive. The tumor cells of the surgical specimen were positive for CD99, WT1, calretinin, INI1, ERG and Fli1 by immunohistochemistry. Fusion gene analyses using the frozen surgical material revealed negativity for EWSR1-Fli1, EWSR1-ERG and t(4;19) CIC-DUX4 fusions, but positivity for t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 fusion. Thus, we made a final pathological diagnosis of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4-positive undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the 13th case of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with precise clinicopathological information. Especially in our case, two types of t(10;19) CIC-DUX4 fusion transcripts were observed, both of which are in-frame and novel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Enoxaparin-induced spontaneous massive retroperitoneal hematoma with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Oikonomakis, Ioannis; Lagoudianakis, Emanuel; Boubousis, Georgios; Tsakalakis, Christos; Sourlas, Sotirios; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma (SRH) is a severe and potentially fatal complication of anticoagulation therapy. We describe a case of fatal spontaneous massive retroperitoneal hematoma in a female patient receiving bridging therapy with enoxaparin for atrial fibrillation. Physicians should be cautious when prescribing enoxaparin in elderly patients, in patients with impaired renal function, and in patients receiving concomitant oral anticoagulants. Emergency physicians should always consider SRH in the differential diagnosis in patients under enoxaparin therapy presenting with abdominal pain. Computed tomographic scan is the imaging modality of choice for evaluating SRH. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are of paramount importance as SRH is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates.

  8. Scrotal Hematoma Precipitated by Centrifuge Training in a Fighter Pilot with an Asymptomatic Varicocele.

    PubMed

    Kampel, Liyona; Klang, Eyal; Winkler, Harry; Gordon, Barak; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Shoam, Yifat Erlich

    2015-12-01

    Varicocele is quite common in the general population, affecting up to 15% of men. It is not considered disqualifying for the pilot's training program of the Israeli Air Force as long as there are no related symptoms or associated pathologies. During combat flight, increased venous pressure due to acceleration forces and anti-G straining maneuvers, used to counteract high gravitational G forces, can theoretically aggravate the venous blood pooling in varicocele, leading to rupture. We describe a case of a young fighter-jet pilot presenting with a painful inguinal hematoma extending to the scrotum a day after participating in centrifuge training. Sonographic examination demonstrated dilated spermatic veins and intratesticular varicocele along with subcutaneous thickening of the scrotal wall consistent with hematoma. The effects of high G loads on blood flow in spermatic veins, and especially in varicocele, still need to be determined. Varicocele rupture has been described in relation to increased intra-abdominal pressure and could theoretically occur during anti-G straining maneuvers. Such an acute adverse event during combat flight can be detrimental to flight safety and the pilot's well-being.

  9. Verification of an optimized stimulation point on the abdominal wall for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation for activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ok; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Son, Su Min; Cho, Yun Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2014-09-01

    Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can stimulate contractions in deep lumbar stabilizing muscles. An optimal protocol has not been devised for the activation of these muscles by NMES, and information is lacking regarding an optimal stimulation point on the abdominal wall. The goal was to determine a single optimized stimulation point on the abdominal wall for transcutaneous NMES for the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles. Ultrasound images of the spinal stabilizing muscles were captured during NMES at three sites on the lateral abdominal wall. After an optimal location for the placement of the electrodes was determined, changes in the thickness of the lumbar multifidus (LM) were measured during NMES. Three stimulation points were investigated using 20 healthy physically active male volunteers. A reference point R, 1 cm superior to the iliac crest along the midaxillary line, was used. Three study points were used: stimulation point S1 was located 2 cm superior and 2 cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine, stimulation point S3 was 2 cm below the lowest rib along the same sagittal plane as S1, and stimulation point S2 was midway between S1 and S3. Sessions were conducted stimulating at S1, S2, or S3 using R for reference. Real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles was captured during each stimulation session. In addition, RUSI images were captured of the LM during stimulation at S1. Thickness, as measured by RUSI, of the transverse abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus, and obliquus externus was greater during NMES than at rest for all three study points (p<.05). Transverse abdominis was significantly stimulated more by NMES at S1 than at the other points (p<.05). The LM thickness was also significantly greater during NMES at S1 than at rest (p<.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation at S1 optimally activated deep spinal stabilizing muscles, TrA and LM, as evidenced by RUSI. The authors recommend this

  10. Polypropylene-based composite mesh versus standard polypropylene mesh in the reconstruction of complicated large abdominal wall hernias: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kassem, M I; El-Haddad, H M

    2016-10-01

    To compare polypropylene mesh positioned onlay supported by omentum and/or peritoneum versus inlay implantation of polypropylene-based composite mesh in patients with complicated wide-defect ventral hernias. This was a prospective randomized study carried out on 60 patients presenting with complicated large ventral hernia in the period from January 2012 to January 2016 in the department of Gastrointestinal Surgery unit and Surgical Emergency of the Main Alexandria University Hospital, Egypt. Large hernia had an abdominal wall defect that could not be closed. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients according to the type of mesh used to deal with the large abdominal wall defect. The study included 38 women (63.3 %) and 22 men (37.7 %); their mean age was 46.5 years (range, 25-70). Complicated incisional hernia was the commonest presentation (56.7 %).The operative and mesh fixation times were longer in the polypropylene group. Seven wound infections and two recurrences were encountered in the propylene group. Mean follow-up was 28.7 months (2-48 months). Composite mesh provided, in one session, satisfactory results in patients with complicated large ventral hernia. The procedure is safe and effective in lowering operative time with a trend of low wound complication and recurrence rates.

  11. A Rare Case of Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Abdominal Wall: Excision and Immediate Reconstruction with a Pedicled Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP) Flap.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Sara; Zabbia, Giovanni; Corradino, Bartolo; Tripoli, Massimiliano; Pirrello, Roberto; Cordova, Adriana

    2017-12-04

    BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) greater than 5 cm in diameter is called giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC), or super giant basal cell carcinoma if it has a diameter larger than 20 cm. Giant BCC only accounts for 0.5% of BCCs and super giant BCC is exceedingly rare. On account of their rarity, there are no established guidelines for GBCC treatment. CASE REPORT We describe a peculiar case of an 82-year-old woman with a GBCC carcinoma of the lower abdominal wall. The tumor was surgically removed with ipsilateral inguinal lymph nodes and the abdominal wall was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of giant basal cell carcinoma is often difficult, especially in elderly patients with poor general health and multiple pathologies. The pedicled DIEP flap is rotated to cover the loss of substance without tension, and it is easy to harvest and transfer. This flap allowed a good result without local or systemic complication. We present this report as a reminder of the occasional occurrence of extremely aggressive BCCs. We believe that, especially for rare tumors like these, it is very useful for the entire scientific community to publish these cases and the therapeutic strategies used to treat them.

  12. A Rare Case of Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Abdominal Wall: Excision and Immediate Reconstruction with a Pedicled Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP) Flap

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Sara; Zabbia, Giovanni; Corradino, Bartolo; Tripoli, Massimiliano; Pirrello, Roberto; Cordova, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 82 Final Diagnosis: Giant basal cell carcinoma Symptoms: Anemia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Plastic Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) greater than 5 cm in diameter is called giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC), or super giant basal cell carcinoma if it has a diameter larger than 20 cm. Giant BCC only accounts for 0.5% of BCCs and super giant BCC is exceedingly rare. On account of their rarity, there are no established guidelines for GBCC treatment. Case Report: We describe a peculiar case of an 82-year-old woman with a GBCC carcinoma of the lower abdominal wall. The tumor was surgically removed with ipsilateral inguinal lymph nodes and the abdominal wall was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. Conclusions: Treatment of giant basal cell carcinoma is often difficult, especially in elderly patients with poor general health and multiple pathologies. The pedicled DIEP flap is rotated to cover the loss of substance without tension, and it is easy to harvest and transfer. This flap allowed a good result without local or systemic complication. We present this report as a reminder of the occasional occurrence of extremely aggressive BCCs. We believe that, especially for rare tumors like these, it is very useful for the entire scientific community to publish these cases and the therapeutic strategies used to treat them. PMID:29199268

  13. The hypertrophy of the lateral abdominal wall and quadratus lumborum is sport-specific: an MRI segmental study in professional tennis and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, Jose A; Dorado, Cecilia

    2013-03-01

    The aim was to determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of quadratus lumborum (QL), obliques, and transversus abdominis; the last two considered conjointly (OT), in tennis and soccer players. The volume of QL and OT was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in professional tennis and soccer players, and in non-active controls (n = 8, 14, and 6, respectively). In tennis players the hypertrophy of OT was limited to proximal segments (cephalic segments), while in soccer players it was similar along longitudinal axis. In tennis players the hypertrophy was asymmetric (18% greater volume in the non-dominant than in the dominant OT, p = 0.001), while in soccer players and controls both sides had similar volumes (p > 0.05). In controls, the non-dominant QL was 15% greater than that of the dominant (p = 0.049). Tennis and soccer players had similar volumes in both sides of QL. Tennis alters the dominant-to-non-dominant balance in the muscle volume of the lateral abdominal wall. In tennis the hypertrophy is limited to proximal segments and is greater in the non-dominant side. Soccer, however, is associated to a symmetric hypertrophy of the lateral abdominal wall. Tennis and soccer elicit an asymmetric hypertrophy of QL.

  14. In vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy in a patient who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by ovarian transposition, lower abdominal wall radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Steigrad, Stephen; Hacker, Neville F; Kolb, Bradford

    2005-05-01

    To describe an IVF surrogate pregnancy from a patient who had a radical hysterectomy followed by excision of a laparoscopic port site implantation with ovarian transposition followed by abdominal wall irradiation and chemotherapy, which resulted in premature ovarian failure from which there was partial recovery. Case report. Tertiary referral university women's hospital in Sydney, Australia and private reproductive medicine clinic in California. A 34-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopy for pelvic pain, shortly afterward followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection, who subsequently developed a laparoscopic port site recurrence, which was excised in association with ovarian transposition before abdominal wall irradiation and chemotherapy. Modified IVF treatment, transabdominal oocyte retrieval, embryo cryopreservation in Australia, and transfer to a surrogate mother in the United States. Pregnancy. Miscarriage in the second cycle and a twin pregnancy in the fourth cycle. This is the first case report of ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval performed on transposed ovaries after a patient developed premature ovarian failure after radiotherapy and chemotherapy with subsequent partial ovarian recovery.

  15. The effect of TISSEEL fibrin sealant on seroma formation following complex abdominal wall hernia repair: a single institutional review and derived cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Azoury, S C; Rodriguez-Unda, N; Soares, K C; Hicks, C W; Baltodano, P A; Poruk, K E; Hu, Q L; Cooney, C M; Cornell, P; Burce, K; Eckhauser, F E

    2015-12-01

    The authors evaluated the ability of a fibrin sealant (TISSEEL™: Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL, USA) to reduce the incidence of post-operative seroma following abdominal wall hernia repair. We performed a 4-year retrospective review of patients undergoing abdominal wall hernia repair, with and without TISSEEL, by a single surgeon (FEE) at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Demographics, surgical risk factors, operative data and 30-day outcomes, including wound complications and related interventions, were compared. The quantity and cost of Tisseel per case was reviewed. A total of 250 patients were evaluated: 127 in the TISSEEL group and 123 in the non-TISSEEL control group. The average age for both groups was 56.6 years (P = 0.97). The majority of patients were female (TISSEEL 52.8%, non-TISSEEL 56.1%, P = 0.59) and ASA Class III (TISSEEL 56.7%, non-TISSEEL 58.5%, P = 0.40). There was no difference in the average defect size for both groups (TISSEEL 217 ± 187.6 cm(2), non-TISSEEL 161.3 ± 141.5 cm(2), P = 0.36). Surgical site occurrences occurred in 18.1% of the TISSEEL and 13% of the non-TISSEEL group (P = 0.27). There was a trend towards an increased incidence of seroma in the TISSEEL group (TISSEEL 11%, non-TISSEEL 4.9%, P = 0.07). A total of $124,472.50 was spent on TISSEEL, at an average cost of $995.78 per case. In the largest study to date, TISSEEL™ application offered no advantage for the reduction of post-operative seroma formation following complex abdominal hernia repair. Moreover, the use of this sealant was associated with significant costs.

  16. 18F-FDG uptake assessed by PET/CT in abdominal aortic aneurysms is associated with cellular and molecular alterations prefacing wall deterioration and rupture.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Audrey; Nusgens, Betty V; Hustinx, Roland; Namur, Gauthier; Gomez, Pierre; Somja, Joan; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Delvenne, Philippe; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Colige, Alain C; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) leads to a significant morbidity and mortality in aging populations, and its prediction would be most beneficial to public health. Spots positive for uptake of (18)F-FDG detected by PET are found in 12% of AAA patients (PET+), who are most often symptomatic and at high rupture risk. Comparing the (18)F-FDG-positive site with a negative site from the same aneurysm and with samples collected from AAA patients with no (18)F-FDG uptake should allow the discrimination of biologic alterations that would help in identifying markers predictive of rupture. Biopsies of the AAA wall were obtained from patients with no (18)F-FDG uptake (PET0, n = 10) and from PET+ patients (n = 8), both at the site positive for uptake and at a distant negative site of the aneurysmal wall. Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and zymography. The sites of the aneurysmal wall with a positive (18)F-FDG uptake were characterized by a strikingly increased number of adventitial inflammatory cells, highly proliferative, and by a drastic reduction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media as compared with their negative counterpart and with the PET0 wall. The expression of a series of genes involved in the maintenance and remodeling of the wall was significantly modified in the negative sites of PET+, compared with the PET0 wall, suggesting a systemic alteration of the aneurysmal wall. Furthermore, a striking increase of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), notably the MMP1 and MMP13 collagenases, was observed in the positive sites, mainly in the adventitia. Moreover, PET+ patients were characterized by a higher circulating C-reactive protein. Positive (18)F-FDG uptake in the aneurysmal wall is associated with an active inflammatory process characterized by a dense infiltrate of proliferating leukocytes in the adventitia and an increased circulating C-reactive protein. Moreover, a loss of SMC

  17. Seatbelt sign in a case of blunt abdominal trauma; what lies beneath it?

    PubMed

    Vailas, Michail G; Moris, Demetrios; Orfanos, Stamatios; Vergadis, Chrysovalantis; Papalampros, Alexandros

    2015-10-30

    The reported incidence of hollow viscus injuries (HVI) in blunt trauma patients is approximately 1%. The most common site of injury to the intestine in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is the small bowel followed by colon, with mesenteric injuries occurring three times more commonly than bowel injuries. Isolated colon injury is a rarely encountered condition. Clinical assessment alone in patients with suspected intestinal or mesenteric injury after blunt trauma is associated with unacceptable diagnostic delays. This is a case of a 31-year-old man, admitted to the emergency department after being the restrained driver, involved in a car accident. After initial resuscitation, focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination (FAST) was performed revealing a subhepatic mass, suspicious for intraperitoneal hematoma. A computed tomography scan (CT) that followed showed a hematoma of the mesocolon of the ascending colon with active extravasation of intravenous contrast material. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, hemoperitomeum was evacuated, and a subserosal hematoma of the cecum and ascending colon with areas of totally disrupted serosal wall was found. Hematoma of the adjacent mesocolon expanding to the root of mesenteric vessels was also noted. A right hemicolectomy along with primary ileocolonic anastomosis was performed. Patient's recovery progressed uneventfully. Identifying an isolated traumatic injury to the bowel or mesentery after BAT can be a clinical challenge because of its subtle and nonspecific clinical findings; meeting that challenge may eventually lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment with subsequent increase in associated morbidity and mortality. Isolated colon injury is a rare finding after blunt trauma and usually accompanied by other intra-abdominal organ injuries. Abdominal 'seatbelt' sign, ecchymosis of the abdominal wall, increasing abdominal pain and distension are all associated with HVI. However, the accuracy of these findings

  18. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  19. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  20. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  1. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  2. Application of a Silicone Sheet in Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy to Treat an Abdominal Wall Defect after Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Su; Choi, Hwan Jun

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an aggressive soft-tissue infection involving the deep fascia and is characterized by extensive deterioration of the surrounding tissue. Immediate diagnosis and intensive treatment, including debridement and systemic antibiotics, represent the most important factors influencing the survival of NF patients. In this report, we present a case of NF in the abdomen due to an infection caused by a perforated small bowel after abdominal liposuction. It was successfully treated using negative-pressure wound therapy, in which a silicone sheet functioned as a barrier between the sponge and internal organs to protect the small bowel.

  3. Lymphedema of the Transplanted Kidney and Abdominal Wall with Ipsilateral Pleural Effusion Following Kidney Biopsy in a Patient Treated with Sirolimus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rashid-Farokhi, Farin; Afshar, Hale

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Sirolimus induced congestion of kidney and overlying abdominal wall Symptoms: Abdominal pain • abdominal swelling • dyspnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Improvement of symptoms with drug withdrawal Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Adverse events of drug therapy Background: Sirolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, which is used in immunosuppressive treatment regimens in organ transplant recipients. Although mTOR inhibitors are well tolerated, their adverse effects have been reported. Sirolimus treatment in transplant recipients has been reported to be associated with lymphedema of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and with pleural effusion, but edema of internal organs and organomegaly have not been previously reported. A case is presented lymphedema of the transplanted kidney and abdominal wall with ipsilateral pleural effusion following kidney biopsy in a patient treated with sirolimus. Case Report: A 32-year-old woman with a history of end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology had undergone right renal transplantation from an unrelated living donor, eight years previously. She was referred to our hospital with dyspnea, localized abdominal pain, and swelling of the transplanted kidney. The symptoms appeared following a kidney biopsy and the replacement of cyclosporin with sirolimus four months previously. On examination, she had localized swelling of the abdominal wall overlying the transplanted kidney, and a right pleural effusion. Hydronephrosis and nephrotic syndrome were excluded as causes of kidney enlargement. Following the withdrawal of sirolimus therapy her symptoms resolved within three months. Conclusions: A case is described of lymphedema of the transplanted kidney and abdominal wall with ipsilateral pleural effusion following kidney biopsy attributed to her change in anti-rejection therapy to sirolimus. This case report should raise awareness of this unusual complication of

  4. Percutaneous debridement and washout of walled-off abdominal abscess and necrosis using flexible endoscopy: a large single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley; Moyer, Matthew; Mathew, Abraham; Dye, Charles; Levenick, John; Gusani, Niraj; Dougherty-Hamod, Brandy; McGarrity, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Direct percutaneous endoscopic necrosectomy has been described as a minimally invasive intervention for the debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to confirm these findings in a US referral center and evaluate the clinical value of this modality in the treatment of pancreatic necrosis as well as other types of intra-abdominal fluid collections and necrosis. Twelve consecutive patients with WOPN or other abdominal abscess requiring debridement and washout underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage catheter placement. Each patient then underwent direct percutaneous endoscopic necrosectomy and washout with repeat debridement performed until complete. Drains were then removed once output fell below 30 mL/day and imaging confirmed resolution. The primary endpoints were time to clinical resolution and sustained resolution at 1-year follow up.  Ten patients were treated for WOPN, one for necrotic hepatic abscesses, and one for omental necrosis. The median time to intervention was 85 days with an average of 2.3 necrosectomies performed. Complete removal of drains was accomplished in 11 patients (92 %). The median time to resolution was 57 days. No serious adverse events occurred; however, one patient developed pancreaticocutaneous fistulas. Ten patients completed 1-year surveillance of which none required drain replacement. No patients required surgery or repeat endoscopy. This series supports the premise that direct percutaneous endoscopic necrosectomy is a safe and effective intervention for intra-abdominal fluid collections and necrosis in appropriately selected patients. Our study demonstrates a high clinical success rate with minimal adverse events. This modality offers several potential advantages over surgical and transgastric approaches including use of improved accessibility, an excellent safety profile, and requirement for only deep or moderate sedation.

  5. Abdominal wall integrity after open abdomen: long-term results of vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM).

    PubMed

    Willms, A; Schaaf, S; Schwab, R; Richardsen, I; Bieler, D; Wagner, B; Güsgen, C

    2016-12-01

    The open abdomen has become a standard technique in the management of critically ill patients undergoing surgery for severe intra-abdominal conditions. Negative pressure and mesh-mediated fascial traction are commonly used and achieve low fistula rates and high fascial closure rates. In this study, long-term results of a standardised treatment approach are presented. Fifty-five patients who underwent OA management for different indications at our institution from 2006 to 2013 were enrolled. All patients were treated under a standardised algorithm that uses a combination of vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction. Structured follow-up assessments were offered to patients and included a medical history, a clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography. The data obtained were statistically analysed. The fascial closure rate was 74 % in an intention-to-treat analysis and 89 % in a per-protocol analysis. The fistula rate was 1.8 %. Thirty-four patients attended follow-up. The median follow-up was 46 months (range 12-88 months). Incisional hernias developed in 35 %. Patients with hernias needed more operative procedures (10.3 vs 3.4, p = 0.03) than patients without hernia formation. A Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) of 31.1 was calculated. Patients with symptomatic hernias (NAS of 2-10) had a significantly lower mean POSAS score (p = 0.04). Vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) seem to result in low complication rates and high fascial closure rates. Abdominal wall reconstruction, which is a challenging and complex procedure and causes considerable patient discomfort, can thus be avoided in the majority of cases. Available results are based on studies involving only a small number of cases. Multi-centre studies and registry-based data are therefore needed to validate these findings.

  6. Diagnostic and management of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Alex; Ruiz, Jessica; Perello, Rafael; Valverde, Marta; Ramos, Javier; Garzo, Luïsa

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to describe our experience in their management. Retrospective analysis of the characteristics and outcomes of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas diagnosed over the last 12years was conducted. 24 patients were included (66% women; mean age: 74years; range: 54-87). All cases presented predisposing factors mainly anticoagulant therapy in 21 (87.5%) patients, hypertension in 19 (79.1%) and abdominal surgery in 12 (50%) cases. Eighteen (75%) referred triggering factors like coughing being the most common one, present in 17 (70.8%) patients. The main clinical findings were abdominal pain in 21 (87.5%) cases and the existence of an abdominal mass in 20 (83.3%). The diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography and/or computerized tomography in 23 (95.8%) patients. Nineteen cases (79.1%) responded to conservative management while 5 (20.8%) required interventional treatment, which consisted in an arteriography with selective embolization of the epigastric arteries in all cases. Four (80%) of the patients needing interventional treatment were receiving low molecular weight heparin. Nine (37.5%) patients developed hypovolemic shock and 1 (4%) died. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain, particularly in elderly women under anticoagulant therapy with onset of symptoms after a bout of cough. Most cases respond to conservative management, although those related to low molecular weight heparin might require interventional treatment; arteriography with selective embolization of the epigastric arteries is the first therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of a Pfannenstiel Scar on Venous Anatomy of the Lower Abdominal Wall and Implications for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    A Pfannenstiel incision involves the obstruction of superficial venous pathways and functional diversion of flow through alternative pathways and adjacent vessels. This study investigated the effect of a prior Pfannenstiel incision on venous anatomy of the lower abdominal wall; specifically, the superficial inferior epigastric vein (SIEV), using computed tomographic angiography. A case-control study was performed of 50 patients with Pfannenstiel scars and 50 age-matched, body mass index-matched control patients without Pfannenstiel scars. The authors compared the number of direct/indirect and total communications between the SIEV and deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) venae comitantes, midline crossover, and other SIEV-related anatomical changes by using computed tomographic angiography. Flap-related clinical outcomes and donor-site-related complications were also assessed. The median number of direct and total communications between the SIEV and DIEP venae comitantes in the study group was greater than in the control group. The percentage of SIEVs having more than two branching patterns per hemiabdomen was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. The study group also showed a significantly lower rate of fat necrosis compared with the control group (p = 0.03). The rate of donor-site seroma was significantly higher in the study group. This study suggests that the presence of a Pfannenstiel scar may promote the development of direct and total communications between the SIEV and DIEP venae comitantes and branching within the SIEV in the lower abdominal wall, which may facilitate venous drainage of adipose tissue in DIEP flap breast reconstruction. Risk, II.

  8. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ... or tumors), fat (evidence of impaired digestion and absorption of food), and the presence of germs. X- ...

  9. Optimizing working space in laparoscopy: CT measurement of the effect of pre-stretching of the abdominal wall in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Vlot, John; Wijnen, René; Stolker, Robert Jan; Bax, Klaas N

    2014-03-01

    Determinants of working space in minimal access surgery have not been well studied. Using computed tomography (CT) to measure volumes and linear dimensions, we are studying the effect of a number of determinants of CO2 working space in a porcine laparoscopy model. Here we report the effects of pre-stretching of the abdominal wall. Earlier we had noted an increase in CO2 pneumoperitoneum volume at repeat insufflation with an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 5 mmHg after previous stepwise insufflation up to an IAP of 15 mmHg. We reviewed the data of this serendipity group; data of 16 pigs were available. In a new group of eight pigs, we also explored this effect at repeat IAPs of 10 and 15 mmHg. Volumes and linear dimensions of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum were measured on reconstructed CT images and compared between the initial and repeat insufflation runs. Previous stepwise insufflation of the abdomen with CO2 up to 15 mmHg significantly (p < 0.01) increased subsequent working-space volume at a repeat IAP of 5 mmHg by 21 %, 7 % at a repeat IAP of 10 mmHg and 3 % at a repeat IAP of 15 mmHg. The external anteroposterior diameter significantly (p < 0.01) increased by 0.5 cm (14 %) at repeat 5 mmHg. Other linear dimensions showed a much smaller change. There was no statistically significant correlation between the duration of the insufflation run and the volume increase after pre-stretching at all IAP levels. Pre-stretching of the abdominal wall allows for the same surgical-field exposure at lower IAPs, reducing the negative effects of prolonged high-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the cardiorespiratory system and microcirculation. Pre-stretching has important scientific consequences in studies addressing ways of increasing working space in that its effect may confound the possible effects of other interventions aimed at increasing working space.

  10. Management of Recurrent Subdural Hematomas.

    PubMed

    Desai, Virendra R; Scranton, Robert A; Britz, Gavin W

    2017-04-01

    Subdural hematomas commonly recur after surgical evacuation, at a rate of 2% to 37%. Risk factors for recurrence can be patient related, radiologic, or surgical. Patient-related risk factors include alcoholism, seizure disorders, coagulopathy, and history of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Radiologic factors include poor brain reexpansion postoperatively, significant subdural air, greater midline shift, heterogeneous hematomas (layered or multi-loculated), and higher-density hematomas. Surgical factors include lack of or poor postoperative drainage. Most recurrent hematomas are managed successfully with burr hole craniostomies with postoperative closed-system drainage. Refractory hematomas may be managed with a variety of techniques, including craniotomy or subdural-peritoneal shunt placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus versus uncoated PDS II sutures for prevention of surgical site infection after abdominal wall closure: the randomised controlled PROUD trial.

    PubMed

    Diener, Markus K; Knebel, Phillip; Kieser, Meinhard; Schüler, Philipp; Schiergens, Tobias S; Atanassov, Vladimir; Neudecker, Jens; Stein, Erwin; Thielemann, Henryk; Kunz, Reiner; von Frankenberg, Moritz; Schernikau, Utz; Bunse, Jörg; Jansen-Winkeln, Boris; Partecke, Lars I; Prechtl, Gerald; Pochhammer, Julius; Bouchard, Ralf; Hodina, René; Beckurts, K Tobias E; Leißner, Lothar; Lemmens, Hans-Peter; Kallinowski, Friedrich; Thomusch, Oliver; Seehofer, Daniel; Simon, Thomas; Hyhlik-Dürr, Alexander; Seiler, Christoph M; Hackert, Thilo; Reissfelder, Christoph; Hennig, René; Doerr-Harim, Colette; Klose, Christina; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W

    2014-07-12

    Postoperative surgical site infections are one of the most frequent complications after open abdominal surgery, and triclosan-coated sutures were developed to reduce their occurrence. The aim of the PROUD trial was to obtain reliable data for the effectiveness of triclosan-coated PDS Plus sutures for abdominal wall closure, compared with non-coated PDS II sutures, in the prevention of surgical site infections. This multicentre, randomised controlled group-sequential superiority trial was done in 24 German hospitals. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who underwent elective midline abdominal laparotomy for any reason were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were impaired mental state, language problems, and participation in another intervention trial that interfered with the intervention or outcome of this trial. A central web-based randomisation tool was used to randomly assign eligible participants by permuted block randomisation with a 1:1 allocation ratio and block size 4 before mass closure to either triclosan-coated sutures (PDS Plus) or uncoated sutures (PDS II) for abdominal fascia closure. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of superficial or deep surgical site infection according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria within 30 days after the operation. Patients, surgeons, and the outcome assessors were masked to group assignment. Interim and final analyses were by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with the German Clinical Trials Register, number DRKS00000390. Between April 7, 2010, and Oct 19, 2012, 1224 patients were randomly assigned to intervention groups (607 to PDS Plus, and 617 to PDS II), of whom 1185 (587 PDS Plus and 598 PDS II) were analysed by intention to treat. The study groups were well balanced in terms of patient and procedure characteristics. The occurrence of surgical site infections did not differ between the PDS Plus group (87 [14·8%] of 587) and the PDS II group (96 [16·1%] of 598

  12. [The "martin-arm" system for abdominal wall fixation for many applications - experience from its use of gynaecology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Müller, H G

    1979-01-01

    The "martin-arm"-System meets the demand for optimal fixation of outer edges of the wound cavity and exact positioning of organs in a three dimensional manner at abdominal operations. The four joints of each arm individually connected to the Op-table make this possible. They are fixed in position by a central joint with a lever which can be tightened. An adequate assortment of exchangeable retractors, specula and spatulas offers the possibility of a clear view of the operation. All instruments are ready for use even without the "martin-Arm". This system is especially suitable for emergency surgery, for small gynaecology wards or during staff shortages e.g. at night. The operation setting, according to requirements, remains in position for the duration of the whole operation. In the case of long operations, fatigue symptoms of the assistant are no longer present with this instrumentation.

  13. Use of laterally placed vacuum drains for management of aural hematomas in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    5 dogs (a Newfoundland, Golden Retriever, Shiba Inu, Staffordshire Terrier, and Vizsla) were referred for evaluation and treatment of unilateral aural hematomas within a week after their formation. Aural hematomas involved the left (3) or right (2) ears. With patients under anesthesia, the aural hematomas were approached surgically from the convex, or lateral, pinnal surface. Two small incisions were used to position a vacuum drain into the incised hematoma cavity. The drain exited at the base of the pinna and adjacent cervical skin. The free end of the drain was attached to a vacuum reservoir for 18 to 21 days. Drains and skin sutures were removed at this time along with the protective Elizabethan collar. All hematomas resolved and surgical sites healed during the minimum 6-month follow-up period. Cosmetic results were considered excellent in 4 of 5 patients. Slight wrinkling of the pinna in 1 patient resulted from asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma, where vacuum application resulted in a slight folding of the redundant lateral cartilage wall. The described treatment was efficient, economical, and minimally invasive and required no bandaging or wound care. Placement of the drain tubing on the convex (lateral) aspect sheltered the system from displacement by patients with an Elizabethan collar in place. Overall cosmetic results were excellent; asymmetric enlargement of the cartilaginous walls of the hematoma with slight folding of the pinna was seen in 1 patient.

  14. Angiosarcoma Arising in Chronic Expanding Hematoma: Five Cases of an Underrecognized Association.

    PubMed

    Burgert-Lon, Christine E; Riddle, Nicole D; Lackman, Richard D; Evenski, Andrea J; Brooks, John S J

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the etiology or pathogenesis of angiosarcoma (AS). We describe a series of 5 cases of AS arising in chronic expanding hematomas. Inclusion criteria were the presence of a hematoma of at least 1-year duration and a thick fibrous wall surrounding the hematoma. Patients were 4 men and 1 woman; ages ranged from 43 to 71 years. Locations were the thigh (3), chest wall (1), and pelvic soft tissue involving the ischial bone (1). Hematoma duration ranged from 2 to 25 years. All cases had large cystic hematomas >10 cm; 2 had prior radiation. Thick fibrous walls surrounded the hematomas, with foci of hemosiderin and foamy histiocytes. Wall thickness ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 cm and varied within lesions. All AS were epithelioid, and in 3 cases the tumor invaded through the cyst wall. Immunoreactive nuclear c-myc was noted in 3/3 cases available for testing. Follow-up disclosed 4 patients developed metastatic disease, 3 of whom died of disease, 4, 8, and 15 months after diagnosis; the fourth patient is alive without disease after chemotherapy at 59 months. One patient without metastases is alive without disease 18 months after diagnosis; this tumor was confined to the cyst without penetration through the wall. We identified 4 similar cases in the literature, 3 as individual case reports (all epithelioid AS), and 1 as part of a series of AS. To our knowledge, this is the first series of AS arising in chronic expanding hematomas. Recognition of this unusual complication should alert clinicians to provide periodic clinical follow-up to these patients and to biopsy any case with sudden or uncontrolled enlargement. We recommend that excised chronic hematomas be well sampled histologically to search for AS and, if identified, to determine its extent and invasiveness.

  15. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  16. The impact of a massive transfusion protocol (1:1:1) on major hepatic injuries: does it increase abdominal wall closure rates?

    PubMed

    Ball, Chad G; Dente, Christopher J; Shaz, Beth; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Feliciano, David V

    2013-10-01

    Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) using high plasma and platelet ratios for exsanguinating trauma patients are increasingly popular. Major liver injuries often require massive resuscitations and immediate hemorrhage control. Current published literature describes outcomes among patients with mixed patterns of injury. We sought to identify the effects of an MTP on patients with major liver trauma. Patients with grade 3, 4 or 5 liver injuries who required a massive blood component transfusion were analyzed. We compared patients with high plasma:red blood cell:platelet ratio (1:1:1) transfusions (2007-2009) with patients injured before the creation of an institutional MTP (2005-2007). Among 60 patients with major hepatic injuries, 35 (58%) underwent resuscitation after the implementation of an MTP. Patient and injury characteristics were similar between cohorts. Implementation of the MTP significantly improved plasma: red blood cell:platelet ratios and decreased crystalloid fluid resuscitation (p = 0.026). Rapid improvement in early acidosis and coagulopathy was superior with an MTP (p = 0.009). More patients in the MTP group also underwent primary abdominal fascial closure during their hospital stay (p = 0.021). This was most evident with grade 4 injuries (89% vs. 14%). The mean time to fascial closure was 4.2 days. The overall survival rate for all major liver injuries was not affected by an MTP (p = 0.61). The implementation of a formal MTP using high plasma and platelet ratios resulted in a substantial increase in abdominal wall approximation. This occurred concurrently to a decrease in the delivered volume of crystalloid fluid.

  17. CLOSTRIDIAL PARAPROCTITIS WITH GAS GANGRENE OF FRONT-LATERAL ABDOMINAL WALLS AND NECROTIC FASCIO-MYOSITIS (CASE REPORT).

    PubMed

    Didbaridze, N; Lomidze, N; Abuladze, T; Qiliptari, G; Didbaridze, T; Gvasalia, I; Mkervalishvili, Z; Gogokhia, N

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces. This patient presented as infected with Clostridium septicum, a rare and highly toxic Gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that progresses and migrates rapidly, affecting all soft tissues (muscle, fascia), and produces four toxins which cause gas gangrene, intravascular hemolysis, tissue necrosis, and septic shock. The mortality rate is typically 80%. In this case study, a positive clinical outcome was achieved by aggressive identification of the microbe, appropriate and immediate therapy, and vigorous surgical intervention. Specifically, immediate surgery was conducted to ensure a wide excision of damaged tissues, necrectomy, curettage, wide drainage, readjustment, oxygenation through drainages, further additional surgical corrections through CT control with wide bandages in the operating area. Further, the diagnostic workup was thorough, identifying the microbe through a properly constructed diagnostic algorithm, ultrasound and CT studies, infectious agent assessments, and bacteriological monitoring carried out on the 1st-2nd-5th-7th-12th-15th-21st-25th days. Rational antibiotic therapy with permanent susceptibility testing informed the selection of an appropriate agent. Finally, markers for the evaluation of severity (Apache scale) were assessed, as they were for stage of infection (prokalcitonin), inflammation (CRP) and other indicators.

  18. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    PubMed

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Myosonographic study of abdominal wall dynamics to assess donor site morbidity after microsurgical breast reconstruction with a DIEP or an ms-2 TRAM flap.

    PubMed

    Seidenstuecker, K; Legler, U; Munder, B; Andree, C; Mahajan, A; Witzel, C

    2016-05-01

    Currently, autologous breast reconstruction with a free tissue transfer from the lower abdomen is considered to be a safe method that provides a stable long-term solution. The DIEP-flap and the ms-2-TRAM-flap reconstructions have helped reduce donor site morbidity. In order to assess the potential differences between these techniques, we carried out myosonographic evaluations that assessed the muscle dynamics pre- and post-operatively. In addition to investigating the properties of the rectus abdominis muscle post-operatively, this prospective study also allowed us to analyse the muscle preoperatively and to investigate the prospects for harvesting a DIEP-flap as opposed to a TRAM-flap. Sixty patients underwent breast reconstruction with 71 (11 bilateral) free abdominal wall flaps (DIEP-: n = 48; ms-2-TRAM-flap: n = 23). Myosonographic examinations were performed preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months post-operatively. The thickness of the muscle at relaxation and maximum contraction and the difference between the muscle thickness measured at the two states were measured. A general-linear-model (GLM) was used for statistical analysis. The main variable was the surgical method, and the co-variables included BMI and patient age. The decision on whether to harvest a DIEP- or ms-2-TRAM-flap was made intra-operatively and based on the dominant perforator. It shows that the patients who underwent breast reconstruction with a DIEP-flap had significantly better muscle function (p < 0.05) in the follow-up. In addition, the analysis revealed that better muscle function before surgery made it more likely that a patient would undergo a DIEP-flap-reconstruction successfully. Patient age also had a highly significant effect on muscle recovery (p < 0.0005). This prospective study used a dynamic ultrasound evaluation of the abdominal wall and showed that the DIEP-flap significantly reduces donor site morbidity compared to the ms-2-TRAM-flap. The study also showed that good

  20. Remodeling characteristics and collagen distribution in synthetic mesh materials explanted from human subjects after abdominal wall reconstruction: an analysis of remodeling characteristics by patient risk factors and surgical site classifications

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Roma, Andres A.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Ousley, Jenny; Creamer, Jennifer; Pichert, Matthew D.; Baalman, Sara; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between patient characteristics or surgical site classifications and the histologic remodeling scores of synthetic meshes biopsied from their abdominal wall repair sites in the first attempt to generate a multivariable risk prediction model of non-constructive remodeling. Methods Biopsies of the synthetic meshes were obtained from the abdominal wall repair sites of 51 patients during a subsequent abdominal re-exploration. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated according to a semi-quantitative scoring system for remodeling characteristics (cell infiltration, cell types, extracellular matrix deposition, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and neovascularization) and a mean composite score (CR). Biopsies were also stained with Sirius Red and Fast Green, and analyzed to determine the collagen I:III ratio. Based on univariate analyses between subject clinical characteristics or surgical site classification and the histologic remodeling scores, cohort variables were selected for multivariable regression models using a threshold p value of ≤0.200. Results The model selection process for the extracellular matrix score yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation, and mesh classification (c-statistic = 0.842). For CR score, the model selection process yielded two variables: subject age at time of mesh implantation and mesh classification (r2 = 0.464). The model selection process for the collagen III area yielded a model with two variables: subject body mass index at time of mesh explantation and pack-year history (r2 = 0.244). Conclusion Host characteristics and surgical site assessments may predict degree of remodeling for synthetic meshes used to reinforce abdominal wall repair sites. These preliminary results constitute the first steps in generating a risk prediction model that predicts the patients and clinical circumstances for which non

  1. Sonographic Evaluation of Clinically Significant Perigraft Hematomas in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Rao, Rajiv; Corwin, Michael T; Naderi, Sima; Santhanakrishnan, Chandrasekar; Troppmann, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in evaluating peritransplant hematomas that require surgical evacuation in recipients of kidney transplants. Thirty-four patients who underwent 37 hematoma evacuations underwent ultrasound examinations in the 24 hours before surgical evacuation. The operative reports were evaluated for presence and size of collection, presence of active bleeding at operation, and composition of the hematoma. The clinical findings leading to the ultrasound examination were recorded. Ultrasound examinations were evaluated in consensus by two board-certified and fellowship-trained abdominal radiologists for the presence, size, and echogenicity of the collection; subjective perfusion visualized with color and power Doppler ultrasound; velocities of the renal arteries; and arcuate artery resistive indexes. Ten of the 37 imaged hematomas (27%) had either no or small (< 50 mL) fluid collections on ultrasound examination. With sonographic volumetry, the reported intraoperative volumes were underestimated by 46%. The mean arcuate artery resistive index was 0.82 in the superior pole, 0.81 in the mid pole, and 0.78 in the inferior pole of the kidney. A decrease in hemoglobin level was the most sensitive clinical finding for determining the presence of perigraft hematomas. Our results suggest that gray-scale sonography alone appears to have limited sensitivity in detecting clinically significant peritransplant hematomas and that its use may result in overall underestimates of hematomas.

  2. Diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with rectus sheath hematoma. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Karalis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It may mimic a wide variety of intraabdominal disorders thus frequently leading to delay in treatment, increased morbidity or even in an unnecessary surgery. This is a retrospective study of 10 patients with RSH who were treated in our department over a five-year period. There were 6 (60%) men and 4 (40%) women ranging in age from 38 to 86 years, with a mean age of 57.1 years. The most common clinical presentation was a palpable abdominal mass associated with abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) established the diagnosis in 100% of the cases. 4 patients had type I hematoma, 3 had type II hematoma and 3 had type III hematoma. Anticoagulation therapy was the most common predisposing factor. Conservative treatment was effective in 90% of the cases and in all cases of spontaneous RSHs in patients under anticoagulation therapy. One patient, who developed a very severe RSH following an abdominal injection of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), underwent surgery. All patients with type III hematoma required blood transfusion. RSH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the elderly patients under anticoagulation therapy presenting with acute abdominal pain and a palpable mass. CT is the diagnostic modality of choice. Conservative treatment is feasible in most cases. Early diagnosis is mandatory in order to avoid morbidity or unnecessary surgery. In order to prevent a traumatic RSH, trocar insertion under direct vision during laparoscopic surgery and careful attention in the abdominal administration of LMWH are essential. Copyright (c) 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hospital readmission following open, single-stage, elective abdominal wall reconstructions using acellular dermal matrix affects long-term hernia recurrence rate.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Salvatore A; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2018-02-05

    We evaluated the incidence of and the risk factors for readmission in patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and assess whether readmission affects AWR long-term outcomes. A retrospective, single-center study of patients underwent AWR with ADM was conducted. The primary outcome was the incidence of unplanned readmission within 30 days after the initial discharge post-AWR. Secondary outcomes were surgical site occurrence (SSO) and hernia recurrence at follow-up. Of 452 patients (mean age, 59 years; mean follow-up, 35 months), 29 (6.4%) were readmitted within 30 days. Most readmissions were due to SSO (44.8%) or wound infections (12.8%). The hernia recurrence rate was significantly higher in readmitted patients (17.2% vs 9.9%; P = 0.044). Wider defects, prolonged operative time, and coronary artery disease were independent predictors of readmission. Readmission is associated with hernia recurrence on long-term follow-up. SSO is the most common cause for readmission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad R.; Parihar, Vijay; Namdev, Hemant; Bajaj, Jitin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions. There is lack of uniformity in the treatment of CSDH amongst surgeons in terms of various treatment strategies. Clinical presentation may vary from no symptoms to unconsciousness. CSDH is usually diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is more sensitive in the diagnosis of bilateral isodense CSDH, multiple loculations, intrahematoma membranes, fresh bleeding, hemolysis, and the size of capsule. Contrast-enhanced CT or MRI could detect associated primary or metastatic dural diseases. Although definite history of trauma could be obtained in a majority of cases, some cases may be secondary to coagulation defect, intracranial hypotension, use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs, etc., Recurrent bleeding, increased exudates from outer membrane, and cerebrospinal fluid entrapment have been implicated in the enlargement of CSDH. Burr-hole evacuation is the treatment of choice for an uncomplicated CSDH. Most of the recent trials favor the use of drain to reduce recurrence rate. Craniotomy and twist drill craniostomy also play a role in the management. Dural biopsy should be taken, especially in recurrence and thick outer membrane. Nonsurgical management is reserved for asymptomatic or high operative risk patients. The steroids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may also play a role in the management. Single management strategy is not appropriate for all the cases of CSDH. Better understanding of the nature of the pathology, rational selection of an ideal treatment strategy for an individual patient, and identification of the merits and limitations of different surgical techniques could help in improving the prognosis. PMID:27695533

  5. Risk factors in congenital abdominal wall defects (omphalocele and gastroschisi): a study in a series of 265,858 consecutive births.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Alembik, Y; Dott, B; Roth, M P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence at birth of two abdominal wall defects (AWD), omphalocela and gastroschisis and to identify possible etiologic factors. The AWD came from 265,858 consecutive births of known ouome registered in the registry of congenital malformations of Strasbourg for the period 1979 to 1998. Request information on the child, the pregnancy, the parents and the family was obtained for cases and for controls. Hundred five cases with AWD were analysed, 55.2 % were omphalocele and 44.8 % were gastroschisis. The mean prevalence rate for omphalocele was 2.18 per 10,000 and for gastroschisis 1.76 per 10,000. Associated malformations were found in 74.1 % of omphalocele compared with 53.2 % of gastroschisis; 29.3 % of fetuses with omphalocele had an abnormal karyotype, 44,8 % had a recognizable syndrome, association or an unspecified malformation pattern; 51.0 % of fetuses with gastroschisis had additional malformations that were not of chromosomal origin, but 1 case. Antenatal ultrasound examination was able to detect 39 (67.2 %) cases of omphaloceles and 27 (57.4 %) cases of gastroschisis. In 30 (51.7 %) cases of omphalocele and in 7 (14.9 %) cases of gastroschisis parents opted for termination of pregnancy. The overall survival rate was 14 (24.1 %) for omphalocele and 30 (63.8 %) for gastroschisis. Weight, length and head circumference at birth of infants with AWD were less than those of controls. The weight of placenta of infants with AWD was not different from the weight of placenta of controls. Gastroschisis was associated with significantly younger maternal age than omphalocele. Pregnancies with AWD were more often complicated by threatened abortion, oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios. Mothers of children with AWD took more often medication during pregnancy than mothers of controls.

  6. Splanchnic and renal deterioration during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison of the carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and the abdominal wall lift method.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, A M; Kellokumpu, I; Ristkari, S; Lindgren, L

    1997-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum together with an increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) induces a hemodynamic stress response, diminishes urine output, and may compromise splanchnic perfusion. A new retractor method may be less traumatic. Accordingly, 30 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (IAP 12-13 mm Hg) (control) or to a gasless abdominal wall lift method (retractor) group. Anesthesia and intravascular fluids were standardized. Direct mean arterial pressure (MAP), urine output, urine-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (U-NAG), arterial blood gases, gastric mucosal PCO2, and intramucosal pH (pHi) were measured. Normoventilation was instituted in all patients. MAP increased (P < 0.001) only with CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Minute volume of ventilation had to be increased by 35% with CO2 insufflation. PaCO2 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 3 h postoperatively in the control group. Diuresis was less (P < 0.01) and U-NAG levels (P < 0.01) higher in the control group. The pHi decreased after induction of pneumoperitoneum up to three hours postoperatively and remained intact in the retractor group. We conclude that the retractor method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy ensures stable hemodynamics, prevents respiratory acidosis, and provides protection against biochemical effects, which reveal the renal and splanchic ischemia caused by CO2 insufflation. A mechanical retractor method (gasless) was compared with conventional CO2 pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic cholestectomy. The gasless method ensured stable hemodynamics, prevented respiratory acidosis, and provided protection against the renal and splanchnic ischemia seen with CO2 pneumoperitoneum.

  7. Correlating Abdominal Wall Thickness and Body Mass Index to Predict Usefulness of Right Lower Quadrant Ultrasound for Evaluation of Pediatric Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeannie K; Trexler, Nowice; Reisch, Joan; Pfeifer, Cory M; Ginos, Jason; Powell, Jerry Allen; Veltkamp, Jennifer; Anene, Alvin; Fernandes, Neil; Chen, Li Ern

    2017-11-06

    To inform selective and efficient use of appendix ultrasound (US) beyond adult parameters of body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 kg/m, we correlate abdominal wall thickness (AWT) with age and BMI to generate parameters for male and female children. Information presented in chart format can aid in the decision to utilize US for the evaluation of appendicitis. In this observational study, 1600 pediatric computed tomography scans of the abdomen and pelvis were analyzed to obtain measurements of AWT in the right lower quadrant. Measurements were correlated by patient age, BMI, and sex. Results and consensus-based recommendations were presented in chart format with color-coded groupings to allow for convenient referencing in the clinical setting. One thousand four hundred eighty-eight computed tomography scans and AWT measurements were included. All age groups with BMI of less than 25 kg/m and all male and female groups younger than 6 years regardless of BMI had median AWT of less than 4 cm resulting in strong recommendation for US. Males older than 6 years and all female age groups with BMI of greater than 30 kg/m and female older than 15 years and BMI of greater than 25 kg/m had AWT of more than 5 cm resulting in low recommendation for US. While the BMI cutoff standard of less than 25 kg/m for usefulness of appendix US holds in the adult population, our data expand the acceptable range in children younger than 9 years regardless of BMI and male children with BMI up to 30 kg/m. Female children younger than 15 years with a BMI up to 30 kg/m may also be amenable to right lower quadrant US based on AWT. These parameters inform selective and efficient use of US for appendix evaluation.

  8. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma: an Overview of 4-Year Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Okan Murat; Kayılıoğlu, Selami Ilgaz; Aydoğan, İhsan; Dinç, Tolga; Yildiz, Baris; Cete, Mükerrem; Erdoğan, Ahmet; Coşkun, Faruk

    2015-12-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of blood within rectus abdominis muscle sheath. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics, diagnostic approach, treatment strategy, and outcomes of patients with rectus sheath hematoma. Patients diagnosed and treated for spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma between March 2010 and March 2014 were included in the study. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed as spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. The mean age was 66.5 ± 16.9 years, and the mean hospital stay was 4.4 ± 1.8 days. There was no mortality. Six patients were using anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents. Eight patients recovered after conservative treatment. Two patients underwent surgery. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is associated with anticoagulant therapy. Cases with abdominal pain and a non-pulsatile abdominal mass particularly in elderly women should be kept in mind. Treatment is mostly based on supportive care to preserve hemodynamic stability.

  9. Rectus sheath hematoma due to cough in an elderly patient under antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Çoşğun, I Güven; Ünal, Yılmaz; Çetin, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal rectus sheath hematoma (ARSH) is a rare clinical condition that can be confused with other causes of acute abdomen. We report an 83-year-old woman receiving antiplatelet medication who presented with ARSH following a cough episode. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. During hospital stay, sudden onset abdominal pain was developed following a severe cough episode. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed ARSH. Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare and often misdiagnosed clinical condition. It is important to be considered for the diagnosis. ARSH should be considered in case of development of acute abdominal pain following cough in receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intraperitoneal onlay mesh reinforcement of the abdominal wall: a new surgical option for treatment of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome-a retrospective cohort analysis of 30 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Stirler, Vincent M A; Raymakers, Johan T F J; Rakic, Srdjan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce a new surgical treatment for anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, a frequently unrecognised disorder in the general population responsible for chronic abdominal wall pain with limited treatment options to date. We hypothesised that intraperitoneal onlay mesh reinforcement could dissipate excessive increases in intra-abdominal pressure and prevent entrapment of the neurovascular bundle. Retrospective cohort analysis was performed between September 2002 and March 2014. All consecutive patients diagnosed with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome refractory to conservative treatment (n = 30) underwent laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh reinforcement of the painful area in the abdominal wall. Planned follow-up took place at 2, 6 and 12 weeks after surgery and at time of analysis (March 2015). Primary outcome was patients' satisfaction after treatment at short and long term (last follow-up) using a verbal rating score as measurement (1 = I am very satisfied; I never experience pain, 2 = I am satisfied; I occasionally experience some pain, 3 = I have improved but experience pain on a regular basis, 4 = I have had no result on this treatment, 5 = my pain is worse after treatment). Scores 1 and 2 were classified as success, and scores 4 and 5 as failure of the treatment. Thirty patients underwent laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh reinforcement. None were lost to follow-up (mean 54 ± 44 months, range 12-122, median 38). Short- and long-term success rates were 90 and 71 %, respectfully. Intraperitoneal onlay mesh reinforcement of the abdominal wall seems to be a promising option for the treatment of intractable anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome.

  11. Lymphedema of the Transplanted Kidney and Abdominal Wall with Ipsilateral Pleural Effusion Following Kidney Biopsy in a Patient Treated with Sirolimus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rashid-Farokhi, Farin; Afshar, Haleh

    2017-12-22

    BACKGROUND Sirolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, which is used in immunosuppressive treatment regimens in organ transplant recipients. Although mTOR inhibitors are well tolerated, their adverse effects have been reported. Sirolimus treatment in transplant recipients has been reported to be associated with lymphedema of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and with pleural effusion, but edema of internal organs and organomegaly have not been previously reported. A case is presented lymphedema of the transplanted kidney and abdominal wall with ipsilateral pleural effusion following kidney biopsy in a patient treated with sirolimus. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman with a history of end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology had undergone right renal transplantation from an unrelated living donor, eight years previously. She was referred to our hospital with dyspnea, localized abdominal pain, and swelling of the transplanted kidney. The symptoms appeared following a kidney biopsy and the replacement of cyclosporin with sirolimus four months previously. On examination, she had localized swelling of the abdominal wall overlying the transplanted kidney, and a right pleural effusion. Hydronephrosis and nephrotic syndrome were excluded as causes of kidney enlargement. Following the withdrawal of sirolimus therapy her symptoms resolved within three months. CONCLUSIONS A case is described of lymphedema of the transplanted kidney and abdominal wall with ipsilateral pleural effusion following kidney biopsy attributed to her change in anti-rejection therapy to sirolimus. This case report should raise awareness of this unusual complication of sirolimus anti-rejection therapy and its possible effects on the lymphatic system.

  12. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma presenting as acute surgical abdomen: an important differential in elderly coagulopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2009-06-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) presenting as acute surgical abdomen is a rare clinical entity. Failing to establish an early diagnosis will probably result in increased morbidity or unnecessary surgical intervention. We describe herein a case of an 85-year-old woman receiving anticoagulants who presented with typical clinical manifestations of acute surgical abdomen and a slightly palpable abdominal mass. Ultrasonography was inconclusive whereas computed tomography scans demonstrated a large right rectus sheath hematoma associated with hemoperitoneum. The patient was treated conservatively with success. It is therefore concluded that RSH must be considered in any elderly patient on anticoagulant therapy who presents with manifestations of acute surgical abdomen.

  13. HISTOTRIPSY LIQUEFACTION OF LARGE HEMATOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Khlokhova, Tatiana D.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Haider, Yasser A.; Maxwell, Adam; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15–20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms—fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. PMID:27126244

  14. [Clinical spectrum of patients with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Amada; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Salmón-González, Zaida; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen

    2015-10-05

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma (SRH) is a potentially fatal clinical entity requiring immediate recognition and intervention. The clinical records of 18-year-old and older patients admitted to the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla from 2003 to 2013 were reviewed. "Spontaneous" was defined as unrelated to trauma, invasive procedures or bleeding due to aortic aneurysm rupture. Thirty-four patients with SRH (44% were on anticoagulant drugs). One-third of cases had chronic renal insufficiency. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom both in anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated patients (80% in anticoagulated and 89% in non-anticoagulated patients). About one half of the patients developed shock. A CT scan was the most commonly performed diagnostic test, followed by abdominal ultrasound. Most cases were managed conservatively (80%). More than half of the patients (66%) restarted anticoagulation therapy after the acute event with a mean delay of 19 days (range 2-90 days). None of them suffered a new bleeding episode. Restarting the anticoagulation treatment after hematoma resolution seems to be a safe practice. There is an increasing frequency of SRH in non-anticoagulated patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the transversus abdominis muscle during drawing-in of the abdominal wall in elite Australian Football League players with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Boughen, Carly L; Stanton, Warren R; Strudwick, Mark W; Wilson, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Single-blinded quasi-experimental study. To investigate the ability of elite football players with and without low back pain (LBP) to voluntarily draw-in the abdominal wall. While there has been considerable debate regarding the contribution of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle to control the lumbar spine and pelvis, there is evidence that retraining motor control of the deep trunk muscles is commensurate with decreases in LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to assess the TrA muscle during the draw-in maneuver, with the contraction of the TrA muscle reducing the circumference of the trunk. Impairments in performance of the draw-in maneuver have been shown in people with LBP. Forty-three elite players from a team in the Australian Football League were allocated to 3 groups: those with "no LBP," "a history of LBP but no current LBP," or "current LBP." MRI was used to image the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the trunk at the level of the L3-4 disc at the start and end of the draw-in maneuver. There was a significant decrease in the CSA of the trunk with the performance of the draw-in maneuver (P<.001). Subjects in the "no LBP" group were better able to "draw-in" the abdominal wall than subjects with current LBP (P = .015). This study provides evidence of an altered ability to draw-in the abdominal wall in footballers with current LBP. Retraining contraction of the TrA muscle may constitute one part of an exercise-therapy approach for athletes with current LBP.

  16. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  17. Parkinsonsim due to a Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bosuk; Song, Sook Keun; Hong, Jin Yong; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2009-01-01

    Subdural hematoma is a rare cause of parkinsonism. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with right-side dominant parkinsonism about 3 months after a minor head injury. MRI reveals a chronic subdural hematoma on the left side with mildly displaced midline structures. The parkinsonian features were almost completely disappeared after neurosurgical evacuation of the hematoma without any anti-parkinson drug. PMID:24868353

  18. [TRAUMATIC INTRAORGANIC HEPATIC AND SPLENIC HEMATOMAS].

    PubMed

    Timerbulatov, V M; Khalikov, A A; Timerbulatov, Sh V; Verzakova, I V; Amirova, A M; Smyr, R A

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of application results of complex research methods of diagnostics of intraorganic hepatic and splenic hematomas was made. At the same time, options of these methods were used for determination of prescription of injury. The ultrasound, CT, MR-imaging, videolaparoscopy, angiography, Doppler ultrasonics, impedometry, biochemical, laboratory and cytological study of punctate sample from hematomas were applied for this purpose in 33 patients. According to authors, an evolution of hematomas happened in 3 stages, each of this stage was characterized by specified data associated with investigation results. The staging procedure of hematomas or their evolution allowed setting the prescription of injury.

  19. The effects of hematoma on implant capsules.

    PubMed

    Caffee, H H

    1986-02-01

    Hematoma surrounding an implant is one of the many factors that have been suggested as possible causes for scar capsule contracture. In this study, experiments were designed to determine the influence of hematoma on the incidence and severity of capsule contracture in rabbits. Two implants were placed in each animal, 1 with a surrounding hematoma and 1 control. Capsules were evaluated subjectively and compared objectively with measurements of deformability, surface area, and capsule thickness. No differences were found with any of the objective criteria, which suggests that hematoma may not be a noteworthy cause of implant capsule contracture.

  20. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Idiopathic Interdural Hematoma in Adult: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Jung-Soo; Jin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Sun-Il

    2016-01-01

    Interdural hematomas are primarily observed in infants, and adult interdural hematomas are rare. We describe a 54-year-old woman with a round, well-defined mass. The mass was an interdural hematoma that was misdiagnosed as an epidural hematoma. Unlike an epidural hematoma, interdural hematomas are located between the two layers of the dura mater, and the dural tail sign can be observed. PMID:28664008

  2. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  3. Epidural Hematoma Complication after Rapid Chronic Subdural Hematoma Evacuation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Aykut; Ucler, Necati; Erdogan, Uzay; Yucetas, Cem Seyho

    2015-07-06

    Chronic subdural hematoma generally occurs in the elderly. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation surgery, the development of epidural hematoma is a very rare entity. We report the case of a 41-year-old man with an epidural hematoma complication after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Under general anesthesia, the patient underwent a large craniotomy with closed system drainage performed to treat the chronic subdural hematoma. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation, there was epidural leakage on the following day. Although trauma is the most common risk factor in young CSDH patients, some other predisposing factors may exist. Intracranial hypotension can cause EDH. Craniotomy and drainage surgery can usually resolve the problem. Because of rapid dynamic intracranial changes, epidural leakages can occur. A large craniotomy flap and silicone drainage in the operation area are key safety points for neurosurgeons and hydration is essential.

  4. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Neely, John C; Jones, Blaise V; Crone, Kerry R

    2008-03-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma.

  5. Intracranial hematoma in experienced teenage equestrians.

    PubMed

    McAbee, G N; Ciminera, P F

    1996-10-01

    Intracranial hematoma in pediatric equestrians is rare, notwithstanding the lack of uniform standards and requirements for the use of protective headgear during equestrian events. We report two teenage helmeted equestrians who sustained severe head trauma with intracranial hematoma due to falls during equestrian events. Current recommendations for the use of equestrian headgear are reviewed.

  6. In Vivo Molecular Characterization of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Fibrin-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Botnar, René M; Brangsch, Julia; Reimann, Carolin; Janssen, Christian H P; Razavi, Reza; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R

    2018-05-30

    The incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) will significantly increase during the next decade. Novel biomarkers, besides diameter, are needed for a better characterization of aneurysms and the estimation of the risk of rupture. Fibrin is a key protein in the formation of focal hematoma associated with the dissection of the aortic wall and the development of larger thrombi during the progression of AAAs. This study evaluated the potential of a fibrin-specific magnetic resonance (MR) probe for the in vivo characterization of the different stages of AAAs. AAAs spontaneously developed in ApoE -/- mice following the infusion of angiotensin-II (Ang-II, 1 μg/kg -1 ·per minute). An established fibrin-specific molecular MR probe (EP2104R, 10 μmol/kg -1 ) was administered after 1 to 4 weeks following Ang-II infusion (n=8 per group). All imaging experiments were performed on a clinical 3T Achieva MR system with a microscopy coil (Philips Healthcare, Netherlands). The development of AAA-associated fibrin-rich hematoma and thrombi was assessed. The high signal generated by the fibrin probe enabled high-resolution MR imaging for an accurate assessment and quantification of the relative fibrin composition of focal hematoma and thrombi. Contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) and R1-relaxation rates following the administration of the fibrin probe were in good agreement with ex vivo immunohistomorphometry ( R 2 =0.83 and 0.85) and gadolinium concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy ( R 2 =0.78 and 0.72). The fibrin-specific molecular MR probe allowed the delineation and quantification of changes in fibrin content in early and advanced AAAs. Fibrin MRI could provide a novel in vivo biomarker to improve the risk stratification of patients with aortic aneurysms. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Ultrasound therapy in iliopsoas hematoma.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Basak Bilir; Icagasioglu, Afitap

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant agent that can have life-threatening complications, such as severe bleeding, which then require cessation of the treatment. Due to the widespread use of this therapy in recent years, incidences of its hemorrhagic complications have also increased significantly. In hemodynamically stable patients, it is possible to adopt conservative treatment strategies, such as ultrasound (US) therapy as an alternative. US is a physical therapy modality widely used in musculoskeletal disorders, but there is little evidence about its effectiveness for hemorrhagic complications because of the limited number of studies on this subject at present. A 77-year-old male who had been under oral anticoagulant therapy for 6½ years presented at the clinic with complaints of severe pain and numbness in the anterolateral thigh. US evaluation revealed iliopsoas hematoma. US treatment, administered as a physical therapy modality, resulted in faster resorption of the hematoma than expected. The patient fully recovered from clinically observed pain, meralgia paresthetica, and reduced patellar reflex.

  9. Automated detection of extradural and subdural hematoma for contrast-enhanced CT images in emergency medical care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Takeshi; Matoba, Naoto; Zhou, Xiangrong; Yokoi, Shinya; Aizawa, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Keiji; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2007-03-01

    We have been developing the CAD scheme for head and abdominal injuries for emergency medical care. In this work, we have developed an automated method to detect typical head injuries, rupture or strokes of brain. Extradural and subdural hematoma region were detected by comparing technique after the brain areas were registered using warping. We employ 5 normal and 15 stroke cases to estimate the performance after creating the brain model with 50 normal cases. Some of the hematoma regions were detected correctly in all of the stroke cases with no false positive findings on normal cases.

  10. Hematoma Expansion Following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage, the most devastating form of stroke, has no specific therapy proven to improve outcome by randomized controlled trial. Location and baseline hematoma volume are strong predictors of mortality, but are non-modifiable by the time of diagnosis. Expansion of the initial hematoma is a further marker of poor prognosis that may be at least partly preventable. Several risk factors for hematoma expansion have been identified, including baseline ICH volume, early presentation after symptom onset, anticoagulation, and the CT angiography spot sign. Although the biological mechanisms of hematoma expansion remain unclear, accumulating evidence supports a model of ongoing secondary bleeding from ruptured adjacent vessels surrounding the initial bleeding site. Several large clinical trials testing therapies aimed at preventing hematoma expansion are in progress, including aggressive blood pressure reduction, treatment with recombinant factor VIIa guided by CT angiography findings, and surgical intervention for superficial hematomas without intraventricular extension. Hematoma expansion is so far the only marker of outcome that is amenable to treatment and thus a potentially important therapeutic target. PMID:23466430

  11. Chronic spontaneous lumbar epidural hematoma simulating extradural spinal tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hiroki; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hirano, Kenichi; Tauchi, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology.

  12. Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Hilibrand, Alan S; Arnold, Paul M; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Gum, Jeffrey L; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Isaacs, Robert E; Kanter, Adam S; Mroz, Thomas E; Nassr, Ahmad; Sasso, Rick C; Fehlings, Michael G; Buser, Zorica; Bydon, Mohamad; Cha, Peter I; Chatterjee, Dhananjay; Gee, Erica L; Lord, Elizabeth L; Mayer, Erik N; McBride, Owen J; Nguyen, Emily C; Roe, Allison K; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Yanez, Marisa Y; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicentered retrospective case series. To determine the incidence and circumstances surrounding the development of a symptomatic postoperative epidural hematoma in the cervical spine. Patients who underwent cervical spine surgery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at 23 institutions were reviewed, and all patients who developed an epidural hematoma were identified. A total of 16 582 cervical spine surgeries were identified, and 15 patients developed a postoperative epidural hematoma, for a total incidence of 0.090%. Substantial variation between institutions was noted, with 11 sites reporting no epidural hematomas, and 1 site reporting an incidence of 0.76%. All patients initially presented with a neurologic deficit. Nine patients had complete resolution of the neurologic deficit after hematoma evacuation; however 2 of the 3 patients (66%) who had a delay in the diagnosis of the epidural hematoma had residual neurologic deficits compared to only 4 of the 12 patients (33%) who had no delay in the diagnosis or treatment ( P = .53). Additionally, the patients who experienced a postoperative epidural hematoma did not experience any significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life metrics as a result of the index procedure at final follow-up evaluation. This is the largest series to date to analyze the incidence of an epidural hematoma following cervical spine surgery, and this study suggest that an epidural hematoma occurs in approximately 1 out of 1000 cervical spine surgeries. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may improve the chance of making a complete neurologic recovery, but patients who develop this complication do not show improvements in the health-related quality-of-life measurements.

  13. Age determination of soft tissue hematomas.

    PubMed

    Neumayer, Bernhard; Hassler, Eva; Petrovic, Andreas; Widek, Thomas; Ogris, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, the estimation of the age of injuries such as externally visible subcutaneous hematomas is important for the reconstruction of violent events, particularly to include or exclude potential suspects. Since the estimation of the time of origin based on external inspection is unreliable, the aim of this study was to use contrast in MRI to develop an easy-to-use model for hematoma age estimation. In a longitudinal study, artificially created subcutaneous hematomas were repetitively imaged using MRI over a period of two weeks. The hemorrhages were created by injecting autologous blood into the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh in 20 healthy volunteers. For MRI, standard commercially available sequences, namely proton-density-weighted, T2 -weighted and inversion recovery sequences, were used. The hematomas' MRI data were analyzed regarding their contrast behavior using the most suitable sequences to derive a model allowing an objective estimation of the age of soft tissue hematomas. The Michelson contrast between hematoma and muscle in the proton-density-weighted sequence showed an exponentially decreasing behavior with a dynamic range of 0.6 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.1. The contrast of the inversion recovery sequences showed increasing characteristics and was hypointense for TI = 200ms and hyperintense for TI =1000ms. These sequences were used to create a contrast model. The cross-validation of the model finally yielded limits of agreement for hematoma age determination (corresponding to ±1.96 SD) of ±38.7h during the first three days and ±54 h for the entire investigation period. The developed model provides lookup tables which allow for the estimation of a hematoma's age given a single contrast measurement applicable by a radiologist or a forensic physician. This is a first step towards an accurate and objective dating method for subcutaneous hematomas, which will be particularly useful in child abuse. Copyright © 2014 John

  14. Ultraearly hematoma growth in active intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Coscojuela, Pilar; Rubiera, Marta; Hill, Michael D.; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Aviv, Richard I.; Silva, Yolanda; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Lum, Cheemun; Czlonkowska, Anna; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Kase, Carlos S.; Gubitz, Gord; Bhatia, Rohit; Padma, Vasantha; Roy, Jayanta; Tomasello, Alejandro; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Molina, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) with the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, hematoma expansion, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: We analyzed data from 231 patients enrolled in the multicenter Predicting Haematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Haemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT study. uHG was defined as baseline ICH volume/onset-to-CT time (mL/h). The spot sign was used as marker of active hemorrhage. Outcome parameters included significant hematoma expansion (>33% or >6 mL, primary outcome), rate of hematoma expansion, early neurologic deterioration, 90-day mortality, and poor outcome. Results: uHG was higher in spot sign patients (p < 0.001) and in patients scanned earlier (p < 0.001). Both uHG >4.7 mL/h (p = 0.002) and the CTA spot sign (p = 0.030) showed effects on rate of hematoma expansion but not its interaction (2-way analysis of variance, p = 0.477). uHG >4.7 mL/h improved the sensitivity of the spot sign in the prediction of significant hematoma expansion (73.9% vs 46.4%), early neurologic deterioration (67.6% vs 35.3%), 90-day mortality (81.6% vs 44.9%), and poor outcome (72.8% vs 29.8%), respectively. uHG was independently related to significant hematoma expansion (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.10) and clinical outcomes. Conclusions: uHG is a useful predictor of hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcomes in patients with acute ICH. The combination of high uHG and the spot sign is associated with a higher rate of hematoma expansion, highlighting the need for very fast treatment in ICH patients. PMID:27343067

  15. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  16. Current Treatment Options for Auricular Hematomas.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catriona

    2016-07-01

    Ear disease, such as otitis externa, resulting in aggressive head shaking or ear scratching, is the most common cause of the development of aural hematomas in dogs and cats. An underlying immunologic cause has also been proposed to explain cartilage and blood vessel fragility. Numerous options exist for management of aural hematomas, from medical management alone with corticosteroids, to simple hematoma centesis, to surgical intervention. Because this condition is usually secondary to another disease process, regardless of mode of treatment, likelihood of recurrence is low if the underlying condition is managed properly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anterior rectus sheath blocks in children with abdominal wall pain due to anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome: a prospective case series of 85 children.

    PubMed

    Siawash, Murid; Mol, Frederique; Tjon-A-Ten, Walther; Perquin, Christel; van Eerten, Percy; van Heurn, Ernst; Roumen, Rudi; Scheltinga, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Chronic abdominal pain in children may be caused by the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Local nerve blocks are recommended as an initial treatment in adults. Evidence on effectiveness and safety of such a treatment in children is lacking. Our aim was to study outcome and adverse events of anterior rectus sheath blocks in childhood anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Patients <18 years of age receiving anterior rectus sheath blocks were prospectively followed. Injections were administered using a free-hand technique in the outpatient department. A total of 85 children were included (median age 15 years, range 8-17, 76% female). Eighty-three children reported immediate pain relief following a single lidocaine block and 13 achieved long-term success. Another 19 children was successfully treated with additional blocks combined with steroids. A total 38% success ratio was attained after a median 17-month follow-up (range, 4-39). Pain intensity and diagnostic delay were not associated with a beneficial outcome. However, young age predicted success. An infrequently occurring adverse event was temporarily increased pain some 6 h post injection. Anterior rectus sheath blocks using local anesthetics and steroids are safe and long-term successful in more than one-third of children suffering from abdominal pain due to anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spinal subdural hematoma following cranial subdural hematoma : a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Daeyeong; Shin, Dong Ah

    2013-12-01

    Coexistence of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas is rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas after previous head trauma. As the pathogenesis of simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma yet remains unclear, we developed an alternative theory to those proposed in the literature for their coexistence, the migration of blood through the subdural space.

  19. Spinal Subdural Hematoma Following Cranial Subdural Hematoma : A Case Report with a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Daeyeong

    2013-01-01

    Coexistence of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas is rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of cranial and spinal subdural hematomas after previous head trauma. As the pathogenesis of simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma yet remains unclear, we developed an alternative theory to those proposed in the literature for their coexistence, the migration of blood through the subdural space. PMID:24527196

  20. Measurement of inflammatory cytokines and thrombomodulin in chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Kitazono, Masatoshi; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hidetaka; Onda, Hidetaka; Matsumoto, Gaku; Fuse, Akira; Teramoto, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and the coagulation system may influence the genesis of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). The appearance of CSDH on computed tomography (CT) varies with the stage of the hematoma. This study investigated the pathogenesis and the recurrence of CSDH by comparing cytokine levels with the CT features of CSDH in 26 patients with 34 CSDHs who underwent single burr-hole surgery at our hospital between October 2004 and November 2006. The hematoma components removed during the procedure were examined, and the hematoma serum levels of cytokines measured such as thrombomodulin (TM), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Using CT, mixed density hematomas were distinguished from other homogeneous hematomas, and found that the TM level was significantly higher in mixed density hematomas than in homogeneous hematomas (p = 0.043). Mixed density hematomas were classified into three subtypes (laminar, separated, and trabecular hematomas). The TM level was significantly higher in laminar and separated hematomas than in other hematomas (p = 0.01). The levels of IL-6, TNFα, and IL-10 were extremely high, but showed no significant differences in relation to the CT features. Mixed density hematomas had high recurrence rate, as reported previously, and TM level was high in mixed density hematomas such as laminar and separated mixed density hematomas. The present findings suggest that the types of CSDH associated with high TM levels tend to have higher recurrence rate.

  1. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hematoma Simulating Ruptured Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, JYY; Chan, YC; Qing, KX; Cheng, SW

    2014-01-01

    We reported a case of spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma (SRH) simulating a ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm. A 72-year-old man with a history of infrarenal aortic aneurysm and end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis presented with malaise and nonspecific central abdominal pain and left loin discomfort. An emergency computed tomography scan showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma and clinical suspicion of ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm. However, the hematoma was discontinuous with the aneurysm sac and raised the clinical suspicion on dual pathology. The SRH was treated conservatively with transfusion of blood products, and the aneurysm was treated with nonemergency endovascular repair electively. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing different clinical and radiological characteristics and be aware of dual pathology. PMID:28031651

  2. Rapid Spontaneously Resolving Acute Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Qi; Zhao, Hexiang; Zhang, Hanmei; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study reports a rare patient of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma. In addition, an analysis of potential clues for the phenomenon is presented with a review of the literature. Patient Presentation: A 1-year-and-2-month-old boy fell from a height of approximately 2 m. The patient was in a superficial coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 when he was transferred to the authors’ hospital. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an acute subdural hematoma with a midline shift beyond 1 cm. His guardians refused invasive interventions and chose conservative treatment. Repeat imaging after 15 hours showed the evident resolution of the hematoma and midline reversion. Progressive magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the complete resolution of the hematoma, without redistribution to a remote site. Conclusions: Even though this phenomenon has a low incidence, the probability of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma should be considered when patients present with the following characteristics: children or elderly individuals suffering from mild to moderate head trauma; stable or rapidly recovered consciousness; and simple acute subdural hematoma with a moderate thickness and a particularly low-density band in computed tomography scans. PMID:28468224

  3. Surgical treatment of traumatic multiple intracranial hematomas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaohua; Li, Qiang; Wu, Cong; Zan, Xin; You, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize our experience with the surgical treatment of traumatic multiple intracranial hematomas (TMIHs) and discuss the surgical indications. Methods: We analyzed the clinical data of 118 patients with TMIHs who were treated at the West China Hospital in Sichuan University, Chengdu, China between October 2008 and October 2011, including age, gender, cause of injury, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Results: Among the 118 patients, there were 12 patients with different types of hematomas at the same site, 69 with one hematoma type in different compartments, and 37 with different types of hematomas in different compartments. In total, 106 patients had obliteration of basal cisterns, and 34 had a simultaneous midline shift ≥5 mm. Eighty-nine patients underwent single-site surgery, 19 had 2-site surgeries, and 10 patients did not undergo surgery. Based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months post-injury, 41 patients had favorable outcomes, and 77 had unfavorable outcomes. Basal cisterns obliteration was a strong indicator for surgical treatment. Single- or 2-site surgery was not related to outcome (p=0.234). Conclusion: Obliteration of the basal cisterns is a strong indication for surgical treatment of TMIHs. After evacuation of the major hematomas, the remaining hematomas can be treated conservatively. Most patients only require single-site surgical treatment. PMID:25274591

  4. Predictors of rapid spontaneous resolution of acute subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kenji; Otsuka, Tadahiro; Yoshizato, Kimio; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) usually requires emergency surgical decompression, but rare cases exhibit rapid spontaneous resolution. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify factors predictive of spontaneous ASDH resolution. A total of 366 consecutive patients with ASDH treated between January 2006 and September 2012 were identified in our hospital database. Patients with ASDH clot thickness >10mm in the frontoparietotemporal region and showing a midline shift >10mm on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan were divided into two groups according to subsequent spontaneous resolution. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors predictive of rapid spontaneous ASDH resolution. Fifty-six ASDH patients met study criteria and 18 demonstrated rapid spontaneous resolution (32%). Majority of these patients were not operated because of poor prognosis/condition and in accordance to family wishes. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in use of antiplatelet agents before head injury and in the incidence of a low-density band between the hematoma and inner wall of the skull bone on the initial CT. Use of antiplatelet agents before head injury (OR 19.6, 95% CI 1.5-260.1, p=0.02) and the low-density band on CT images (OR 40.3, 95% CI 3.1-520.2, p=0.005) were identified as independent predictive factors by multivariate analysis. Our analysis suggested that use of antiplatelet agents before head injury and a low-density band between the hematoma and inner skull bone on CT images (indicative of cerebrospinal fluid infusion into the subdural space) increase the probability of rapid spontaneous resolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Unclear Abdominal Pain - Not Always a Gastroenterological Emergency].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Anna Teresa; Pech, Maciej; Fischbach, Frank; Ricke, Jens; Luani, Blerim; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger Christian; Herold, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    History and admission findings  An 84-year old patient with persistent atrial fibrillation and chronic renal failure received a subcutaneous injection with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during a hospital stay. Over the course of her hospitalization, the patient developed abdominal pain. There was a marked hematoma at the injection site. A large tumor was palpable in the right abdominal quadrant. Examinations  Due to the significant reduction in hemoglobin, we performed a CT-angiogram of the abdomen. Diagnosis  We were able to visualize an intramuscular hematoma within the rectus abdominis muscle. Therapy and clinical course  After visualization with digital subtraction angiography and application of microcoils and histoacryl-glue, we were able to stop bleeding. After implantation of left atrial appendage occluder, oral anticoagulation therapy could be stopped. Conclusion  LMWH-treated patients with nonspecific abdominal pain should be meticulously examined to exclude iatrogenic abdominal muscle hematoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Epidural Hematoma Complication after Rapid Chronic Subdural Hematoma Evacuation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Aykut; Ucler, Necati; Erdogan, Uzay; Yucetas, Cem Seyho

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Healty Symptoms: Headache Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Chronic subdural hematoma Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Chronic subdural hematoma generally occurs in the elderly. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation surgery, the development of epidural hematoma is a very rare entity. Case Report: We report the case of a 41-year-old man with an epidural hematoma complication after chronic subdural hematoma evacuation. Under general anesthesia, the patient underwent a large craniotomy with closed system drainage performed to treat the chronic subdural hematoma. After chronic subdural hematoma evacuation, there was epidural leakage on the following day. Conclusions: Although trauma is the most common risk factor in young CSDH patients, some other predisposing factors may exist. Intracranial hypotension can cause EDH. Craniotomy and drainage surgery can usually resolve the problem. Because of rapid dynamic intracranial changes, epidural leakages can occur. A large craniotomy flap and silicone drainage in the operation area are key safety points for neurosurgeons and hydration is essential. PMID:26147957

  8. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  9. Management of patients with rectus sheath hematoma: Personal experience.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Antonino; Basile, Guido; Costanzo, Mario; Veroux, Massimiliano; Terranova, Lorenza; Basile, Antonio; Okatyeva, Valeriya; Cannizzaro, Maria Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a rare clinical entity. It can be mistaken for other intra-abdominal disorders, which can result in diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and management of patients affected with RSH. Between January 2008 and June 2011, eight patients (5 men and 3 women with a mean age of 53 years) with RSH were evaluated according to demographic characteristics, clinical and radiological findings, and methods of treatment. Six patients developed RSH after anticoagulant therapy; one after local trauma, and one after laparoscopic intervention. Six patients were treated nonsurgically; one patient underwent embolization of the inferior epigastric artery and one underwent ligation of the bleeding vessel. The average hospital stay was 6 days. There were no mortality or thromboembolic complications. RSH is a rare nonneoplastic entity that is usually associated with abdominal trauma and/or anticoagulant therapy. The gold standard for diagnosis is computed tomography, and ultrasonography can be used in follow-up. The treatment of choice is nonsurgical therapy because RSH is a self-limited condition. Surgical intervention should be reserved for cases with hemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  11. Successful Treatment of Abdominal Cutaneous Entrapment Syndrome Using Ultrasound Guided Injection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong Joo; Seo, Dong Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    There are various origins for chronic abdominal pain. About 10-30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain have abdominal wall pain. Unfortunately, abdominal wall pain is not thought to be the first origin of chronic abdominal pain; therefore, patients usually undergo extensive examinations, including diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. Entrapment of abdominal cutaneous nerves at the muscular foramen of the rectus abdominis is a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. If abdominal wall pain is considered in earlier stage of chronic abdominal pain, unnecessary invasive procedures are not required and patients will reach symptom free condition as soon as the diagnosis is made. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of a patient with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome by ultrasound guided injection therapy. PMID:23862004

  12. Needle biopsy through the abdominal wall for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumour - Does it increase the risk for tumour cell seeding and recurrence?

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Mikael; Reichardt, Peter; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Schütte, Jochen; Cameron, Silke; Hohenberger, Peter; Bauer, Sebastian; Leinonen, Mika; Reichardt, Annette; Rejmyr Davis, Maria; Alvegård, Thor; Joensuu, Heikki

    2016-05-01

    Preoperative percutaneous transabdominal wall biopsy may be considered to diagnose gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and plan preoperative treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors when an endoscopic biopsy is not possible. Hypothetically, a transabdominal wall biopsy might lead to cell seeding and conversion of a local GIST to a disseminated one. We investigated the influence of preoperative needle biopsy on survival outcomes. We collected the clinical data from hospital case records of the 397 patients who participated in the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) XVIII/Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO) randomised trial and who had a transabdominal fine needle and/or core needle biopsy carried out prior to study entry. The SSG XVIII/AIO trial compared 1 and 3 years of adjuvant imatinib in a patient population with a high risk of GIST recurrence after macroscopically radical surgery. The primary end-point was recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the secondary end-points included overall survival (OS). A total of 47 (12.0%) out of the 393 patients with data available underwent a percutaneous biopsy. No significant difference in RFS or OS was found between the patients who underwent or did not undergo a percutaneous biopsy either in the entire series or in subpopulation analyses, except for a statistically significant RFS advantage for patients who had a percutaneous biopsy and a tumour ≥10 cm in diameter. A preoperative diagnostic percutaneous biopsy of a suspected GIST may not increase the risk for GIST recurrence in a patient population who receive adjuvant imatinib after the biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal elephantiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.

  14. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  15. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. A blackhole over brain: Interdural hematoma - A challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Babayev, Rasim; Ekşi, Murat Şakir

    2015-01-01

    Hematoma in between two dura leaves, named as 'interdural hematoma', is a very rare entity in adulthood. Interdural hematoma may emerge spontaneously or secondary to coagulopathies. A 61-year-old male patient, who had a medical history of alcoholic cirrhosis, presented with interdural hematoma. The case has been discussed with a literature review about diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in this pathology. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Posttraumatic subperiosteal hematomas of the orbit in children.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Bülent; Gönen, Tansu

    2011-01-01

    To describe 5 pediatric patients with traumatic orbital subperiosteal hematoma and review the relevant literature. Retrospective chart analysis of 5 children with posttraumatic subperiosteal hematoma and a systematic review of the English language literature. Five new pediatric cases of orbital subperiosteal hematoma are presented with varying clinical and radiologic manifestations and treatments. Literature review (including the current 5 cases) yielded 23 cases in total. Eighteen (78%) of the patients were boys, and 5 (22%) were girls. The children ranged in age from 5 to 17 years, with the mean and median ages being 12 years. The leading cause was blunt trauma related to falls or direct impact. Two patients (9%) had an inherited coagulopathy, predisposing them to orbital hemorrhage. The hematomas developed in the superior orbit in all cases except one. In 3 patients (13%), orbital hematomas were bilateral. In 9 patients (39%), the hematomas extended in subgaleal or frontal subdural spaces. In 7 patients (30%), subperiosteal hematoma was associated with compressive optic neuropathy. Four patients (17%) had a nondisplaced orbital roof fracture. Seventeen patients were treated with surgical evacuation of hematoma (52%) or with needle aspiration (22%), and 5 patients (22%) were observed for spontaneous resolution. Three patients (13%) experienced a recurrence of hemorrhage. In children, traumatic subperiosteal hematomas of the orbit typically occur after blunt trauma in the superior orbit. The risk of compressive optic neuropathy may be higher in patients with bilateral hematoma and massive subgaleal hematoma. Most patients are treated with evacuation of the hematoma.

  18. [Pulsative hematoma--a penile fracture complication].

    PubMed

    Dorde, Nale; Mićić, Sava

    2007-01-01

    Fracture of the penis is a direct blunt trauma of the erect or semi-erect penis. It can be treated by conservative or surgical means. Retrospective analyses of conservative penile fracture treatment reveal frequent immediate and later complications. We presented a 41-year-old patient with pulsative hematoma caused by an unusual fracture of the penis. Fracture had appeared 40 days before the admittance during a sexual intercourse. The patient was treated surgically. Pulsative hematoma (pulsative diverticulum) is a very rare, early complication of a conservatively treated penile fracture. Surgical treatment has an advantage over surgical one, which was confirmed by our case report.

  19. Subcorneal hematomas in excessive video game play.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Maria; Rizzo, Jason; Lennox, Luke; Rothman, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcorneal hematomas caused by excessive video game play in a 19-year-old man. The hematomas occurred in a setting of thrombocytopenia secondary to induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. It was concluded that thrombocytopenia subsequent to prior friction from heavy use of a video game controller allowed for traumatic subcorneal hemorrhage of the hands. Using our case as a springboard, we summarize other reports with video game associated pathologies in the medical literature. Overall, cognizance of the popularity of video games and related pathologies can be an asset for dermatologists who evaluate pediatric patients.

  20. The long-term behavior of lightweight and heavyweight meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects is determined by the host tissue repair process provoked by the mesh.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Gemma; Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Rodríguez, Marta; Sotomayor, Sandra; Peña, Estefania; Calvo, Begoña; Bellón, Juan M

    2012-11-01

    Although heavyweight (HW) or lightweight (LW) polypropylene (PP) meshes are widely used for hernia repair, other alternatives have recently appeared. They have the same large-pore structure yet are composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This study compares the long-term (3 and 6 months) behavior of meshes of different pore size (HW compared with LW) and composition (PP compared with PTFE). Partial defects were created in the lateral wall of the abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits and then repaired by the use of a HW or LW PP mesh or a new monofilament, large-pore PTFE mesh (Infinit). At 90 and 180 days after implantation, tissue incorporation, gene and protein expression of neocollagens (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (immunohistochemistry), and biomechanical strength were determined. Shrinkage was measured at 90 days. All three meshes induced good host tissue ingrowth, yet the macrophage response was significantly greater in the PTFE implants (P < .05). Collagen 1/3 mRNA levels failed to vary at 90 days yet in the longer term, the LW meshes showed the reduced genetic expression of both collagens (P < .05) accompanied by increased neocollagen deposition, indicating more efficient mRNA translation. After 90-180 days of implant, tensile strengths and elastic modulus values were similar for all 3 implants (P > .05). Host collagen deposition is mesh pore size dependent whereas the macrophage response induced is composition dependent with a greater response shown by PTFE. In the long term, macroporous meshes show comparable biomechanical behavior regardless of their pore size or composition. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Sub capsular splenic hematoma in a sickle cell trait carrier. Case report].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Diego; Conte, Guillermo; Ugalde, Héctor; Figueroa, Gastón; Cuneo, Marianela; Muñoz, Macarena; Mayor, Javiera

    2011-09-01

    Drepanocytic anemia is an uncommon hereditary disease in Chile. The heterozygous state of drepanocytic anemia or "sickle trait" has a frequency of 8% among Afro-Americans. A small number of patients carrying hemoglobin S are homozygous, with clinical manifestations of hemolytic anemia and thrombotic disease. Sickle trait is usually asymptomatic. We report a 59-year-old male who presented an acute abdominal pain and dyspnea while staying at high altitude. Six days later, an angio CAT scan showed the presence of a subcapsular splenic hematoma that was managed conservatively. Sickle cell induction with sodium metabisulphite was positive. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the sickle trait.

  2. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

    2014-07-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table).

  3. [Rare case of upper respiratory tract obstruction secondary to massive hematoma of pharynx, larynx and trachea].

    PubMed

    Kozakiewicz, Jacek; Gierlotka, Agata; Dec, Maciej; Stockfish, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The rare case of 75-years-old female patient was presented in this paper. She reported hoarseness in addition to pharyngeal pain, dysphagia and medium level dyspnea. Her exploration revealed a wide hematoma of the left lateral wall of orohypopharynx spreading to the left aryepiglottic fold, left aryepiglottic cartilage, false and true vocal fold and later to left lateral and posterior tracheal wall. The patient did not require a control of airway by intubation or tracheotomy according to quick relief after pharmacological treatment.

  4. [A commonly seen cause of abdominal pain: abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Talay, Mustafa; Tekindur, Şükrü; Kurt, Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Although abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is accepted as a rare condition, it is a syndrome that should be diagnosed more commonly when the clinical signs cannot explain the cause of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is commonly considered by physicians to be based on intra-abdominal causes. Consequently, redundant tests and consultations are requested for these patients, and unnecessary surgical procedures may be applied. Patients with this type of pain are consulted to many clinics, and because their definitive diagnoses cannot be achieved, they are assessed as psychiatric patients. Actually, a common cause of abdominal wall pain is nerve entrapment on the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. In this paper, we would like to share information about the diagnosis and treatment of a patient who, prior to presenting to us, had applied to different clinics for chronic abdominal pain and had undergone many tests and consultations; abdominal surgery was eventually decided.

  5. Treatment of auricular hematoma by OK-432.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Toshinori; Ohta, Nobuo; Fukase, Shigeru; Kon, Yoshihisa; Aoyagi, Masaru

    2010-06-01

    Intralesional injection therapy with OK-432 was developed as a therapy for operatively difficult lymphangioma (cystic hygroma) and is currently becoming a first-choice treatment for this disease. The aim of this article was to evaluate the outcome and complications of the treatment of patients with auricular hematoma by OK-432 therapy. Case series with planned data collection. Yamagata University School of Medicine. We tried this therapy in 21 patients with auricular hematoma between January 2001 and February 2009. We injected OK-432 solution into the lesion with a 27-gauge needle to prevent the leak of the agent out of the hematoma. We performed this treatment on an outpatient basis without hospitalization. Disappearance or marked reduction of the lesion were observed in all patients who had this therapy, and local scarring and deformity of the auricle did not occur in any patients. As for side effects, local pain at the injection site and fever (37 degrees C-38 degrees C) were observed in a few of the patients who had this therapy, but such problems resolved within a few days. These results may allow us to speculate that intralesional injection therapy with OK-432 is simple, easy, safe, and effective and can be used as a substitute for surgery in the treatment of auricular hematoma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  7. Rectus sheath hematoma caused by non-contact strenuous exercise mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Tae Han; Cha, Sung Jae; Kim, Seung Ho

    2010-09-01

    A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to discern the causes of acute abdomen, including acute appendicitis. CT revealed a small-size rectus sheath hematoma beneath the lower end of the right rectus muscle. The patient was admitted for supportive care including pain control and was discharged with improvement after 5 days. Rectus sheath hematoma can be caused by not only a direct blow but also non-contact strenuous exercise, for example, wakeboarding in this case. Although the majority of rectus sheath hematomas are self-limiting, some can cause peritoneal irritation signs, mimicking acute abdomen, and eventually lead to unnecessary laparotomy without clinical suspicion and ancillary tests including CT scan and ultrasonography. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  9. [Three cases of acute interhemispheric subdural hematoma].

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Kurihara, E; Matsuoka, H; Kose, S; Tamaki, N; Matsumoto, S

    1988-01-01

    Traumatic acute subdural hematomas over the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres are often encountered, but acute interhemispheric subdural hematomas are rare. Fourty-eight cases of acute subdural hematomas was admitted to our hospital between 1977 and 1986, and three cases of them (6%) were located in the interhemispheric subdural space. In this paper, these three cases are reported with 20 documented cases. Case 1: an 81-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of headache, nausea and vomiting. She hit her occiput a week ago. CT scan demonstrated contusion in the right frontal lobe and a high density in the interhemispheric space of the right frontal region. Her complaints disappeared gradually by conservative therapy and she returned to her social life. Case 2: a 50-year-old male fell downstairs and hit his vertex. As he lost consciousness, he was admitted to our hospital. He was stuporous and had left-hemiparesis. Skull X-ray film showed fracture line extending from the right temporal bone to the left parietal bone across the midline. CT scan revealed intracerebral hematoma in both frontal lobe and right parietal lobe and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure of the right side. And interhemispheric subdural hematoma in the right parietal region was visualized. Angiography demonstrated a lateral displacement of the right callosomarginal artery and an avascular area between the falx and the callosomarginal artery. After admission his consciousness recovered and convulsion was controlled by drug. Left-hemiparesis was improved by conservative therapy and he was discharged on foot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Experimental models of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    D'Abbondanza, Josephine A; Loch Macdonald, R

    2014-02-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical problem. Most studies of pathogenesis and treatment involve humans. Advances in understanding of human diseases may be made using animal models. We reviewed all animal models of CSDH and report here their results, conclusions and limitations in order to set a baseline upon which further advanced experimental work related to this disease can be made. PubMed, Medline, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched with no time limits using the keyword 'chronic subdural hematoma' and MeSH term 'hematoma, subdural, chronic'. The authors reviewed all papers written related to this disease and selected all publications involving animals. There were no other restrictions. The findings and conclusions of the papers are summarized here. No formal analysis was done because of the variation in species used, methods for induction of CSDH, times of assessment and reporting of results. Attempts to create CSDH have been made in mice, rats, cats, dogs and monkeys. Methods include injection or surgical implantation of clotted blood or various other blood products and mixtures into the potential subdural space or the subcutaneous space. No intracranial model produced a progressively expanding CSDH. Transient hematoma expansion with liquification could be produced by subcutaneous injections in some models. Spontaneous subdural blood collections were found after creation of hydrocephalus in mice by systemic injection of the neurotoxin, 6-aminonicotinamide. The histology of the hematoma membranes in several models resembles the appearance in humans. None of the models has been replicated since its first description. We did not find a report of a reproducible, well-described animal model of human CSDH.

  11. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  12. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists.

    PubMed

    Postema, F A M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C B L M; van Rijn, R R

    2014-08-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as dating subdural hematomas can lead to identification of a suspect. The aim of our study is to describe the current practice among radiologists in the Netherlands regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas in children. This is a cross-sectional study, describing the results of an online questionnaire regarding dating subdural hematomas among pediatric and neuro-radiologists in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic questions, theoretical questions and eight pediatric cases in which the participants were asked to date subdural hematomas based on imaging findings. Fifty-one out of 172 radiologists (30 %) filled out the questionnaire. The percentage of participants that reported it was possible to date the subdural hematoma varied between 58 and 90 % for the eight different cases. In four of eight cases (50 %), the age of the subdural hematoma as known from clinical history fell within the range reported by the participants. None of the participants was "very certain" of their age determination. The results demonstrate that there is a considerable practice variation among Dutch radiologists regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas. This implicates that dating of subdural hematomas is not suitable to use in court, as no uniformity among experts exists.

  13. Groin hematoma after electrophysiological procedures-incidence and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Anja Borgen; Jakobsen, Christina Spåbæk; Riahi, Sam; Hjortshøj, Søren

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the incidence and predisposing factors of groin hematomas after electrophysiological (EP) procedures. Prospective, observational study, enrolling consecutive patients after EP procedures (Atrial fibrillation: n = 151; Supraventricular tachycardia/Diagnostic EP: n = 82; Ventricular tachycardia: n = 18). Patients underwent manual compression for 10 min and 3 h post procedural bed rest. AF ablations were performed with INR 2-3, ACT > 300, and no protamine sulfate. Adhesive pressure dressings (APDs) were used if sheath size ≥ 10F; procedural time > 120 min; and BMI > 30. Patient-reported hematomas were recorded by a telephone follow-up after 2 weeks. Hematoma developed immediately in 26 patients (10%) and after 14 days significant hematoma was reported in 68 patients (27%). Regression analysis on sex, age, BMI 25, ACT 300, use of APD, sheath size and number, and complicated venous access was not associated with hematoma, either immediately after the procedure or after 14 days. Any hematoma presenting immediately after procedures was associated with patient-reported hematomas after 14 days, odds ratio 18.7 (CI 95%: 5.00-69.8; P < 0.001). Any hematoma immediately after EP procedures was the sole predictor of patient-reported hematoma after 2 weeks. Initiatives to prevent groin hematoma should focus on the procedure itself as well as post-procedural care.

  14. Factors Associated With Neck Hematoma After Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sayaka; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Saito, Yuki; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To identify risk factors for post-thyroidectomy hematoma requiring airway intervention or surgery (“wound hematoma”) and determine post-thyroidectomy time to intervention. Post-thyroidectomy hematoma is rare but potentially lethal. Information on wound hematoma in a nationwide clinical setting is scarce. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we extracted data from records of patients undergoing thyroidectomy from July 2010 to March 2014. Patients with clinical stage IV cancer or those with bilateral neck dissection were excluded because they could have undergone planned tracheotomy on the day of thyroidectomy. We assessed the association between background characteristics and wound hematoma ≤2 days post-thyroidectomy, using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among 51,968 patients from 880 hospitals, wound hematoma occurred in 920 (1.8%) ≤2 days post-thyroidectomy and in 203 (0.4%) ≥3 days post-thyroidectomy (in-hospital mortality = 0.05%). Factors significantly associated with wound hematoma ≤2 days post-thyroidectomy were male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–1.77); higher age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02); overweight or obese (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04–1.44); type of surgery (partial thyroidectomy for benign tumor compared with: total thyroidectomy, benign tumor [OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.45–2.63]; partial thyroidectomy, malignant tumor [OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00–1.46]; total thyroidectomy, malignant tumor [OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.82–3.49]; and thyroidectomy for Graves disease [OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.59–5.82]); neck dissection (OR, 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23); antithrombotic agents (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.15–2.17); and blood transfusion (OR 5.33, 95% CI 2.39–11.91). Closer monitoring of airway and neck is recommended for patients with risk factors, and further cautious monitoring beyond 3 days post-thyroidectomy. PMID:26886632

  15. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  16. Intracranial subdural hematomas with elevated rivaroxaban concentration and subsequently detected spinal subdural hematoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Koga, Masatoshi; Matsuki, Takayuki; Hino, Tenyu; Yokota, Chiaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2016-07-01

    A 79-year-old lean man with a height of 157cm and weight of 42kg (body mass index, 17.2kg/m(2)) receiving rivaroxaban developed an intracranial subdural hematoma and was treated conservatively. Because he had a reduced creatinine clearance of 44mL/min, his dosage of rivaroxaban was reduced from 15 to 10mg daily according to official Japanese prescribing information. However, he developed bilateral intracranial subdural hematomas 2weeks later. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration on anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay was elevated at 301ng/mL, suggesting excessive accumulation. He underwent burr hole drainage and resumed anticoagulation with warfarin. Subsequently, he developed a lumbosacral hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged without neurological sequelae. The main cause of the increased concentration of rivaroxaban was believed to be his older age and low body weight. The etiology of the spinal hematoma was suspected to be the migration of intracranial hematoma to the spinal subdural space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane; Moisi, Marc

    2017-02-16

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation.

  18. Risk Factors for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Recurrence Identified Using Quantitative Computed Tomography Analysis of Hematoma Volume and Density.

    PubMed

    Stavrinou, Pantelis; Katsigiannis, Sotirios; Lee, Jong Hun; Hamisch, Christina; Krischek, Boris; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Timmer, Marco; Goldbrunner, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), a common condition in elderly patients, presents a therapeutic challenge with recurrence rates of 33%. We aimed to identify specific prognostic factors for recurrence using quantitative analysis of hematoma volume and density. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic and clinical data of 227 CSDHs in 195 consecutive patients who underwent evacuation of the hematoma through a single burr hole, 2 burr holes, or a mini-craniotomy. To examine the relationship between hematoma recurrence and various clinical, radiologic, and surgical factors, we used quantitative image-based analysis to measure the hematoma and trapped air volumes and the hematoma densities. Recurrence of CSDH occurred in 35 patients (17.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the percentage of hematoma drained and postoperative CSDH density were independent risk factors for recurrence. All 3 evacuation methods were equally effective in draining the hematoma (71.7% vs. 73.7% vs. 71.9%) without observable differences in postoperative air volume captured in the subdural space. Quantitative image analysis provided evidence that percentage of hematoma drained and postoperative CSDH density are independent prognostic factors for subdural hematoma recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation. PMID:28357164

  20. Subdural Hematoma Mimickers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Catana, Dragos; Koziarz, Alex; Cenic, Aleksa; Nath, Siddharth; Singh, Sheila; Almenawer, Saleh A; Kachur, Edward

    2016-09-01

    A variety of subdural pathologies that may mimic hematomas are reported in the literature. We aimed to identify the atypical clinical and radiologic presentations of subdural masses that may mimic subdural hematomas. A systematic review of MEDLINE and Embase was conducted independently by 2 reviewers to identify articles describing subdural hematoma mimickers. We also present a patient from our institution with a subdural pathology mimicking a subdural hematoma. We analyzed patient clinical presentations, underlying pathologies, radiologic findings, and clinical outcomes. We included 43 articles totaling 48 patients. The mean ± SD patient age was 55.7 ± 16.8 years. Of the 45 cases describing patient history, 13 patients (27%) had a history of trauma. The underlying pathologies of the 48 subdural collections were 10 metastasis (21%), 14 lymphoma (29%), 7 sarcoma (15%), 4 infectious (8%), 4 autoimmune (8%), and 9 miscellaneous (19%). Findings on computed tomography (CT) scan were 18 hyperdense (41%), 11 hypodense (25%), 9 isodense (20%), 3 isodense/hyperdense (7%), and 3 hypodense/isodense (7%). Thirty-four patients (71%) were treated surgically; among these patients, 65% had symptom resolution. Neither the pathology (P = 0.337) nor the management strategy (P = 0.671) was correlated with improved functional outcomes. Identification of atypical history and radiologic features should prompt further diagnostic tests, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to elucidate the proper diagnosis, given that certain pathologies may be managed nonsurgically. A subdural collection that is hyperdense on CT scan and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI, along with a history of progressive headache with no trauma, may raise the suspicion of an atypical subdural pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous thigh hematoma associated with diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous nongastrointestinal bleeding in patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is an extremely rare occurrence. Herein, the case of a 60-year-old woman with severe bilateral hip osteoarthritis treated with diclofenac sodium, who presented with manifestations of a spontaneous hematoma of the right thigh, is described. There was no history of trauma or family history of bleeding disorder. Thorough investigation excluded a hemorrhagic disorder. The patient was treated conservatively with success and was advised to discontinue diclofenac.

  2. Malignant Subdural Hematoma Associated with High-Grade Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Shinichiro; Tsunoda, Akira; Kawamura, Kaito; Sugiyama, Natsuki; Saito, Rikizo; Maruki, Chikashi

    2018-01-01

    A 70-year-old man, who had previously undergone surgical resection of left parasagittal meningioma involving the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) two times, presented with recurrence of the tumor. We performed removal of the tumor combined with SSS resection as Simpson grade II. After tumor removal, since a left dominant bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) appeared, it was treated by burr hole surgery. However, because the CSDH rapidly and repeatedly recurred and eventually changed to acute subdural hematoma, elimination of the hematoma with craniotomy was accomplished. The patient unfortunately died of worsening of general condition despite aggressive treatment. Histopathology of brain autopsy showed invasion of anaplastic meningioma cells spreading to the whole outer membrane of the subdural hematoma. Subdural hematoma is less commonly associated with meningioma. Our case indicates the possibility that subdural hematoma associated with meningioma is formed by a different mechanism from those reported previously. PMID:29896565

  3. Effects of atorvastatin on chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Sheng; Zhuo, Wang; Sun, Chunming; Su, Zhongzhou; Yan, Ai; Shen, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The high recurrent rate of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has consistently confused the neurosurgeons, and the role of atorvastatin in the management of CSDH has remained unclear over past decade, and atorvastatin seems to be a safe and cost-effective treatment to CSDH. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a systematic review to discuss the effect of atorvastatin in CSDH. Method: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and the China Biology Medicine disc, up to March 2017, for published studies on the effects of atorvastatin in the management of CSDH, and reviewers performed a brief qualitative descriptive analysis of atorvastatin's efficacy in the management of CSDH. Results: Three eligible studies were included in this systematic review. Results indicated that atorvastatin accelerated hematoma absorption, decreased recurrence risk, and surgical requirement. Conclusion: Limited evidence suggests that oral atorvastatin may be beneficial in the management of CSDH. Further high-quality studies focused on dosage, duration, hematoma size are needed to further elucidate the role of atorvastatin in the management of CSDH. PMID:28658127

  4. Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality Better for Intracerebral Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Yang, Fu-Chi; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Kao, Hung-Wen; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC) were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018), 0.715 (P = 0.0008) (by ABC/2) to 0.738 (P = 0.0002) (by CAVA), 0.877 (P<0.0001) (by ABC/2) to 0.882 (P<0.0001) (by CAVA), and 0.912 (P<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. PMID:25029592

  5. Abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia in patients with abdominal bloating and distension.

    PubMed

    Villoria, Albert; Azpiroz, Fernando; Burri, Emanuel; Cisternas, Daniel; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R

    2011-05-01

    The abdomen normally accommodates intra-abdominal volume increments. Patients complaining of abdominal distension exhibit abnormal accommodation of colonic gas loads (defective contraction and excessive protrusion of the anterior wall). However, abdominal imaging demonstrated diaphragmatic descent during spontaneous episodes of bloating in patients with functional gut disorders. We aimed to establish the role of the diaphragm in abdominal distension. In 20 patients complaining of abdominal bloating and 15 healthy subjects, we increased the volume of the abdominal cavity with a colonic gas load, while measuring abdominal girth and electromyographic activity of the anterior abdominal muscles and of the diaphragm. In healthy subjects, the colonic gas load increased girth, relaxed the diaphragm, and increased anterior wall tone. With the same gas load, patients developed significantly more abdominal distension; this was associated with paradoxical contraction of the diaphragm and relaxation of the internal oblique muscle. In this experimental provocation model, abnormal accommodation of the diaphragm is involved in abdominal distension.

  6. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations.

  7. Spontaneous Rapid Resolution of Acute Epidural Hematoma in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gülşen, Ismail; Ak, Hakan; Sösüncü, Enver; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Kiymaz, Nejmi

    2013-01-01

    Acute epidural hematoma is a critical emergency all around the world, and its aggressive diagnosis and treatment are of vital importance. Emergent surgical evacuation of the hematoma is known as standard management; however, conservative procedures are also used for small ones. Spontaneous rapid resolution of these hematomas has also been reported in eight pediatric cases. Various theories have been proposed to explain the underlying pathophysiology of this resolution. Herein, we are reporting a new pediatric case with spontaneously resolving acute epidural hematoma 12 hours after admission to the emergency room. PMID:24489555

  8. Subdural hematomas: an analysis of 1181 Kashmiri patients.

    PubMed

    Nayil, Khursheed; Ramzan, Altaf; Sajad, Arif; Zahoor, Sheikh; Wani, Abrar; Nizami, Furqan; Laharwal, Masood; Kirmani, Altaf; Bhat, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    We endeavored to analyze patients of subacute and chronic subdural hematomas studied in a 4-year period at the Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir, India. The study was a retrospective analysis of 1181 patients of subdural hematomas. Demographic characteristics, clinico-radiologic features, operative modalities, and outcome were studied. Acute subdural hematomas were excluded from the study. The mean age was 60.4 ± 12.4 and males outnumbered females. Chronic subdural collections were more common than subacute subdural hematomas and left side predominated. Two burr holes with closed-system drainage was used in most patients. Incidence of postoperative seizures is very low. Overall recurrence rates were low; however, multilocular hematomas had the highest incidence of recurrence. Morbidity and mortality were 7.53% and 2.96%, respectively. Preoperative neurologic grade correlated with outcome. Subdural hematomas are common in elderly males. Preoperative neurologic grade dictates the outcome. Multilocular hematomas have a higher chance of recurrence. Craniotomy should be reserved for recurrent hematomas, and there may be a scope of craniotomy for multilocular chronic subdural hematomas at the outset. Antiepileptic prophylaxis is not routinely recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Opening the Internal Hematoma Membrane Does Not Alter the Recurrence Rate of Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Unterhofer, Claudia; Freyschlag, Christian F; Thomé, Claudius; Ortler, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Factors determining the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) are not clear. Whether opening the so-called internal hematoma membrane is useful has not been investigated. To investigate whether splitting the inner hematoma membrane influences the recurrence rate in patients undergoing burr-hole craniotomy for CSDH. Fifty-two awake patients undergoing surgery for 57 CSDHs were prospectively randomized to either partial opening of the inner hematoma membrane (group A) or not (group B) after enlarged burr-hole craniotomy and hematoma evacuation. Drainage was left in situ for several days postoperatively. Groups were comparable with regard to demographic, clinical, and imaging variables. Outcome was assessed after 3-6 weeks for the combined outcome variable of reoperation or residual hematoma of one third or more of the original hematoma thickness. Fourteen patients underwent reoperation for clinical deterioration or residual hematoma during follow-up (n = 6 in group A, 21%; n = 8 in group B, 28 %) (P = 0.537). Residual hematoma of ≥ one third not requiring surgery was present in 7 patients in group A (25%) and 10 patients in group B (36%) (P = 0.383). The overall cumulative failure rate (reoperation or hematoma thickness ≥ one third) was 13/28 (46%) in group A and 18/28 in group B (P = 0.178; relative risk, 0.722 [95% confidence interval, 0.445-1.172]; absolute risk reduction -16% [95% confidence interval, -38% to 8%]). Opening the internal hematoma membrane does not alter the rate of patients requiring revision surgery and the number of patients showing a marked residual hematoma 6 weeks after evacuation of a CSDH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of Acute Occlusion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intra-Aneurysmal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Terai, Yasuhiko; Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Nakai, Masanao; Goto, Shinnosuke; Miyano, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Hirokazu; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2015-11-01

    To report a rare case of acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occlusion successfully treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 89-year-old man complained of severe back pain and weakness in the bilateral lower extremities. Although there were neither acute ischemic signs on the brain computed tomography (CT) nor critical leg ischemia, the patient presented progressing weakness in the bilateral lower extremities and decreased sensation in the perianal and saddle area. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated an infrarenal AAA, the formation of an ulcer-like lesion in the aneurysmal wall, and the complete occlusion of distal AAA because of the caudal extension of intramural hematoma. Both common iliac arteries were patent because of the development of collateral vessels. The neurologic symptoms were considered to be caused by the occlusion of lumbar radicular arteries. EVAR seemed anatomically feasible, if the occlusion could be crossed by guidewires from both side of the common femoral artery. Wires easily traversed the occlusion, and the stent graft could be smoothly unwrapped and opened. The patient could recover decent iliac arterial flow. The neurovascular deficits recovered within 4 days after the procedure. Although our experience may not be reproduced in all case of AAA occlusion, EVAR warrants consideration to reduce the high mortality rate associated with the classical treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical implications of acute pelvicaliceal hematoma formation during percutaneous catheter nephrostomy insertion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jessica K; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    To determine the clinical implications of acute pelvicaliceal hematoma formation during percutaneous catheter nephrostomy (PCN) insertion. Collecting system hematoma burden was retrospectively assessed for 694 PCN insertions in 502 patients. Pelvicaliceal hematoma formation occurred in 146 kidneys (21%) in 136 patients. Clinically significant blood loss occurred in 3 patients with hematomas within one week compared to 4 patients without hematomas (p=0.39). Twenty-four patients with hematomas underwent catheter exchange within one week, compared to 55 patients without hematomas (p=0.49). Pelvicaliceal hematoma formation after PCN insertion is not uncommon and is associated with very rare clinical sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block for upper abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Yoshimune; Kashiwagi, Masanori; Nagatsuka, Yukio; Oosaku, Masayoshi; Hirose, Chikako

    2010-08-01

    Upper abdominal surgery leads to severe postoperative pain. Insufficient postoperative analgesia accompanies a high incidence of complications. Therefore, postoperative analgesia is very important. The epidural analgesia has many advantages. However it has a high risk of epidural hematoma in anticoagulated patients. Rectus sheath block provided safer and more reliable analgesia in recent years, by the development of ultrasound tools. We experienced two cases of the rectus sheath block in upper abdominal surgery under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound guided rectus sheath block can reduce the risk of peritoneal puncture, bleeding, and other complications. Rectus sheath block is very effective to reduce postoperative pain in upper abdominal surgery as an alternative method to epidural anesthesia in anticoagulated patients.

  13. Independent predictors for recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kyu-Hyon; Lee, Jong-Myong; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Ha-Young

    2012-09-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma is characterized by blood in the subdural space that evokes an inflammatory reaction. Numerous factors potentially associated with recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma have been reported, but these factors have not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we evaluated the independent risk factors of recurrence. We analyzed data for 420 patients with chronic subdural hematoma treated by the standard surgical procedure for hematoma evacuation at our institution. Ninety-two (21.9 %) patients experienced at least one recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma during the study period. We did not identify any significant differences between chronic subdural hematoma recurrence and current antiplatelet therapy. The recurrence rate was 7 % for the homogeneous type, 21 % for the laminar type, 38 % for the separated type, and 0 % for the trabecular type. The rate of recurrence was significantly lower in the homogeneous and trabecular type than in the laminar and separated type. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis and found that postoperative midline shifting (OR, 3.6; 95 % CI, 1.618-7.885; p = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.196-3.856; p = 0.010), history of seizure (OR, 2.6; 95 % CI, 1.210-5.430; p = 0.014), width of hematoma (OR, 2.1; 95 % CI, 1.287-3.538; p = 0.003), and anticoagulant therapy (OR, 2.7; 95 % CI, 1.424-6.960; p = 0.005) were independent risk factors for the recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. We have shown that postoperative midline shifting (≥5 mm), diabetes mellitus, preoperative seizure, preoperative width of hematoma (≥20 mm), and anticoagulant therapy were independent predictors of the recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. According to internal architecture of hematoma, the rate of recurrence was significantly lower in the homogeneous and the trabecular type than the laminar and separated type.

  14. Pneumomediastinum and Mediastinal Hematoma Secondary to Right Brachiocephalic Vein Thrombectomy Mimicking STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Prem; Nivera, Noel

    2017-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with a history of hemodialysis dependent chronic kidney disease presented to our emergency department with acute midsternal crushing chest pain. Patient was diagnosed with acute anterolateral wall Myocardial Infraction due to the presence of corresponding ST segment elevations in EKG and underwent emergent cardiac catheterization which revealed normal patent coronaries without any disease. He continued to have chest pain for which CT of the chest was done which revealed pneumomediastinum with mediastinal hematoma, due to the recent attempted thrombectomy for thrombus in his right brachiocephalic vein. PMID:28804656

  15. Rapid reduction of acute subdural hematoma and redistribution of hematoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arata; Omata, Tomohiro; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman presented with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) which showed rapid resolution on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. She was transferred to our hospital after falling out of bed. On admission, she was comatose with Japan Coma Scale score of 200 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E1V1M2. Brain CT showed a thick left frontotemporal ASDH. Conservative treatment consisted of 200 ml of glycerol administered intravenously twice a day, and maintenance in the approximately 20 degree head-up position to reduce intracranial pressure. Three days later, her consciousness recovered to Japan Coma Scale score of 30 and Glasgow Coma Scale score of E2V4M5. CT showed obvious reduction of the hematoma without brain or scalp swelling. Spinal MR imaging detected no redistribution of hematoma to the spine. The present case illustrates that rapid spontaneous reduction of ASDH may occur by redistribution of hematoma, mainly to the supratentorial subdural space because of brain atrophy.

  16. Acute subdural hematoma because of boxing.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Hidehiko; Saito, Takeshi; Sakagami, Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Jyoji; Tanjoh, Katsuhisa

    2009-02-01

    To identify factors determining the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) arising from boxing injuries by comparing with ASDH due to any nonboxing cause. Two groups were selected for this study: 10 patients with ASDH because of boxing injuries and 26 patients with nonboxer ASDH. All of the patients underwent neurologic examination by neurosurgeons. Primary resuscitation and stabilization as well as operative therapy were performed to all patients according to the European Brain Injury Consortium Guidelines. Two groups were compared in terms of age, the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, neurologic findings, craniogram and brain computed tomography scan findings, operative findings, and prognosis. As potential prognostic indicators for boxers, the time interval until surgery, the Glasgow Outcome Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and the site of bleeding were analyzed. The characteristics of patients because of boxing injuries are that patients were younger, had lucid interval, and had no cerebral contusion or contralateral brain injury. There was no significant difference in initial Glasgow Coma Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and their prognosis. The most peculiar clinical presentation of boxers' ASDH was that all bleedings were limited from "bridging veins" or "cortical veins." The prognosis of boxers was most closely correlated with the site of bleeding (r2 = 0.81; p = 0.0001) and the midline shift (r2 = 0.67; p = 0.007). Our study shows that ASDH because of boxing is characterized by bleeding from bridging or cortical veins, and that the site of bleeding is a significant determinant of their prognosis.

  17. The risk factors for recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Yu; Nakagawa, Toru; Murakami, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease in the elderly, and the recurrence rate of CSDH is reported to range from 2.3 to 33%. We performed a retrospective review of a number of CSDH cases and the potential factors associated with CSDH recurrence. The patient population comprised 112 men and 65 women with a mean age of 74.7 years. We analyzed the following factors: age, sex, antiplatelet and anticoagulant use, hematoma laterality, hematoma thickness, degree of midline shift and internal architecture of the hematoma in the preoperative CT films, use of irrigation, direction of the drainage tube, width of the subdural space, and degree of midline shift and the presence of a massive subdural air collection in the postoperative CT films. Univariate analysis revealed that there was a trend for different rates of recurrence among the different types of hematomas. The presence of a postoperative massive subdural air collection tended to be associated with the recurrence of hematoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that separated hematomas were significantly associated with CSDH recurrence, whereas the presence of postoperative massive subdural air collection tended to be associated with hematoma recurrence. Neither univariate nor multivariate analysis could demonstrate an association between the direction of the drainage tube and the recurrence of CSDH.

  18. Chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare condition that develops after surgery, trauma, or injury. It can also develop at any location in the body in the absence of trauma. Clinical findings and various diagnostic imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of this condition. In general, hematomas are naturally reabsorbed and rarely cause serious problems. However, hematomas that develop slowly without a history of trauma, surgery, or bleeding disorders could be difficult to differentiate from soft tissue neoplasms. In the present case, we describe a patient, without any history or physical evidence of trauma, who exhibited a large chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space that resulted in hydronephrosis because of the pressure exerted on the left ureter. Case presentation A 69-year-old man presented to our hospital with a swollen lesion in the left flank. A mass, 19 cm in diameter, was detected in the retroperitoneal space by computed tomography. We suspected the presence of a chronic expanding hematoma, soft tissue tumor, or left renal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed. However, postoperative histopathological examination indicated that the mass was a nonmalignant chronic expanding hematoma. No recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion In patients without a history of trauma who present slowly growing masses, the differential diagnosis should include chronic expanding hematoma in addition to cysts and soft tissue tumors. Moreover, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography is essential to differentiate between chronic expanding hematoma and soft tissue tumors. PMID:24237992

  19. Recurrent subdural hematoma secondary to headbanging: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Naoki; Jito, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    "Headbanging" is the slang term used to denote violent shaking of one's head in time with the music. This abrupt flexion-extension movement of the head to rock music extremely rarely causes a subdural hematoma. A 24-year-old female was admitted to our department because of right sided partial seizure and acute or subacute subdural hematoma over the left cerebral convexity. She had no history of recent head trauma but performed headbanging at a punk rock concert at 3 days before admission. Since, she had a previous acute subdural hematoma on the same side after an accidental fall from a baby buggy when she was 11 months old, the present was recurrent subdural hematoma probably due to headbanging. Headbanging has the hazardous potential to cause a subdural hematoma.

  20. Contrast of artificial subcutaneous hematomas in MRI over time.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Eva Maria; Ogris, Kathrin; Petrovic, Andreas; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2015-03-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, hematomas and other externally visible injuries build the basis for the reconstruction of events. However, dating of subcutaneous hematomas based on their external aspect is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its use in dating intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, the aim was to investigate if MRI can also be used for dating subcutaneous hematomas and to analyze an eventual influence of the hematoma shape. In 20 healthy volunteers (11 females, 9 males, aged 26.9 ± 3.8 years), 4 ml of autologous blood were injected subcutaneously in the thigh. The hematoma was scanned immediately after the injection, after 3 and 24 h and 3, 7, and 14 days using three sequences with different contrast. Data was analyzed by measuring signal intensities of the hematoma, the muscle, and the subcutaneous tissue over time, and the Michelson contrast coefficients between the tissues were calculated. In the analysis, hematoma shape was considered. Signal intensity of blood in the proton density-weighted sequence reached its maximum 3 h after the injection with a subsequent decrease, whereas the signal intensities of muscle and fatty tissue remained constant. The time course of the Michelson coefficient of blood versus muscle decreased exponentially with a change from hyperintensity to hypointensity at 116.9 h, depending on hematoma shape. In the other sequences, either variability was large or contrast coefficients stayed constant over time. The observed change of contrast of blood versus muscle permits a quick estimate of a hematoma's age. The consideration of the hematoma shape is expected to further enhance dating using MRI.

  1. Hemobilia, intrahepatic hematoma and acute thrombosis with cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein after percutaneous thermoablation of a liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Francica, G; Marone, G; Solbiati, L; D'Angelo, V; Siani, A

    2000-01-01

    A 53-year-old-man underwent US-guided percutaneous thermal ablation with a cooled-tip needle of three liver metastases from gastric cancer. Six days later, the patient was re-admitted for melena, scleral jaundice, and anemia. Abdominal US disclosed echogenic material in the gallbladder lumen (hemobilia) and a focal lesion with mixed echotexture in segment III (hepatic hematoma). On day 5 portal cavernomatosis was diagnosed at US and confirmed by color Doppler and a helical CT exam. The case described emphasizes that radio-frequency interstitial hyperthermia may cause not only traumatic injury of the liver parenchyma but also thermally mediated damage of vascular structures.

  2. [Infected subdural hematoma having a surgery of chronic subdural hematoma 1 year ago:a case report].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Chikao; Ando, Shunpei; Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of an infected subdural hematoma that occurred 1 year after burr-hole irrigation for chronic subdural hematoma. A 78-year-old woman who had developed left hemiparesis was admitted to our hospital. A computed tomography(CT)scan revealed the presence of a chronic subdural hematoma in the right hemisphere. Her clinical symptoms improved immediately after emergency burr-hole irrigation, which allowed her discharge from the hospital. One year after the initial surgery, she developed an infection of the urinary tract infection, which led to severe pyelonephritis and septic shock. Treatment of the urological symptoms eliminated the systemic inflammation. One month after the urinary infection, the patient was readmitted to the hospital in a comatose state. A CT scan showed regrowth of a residual subdural hematoma surrounded by a thick capsule, causing a midline shift in the brain. An emergency operation for removal of the subdural hematoma by burr-hole irrigation was performed, and pus was drained from the subdural mass. Microbiological cultures of the abscess revealed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. After surgery, the patient was administered an antibiotic treatment for three weeks and she was discharged with no neurological deficits. Cultures of blood from the septic shock as well as from the abscess both revealed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. Therefore, a diagnosis of infected subdural hematoma, which was caused by hematogenous infection, was made. We conclude that attention should be paid to the risk of infection of the hematoma capsule in subdural hematomas.

  3. In vitro comparison of intra-abdominal hypertension development after different temporary abdominal closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Emanuel; Labler, Ludwig; Seifert, Burkhardt; Trentz, Otmar; Menger, Michael D; Meier, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    To compare volume reserve capacity (VRC) and development of intra-abdominal hypertension after different in vitro temporary abdominal closure (TAC) techniques. A model of the abdomen was designed. The abdominal wall was simulated with polychloroprene, a synthetic rubber compound. A lentil-shaped defect of 150 cm(2) was cut into the anterior aspect of the abdominal wall. TAC of this defect was performed by a zipper system (ZS), a bag silo closure (BSC), or a vacuum assisted closure (VAC) with subatmospheric pressures ranging from 0- to 200 mmHg. The model with intact abdominal wall served as reference. The model was filled with water to baseline level. The intra-abdominal pressure was increased in 2 mmHg steps from baseline level (6 mmHg) to 40 mmHg by adding volume to the system according to a standardized protocol. VRC with corresponding intra-abdominal pressure were analyzed and compared for the different TAC techniques. VRC was the highest after BSC at all pressure levels studied (P < 0.05). VAC and ZS resulted in significantly lower VRC compared with BSC and reference (P < 0.05). The magnitude of negative pressure on the VAC did not significantly influence the VRC. In the present in vitro model, BSC demonstrated the highest VRC of all evaluated TAC techniques. Different levels of subatmospheric pressures applied to the VAC did not affect VRC. The results for ZS and VAC indicate that these TAC techniques may increase the risk for recurrent intra-abdominal hypertension and should therefore not be used in high-risk patients during the initial phase after abdominal decompression.

  4. Catheter placement for lysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas: does a catheter position in the core of the hematoma allow more effective and faster hematoma lysis?

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schlegel, Anna; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2017-07-01

    For the fibrinolytic therapy of intracerebral hematomas (ICH) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), a catheter position in the core of the hematoma along the largest clot diameter was assumed to be optimal for an effective clot lysis. However, it never had been proven that core position indeed enhances clot lysis if compared with less optimal catheter positions. In this study, the impact of the catheter position on the effectiveness and on the time course of clot lysis was evaluated. We analyzed the catheter position using a relative error calculating the distance perpendicular to the catheter's center in relation to hematoma's diameter and evaluated the relative hematoma volume reduction (RVR). The correlation of the RVR with the catheter position was evaluated. Additionally, we tried to identify patterns of clot lysis with different catheter positions. The patient's outcome at discharge was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome score. A total of 105 patients were included in the study. The mean hematoma volume was 56 ml. The overall RVR was 62.7 %. In 69 patients, a catheter position in the core of the clot was achieved. We found no significant correlation between catheter position and hematoma RVR (linear regression, p = 0.14). Core catheter position leads to more symmetrical hematoma RVR. Faster clot lysis happens in the vicinity of the catheter openings. We found no significant difference in the patient's outcome dependent on the catheter position (linear regression, p = 0.90). The catheter position in the core of the hematoma along its largest diameter does not significantly influence the effectiveness of clot lysis after rtPA application.

  5. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  6. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector... evaluate suspected brain hematomas. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector... evaluate suspected brain hematomas. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls...

  8. Hematoma and abscess formation caused by Mycoplasma hominis following cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Hisato; Koshiba, Akemi; Daimon, Yasushi; Noguchi, Toshifumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species cannot be identified by routine bacteriological culture methods and are resistant to common antimicrobial agents. Mycoplasma hominis usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and causes pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, rupture of fetal membranes, preterm labor, postpartum fever, postabortal fever, and neonatal infection. This organism is highly prevalent in cervicovaginal cultures of sexually active women. M. hominis, M. genitalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and U. parvum may invade and infect placental and fetal tissues, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. M. hominis occasionally causes nongenitourinary infection of the blood, wounds, central nervous system, joints, or respiratory tract. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who developed abdominal wound hematoma and abscess after cesarean section. The wound was drained, but her high fever persisted, in spite of antibiotic treatment using flomoxef sodium and imipenem·cilastatin sodium. Because the exudate exhibited M. hominis growth in an anaerobic environment, we administered the quinolone ciprofloxacin. This therapy resolved her fever, and her white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level diminished to the normal ranges. To our knowledge, there are four published articles regarding the isolation of M. hominis from postcesarean incisions. Based on the current study and the literature, infection by this pathogen may cause hematoma formation with or without abscess after cesarean section or in immunosuppressed postoperative patients. In such cases, physicians may need to suspect Mycoplasma infection and initiate appropriate antibacterial treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid persistent fever. PMID:21339933

  9. Surgical Management of Aneurysmal Hematomas: Prognostic Factors and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, P; Cozzi, F; Hasanbelliu, A; Locatelli, F; Pasqualin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    From 1991 until 2013, 304 patients with intracranial hematomas from aneurysmal rupture were managed surgically in our department, constituting 17 % of all patients with aneurysmal rupture. Of them, 242 patents presented with isolated intracerebral hematomas (in 69 cases associated with significant intraventricular hemorrhage), 50 patients presented with combined intracerebral and subdural hematomas (in 11 cases associated with significant intraventricular hemorrhage), and 12 presented with an isolated subdural hematoma. The surgical procedure consisted of simultaneous clipping of the aneurysm and evacuation of the hematoma in all cases. After surgery, 16 patients (5 %) submitted to an additional decompressive hemicraniectomy, and 66 patients (21 %) submitted to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge and at 6 months, using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); a favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) was observed in 10 % of the cases at discharge, increasing to 31 % at 6 months; 6-month mortality was 40 %. Applying uni- and multivariate analysis, the following risk factors were associated with a significantly worse outcome: age >60; preoperative Hunt-Hess grades IV-V; pupillary mydriasis (only on univariate); midline shift >10 mm; hematoma volume >30 cc; and the presence of hemocephalus (i.e., packed intraventricular hemorrhage). Based on these results, an aggressive surgical treatment should be adopted for most cases with aneurysmal hematomas, excluding patients with bilateral mydriasis persisting after rescue therapy.

  10. [Acute right-sided upper abdominal pain in a 46-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Bauder, M; Fiala, A; Klinger, C; Kersjes, W; Caca, K

    2018-02-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a duodenal stenosis within the horizontal part of the duodenum. Based on the findings of abdominal computed tomography (CT), endosonography, Doppler duplex sonography and angiography, the diagnosis of an aneurysm of a branch of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery was established. This arterial branch was part of a collateral circulation between the superior mesenteric artery and the proper hepatic artery caused by obturation of the celiac artery. The symptomatic duodenal stenosis was the result of a local hematoma due to prior rupture of an aneurysm. After successful coiling of the afferent vessels to the aneurysm follow-up examinations showed progredient resorption of the hematoma and the patient was free of complaints.

  11. Breast hematoma complicating anticoagulant therapy: management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant-induced spontaneous breast hematoma is a very rare clinical entity with only a few cases reported in the literature so far. We describe a case of a spontaneous breast hematoma in a female patient under combined oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in patients under anticoagulant treatment presenting with sudden onset of breast pain and a palpable mass. Repeat imaging is mandatory until complete clinical and imaging resolution of the hematoma. If an abnormality persists, further investigation is needed to exclude an underlying malignancy.

  12. Bilateral Acute Subdural Hematoma from Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Boujemâa, H.; Góngora-Rivera, F.; Barragán-Campos, H.; Karachi, K.; Chiras, J.; Sourour, N.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Brain tumors, hematological diseases and vascular malformations like fistulas or arteriovenous malformations are the most well known causes of non-traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH) 1. Although spontaneous subdural hematoma from ruptured intracranial aneurysm has been reported 2, SDH with non radiographic evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is very rare 3,4. Moreover, a patient with acute and bilateral spontaneous subdural hematoma secondary to ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm has not been reported to date. The clinical findings and etiologic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:20569549

  13. Management of auricular hematoma and the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Greywoode, Jewel D; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Krein, Howard

    2010-12-01

    Acute auricular hematoma is common after blunt trauma to the side of the head. A network of vessels provides a rich blood supply to the ear, and the ear cartilage receives its nutrients from the overlying perichondrium. Prompt management of hematoma includes drainage and prevention of reaccumulation. If left untreated, an auricular hematoma can result in complications such as perichondritis, infection, and necrosis. Cauliflower ear may result from long-standing loss of blood supply to the ear cartilage and formation of neocartilage from disrupted perichondrium. Management of cauliflower ear involves excision of deformed cartilage and reshaping of the auricle. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  14. [Measurement of intracranial hematoma volume by personal computer].

    PubMed

    DU, Wanping; Tan, Lihua; Zhai, Ning; Zhou, Shunke; Wang, Rui; Xue, Gongshi; Xiao, An

    2011-01-01

    To explore the method for intracranial hematoma volume measurement by the personal computer. Forty cases of various intracranial hematomas were measured by the computer tomography with quantitative software and personal computer with Photoshop CS3 software, respectively. the data from the 2 methods were analyzed and compared. There was no difference between the data from the computer tomography and the personal computer (P>0.05). The personal computer with Photoshop CS3 software can measure the volume of various intracranial hematomas precisely, rapidly and simply. It should be recommended in the clinical medicolegal identification.

  15. Acute duodenal intramural hematoma complicated by acute pancreatitis—a rare complication of endoscopic epinephrine injection therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Emmanuel; Then, Eric; John, Febin; Gaduputi, Vinaya

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) is a rare complication in endoscopic management of ulcer hemorrhage. Usually noted in cases of blunt abdominal trauma, non-traumatic IDHs have been reported in individuals on anticoagulation, with blood disorders, pancreatic diseases and in endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, sclerotherapy and argon plasma coagulation. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with acute blood loss anemia, abdominal pain or vomiting. We report a case of an 83-year-old man with melena and syncope who underwent endoscopy for bleeding ulcer control and subsequently developed acute pancreatitis due to an acute IDH. Computed tomography (CT) scan confirms the diagnosis. Most cases are conservatively managed however when unsuccessful, laparoscopic surgical drainage or ultrasound or CT guided drainage can be performed. PMID:29383264

  16. The surgical management of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ducruet, Andrew F; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Zacharia, Brad E; Hickman, Zachary L; DeRosa, Peter L; Andersen, Kristen N; Anderson, Kristen; Sussman, Eric; Carpenter, Austin; Connolly, E Sander

    2012-04-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is an increasingly common neurological disease process. Despite the wide prevalence of cSDH, there remains a lack of consensus regarding numerous aspects of its clinical management. We provide an overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of cSDH and discuss several controversial management issues, including the timing of post-operative resumption of anticoagulant medications, the effectiveness of anti-epileptic prophylaxis, protocols for mobilization following evacuation of cSDH, as well as the comparative effectiveness of the various techniques of surgical evacuation. A PubMed search was carried out through October 19, 2010 using the following keywords: "subdural hematoma", "craniotomy", "burr-hole", "management", "anticoagulation", "seizure prophylaxis", "antiplatelet", "mobilization", and "surgical evacuation", alone and in combination. Relevant articles were identified and back-referenced to yield additional papers. A meta-analysis was then performed comparing the efficacy and complications associated with the various methods of cSDH evacuation. There is general agreement that significant coagulopathy should be reversed expeditiously in patients presenting with cSDH. Although protocols for gradual resumption of anti-coagulation for prophylaxis of venous thrombosis may be derived from guidelines for other neurosurgical procedures, further prospective study is necessary to determine the optimal time to restart full-dose anti-coagulation in the setting of recently drained cSDH. There is also conflicting evidence to support seizure prophylaxis in patients with cSDH, although the existing literature supports prophylaxis in patients who are at a higher risk for seizures. The published data regarding surgical technique for cSDH supports primary twist drill craniostomy (TDC) drainage at the bedside for patients who are high-risk surgical candidates with non-septated cSDH and craniotomy as a first-line evacuation technique for c

  17. Hand-held instrument should relieve hematoma pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raggio, L. J.; Robertson, T. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable instrument relieves hematomas beneath fingernails and toenails without surgery. This device simplifies the operative procedure with an instant variable heating tip, adjustable depth settings and interchangeable tip sizes for cauterizing small areas and relieving pressurized clots.

  18. Mechanisms of postprandial abdominal bloating and distension in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Burri, Emanuel; Barba, Elizabeth; Huaman, Jose Walter; Cisternas, Daniel; Accarino, Anna; Soldevilla, Alfredo; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal bloating exhibit abnormal responses of the abdominal wall to colonic gas loads. We hypothesised that in patients with postprandial bloating, ingestion of a meal triggers comparable abdominal wall dyssynergia. Our aim was to characterise abdominal accommodation to a meal in patients with postprandial bloating. A test meal (0.8 kcal/ml nutrients plus 27 g/litre polyethylenglycol 4000) was administered at 50 ml/min as long as tolerated in 10 patients with postprandial bloating (fulfilling Rome III criteria for postprandial distress syndrome) and 12 healthy subjects, while electromyographic (EMG) responses of the anterior wall (upper and lower rectus, external and internal oblique via bipolar surface electrodes) and the diaphragm (via six ring electrodes over an oesophageal tube in the hiatus) were measured. Means +/- SD were calculated. Healthy subjects tolerated a meal volume of 913±308 ml; normal abdominal wall accommodation to the meal consisted of diaphragmatic relaxation (EMG activity decreased by 15±6%) and a compensatory contraction (25±9% increase) of the upper abdominal wall muscles (upper rectus and external oblique), with no changes in the lower anterior muscles (lower rectus and internal oblique). Patients tolerated lower volume loads (604±310 ml; p=0.030 vs healthy subjects) and developed a paradoxical response, that is, diaphragmatic contraction (14±3% EMG increment; p<0.01 vs healthy subjects) and upper anterior wall relaxation (9±4% inhibition; p<0.01 vs healthy subjects). In functional dyspepsia, postprandial abdominal distension is produced by an abnormal viscerosomatic response to meal ingestion that alters normal abdominal accommodation.

  19. Primary Enlarged Craniotomy in Organized Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    CALLOVINI, Giorgio Maria; BOLOGNINI, Andrea; CALLOVINI, Gemma; GAMMONE, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of craniotomy and membranectomy as initial treatment of organized chronic subdural hematoma (OCSH). We retrospectively reviewed a series of 34 consecutive patients suffering from OCSH, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or contrast computer tomography (CCT) in order to establish the degree of organization and determine the intrahematomal architecture. The indication to perform a primary enlarged craniotomy as initial treatment for non-liquefied chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with multilayer loculations was based on the hematoma MRI appearance—mostly hyperintense in both T1- and T2-weighted images with a hypointense web- or net-like structure within the hematoma cavity. The reason why some hematomas evolve towards a complex and organized architecture remains unclear; the most common aspect to come to light was the “long standing” of the CSDHs which, in our series, had an average interval of 10 weeks between head injury and initial scan. Recurrence was found to have occurred in 2 patients (6% of cases) in the form of acute subdural hematoma. One patient died as the result of an intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhage, while 2 patients (6%) suffered an haemorrhagic stroke ipsilateral to the OCSH. Eighty-nine percent of cases had a good recovery, while 11% remained unchanged or worsened. In select cases, based on the MRI appearance, primary enlarged craniotomy seems to be the treatment of choice for achieving a complete recovery and a reduced recurrence rate in OCSH. PMID:24305027

  20. Chronic Subdural Hematoma Infected by Propionibacterium Acnes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shusuke; Asahi, Takashi; Akioka, Naoki; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We present a very rare case of a patient with an infected subdural hematoma due to Propionibacterium acnes. A 63-year-old male complained of dizziness and was admitted to our hospital. He had a history of left chronic subdural hematoma due to a traffic accident, which had been conservatively treated. Physical, neurological and laboratory examinations revealed no definite abnormality. Plain CT scan demonstrated a hypodense crescentic fluid collection over the surface of the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient was diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma and underwent burr hole surgery three times and selective embolization of the middle meningeal artery, but the lesion easily recurred. Repeated culture examinations of white sedimentation detected P. acnes. Therefore, he underwent craniotomy surgery followed by intravenous administration of antibiotics. The infected subdural hematoma was covered with a thick, yellowish outer membrane, and the large volume of pus and hematoma was removed. However, the lesion recurred again and a low-density area developed in the left frontal lobe. Craniotomy surgery was performed a second time, and two Penrose drainages were put in both the epidural and subdural spaces. Subsequently, the lesions completely resolved and he was discharged without any neurological deficits. Infected subdural hematoma may be refractory to burr hole surgery or craniotomy alone, in which case aggressive treatment with craniotomy and continuous drainage should be indicated before the brain parenchyma suffers irreversible damage. PMID:25759659

  1. [A case of infected subdural hematoma accompanied by cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Norio; Naito, Yuichiro; Takanashi, Shigehiko; Ueno, Toshiaki; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Infected subdural hematoma(ISH)is a rare disease caused by hematogenous infection of a preexisting subdural hematoma. We report a rare case of ISH accompanied by cerebral infarction. A 76-year-old man who had suffered a closed head injury 3 months before presented fever, headache and left hemiparesis during the medical treatment of acute cholangitis and obstructive jaundice with pancreatic cancer at the department of surgical gastroenterology. At the consultation, computed tomography(CT)scan indicated right chronic subdural hematoma. We performed a burr hole opening surgery on the same day. Abscess and hematoma was aspirated from the subdural space, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)was detected in this specimen. Thus the diagnosis of the infected subdural hematoma was confirmed. However, despite the antibiotics therapy, follow-up CT showed a low-density area close to the residual abscess, which suggested cerebral infarction. Cerebral angiography showed a vasospasm at the cortical segment of the right middle cerebral artery near the residual abscess. Eventually we carried out a small craniotomy to evacuate the abscess. Our case showed that prompt surgical treatment is required in case of ISH and the whole hematoma and abscess should be removed as soon as possible with an image diagnosis and an additional surgical operation.

  2. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  3. Abdominothoracic mechanisms of functional abdominal distension and correction by biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Barba, Elizabeth; Burri, Emanuel; Accarino, Anna; Cisternas, Daniel; Quiroga, Sergi; Monclus, Eva; Navazo, Isabel; Malagelada, Juan-R; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension has been associated with descent of the diaphragm and protrusion of the anterior abdominal wall. We investigated mechanisms of abdominal distension in these patients. We performed a prospective study of 45 patients (42 women, 24-71 years old) with functional intestinal disorders (27 with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, 15 with functional bloating, and 3 with irritable bowel syndrome with alternating bowel habits) and discrete episodes of visible abdominal distension. Subjects were assessed by abdominothoracic computed tomography (n = 39) and electromyography (EMG) of the abdominothoracic wall (n = 32) during basal conditions (without abdominal distension) and during episodes of severe abdominal distension. Fifteen patients received a median of 2 sessions (range, 1-3 sessions) of EMG-guided, respiratory-targeted biofeedback treatment; 11 received 1 control session before treatment. Episodes of abdominal distension were associated with diaphragm contraction (19% ± 3% increase in EMG score and 12 ± 2 mm descent; P < .001 vs basal values) and intercostal contraction (14% ± 3% increase in EMG scores and 6 ± 1 mm increase in thoracic antero-posterior diameter; P < .001 vs basal values). They were also associated with increases in lung volume (501 ± 93 mL; P < .001 vs basal value) and anterior abdominal wall protrusion (32 ± 3 mm increase in girth; P < .001 vs basal). Biofeedback treatment, but not control sessions, reduced the activity of the intercostal muscles (by 19% ± 2%) and the diaphragm (by 18% ± 4%), activated the internal oblique muscles (by 52% ± 13%), and reduced girth (by 25 ± 3 mm) (P ≤ .009 vs pretreatment for all). In patients with functional gut disorders, abdominal distension is a behavioral response that involves activity of the abdominothoracic wall. This distension can be reduced with EMG-guided, respiratory-targeted biofeedback therapy. Copyright © 2015 AGA

  4. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal ... intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the uterus, ...

  5. How useful is abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with diarrhoea?

    PubMed

    Mapletoft, E K; Allenspach, K; Lamb, C R

    2018-01-01

    To assess the utility of abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up of dogs with diarrhoea. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on a referral population of dogs with diarrhoea. Associations between the clinical signs, use of abdominal ultrasonography, results of abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent work-up were examined. The utility of abdominal ultrasonography was scored as high, moderate, none or counterproductive based on review of medical records. Medical records of 269 dogs were reviewed, of which 149 (55%) had abdominal ultrasonography. The most frequent result was no ultrasonographic abnormalities affecting the intestine in 65 (44%) dogs. Ultrasonography results were associated with subsequent work-up as follows: (1) no detected abnormalities and dietary trial; (2) focal thickening of the intestinal wall, loss of intestinal wall layers or enlarged abdominal lymph nodes and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates; (3) diffuse thickening of the intestinal wall or hyperechoic striations in the small intestinal mucosa and endoscopy; and (4) small intestinal foreign body and coeliotomy. Abdominal ultrasonography was considered to be diagnostic without further testing in only four (3%) dogs: two had a portosystemic shunt identified ultrasonographically, one had a linear foreign body and one had a perforated pyloric ulcer. Abdominal ultrasonography had moderate utility in 56 (38%) dogs and no utility in 79 (53%) dogs. Abdominal ultrasonography was considered counterproductive in 10 (7%) dogs because results were either falsely negative or falsely positive. These results should prompt clinicians to reconsider routine use of abdominal ultrasonography in dogs with diarrhoea. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Nontraumatic Retroperitoneal Hematoma After Warfarin Administration: Fatal Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marzieh; Hosseinzadeh, Amin; Raufian, Kasra; Hedjazi, Arya

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma after warfarin therapy is an extremely rare event. Here, we report a 25-year-old man who was brought in to the emergency service with confusion. On arrival, the patient had hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea, low-grade fever, and Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12. Abdominal examination revealed distention and mild tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The patient had a history of aortic valve replacement surgery and was on warfarin treatment at an international normalized ratio of 2.4. Our patient progressed to cardiorespiratory arrest. The resuscitation was initiated promptly. Despite all resuscitation measures, including transfusion and administration of high doses of catecholamine, the patient died of hypovolemic shock 3 hours after admission. At autopsy, the external surface of the abdominal great vessels (descending aorta and mesenteric vessels) showed scattered petechial hemorrhages without any visible site of perforation. After comprehensive exploration of the abdomen, no evidence of traumatic event was identified and the cause of internal blood loss was noted as warfarin adverse effect.

  7. Predictors for Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Alexander; Tregubow, Alexander; Kerry, Ghassan; Schrey, Michael; Hammer, Christian; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to analyze the dependence of different factors on the recurrence rate of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) after surgical treatment. Seventy-three consecutive patients, who were surgically treated at our department due to cSDH between 2009 and 2012, were included. The following parameters were analyzed: patient age and gender, occurrence of trauma, time between trauma and admission, neurological symptoms, presence of minor diseases, intake of anticoagulation medication. We classified the results of diagnostic imaging and determined the space-consuming effect via the cerebral midline shift. In addition, we scrutinized intraoperative findings and the dependence of the position of subdural drainage on the recurrence rate of cSDH. In our patient group, cSDH recurrence was significantly associated with aphasia (p=0.008). Moreover an increased cSDH recurrence rate was observed in the patient group that had a separated manifestation of the cSDH in the preoperative diagnostic imaging (p=0.048) and received no drainage implant (p=0.016). Homogeneous isodense cSDH was associated with no apparent recurrence (p=0.037). Within the scope of this study, we detected aphasia and separated cSDH as predictors of cSDH recurrence. Homogeneous isodense cSDH seems to be a good prognostic sign regarding the risk of recurrence development. Furthermore, our data clearly emphasize the importance of surgically applied drainage implants to prevent a recurrence of cSDH.

  8. The role of postoperative hematoma on free flap compromise.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faisal I; Gerecci, Deniz; Gonzalez, Javier D; Peck, Jessica J; Wax, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Hematomas may develop in the postoperative setting after free tissue transfer. When hematomas occur, they can exert pressure on surrounding tissues. Their effect on the vascular pedicle of a free flap is unknown. We describe our incidence of hematoma in free flaps and outcomes when the flap is compromised. Retrospective chart review of 1,883 free flaps performed between July 1998 and June 2014 at a tertiary referral center. Patients with free flap compromise due to hematoma were identified. Etiology, demographic data, and outcomes were evaluated. Eighty-eight (4.7%) patients developed hematomas. Twenty (22.7%) of those had flap compromise. Twelve compromises (60%) showed evidence of pedicle thrombosis. The salvage rate was 75% versus 54% in 79 flaps with compromise from other causes (P = .12). Mean time to detection of the hematoma was 35.3 hours in salvaged flaps compared to 91.6 hours in unsalvageable flaps (P = .057). Time to operating room (OR) from detection was 2.8 hours in salvageable flaps compared to 12.4 hours in nonsalvageable flaps (P = .053). The salvage rate for flaps that returned to the OR in <5 hours was 93.3% compared to 20% (P = .0049) for those that did not. Vascular thrombosis reduced salvage rate to 58.3% from 100% (P = .002) when there was no thrombosis. In our series hematomas developed rarely. When they did, 23% went on to develop flap compromise. Prompt recognition and re-exploration allowed for a high salvage rate. Vessel thrombosis predicted inability to salvage the flap. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Intra- versus retroplacental hematomas: a retrospective case-control study on pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ott, Johannes; Pecnik, Philipp; Promberger, Regina; Pils, Sophie; Binder, Julia; Chalubinski, Kinga M

    2017-10-26

    Intrauterine hematomas are a common pregnancy complication. The literature lacks studies about outcomes based on hematoma localization. Thus, we aimed to compare pregnancies complicated by an intraplacental hematoma to cases with a retroplacental hematoma and to a control group. In a retrospective case-control study, 32 women with an intraplacental hematoma, 199 women with a retroplacental hematoma, and a control group consisting of 113 age-matched women with no signs of placental abnormalities were included. Main outcome measures were pregnancy complications. Second-trimester miscarriage was most common in the intraplacental hematoma group (9.4%), followed by women with a retroplacental hematoma (4.2%), and controls (0%; p = 0.007). The intraplacental hematoma group revealed the highest rates for placental insufficiency, intrauterine growth retardation, premature preterm rupture of membranes, preterm labor, preterm delivery <37 weeks, and early preterm delivery <34 weeks (p < 0.05), followed by the retroplacental hematoma group. When tested in multivariate models, intraplacental hematomas were independent predictors for placental insufficiency (ß = 4.19, p < 0.001) and intrauterine growth restriction (ß = 1.44, p = 0.035). Intrauterine fetal deaths occurred only in women with a retroplacental hematoma (p = 0.042). Intra- and retroplacental hematomas have different risk profiles for the affected pregnancy and act as independent risk factors.

  10. Encapsulated Unresolved Subdural Hematoma Mimicking Acute Epidural Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Soo; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Kwon, Chang-Young

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulated acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) has been uncommonly reported. To our knowledge, a few cases of lentiform ASDH have been reported. The mechanism of encapsulated ASDH has been studied but not completely clarified. Encapsulated lentiform ASDH on a computed tomography (CT) scan mimics acute epidural hematoma (AEDH). Misinterpretation of biconvex-shaped ASDH on CT scan as AEDH often occurs and is usually identified by neurosurgical intervention. We report a case of an 85-year-old man presenting with a 2-day history of mental deterioration and right-sided weakness. CT scan revealed a biconvex-shaped hyperdense mass mixed with various densities of blood along the left temporoparietal cerebral convexity, which was misinterpreted as AEDH preoperatively. Emergency craniectomy was performed, but no AEDH was found beneath the skull. In the subdural space, encapsulated ASDH was located. En block resection of encapsulated ASDH was done. Emergency craniectomy confirmed that the preoperatively diagnosed AEDH was an encapsulated ASDH postoperatively. Radiologic studies of AEDH-like SDH allow us to establish an easy differential diagnosis between AEDH and ASDH by distinct features. More histological studies will provide us information on the mechanism underlying encapsulated ASDH. PMID:27169052

  11. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  12. Abdominal Trauma Revisited.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-11-01

    Although abdominal trauma has been described since antiquity, formal laparotomies for trauma were not performed until the 1800s. Even with the introduction of general anesthesia in the United States during the years 1842 to 1846, laparotomies for abdominal trauma were not performed during the Civil War. The first laparotomy for an abdominal gunshot wound in the United States was finally performed in New York City in 1884. An aggressive operative approach to all forms of abdominal trauma till the establishment of formal trauma centers (where data were analyzed) resulted in extraordinarily high rates of nontherapeutic laparotomies from the 1880s to the 1960s. More selective operative approaches to patients with abdominal stab wounds (1960s), blunt trauma (1970s), and gunshot wounds (1990s) were then developed. Current adjuncts to the diagnosis of abdominal trauma when serial physical examinations are unreliable include the following: 1) diagnostic peritoneal tap/lavage, 2) surgeon-performed ultrasound examination; 3) contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis; and 4) diagnostic laparoscopy. Operative techniques for injuries to the liver, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas have been refined considerably since World War II. These need to be emphasized repeatedly in an era when fewer patients undergo laparotomy for abdominal trauma. Finally, abdominal trauma damage control is a valuable operative approach in patients with physiologic exhaustion and multiple injuries.

  13. Early Spontaneous Graft Intra- and Perihepatic Hematoma after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lupaşcu, Cristian; Apopei, Oana; Vlad, Nutu; Vasiluta, Ciprian; Trofin, Ana-Maria; Zabara, Mihai; Vornicu, Alexandra; Lupaşcu-Ursulescu, Corina; Nitu, Mioara; Crumpei, Felicia; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel

    2017-01-01

    Hematoma of the graft is a life threatening complication of liver transplantation (LT) and there has been no overt conclusion in the literature about optimal management except in scarcely reported cases. It may be either intrahepatic or subcapsular, then again it may develop spontaneously or following parenchimal injuries or transhepatic percutaneous invasive manoeuvers. In this report we describe a rare case of large spontaneous graft intra- and perihepatic hematoma. A 62 year-old man underwent a whole graft orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for decompensated chronic liver disease due to alcoholic cirrhosis. The surgical procedure was uneventful. During the early postoperative course, routine Doppler ultrasound examination and CT-scan revealed an extrahepatic paracaval hematoma, 7 days after transplantation, which was stable and conservatively managed until the 18-th postoperative day, when rapidly expanding intraparenchimal hematoma involving the right hemiliver, several other perihepatic hematomas, significant right pleural effusion and hemorrhagic ascites were described. The patient was successfully treated conservatively (nonsurgically) with slow recovery of the liver allograft and discharged one month later in good general status. Celsius.

  14. Ligamentum flavum hematomas of the cervical and thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Wild, Florian; Tuettenberg, Jochen; Grau, Armin; Weis, Joachim; Krauss, Joachim K

    2014-01-01

    To report extremely rare cases of ligamentum flavum hematomas in the cervical and thoracic spine. Only six cases of thoracic ligamentum flavum hematomas and three cases of cervical ligamentum flavum hematomas have been reported so far. Two patients presented with tetraparesis and one patient presented with radicular pain and paresthesias in the T3 dermatome. MRI was performed in two patients, which showed a posterior intraspinal mass, continuous with the ligamentum flavum. The mass was moderately hypointense on T2-weighted images and hyperintense on T1-weighted images with no contrast enhancement. The third patient underwent cervical myelography because of a cardiac pacemaker. The myelography showed an intraspinal posterior mass with compression of the dural sac at C3/C4. All patients underwent a hemilaminectomy to resect the ligamentum flavum hematoma and recovered completely afterwords, and did not experience a recurrence during follow-up of at least 2 years. This case series shows rare cases of ligamentum flavum hematomas in the cervical and thoracic spine. Surgery achieved complete recovery of the preoperative symptoms in all patients within days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  16. Aortic Branch Artery Pseudoaneurysms Associated with Intramural Hematoma: When and How to Do Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Seitun, Sara

    To describe when and how to perform endovascular embolization of aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms associated with type A and type B intramural hematoma (IMH) involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III) that increased significantly in size during follow-up. Sixty-one patients (39 men; mean {+-} standard deviation age 66.1 {+-} 11.2 years) with acute IMH undergoing at least two multidetector computed tomographic examinations during follow-up for 12 months or longer were enrolled. Overall, 48 patients (31 men, age 65.9 {+-} 11.5) had type A and type B IMH involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey Imore » and III). Among the 48 patients, 26 (54 %; 17 men, aged 64.3 {+-} 11.4 years) had 71 aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms. Overall, during a mean follow-up of 22.1 {+-} 9.5 months (range 12-42 months), 31 (44 %) pseudoaneurysms disappeared; 22 (31 %) decreased in size; two (3 %) remained stable; and 16 (22 %) increased in size. Among the 16 pseudoaneurysms with increasing size, five of these (three intercostal arteries, one combined intercostobronchial/intercostal arteries, one renal artery), present in five symptomatic patients, had a significant increase in size (thickness >10 mm; width and length >20 mm). These five patients underwent endovascular embolization with coils and/or Amplatzer Vascular Plug. In all patients, complete thrombosis and exclusion of aortic pseudoaneurysm and relief of back pain were achieved. Aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms associated with type A and type B IMH involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III) may be considered relatively benign lesions. However, a small number may grow in size or extend longitudinally with clinical symptoms during follow-up, and in these cases, endovascular embolization can be an effective and safe procedure.« less

  17. Diffuse Peritoneal and Bowel Wall Infiltration by Light Chain-AL Amyloidosis with Omental Calcification Mimicking Abdominal Carcinomatosis - An Elderly Female with Incidental Finding of Light Chain Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (LC-MGUS).

    PubMed

    Junejo, Shoaib; Ali, Yasir; Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Tuli, Sandeep S

    2017-11-25

    BACKGROUND Amyloidosis is the extracellular tissue deposition of plasma proteins, which after conformational changes, forms antiparallel beta pleated sheets of fibrils. Amyloid light-chain (AL) is a type of amyloidosis that is due to deposition of proteins derived from immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement most often found in amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis type. There have been no reports of obstructive GIT AL amyloid patients having monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our case is the first case to show two coinciding conditions; one is the association of GIT AL amyloidosis with the incidental finding of a rare type of MGUS (LC-MGUS) and the other is the radiologic presentation of GIT amyloidosis with omental calcification mimicking the GIT malignancy. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old female presented with symptoms of partial bowel obstruction, including intermittent diffuse abdominal pain and constipation. After computed tomography (CT) abdomen and pelvis, an exploratory laparotomy was needed because of suspicion of abdominal carcinomatosis due to diffuse omental calcification. The tissue sent for biopsy surprisingly showed AL amyloidosis. The patient did not report any systemic symptoms. Further workup was advised to inquire about the plasma cell dyscrasia which eventually turned into a very rare version of MGUS knows as light chain MGUS (LC-MGUS). Following adequate resection of the involved structures, the patient was then placed on chemotherapy and successfully went into remission. CONCLUSIONS This case report illustrates that in an era of evidence based medicine, it is important to show through case reports the association of GIT AL amyloidosis with LC-MGUS, as the literature on this topic is lacking. It also points to the importance of timely intervention that can greatly enhance, not only the only the chances of remission but also prevention of further complications such as malignant transformation.

  18. Treatment of hematomas after anterior cervical spine surgery: A retrospective study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Miao, Weiliang; Ma, Xiaojun; Liang, Deyong; Sun, Yu

    2018-05-04

    Postoperative hematoma is a rare and dangerous complication of cervical spine surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and related factors of postoperative hematoma, and to report on 15 cases at our institution over a 6-year period. Fifteen cases of postoperative hematoma were retrospectively identified. We investigated their neurological outcomes, characteristics, and surgical data, and identified risk factors associated with postoperative (PO) hematoma. Patients with hematoma were compared to those with no hematoma, in order to identify risk factors. Retropharyngeal hematomas developed in seven cases and epidural hematomas in eight. The total incidence of postoperative hematoma was 1.2%: 0.5% retropharyngeal hematomas and 0.6% spinal epidural hematomas. At time of onset, the severity of paralysis was assessed as grade B in one case, grade C in six cases, and grade D in eight cases. Risk factors for PO hematoma were: (1) presence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) (P<0.001); (2) longer operative duration (P=0.048); (3) greater number of surgical levels (P=0.02); and (4) higher body mass index (BMI; P=0.035). There was no significant difference in modified Japan Orthopedic Association scores between the hematoma group and non-hematoma group (P>0.05). Precise preoperative preparation and systematic evaluation are central to successful management of PO hematoma after anterior cervical surgery. Risk factors for PO hematoma include multilevel decompression, OPLL, higher BMI, and longer operation time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute dystonic reaction leading to lingual hematoma mimicking angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Özgür; Aydin, Ali Attila; Bilge, Sedat; Arslan, Fatih; Arslan, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Lingual hematoma is a severe situation, which is rare and endangers the airway. It can develop due to trauma, vascular abnormalities, and coagulopathy. Due to its sudden development, it can be clinically confused with angioedema. In patients who applied to the doctor with complaints of a swollen tongue, lingual hematoma can be confused with angioedema, in particular, at the beginning if the symptoms occurred after drug use. It should especially be considered that dystonia in the jaw can present as drug-induced hyperkinetic movement disorder. Early recognition of this rare clinical condition and taking precautions for providing airway patency are essential. In this case report, we will discuss mimicking angioedema and caused by a bite due to dystonia and separation of the tongue from the base of the mouth developing concurrently with lingual hematoma. PMID:29326495

  20. Spontaneous sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma following thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Morosetti, Roberta; Caliandro, Pietro; Frisullo, Giovanni

    2014-06-15

    Spontaneous or traumatic bleeding is a common complication of systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We report the case of an 83 y.o. woman with right facio-brachio-crural hemiparesis, left deviation of the head and aphasia who developed, after thrombolytic therapy, a spontaneous sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma that regressed few days later. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of asymptomatic and spontaneous skeletal muscle hematoma following thrombolysis for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The occurrence of lateral cervical tuberculosis lymphadenitis ipsilateral to sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma may suggest a causal relationship between local chronic inflammation of active mycobacterial infection and thrombolysis-related extravasation. This case should suggest caution in thrombolytic treatment in patients with chronic immune dysregulation and vascular inflammation such as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient Previously Diagnosed With Functional Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    DiGiusto, Matthew; Suleman, M-Irfan

    2018-03-23

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in children and adolescents but challenging to diagnose, because practitioners may be concerned about missing serious occult disease. Abdominal wall pain is an often ignored etiology for chronic abdominal pain. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome causes abdominal wall pain but is frequently overlooked. Correctly diagnosing patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is important because nerve block interventions are highly successful in the remittance of pain. Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient who received a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain but experienced pain remittance after receiving a trigger-point injection and transverse abdominis plane block.

  2. Surgery for bilateral large intracranial traumatic hematomas: evacuation in a single session.

    PubMed

    Kompheak, Heng; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Dong-Sung; Shin, Dong-Sung; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2014-06-01

    Management guidelines for single intracranial hematomas have been established, but the optimal management of multiple hematomas has little known. We present bilateral traumatic supratentorial hematomas that each has enough volume to be evacuated and discuss how to operate effectively it in a single anesthesia. In total, 203 patients underwent evacuation and/or decompressive craniectomies for acute intracranial hematomas over 5 years. Among them, only eight cases (3.9%) underwent operations for bilateral intracranial hematomas in a single session. Injury mechanism, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, types of intracranial lesions, surgical methods, and Glasgow outcome scale were evaluated. The most common injury mechanism was a fall (four cases). The types of intracranial lesions were epidural hematoma (EDH)/intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in five, EDH/EDH in one, EDH/subdural hematoma (SDH) in one, and ICH/SDH in one. All cases except one had an EDH. The EDH was addressed first in all cases. Then, the evacuation of the ICH was performed through a small craniotomy or burr hole. All patients except one survived. Bilateral intracranial hematomas that should be removed in a single-session operation are rare. Epidural hematomas almost always occur in these cases and should be removed first to prevent the hematoma from growing during the surgery. Then, the other hematoma, contralateral to the EDH, can be evacuated with a small craniotomy.

  3. Prediction and Observation of Post-Admission Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Christian; Havsteen, Inger; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Christensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiological concepts in predicting and observing post-admission hematoma expansion. Hematoma expansion can be observed within the first 24 h after symptom onset, but predominantly occurs in the early hours. Thus capturing markers of on-going bleeding on imaging techniques could predict hematoma expansion. The spot sign observed on computed tomography angiography is believed to represent on-going bleeding and is to date the most well investigated and reliable radiological predictor of hematoma expansion as well as functional outcome and mortality. On non-contrast CT, the presence of foci of hypoattenuation within the hematoma along with the hematoma-size is reported to be predictive of hematoma expansion and outcome. Because patients tend to arrive earlier to the hospital, a larger fraction of acute ICH-patients must be expected to undergo hematoma expansion. This renders observation and radiological follow-up investigations increasingly relevant. Transcranial duplex sonography has in recent years proven to be able to estimate hematoma volume with good precision and could be a valuable tool in bedside serial observation of acute ICH-patients. Future studies will elucidate, if better prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion can help select patients, who will benefit from hemostatic treatment. PMID:25324825

  4. Surgery for Bilateral Large Intracranial Traumatic Hematomas: Evacuation in a Single Session

    PubMed Central

    Kompheak, Heng; Kim, Dong-Sung; Shin, Dong-Sung; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Objective Management guidelines for single intracranial hematomas have been established, but the optimal management of multiple hematomas has little known. We present bilateral traumatic supratentorial hematomas that each has enough volume to be evacuated and discuss how to operate effectively it in a single anesthesia. Methods In total, 203 patients underwent evacuation and/or decompressive craniectomies for acute intracranial hematomas over 5 years. Among them, only eight cases (3.9%) underwent operations for bilateral intracranial hematomas in a single session. Injury mechanism, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, types of intracranial lesions, surgical methods, and Glasgow outcome scale were evaluated. Results The most common injury mechanism was a fall (four cases). The types of intracranial lesions were epidural hematoma (EDH)/intracerebral hematoma (ICH) in five, EDH/EDH in one, EDH/subdural hematoma (SDH) in one, and ICH/SDH in one. All cases except one had an EDH. The EDH was addressed first in all cases. Then, the evacuation of the ICH was performed through a small craniotomy or burr hole. All patients except one survived. Conclusion Bilateral intracranial hematomas that should be removed in a single-session operation are rare. Epidural hematomas almost always occur in these cases and should be removed first to prevent the hematoma from growing during the surgery. Then, the other hematoma, contralateral to the EDH, can be evacuated with a small craniotomy. PMID:25237431

  5. Outcomes after endoscopic port surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hematomas.

    PubMed

    Ochalski, Pawel; Chivukula, Srinivas; Shin, Samuel; Prevedello, Daniel; Engh, Johnathan

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional open surgical management strategies offer limited benefit except for the most superficial hemorrhages in select patients. Recent reports suggest that endoscopic approaches may improve outcomes, particularly for deep subcortical hemorrhages. However, the management of these patients remains controversial. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic port surgery to identify characteristics that may predict acceptable outcomes. We completed a retrospective chart and imaging review of patients who underwent endoscopic port surgery for evacuation of spontaneous ICH at a single center. Data were gathered regarding patient demographics, hemorrhage locations, operative findings, and clinical outcomes. From 2007 to 2011, 18 patients underwent evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas using an endoscopic port. The mean age in years was 62 years (range, 43-84 years). Six of 18 patients (33%) died before discharge, and 2 others (11%) died after at least 1 month of survival. Of 12 initial survivors, all were discharged to a rehabilitation or nursing facility. Complete hematoma evacuation was achieved in 7 of 18 patients, with the remaining 11 having a partial evacuation. The patients who died (n = 6) before discharge were statistically more likely to have a left-sided hemorrhage, partial evacuation, or older age than the survivors; death at least 1  month after evacuation was additionally associated with greater preoperative hematoma volumes. Our series demonstrates that endoscopic port surgery for acute intracerebral hematoma evacuation has the ability to achieve significant decompression of large and deep-seated hematomas. Patient age, extent of evacuation, laterality, and preoperative hematoma volume appear to influence patient outcome. Most overall outcomes remain poor. Future studies are necessary to determine if surgical evacuation is in fact superior to best

  6. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging of Injuries from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Radhiana; Abd Aziz, Azian

    2010-04-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma can cause multiple internal injuries. However, these injuries are often difficult to accurately evaluate, particularly in the presence of more obvious external injuries. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is currently used to assess clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. CT can provide a rapid and accurate appraisal of the abdominal viscera, retroperitoneum and abdominal wall, as well as a limited assessment of the lower thoracic region and bony pelvis. This paper presents examples of various injuries in trauma patients depicted in abdominal CT images. We hope these images provide a resource for radiologists, surgeons and medical officers, as well as a learning tool for medical students.

  8. Postoperative hematoma involving brainstem, peduncles, cerebellum, deep subcortical white matter, cerebral hemispheres following chronic subdural hematoma evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Thotakura, Amit K.; Shukla, Dinesh; Purohit, Anirudh K.; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary; Nukavarapu, Manisha

    2017-01-01

    Among the intracranial hematomas, chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are the most benign with a mortality rate of 0.5-4.0%. The elderly and alcoholics are commonly affected by CSDH. Even though high percentage of CSDH patients improves after the evacuation, there are some unexpected potential complications altering the postoperative course with neurological deterioration. Poor outcome in postoperative period is due to complications like failure of brain to re-expand, recurrence of hematoma and tension pneumocephalus. We present a case report with multiple intraparenchymal hemorrhages in various locations like brainstem, cerebral and cerebellar peduncles, right cerebellar hemisphere, right thalamus, right capsulo-ganglionic region, right corona radiata and cerebral hemispheres after CSDH evacuation. Awareness of this potential problem and the immediate use of imaging if the patient does not awake from anesthesia or if he develops new onset focal neurological deficits, are the most important concerns to the early diagnosis of this rare complication. PMID:28484546

  9. Growth Potential of Subdural Hematomas Under Clinical Observation: Which Subdural Hematomas Tend to Grow and Why They Do.

    PubMed

    Asan, Ziya

    2018-05-01

    To study the prognoses of patients with subdural hematoma (SDH) who were not operated on at the time of the first diagnosis and the causes of enlarged hematomas in some patients during the follow-up period. The records, service files, and radiologic examination results of the patients with diagnoses of SDH were reviewed. The SDH patients were recorded under 5 different categories: acute SDH (ASDH), subacute SDH (SSDH), chronic SDH (CSDH), acute component with chronic SDH (A-CSDH), and subacute component with chronic SDH (S-CSDH). The symptoms, clinical findings, and progression in the patients were correlated with radiologic examinations. A total of 291 patients received diagnoses of SDHs: 80 patients with acute, 29 patients with subacute, and 163 patients with chronic hematoma. Thirty-five patients had diagnoses of SDH with a combination of different components. It was determined that in the follow-up period, patients with A-CSDH showed the greatest increase in hematoma size over time and required surgical intervention the most often. SDHs reveal different prognoses in different age groups. Multicomponent SDHs are within the group that shows the greatest increase in size in the follow-up period. SDHs and CSDHs cause recurrent hemorrhages by sustaining the tension on the bridging veins. The greater the hematoma volume, the greater the growth potential of the hematoma tends to be. CSDHs that do not manifest changes in volume for a long time can be monitored without surgical intervention as long as the clinical picture remains stable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  12. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  13. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  14. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  15. Twist-Drill or Burr Hole Craniostomy for Draining Chronic Subdural Hematomas: How to Choose It for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Drainage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Im, Soo Bin

    2016-10-01

    Although twist-drill craniostomy (TDC) has a number of procedural advantages and an equivalent outcome compared to burr hole craniostomy (BHC) for the treatment of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), the latter technique remains the preferred method. We analyzed symptomatic CSDHs in whom TDC at the pre-coronal suture entry point (PCSEP) was the primary method for hematoma drainage and BHC on the parietal was the secondary option. CSDHs in 86 consecutive patients were included. TDC at the PCSEP, which is 1 cm anterior to coronal suture at the level of the superior temporal line, was the primary operational technique when the hematoma thickness was suitable, and BHC was performed via the parietal when TDC was unreasonable or failed. The clinical feasibility and outcomes of these approaches were analyzed. Of the 86 patients, 68 (79.1%) were treated by TDC, and 18 (20.9%) by BHC. All patients showed improvements in their symptoms after hematoma drainage. Neither morbidity nor mortality was associated with either technique, and there were no differences in drainage days between the groups. Ten patients had bilateral hematomas and were treated using TDC. Two patients were not sufficiently treated by TDC and, as a result, BHC was applied. Only six hematomas (7% of 86 hematomas) exhibited insufficient thickness on the computed tomography to perform TDC. When the hematoma was thick enough, a majority of the CSDHs were drained using TDC at the PCSEP as the first procedure, which was especially useful for bilateral hematomas and in elderly patients.

  16. iPhone-Assisted Augmented Reality Localization of Basal Ganglia Hypertensive Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, YuanZheng; Ma, LiChao; Zhu, RuYuan; Chen, XiaoLei

    2016-10-01

    A low-cost, time-efficient technique that could localize hypertensive hematomas in the basal ganglia would be beneficial for minimally invasive hematoma evacuation surgery. We used an iPhone to achieve this goal and evaluated its accuracy and feasibility. We located basal ganglia hematomas in 26 patients and depicted the boundaries of the hematomas on the skin. To verify the accuracy of the drawn boundaries, computed tomography (CT) markers surrounding the depicted boundaries were attached to 10 patients. The deviation between the CT markers and the actual hematoma boundaries was then measured. In the other 16 patients, minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation surgery was performed according to the depicted hematoma boundary. The deflection angle of the actual trajectory and deviation in the hematoma center were measured according to the preoperative and postoperative CT data. There were 40 CT markers placed on 10 patients. The mean deviation of these markers was 3.1 mm ± 2.4. In the 16 patients who received surgery, the deflection angle of the actual trajectory was 4.3° ± 2.1. The deviation in the hematoma center was 5.2 mm ± 2.6. This new method can locate basal ganglia hematomas with a sufficient level of accuracy and is helpful for minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment by ultrasound-guided local infiltration in adhesion-related abdominal pain and intractable hiccups: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Gu, Zhi-Yong; Lin, Chia-Shiang; Nie, Fa-Chuan; Cui, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal pain and hiccups secondary to intra-abdominal adhesion are surgical complications that are often treated by painkillers and secondary surgeries with an unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. This study presents a new treatment method that uses ultrasound-guided local infiltration in peritoneal and abdominal wall adhesions in patients with hiccups and abdominal pain. A 62-year-old patient presented to our hospital with a history of intractable hiccups and abdominal pain for 30 years. Her abdominal examination revealed a scar with an approximate length of 10 cm on the abdominal umbilical plane; pressing the right scar area could simultaneously induce abdominal pain and hiccups. Intraperitoneal computed tomography examination clearly demonstrated that the bowel had no obvious expansion. Ultrasonographic examination found that peritoneal motility below the normal peritoneal adhesion regions was significantly slower than in the normal regions. The diagnosis of chronic postoperative pain syndrome was clear. The symptoms were significantly alleviated by a successful treatment with ultrasound-guided local infiltration in the peritoneal and abdominal wall scar adhesions. After 3 stages of hospitalization and 1 year of follow-up, the patient's abdominal wall pain was relieved by approximately 80% and hiccups were relieved by approximately 70%. The above treatment is a useful option for managing abdominal adhesion and accompanying pain or hiccups resulting from abdominal surgery. This method could ease the psychological and economic burden of patients and improve their quality of life.

  18. Retrospective analysis of operative treatment of a series of 100 patients with subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Bartosz; Pawelczyk, Agnieszka; Pawelczyk, Tomasz; Ceranowicz, Katarzyna; Wojdyn, Maciej; Radek, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study of medical records, surgical protocols, patient observation cards, and imaging files of 100 patients treated for subdural hematoma analyzed the type of hematoma, patient age and sex, operative technique, neurological status, cause of injury, duration of hospital stay, mortality rate, and the number of and reasons for reoperations to determine the effects on treatment outcomes. The time between the head injury and onset of neurological symptoms was analyzed versus the type of hematoma determined from computed tomography (CT) scans. Acute hematomas accounted for 38% of the cases, with subacute hematomas representing 20%, and chronic ones accounting for 42%. In trauma patients, the mean time interval between the injury and onset of neurological symptoms was 0.38 days for acute hematomas, 13.8 days for subacute hematomas, and 23.75 days for chronic hematomas. Repeat surgery was carried out in 26% of the cases. Improvement was obtained in 44% of cases, deterioration in 20%, and no change in neurological status in 36%. Timing of the operations was between 15:00 and 23:00 in 45%, between 23:00 and 7:00 in 33%, and between 7:00 and 15:00 in 22%. The classification of hematomas based on CT presentation corresponds to the classification based on the time elapsed between injury and onset of symptoms, and appears to be appropriate and useful in everyday practice. No preceding injury was identified in 31.6% of acute hematomas, 50% of subacute hematomas, and 61.9% of chronic hematomas. Analysis of reoperations indicates that trepanation may be superior to craniotomy as primary surgery for subacute and chronic hematomas. Subdural hematoma surgeries take place at all times of the day, with most carried out outside the usual working hours.

  19. Cerebellar Hematoma Location: Implications for the Underlying Microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Pasi, Marco; Marini, Sandro; Morotti, Andrea; Boulouis, Gregoire; Xiong, Li; Charidimou, Andreas; Ayres, Alison M; Lee, Myung Joo; Biffi, Alessandro; Goldstein, Joshua N; Rosand, Jonathan; Gurol, M Edip; Greenberg, Steven M; Viswanathan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been reported to be mainly associated with vascular changes secondary to hypertension. However, a subgroup of cerebellar ICH seems related to vascular amyloid deposition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). We sought to determine whether location of hematoma in the cerebellum (deep and superficial regions) was suggestive of a particular hemorrhage-prone small-vessel disease pathology (cerebral amyloid angiopathy or hypertensive vasculopathy). Consecutive patients with cerebellar ICH from a single tertiary care medical center were recruited. Based on data from pathological reports, patients were divided according to the location of the primary cerebellar hematoma (deep versus superficial). Location of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs; strictly lobar, strictly deep, and mixed CMB) was evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging. One-hundred and eight patients (84%) had a deep cerebellar hematoma, and 20 (16%) a superficial cerebellar hematoma. Hypertension was more prevalent in deep than in patients with superficial cerebellar ICH (89% versus 65%, respectively; P <0.05). Among patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, those with superficial cerebellar ICH had higher prevalence of strictly lobar CMB (43%) and lower prevalence of strictly deep or mixed CMB (0%) compared with those with deep superficial cerebellar ICH (6%, 17%, and 38%, respectively). In a multivariable model, presence of strictly lobar CMB was associated with superficial cerebellar ICH (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-8.5; P =0.004). Our study showed that superficial cerebellar ICH is related to the presence of strictly lobar CMB-a pathologically proven marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Cerebellar hematoma location may thus help to identify those patients likely to have cerebral amyloid angiopathy pathology. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Concomitant Intracranial and Lumbar Chronic Subdural Hematoma Treated by Fluoroscopic Guided Lumbar Puncture: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    ICHINOSE, Daisuke; TOCHIGI, Satoru; TANAKA, Toshihide; SUZUKI, Tomoya; TAKEI, Jun; HATANO, Keisuke; KAJIWARA, Ikki; MARUYAMA, Fumiaki; SAKAMOTO, Hiroki; HASEGAWA, Yuzuru; TANI, Satoshi; MURAYAMA, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a severe headache, lower back pain, and lower abdominal pain 1 month after a head injury caused by falling. Computed tomography (CT) of the head demonstrated bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with a significant amount in the left frontoparietal region. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine also revealed CSDH from L2 to S1 level. A simple drainage for the intracranial CSDH on the left side was performed. Postoperatively, the headache was improved; however, the lower back and abdominal pain persisted. Aspiration of the liquefied spinal subdural hematoma was performed by a lumbar puncture under fluoroscopic guidance. The clinical symptoms were dramatically improved postoperatively. Concomitant intracranial and spinal CSDH is considerably rare so only 23 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature so far. The etiology and therapeutic strategy were discussed with a review of the literature. Therapeutic strategy is not established for these two concomitant lesions. Conservative follow-up was chosen for 14 cases, resulting in a favorable clinical outcome. Although surgical evacuation of lumbosacral CSDH was performed in seven cases, an alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure following spinal surgery should be reminded because of the intracranial lesion. Since CSDH is well liquefied in both intracranial and spinal lesion, a less invasive approach is recommended not only for an intracranial lesion but also for spinal lesion. Fluoroscopic-guided lumbar puncture for lumbosacral CSDH following burr hole surgery for intracranial CSDH could be a recommended strategy. PMID:29479039

  1. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural Course of Initially Non-Operated Cases of Acute Subdural Hematoma : The Risk Factors of Hematoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objectives of the present study were to characterize the natural course of initially non-operated traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and to identify the risk factors of hematoma progression. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed using sequential computed tomography (CT) images maintained in a prospective observational database containing 177 ASDH cases treated from 2005 to 2011. Patients were allocated to four groups as followings; 136 (76.8%) patients to the spontaneous resolution group, 12 (6.8%) who underwent operation between 4 hours and 7 days to the rapid worsening group (RWG), 24 (13.6%) who experienced an increase of hematoma and that underwent operation between 7 and 28 days to the subacute worsening group (SWG), and 5 (2.8%) who developed delayed aggravation requiring surgery from one month after onset to the delayed worsening group (DWG). Groups were compared with respect to various factors. Results No significant intergroup difference was found with respect to age, mechanism of injury, or initial Glasgow Coma Scale. The presence of combined cerebral contusion or subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to be a significant prognostic factor. Regarding CT findings, mixed density was common in the RWG and the SWG. Midline shifting, hematoma thickness, and numbers of CT slices containing hematoma were significant prognostic factors of the RWG and the SWG. Brain atrophy was more severe in the SWG and the DWG. Conclusion A large proportion of initially non-operated ASDHs worsen in the acute or subacute phase. Patients with risk factors should be monitored carefully for progression by repeat CT imaging. PMID:24278650

  3. Cold hematoma visualized by technetium-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beanblossom, M.

    1986-09-01

    A 64-yr-old male was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain associated with vomiting. Upon examination, the patients Hgb was 7.8 with a WBC count of 13.3 band cells of 7 and a recticulocyte count of 3.4, no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient's prior history revealed involvement in an automobile accident approx. 10 days prior to this admission. At that time, he suffered multiple contusions and abrasions with a fracture to his left clavicle. Apparently there were no episodes of abdominal pain or vomiting prior to the onset of illness perceived on the day of admission. A liver/spleenmore » scan was done. Four millicuries of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid were intravenously injected using a bolus injection technique while obtaining multiple dynamic images. The flow study was unremarkable, demonstrating no abnormalities to the great vessels and good perfusion to both organs. Static images of the liver and spleen revealed a straightening or flatness to the lateral border of the spleen with a small diminished area of tracer sulfur colloid localization at the posterolateral aspect of that organ. This finding raised the suspicion that a small subcapsular hematoma had developed at the mid-posterolateral aspect of the spleen. Twenty-four hours after hospital admission, 4 units of packed RBCs were transfused into the patient. Although there was at this time still no evidence of abnormal bleeding, it was felt that because of the strong symptomatic correlation for internal bleeding, a radionuclide bleeding site study should be ordered and immediately performed.« less

  4. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    PubMed

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  5. Preincisional intraparietal Augmentin in abdominal operations.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, A. V.; Evans, M.; Smith, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 624 consecutive eligible patients undergoing abdominal operations received a single preoperative dose of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (1.2 g Augmentin) for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. They were randomised to have the antibiotic injected intravenously at induction of anaesthesia (n = 328) or infiltrated subcutaneously along the line of the proposed incision (n = 296). The incidence of wound infections was considerably lower in the group given the antibiotic into the abdominal wall (8.4% compared with 15.9%--chi 2 = 7.90, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found in the incidence of other major or minor infective or non-infective postoperative complications between the groups. It is concluded that preincisional intraparietal injection is more effective than intravenous injection of Augmentin for the prophylaxis of surgical wound infection. PMID:2523210

  6. [Abdominal bloating: an up-to-date].

    PubMed

    Ducrotté, P

    2009-10-01

    Bloating is a common symptom, especially in women. In the clinical practice, it remains a therapeutic challenge. Since recently, its pathophysiology is better understood: an impaired transit of gas (particularly in the small bowel) or a visceral hypersensitivity leading to the induction of an abdominal discomfort despite a normal volume of gas are two of the main causes, far more frequent than an excessive production of gas. Moreover, bloating can be related to abnormal viscera-somatic reflexes promoting both an abdomino-phrenic dyssynergia and the relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. From a therapeutic point of view, the efficacy of the gas absorbants remains to be more documented. Besides the treatment of a constipation and the avoidance of nutrients either highly fermentable or rich in fructose, other therapeutic options include prokinetics and drugs acting on visceral sensitivity. Probiotics are another promising option. In some centers, a non pharmacological therapeutic approach, mainly based on hypnosis, is discussed.

  7. Diagnostic value of unenhanced postmortem computed tomography in the detection of traumatic abdominal injuries.

    PubMed

    Carballeira Álvarez, A; Mancini, J; Tuchtan-Torrents, L; Gach, P; Bartoli, C; Desfeux, J; Piercecchi, M D; Gorincour, G

    2018-02-20

    To determine the diagnostic capabilities of unenhanced postmortem computed tomography (UPMCT) in detecting traumatic abdominal injuries. Cases of traumatic death with both UPMCT and classical autopsy were collected retrospectively from our institution "virtopsy" database in a period of 5 years. Cadavers with gunshot injuries were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative (NPV) and positive (PPV) predictive values of PMCT globally and for hemoperitoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney injuries individually were estimated using the autopsy report as gold standard. Seventy-one cadavers were included. UPMCT had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity 94%, with an accuracy of 83%, a PPV of 98% and a NPV of 59% for the diagnosis of traumatic abdominal injuries. The highest sensitivity was obtained for the detection of hepatic injuries (71%) and the lowest for pancreatic injuries (12%). UPMCT had a specificity of 100% for the detection of hemoperitoneum. A NPV of 98% was found for the detection of perihepatic hematomas. The low sensitivity and low NPV do not support the use of UPMCT as an alternative to conventional autopsy to diagnose and/or rule out traumatic abdominal injuries. Nevertheless, UPMCT remains a helpful tool as it helps detect hemoperitoneum and virtually exclude presence of perihepatic hematomas. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C A; Hughes, T J; Zarins, C K

    1999-06-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise in the retardation of the progression of cardiovascular disease is hypothesized to be caused, at least in part, by the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions, including flow recirculation and low wall shear stress. In vitro and in vivo investigations have provided qualitative and limited quantitative information on flow patterns in the abdominal aorta and on the effect of exercise on the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions. We used computational fluid mechanics methods to examine the effects of simulated exercise on hemodynamic conditions in an idealized model of the human abdominal aorta. A three-dimensional computer model of a healthy human abdominal aorta was created to simulate pulsatile aortic blood flow under conditions of rest and graded exercise. Flow velocity patterns and wall shear stress were computed in the lesion-prone infrarenal aorta, and the effects of exercise were determined. A recirculation zone was observed to form along the posterior wall of the aorta immediately distal to the renal vessels under resting conditions. Low time-averaged wall shear stress was present in this location, along the posterior wall opposite the superior mesenteric artery and along the anterior wall between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Shear stress temporal oscillations, as measured with an oscillatory shear index, were elevated in these regions. Under simulated light exercise conditions, a region of low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index remained along the posterior wall immediately distal to the renal arteries. Under simulated moderate exercise conditions, all the regions of low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index were eliminated. This numeric investigation provided detailed quantitative data on the effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta. Our results indicated that moderate levels of lower limb exercise are necessary to eliminate the flow

  9. Transcranial Evacuation of Atypical Progressive Supradiaphragmatic Hematoma After Transsphenoidal Complete Resection of Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Metwali, Hussam; Fahlbusch, Rudolf

    2017-06-01

    Supradiaphragmatic hematoma is a type of hematoma that occurs after transsphenoidal (TS) resection of pituitary adenoma and requires special management. Two patients had symptomatic supradiaphragmatic hematomas after total TS resection of pituitary adenomas in the absence of vascular anomalies. Both patients also had hydrocephalus at the time of diagnosis of the hematoma. The initial endoscopic endonasal inspection showed no subdiaphragmatic bleeding. The hematoma was evacuated via a frontolateral approach after insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD). The supradiaphragmatic hematoma could be clinically and radiologically distinguished. It presented early with visual deterioration without headache. The patients developed hydrocephalus, which was associated with deterioration of level of consciousness. Radiologically, the hematoma filled the suprasellar space and was associated with the extension of bleeding in the basal cisterns. Recovery was good in both patients. There were no permanent neurologic deficits. The EVD was removed in both patients. One patient required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of delayed hydrocephalus. Supradiaphragmatic hematoma can be clinically and radiologically distinguished from other types of hematoma occurring after TS resection of pituitary adenoma. Transcranial surgery should be performed to manage supradiaphragmatic hematoma, when symptomatic. Insertion of an EVD at the time of evacuation is mandatory to relax the brain and to alleviate the hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hematoma formation during breast core needle biopsy in women taking antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison L; Kasales, Claudia; Mack, Julie; Schetter, Susann; Zhu, Junjia

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hematoma formation after breast core needle biopsy performed on patients undergoing and those not undergoing concurrent antithrombotic therapy. A prospective assessment of core needle biopsies (stereotactic, ultrasound guided, or MRI guided) performed on patients enrolled between September 2011 and July 2012 formed the basis of this study. Postprocedure mediolateral and craniocaudal mammograms were evaluated for the presence and size of hematomas. Patients were clinically evaluated for complications 24-48 hours after the procedure through telephone call or face-to-face consultation. Needle size, type of biopsy, and presence of hematoma and documented complications were correlated with use of antithrombotic agents (including aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, and daily nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications). No clinically significant hematomas or bleeding complications were found. Eighty-nine of 617 (14.4%) non-clinically significant hematomas were detected on postprocedure mammograms. The probability of development of a non-clinically significant hematoma was 21.6% for patients taking antithrombotics and 13.0% for those not taking antithrombotics. Concurrent antithrombotic therapy and larger needle gauge were significant factors contributing to the probability of hematoma formation. The volume of the hematoma was not related to needle gauge or presence of antithrombotic therapy. No clinically significant hematomas were found. Because there are potential life-threatening risks to stopping antithrombotic therapy before breast biopsy, withholding antithrombotic therapy for core needle breast biopsy is not recommended because the incidence of non-clinically significant hematoma is low.

  11. Characterization of intraventricular and intracerebral hematomas in non-contrast CT.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Gomolka, Ryszard S; Qian, Guoyu; Gupta, Varsha; Ullman, Natalie L; Hanley, Daniel F

    2014-06-01

    Characterization of hematomas is essential in scan reading, manual delineation, and designing automatic segmentation algorithms. Our purpose is to characterize the distribution of intraventricular (IVH) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH) in NCCT scans, study their relationship to gray matter (GM), and to introduce a new tool for quantitative hematoma delineation. We used 289 serial retrospective scans of 51 patients. Hematomas were manually delineated in a two-stage process. Hematoma contours generated in the first stage were quantified and enhanced in the second stage. Delineation was based on new quantitative rules and hematoma profiling, and assisted by a dedicated tool superimposing quantitative information on scans with 3D hematoma display. The tool provides: density maps (40-85HU), contrast maps (8/15HU), mean horizontal/vertical contrasts for hematoma contours, and hematoma contours below a specified mean contrast (8HU). White matter (WM) and GM were segmented automatically. IVH/ICH on serial NCCT is characterized by 59.0HU mean, 60.0HU median, 11.6HU standard deviation, 23.9HU mean contrast, -0.99HU/day slope, and -0.24 skewness (changing over time from negative to positive). Its 0.1(st)-99.9(th) percentile range corresponds to 25-88HU range. WM and GM are highly correlated (R (2)=0.88; p<10(-10)) whereas the GM-GS correlation is weak (R (2)=0.14; p<10(-10)). The intersection point of mean GM-hematoma density distributions is at 55.6±5.8HU with the corresponding GM/hematoma percentiles of 88(th)/40(th). Objective characterization of IVH/ICH and stating the rules quantitatively will aid raters to delineate hematomas more robustly and facilitate designing algorithms for automatic hematoma segmentation. Our two-stage process is general and potentially applicable to delineate other pathologies on various modalities more robustly and quantitatively.

  12. Why Cannot Suction Drains Prevent Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Ki; Kim, Jin Woo; Yi, Seong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (POSEH) is different from spontaneous or post-spinal procedure hematoma because of the application of suction drains. However, it appeared that suction drains were not effective for prevention of POSEH in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that POSEH can be caused by hypercoagulability. Methods This was an experimental study. One hundred fifty milliliters of blood was donated from each of the 12 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery and infused into 3 saline bags of 50 mL each. One of the 3 bags in each set contained 5,000 units of thrombin. All of them were connected to 120 ± 30 mmHg vacuum suctions: drainage was started 8 minutes after connection to the vacuum system for 12 normal blood bags (BV8) and 12 thrombin-containing blood bags (TBV8) and 15 minutes after connection for the remaining 12 normal blood bags (BV15). The amount of initial and remaining hematoma at 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after vacuum application were measured by their weight (g). The primary endpoint was the difference between BV8 and TBV8. The secondary end point was the difference between BV8 and BV15. Results The remaining hematoma in TBV8 was significantly greater than that in BV8 at all measurement points: 46.3 ± 12.4 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.000) at 20 minutes; 33.0 ± 8.2 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 (p = 0.000) at 120 minutes; and 26.1 ± 4.0 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.000) at 24 hours after vacuum application. The remaining hematoma of BV15 was significantly greater than that of BV8 at all measurement points: 30.0 ± 12.0 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.002) at 20 minutes; 24.2 ± 7.6 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 at 120 minutes (p = 0.002); and 22.2 ± 6.6 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.004) at 24 hours after vacuum application. Conclusions With a suction drain in place, the amount of remaining hematoma could be affected by coagulability. Thrombin-containing local hemostatics and the length of time elapsed before the

  13. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  14. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  15. The correlation between hematoma volume and outcome in ruptured posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations indicates the importance of surgical evacuation of hematomas.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Adem; Musluman, Ahmet Murat; Kanat, Ayhan; Cavusoglu, Halit; Terzi, Yuksel; Aydin, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between hematoma volume and outcome in ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with accompanying posterior fossa hematoma was retrospectively evaluated. Microsurgery operations were performed on 127 patients with intracranial AVM between January 1998 and January 2009 at our clinic. Fifteen (11.8%) patients were identified as suffering from posterior fossa AVM, and twelve of these patients presented with a cerebellar hematoma. All patients were clinically evaluated according to the following criteria: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) prior to surgery, Spetzler-Martin grade (SMG) of the AVMs, hematoma volume prior to surgery, and mRS following surgery. Postoperative mRS scores were significantly lower than preoperative scores (p=0.0001). Postoperative outcomes were concordant with the SMG of the AVMs (r=0.67, p=0.033), hematoma volume (r=0.537, p=0.072) and preoperative mRS scores (r=0.764, p=0.004). These analyses show that the postoperative mRS score is strongly correlated with a preoperative mRS score, hematoma volume and SMG. Posterior fossa AVMs present an increased risk for hemorrhage and for increased morbidity and mortality. Cases with hematoma should be operated on an urgent basis. We conclude that hematoma volume is a factor that impacts postoperative results and prognosis. SMG and preoperative mRS scores were also correlated with outcome.

  16. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  17. [Cerebral intraperenchymatous hematomas: surgical treatment not to start with].

    PubMed

    Roda, J M

    The surgical treatment of intraparenchymal hematomas is very controversial. To date, there has been no through analysis of the subject and neurological specialists need a broad study to indicate which patients should have surgical treatment and which is the surgical option which gives the best results with the least damage. In this paper, the author considers which patients should not have any operation, which should always be operated on and in which there is a relative indication for operation. The different techniques available, their advantages and disadvantages are briefly reviewed. In view of the results obtained to date, it is likely that in future the usual treatment for intraparenchymatous hematomas will be medical (not surgical) and aimed at the protection of surrounding tissue. When surgery is required, it should be as minimally invasive as possible.

  18. Acute Intracranial and Spinal Subdural Hematoma Associated with Vardenafil.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takaaki; Watanabe, Genya; Harada, Ryuhei; Kawasaki, Emiko; Tsukita, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yasushi

    2018-05-02

    A 28-year-old healthy man was admitted to our hospital because of right-sided headache, vomiting, and lower back pain after the administration of vardenafil. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a small, right-sided, subdural hematoma. A lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed a longitudinally extended subdural hematoma. He had no history of trauma. We speculated that vardenafil might have had an association with the bleeding. Several reports have suggested a relationship between phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Our case suggested that there may also be risks of bleeding into the subdural space. Although headache and nausea are common side effects of vardenafil, hemorrhagic diseases should also be considered when symptoms are severe or prolonged. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [MRI semiotics features of experimental acute intracerebral hematomas].

    PubMed

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Gubskiĭ, L V; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of revealing intracerebral hematomas (ICH), using MRI, within the first hours after onset and to determine their MRI semiotics features. Thirty animals with experimental ICH were studied. A method of two-stage introduction of autologous blood was used to develop ICH as human spontaneous intracranial hematomas. Within 3-5h after blood introduction to the rat brain. The control MRI was performed in the 3rd and 7th days after blood injections. ICH were definitely identified in the first MRI scans. The MRI semiotics features of acute ICH and their transformations were assessed. The high sensitivity of MRI to ICH as well as the uniform manifestations in all animals were shown. In conclusion, the method has high specificity for acute ICH detection.

  20. A rare remote epidural hematoma secondary to decompressive craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang-Zhu; Wang, Mao-De; Liu, Kai-Ge; Bai, Yin-An

    2014-01-01

    Remote epidural hematoma (REDH) is an uncommon complication of decompressive craniectomy. Remote epidural hematomas of the parietal occiput region have been reported only rarely. We report a unique case of delayed-onset bilateral extensive straddle postsagittal sinus and bilateral lateral sinus parietal occiput REDH after decompressive craniectomy, of which volume was approximately 130 mL, with left deviating midline structures. The patient was immediately taken back to the operating room for evacuation of the REDH via bilateral parietal and occiput craniectomy. Postoperatively, serial computed tomographic scans performed 3 days later showed that the REDH had been completely evacuated. Two months later, the patient regained full consciousness and obtained a near-complete recovery except for right facial paralysis.

  1. [Breast hematoma and cytosteatonecrosis. Apropos of 55 cases].

    PubMed

    Gollentz, B; Ballarini, P; Rossier, S; Chagué, D

    1990-01-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 55 cases, 34 hematomas and 21 cytosteatonecrosis (CSN) of the breast, during 15 years. The mammary hematoma can appear with an encapsuled or diffused form, or in 40% of cases without radiographic model. The diagnosis of CSN, is easy, such as ringed, macrocalcified, or oil cystic, but when it is the case of solid cicatriciel mass, it is difficult to distinguish it from mammary carcinoma, in approximatively half of the cases. The etiopathogenic discussion, display, traumatic features, ischemic cellular disease, such as mammary infarct, inflammatory lesions, duct ectasia, anticoagulant drugs, needle aspiration... Even though nodular lesion may be a carcinoma, a very suggestive lesion with spicules and skin retraction may be benign. The follow up, or histological examination by biopsie or surgery, is always essential.

  2. Functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  3. Outcome in Chronic Subdural Hematoma After Subdural vs. Subgaleal Drain.

    PubMed

    Ishfaq, Asim

    2017-07-01

    To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. Quasi experimental study. Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded. Patients were divided in two equal groups each depending on whether drain was placed in subgaleal space (Group 1), and subdual space (Group 2), (n=31 patients each). Patients were positioned flat in bed after surgery. Clinical and radiological parameters and clinical outcome were compared between the two groups. Statistical test with significance of p <0.05 was utilized using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17). Median age of the 62 patients was 72 ±12.5 years. Headache was the most common symptom reported in both groups, (n=47,75.8%) patients. Median thickness of hematoma was 15 ±6.5 mm. Patients with subdural drain placement had more complications such as pneumocephalus 11 (35.4%) vs. 6 (19.3%), and intracerebral hemorrhage 4 (12.9%) vs. 2 (6.4%). Clinical outcome was good in both groups 27 (87%) in Group 1 and 28 (90%) in Group 2. Patients of both groups had good outcome after surgery. Complications like pneumocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage were more common in subdural location of drain, though not reaching statistically significance level to favor one technique over another.

  4. Delayed chronic intracranial subdural hematoma complicating resection of a tanycytic thoracic ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Rosario; Giugno, Antonella; Graziano, Francesca; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Giller, Cole; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that the diagnosis of an intracranial subdural hematoma should be considered for patients presenting with acute or delayed symptoms of intracranial pathology following resection of a spinal tumor. We present a case of a 57-year-old woman found to have a chronic subdural hematoma 1 month following resection of a thoracic extramedullary ependymoma. Evacuation of the hematoma through a burr hole relieved the presenting symptoms and signs. Resolution of the hematoma was confirmed with a computed tomography (CT) scan. Headache and other symptoms not referable to spinal pathology should be regarded as a warning sign of an intracranial subdural hematoma, and a CT scan of the head should be obtained. The mechanism of the development of the hematoma may be related to the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid with subsequent intracranial hypotension leading to an expanding subdural space and hemorrhage.

  5. The risk of hematoma following extensive electromyography of the lumbar paraspinal muscles

    PubMed Central

    London, Zachary; Quint, Douglas J.; Haig, Andrew J.; Yamakawa, Karen S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to provide a controlled trial looking at the risk of paraspinal hematoma formation following extensive paraspinal muscle electromyography. Methods 54 subjects ages 55-80 underwent MRI of the lumbar spine before or shortly after electromyography using the paraspinal mapping technique. A neuroradiologist, blinded to the temporal relationship between the EMG and MRI, reviewed the MRIs to look for hematomas in or around the paraspinal muscles. Results Two MRIs demonstrated definite paraspinal hematomas, while 10 were found to have possible hematomas. All hematomas were < 15 mm, and none were close to any neural structures. There was no relationship between MRI evidence of hematoma and either the timing of the EMG or the use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Discussion Paraspinal electromyography can be considered safe in the general population and those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:22644875

  6. [Renal hematomas after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)].

    PubMed

    Pastor Navarro, Héctor; Carrión López, Pedro; Martínez Ruiz, Jesús; Pastor Guzmán, José Ma; Martínez Martín, Mariano; Virseda Rodríguez, Julio A

    2009-03-01

    The use of fragmentation due to shock- waves as a treatment of urinary stone was one of the most important therapeutics findings in the history of urology. It's the first election treatment for most of the calculus at renal and urethral location due to the fact that it is a low invasive treatment and it has a few number of complications, but this method also has a few negative side effects, it can caused a more or less important traumatic lesion at the organs which crosses the shock-waves, including the kidney where it can caused a small contusion or renal hematoma with different resolution and treatment. We reviewed 4815 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy that we performed in our department in which we found six cases with subcapsular and perirenal hematoma which we followed up and treated. After the urological complications (pain, obstruction and infection) the renal and perirenal hematic collections are the most frequent adverse effects of shock-waves used in lithotripsy, these are related to the power of energy used and patient age. Between the years 1992-2007 we performed 4.815 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy finding seven cases of severe hematoma, less then 1%. Treatment of these complications is usually not aggressive though sometimes it is necessary to perform surgical drainage and even nephrectomy.

  7. Flexible endoscope-assisted evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Májovský, Martin; Masopust, Václav; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-10-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with an increasing incidence. Standard treatment of CSDHs is surgical evacuation. The objective of this study is to present a modification of standard burr-hole hematoma evacuation using a flexible endoscope and to assess the advantages and risks. Prospectively, 34 consecutive patients diagnosed with CSDH were included in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and radiographical data were collected and reviewed. All patients underwent a burr-hole evacuation of CSDH. A flexible endoscope was inserted and subdural space inspected during surgery. The surgeon was looking specifically for the presence of septations, draining catheter position and acute bleeding. Thirty-four patients underwent 37 endoscope-assisted surgeries. Presenting symptoms were hemiparesis (79%), decreased level of consciousness (18%), gait disturbances (15%), headache (12%), aphasia (6%), cognitive disturbances (6%) and epileptic seizure (3%). Average operative time was 43 min, and the average increase in operative time due to the use of the endoscope was 6 min. Recurrence rate was 8.8%, and clinical outcome was favorable (defined as mRS ≤ 2) in 97% of the cases. To our knowledge, the present cohort of 34 patients is the largest group of patients with CSDH treated using an endoscope. This technique allows decent visualization of the hematoma cavity while retaining the advantages of a minimally invasive approach under a local anesthesia. The main advantages are correct positioning of the catheter under visual control, identification of septations and early detection of cortex or vessel injury during surgery.

  8. Chronic Subdural Hematoma in the Aged, Trauma or Degeneration?

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs) are generally regarded to be a traumatic lesion. It was regarded as a stroke in 17th century, an inflammatory disease in 19th century. From 20th century, it became a traumatic lesion. CSH frequently occur after a trauma, however, it cannot occur when there is no enough subdural space even after a severe head injury. CSH may occur without trauma, when there is sufficient subdural space. The author tried to investigate trends in the causation of CSH. By a review of literature, the author suggested a different view on the causation of CSH. CSH usually originated from either a subdural hygroma or an acute subdural hematoma. Development of CSH starts from the separation of the dural border cell (DBC) layer, which induces proliferation of DBCs with production of neomembrane. Capillaries will follow along the neomembrane. Hemorrhage would occur into the subdural fluid either by tearing of bridge veins or repeated microhemorrhage from the neomembrane. That is the mechanism of hematoma enlargement. Trauma or bleeding tendency may precipitate development of CSH, however, it cannot lead CSH, if there is no sufficient subdural space. The key determinant for development of CSH is a sufficient subdural space, in other words, brain atrophy. The most common and universal cause of brain atrophy is the aging. Modifying Virchow's description, CSH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by degeneration of the brain. Now, it is reasonable that degeneration of brain might play pivotal role in development of CSH in the aged persons.

  9. Chronic Subdural Hematoma in the Aged, Trauma or Degeneration?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs) are generally regarded to be a traumatic lesion. It was regarded as a stroke in 17th century, an inflammatory disease in 19th century. From 20th century, it became a traumatic lesion. CSH frequently occur after a trauma, however, it cannot occur when there is no enough subdural space even after a severe head injury. CSH may occur without trauma, when there is sufficient subdural space. The author tried to investigate trends in the causation of CSH. By a review of literature, the author suggested a different view on the causation of CSH. CSH usually originated from either a subdural hygroma or an acute subdural hematoma. Development of CSH starts from the separation of the dural border cell (DBC) layer, which induces proliferation of DBCs with production of neomembrane. Capillaries will follow along the neomembrane. Hemorrhage would occur into the subdural fluid either by tearing of bridge veins or repeated microhemorrhage from the neomembrane. That is the mechanism of hematoma enlargement. Trauma or bleeding tendency may precipitate development of CSH, however, it cannot lead CSH, if there is no sufficient subdural space. The key determinant for development of CSH is a sufficient subdural space, in other words, brain atrophy. The most common and universal cause of brain atrophy is the aging. Modifying Virchow's description, CSH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by degeneration of the brain. Now, it is reasonable that degeneration of brain might play pivotal role in development of CSH in the aged persons. PMID:26885279

  10. Diagnostic characteristics of sinonasal organizing hematomas: avoiding misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Arthur W; Ting, Jonathan Y; Borgie, Roderick C; Busaba, Nicolas Y; Sadow, Peter M; Juliano, Amy F; Gray, Stacey T; Holbrook, Eric H

    2013-07-01

    Organizing hematomas of the paranasal sinuses are diagnostic dilemmas clinically and radiographically, mimicking benign or malignant neoplastic processes and causing patients and clinicians undue worry regarding these diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria for correctly identifying these lesions are not well known. A retrospective case series of 7 patients with sinonasal organizing hematoma was studied. Radiographic imaging, clinical characteristics, and pathology were reviewed for new insights. Three patients presented with a primary complaint of epistaxis, 4 had masses visible on nasal endoscopy, and 2 had vascular malformations or small hemangiomas adjacent to the mass found on final pathology. Biopsy of these masses were consistently nondiagnostic prior to complete resection. The most diagnostic findings were "shells" of T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surrounding the lobules of each of the masses. These correspond to rims of fibrosis at the periphery of the lobules on pathology. Areas of fresh hemorrhage are located at the center of these lobules. Sinonasal organizing hematomas are rare lesions of the paranasal sinuses whose clinical characteristics lead to misdiagnoses of benign or malignant neoplasms. Endoscopy, preoperative biopsy, and computed tomography (CT) imaging do not lend helpful information in differentiating these lesions from more worrisome neoplastic processes. However, MRI can lead to positive diagnosis by recognizing the distinct outer rims of T2 hypointensity typically seen in these lesions. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. [Effect of epidural drainage and dural tenting suture on epidural hematoma in 145 cases of craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Liu, Zhixiong; Liu, Yunsheng; Liu, Jinfang; Fang, Wenhua; Rao, Yihua; Yang, Liang; Yuan, Xianrui

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of dural tenting suture and epidural drainage in craniotomy. In 145 cases of intracranial lesions, dural tenting suture and epidural drainage were performed to prevent epidural hematoma. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) showed no epidural hematoma required surgery in both groups. Both dural tenting suture and epidural drainage are effective in preventing epidural hematoma. Hemostasis is the key step. Dural tenting suture without epidural drainage relieves psychological stress. It decreases the risk of intracranial infection and avoids some unusual complications.

  12. Acute airway obstruction due to postoperative retropharyngeal hematoma after anterior cervical fusion: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Byung-Wan; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Lim, Dong-Ju; Oh, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2017-01-26

    Acute airway obstruction (AAO) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) can be caused by postoperative retropharyngeal hematoma, which requires urgent recognition and treatment. However, the causes, evaluation, and appropriate treatment of this complication are not clearly defined. The purpose of this retrospective review of a prospective database was to investigate etiologic factors related to the development of AAO due to postoperative hematoma after ACF and formulate appropriate prevention and treatment guidelines. Cervical spinal cases treated at our academic institutions from 1998 to 2013 were evaluated. Demographic data, including factors related to hemorrhagic tendency, and operative data were analyzed. Patients who developed a hematoma were compared with those who did not to identify risk factors. Cases complicated by hematoma were reviewed, and times until development of hematoma and surgical evacuation were determined. Degrees of airway compromise and patient behavior were classified and evaluated. Treatment was selected according to the patient's status. Among 785 ACF procedures performed, there were nine cases (1.15%) of AAO. None of these nine patients had preoperative risk factors. In six patients (67%), the hematoma occurred within 24 h, whereas three patients (33%) presented with hematoma at a median of 72 h postoperatively. Four of the nine patients with AAO underwent evacuation of the hematoma. Two patients with inspiratory stridor, anterior neck swelling, and facial edema progressed to respiratory distress and their hematomas were removed by surgery, during which, sustained superficial venous bleeding was confirmed. Intubation was attempted several times in one patient with cyanosis, but is unsuccessful; cricothyroidotomy was performed in this patient and pumping in the small muscular arterial branches was confirmed in the operating room. All of the patients recovered without any complications. With rapid recognition and appropriate treatment

  13. Novel use of cutting balloon to treat subintimal hematomas during chronic total occlusion interventions.